St. Pancras Soper Lane 145/35

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'St. Pancras Soper Lane 145/35', Historical gazetteer of London before the Great Fire: Cheapside; parishes of All Hallows Honey Lane, St Martin Pomary, St Mary le Bow, St Mary Colechurch and St Pancras Soper Lane (1987), pp. 779-781. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=5435 Date accessed: 30 July 2014.


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Introduction

This property consisted of 3 very small shops on the Cheapside frontage, with 33 or 34 to the S. and 36 to the E. Its history is bound up with that of 34 and, later, 33. 34 and 35 were probably once one property, and all lay under a single solar: see Fig. 11. From the early 14th century, 35B was continuously in the same ownership as 34, while 35A was from the late 13th century in the same ownership as 33. Like other properties on the E. side of Soper Lane as far S. as 25, 35 was charged with quit-rents which may have originated in the interest of William son of Benedict in the early 13th century.

In 1858 the site of the property lay within that of no. 70 Cheapside.

Thirteenth to sixteenth century

Between c. 1227 and 1237 William son of Benedict granted 6s. 8d. quit-rent from his shop which John Wilekin held iuxta novum vicum in St. Pancras parish, to Clerkenwell Priory, for a pittance on the anniversary of his death. This shop was probably 35A, from which such a quit-rent was recorded in 1295. At about the same time William son of Benedict granted 6s. 8d. quit-rent from the shop which Hugh de Ridale held iuxta novum vicum in St. Pancras parish to St. Mary Spital. This shop seems to have been 35B1. (fn. 1) In 1257 35 was held by William de Totham, possibly in the right of his wife Margery, daughter of Walter de Essex. In that year William and Margery granted to Holy Trinity Priory a quit-rent of 6s. 8d. (half a mark) from two shops at the corner of the new street (novus vicus) of Soper Lane iuxta forum, measuring 3 ells by 1 1/3 ells (9 ft. by 4 ft.; 2.74 m. by 1.22 m.), for £2. 13s. 4d. payment. One of these shops was 35A, the other probably represents only 35B1, the more westerly of the 2 shops later said to comprise 35B. At the time of the grant William and Margery had one daughter then of age, Christina, who sealed the charter together with her parents. Walter de Essex and his son and heir Walter de London quitclaimed in the rent to the priory in 1257. Subsequently the rent seems to have been charged only on 35A, though one of the same value was charged on 34. (fn. 2) The heirs to 34 and 35 were Katharine Totham and her sister Helewisa, probably daughters of William. 35A went to Katharine, 34 and 35B to Helewisa.

35A

This was the ground-floor shop on the corner of Soper Lane and Cheapside. Katharine Totham paid 6s. 8d. quit-rent to Holy Trinity priory in succession to William de Totham, and was followed by Alan Norhamton. In 1295 Alan de Norhampton, peletor of London, and his wife Katharine granted 35A to John de Botoner of St. Lawrence Jewry Lane, citizen. It lay between 34 to the S. and 35B to the E. (they were held separately at this date), Soper Lane to the W. and Cheapside to the N. It was charged with rents of a clove to the grantors, 1 lb. cummin or 1d. to the heirs of Geoffrey de Hegesworth, 6s. 8d. to Holy Trinity Priory, and 6s. 8d. to Clerkenwell Priory. John le Botoner also held 33, by inheritance, and the two properties descended together thereafter. For this descent, see 33; the following account is only of matters relating specifically to 35A alone. (fn. 3) In 1314, Richer de Refham (who held 34 to the S. of 35A, 35B to the E. of it, and the solar above it) summoned John le Botoner in a plea of nuisance. He complained that he had bought a shop on the corner of Soper Lane next to Cheapside (34, 35B), and that John had a very small shop on the corner (35A), under the first storey; by the custom of the city, le Botoner should keep this shop in repair, but had refused to do so for 3 years and more, so that it was now a danger to passers-by. Le Botoner said that the shop was in sufficiently good repair, but the mayor and aldermen found that it was ruinous and dangerous, and must be rebuilt. Richer, who would benefit by the rebuilding, was to provide the corner post, joists, plates, and planks; the cost of the partition wall between his premises and John's was to be shared. John was to be able to fix hooks for his shutters to Richer's timbers, and keep the space he had at present. This space measured 4 ft. 9 in. (1.45 m.) along the W., 4 ft. 4 in. (1.32 m.) on the N., 4 ft. 9 in. (1.45 m.) on the E., and 3 ft. 11 in. (1.19 m.) on the S. The height of the shop on the W. was 6 ft. 6 in. (1.98 m.) and on the E. 7 ft. 9 in. (2.36 m.); the corner post was 12 in. (305 mm.) thick. (fn. 4) In 1349 William, brother of Master John Botoner, occupied 35A. Thomas Everard occupied it c. 1368-9. In 1437, when Thomas Aleyn left 33 and 35A to the fraternity of St. Lawrence Jewry, 35A was said to measure 5 ft. 2 in. (1.57 m.) on the W., 4 ft. 7 in. (1.4 m.) on the N., 5 ft. 2 in. (1.57 m.) on the E., 4 ft. (1.22 m.) on the S., and in height from the upper part of the plate to the upper part of the joist, 8 ft. 6 in. (2.59 m.). (fn. 5) It is not clear how long 35A survived as a separate shop. By the 16th century the property, 33-35, seems to have been regarded as one house divided into 2 freeholds, but whether this was exactly the same as the medieval division is not certain. (fn. 6)

Quit-rents from 35A

In 1295 35A was said to be charged with a quit-rent of 6s. 8d. to Clerkenwell Priory. This is probably the quit-rent granted by William son of Benedict between c. 1227 and 1237. In 1411 the prioress complained of intrusion against Adam Fraunceys, kt., who then held 34 and 35B, and John Lane, Thomas Aleyn, John Midelton, and John Bysshop, goldbeater, the first two of whom held 33 and 35A, concerning her free tenement in St. Pancras parish. There seems to have been genuine confusion as to which tenement the rent was due from. A rental of 1489-90 lists 6s. 8d. rent due to the priory from the tenement of John Boton', who was presumably long dead, but this was no longer being received (resp' quia vac'). The rent was recorded in 16th-century rentals, still unpaid, and seems to have been confused with one of the same amount formerly received from 10, as it was recorded as due from the tenement formerly of John Boton and earlier called magna selda. (fn. 7) In 1257 part of 35 was charged by William de Totham with a quit-rent of 6s. 8d. to Holy Trinity Priory Aldgate. This rent was paid in the later 13th and 14th centuries by his successors in 35A: Katharine Totham; Alan Norhampton; John le Botoner; Thomas Everand (recte Everard); and Walter Doget. At the time of its surrender in 1532, the priory had 3s. 10d. quit-rent from the fraternity of St. Cross in the church of St. Lawrence Jewry, for its tenement in St. Pancras parish (33 and 35A). The reason for this reduction is not known. St. Lawrence Jewry parish, which kept the property, continued to pay the quit-rent to the Crown in the later 16th and 17th centuries. (fn. 8)

35B

This property, comprising 2 shops, was held by William de Totham, and descended to Helewisa, probably his daughter. By his will proved in 1280, Adam de Bervelee left 34 (q.v.), 35B1 (a shop in foro next to the corner, on the right hand going towards the Conduit), and 35B2 (a third shop adjoining the first 2) to his wife Helewisa, whose inheritance they probably were. Olive, daughter of Adam and Helewisa, did not contest the will but agreed to let Helewisa hold the properties for life. In this will, 35B1 was said to be charged with 6s. 8d. to Holy Trinity Priory (probably the rent really due from 34), and 6s. 8d. to St. Mary Spital, while 35B2 was charged with £1 to the heirs of Thomas son of Adam de Basinges, and 2s. to Anketin le Draper. (fn. 9)

The solar over 34-35 seems to have descended with 35B. Helewisa and Olive granted the solar to Richard de Bretevill, probably in the early 1280s, and also conceded to Geoffrey le Botiner and his wife Beatrice that if they could not distrain in the solar for a quit-rent of 10s. with which it was charged, they might distrain in Helewisa's and Olive's 3 shops below (34, 35B1-2). Geoffrey le Botiner also held 33; it is not clear whether the quit-rent from the solar had any connection with that. In 1283-4 Geoffrey and Beatrice granted (? or confirmed) the solar to Richard de Bretteville for the 10s. rent; it was said to be built over the shops of Helewisa de Beverle and her sister Katharine, and to lie between 33 to the S., Cheapside to the N., Soper Lane to the W., and 36 to the E. In 1286 Helewisa granted 35B2 to de Bretville, describing it as a shop in Cheapside under his solar, between her shop (35B1) to the W. and 36 to the E. The shop measured 1 1/2 ells (4 ft. 6 in.; 1.37 m.) in width E.-W. by 2 7/8 ells (8 ft. 7 1/2 in.; 2.63 m.) in length. De Bretvile paid £4 (6 marks) and was to render a rose yearly. In 1286 Richard de Bretevill complained that Geoffrey le Botiner and his wife Beatrice had distrained in his tenement in Soper Lane (sic, but probably 35B2), which he did not hold of them, taking silk and other chattels worth 13s. 4d. Geoffrey and Beatrice replied that the distraint was made for 1 1/4 years' arrears of the 10s. rent from the solar; it was made in the shops below the solar, according to Helewisa's and Olive's charter to them, because it was not possible to distrain in the solar. The case was settled when, in a written document, de Brettevill conceded the rent to Geoffrey and Beatrice. (fn. 10)

Olive is not mentioned again, and may have died without issue. Helewisa seems to have married Richard de Bretevill. In 1304 Thomas son of Thomas de Coumbe granted to Richer de Refham, citizen and mercer, the shop with solar over he had by the grant of Helewisa, wife of Richard de Bretevill, in Cheapside in St. Pancras parish. It lay between John le Botoner's shops (33 and 35A) to the S. and W., 36 to the E., and the street to the N. In the same year John son of Peter atte Satte of Halingbury quitclaimed to de Refham all right in the same property (described as 2 shops, presumably 35B1-2), which he had by reason of the death of Helewisa wife of Richard de Breteville. The descent of 34 also suggests that Peter atte Satte was Helewisa's heir or kinsman. Richer de Refham also acquired 34 at this time, and the 2 properties descended together: this descent is given under 34. (fn. 11)

Footnotes

1 Clerkenwell Cart, no. 335; HR 24(23); PRO, C66/149, m. 22.
2 PRO, E40/2609, 1509; Aldgate Cart, nos. 505-6.
3 Aldgate Cart, no. 506; HR 24(23); see 33.
4 AN, no. 206.
5 LBF, 187 (f. 159v); PRO, E164/18.
6 See below, 33-35.
7 Clerkenwell Cart, no. 335; HR 24(23); HPL 135, m. 12; SC6/Hen 7/396, SC6/Hen 8/2116-2120.
8 Aldgate Cart, nos. 505-6; PRO, E164/18, E36/162, SC12/11/16, SC6/Hen 8/2363-6; GL, MS 2593/1.
9 HR 14(61).
10 HCP 14, m. 1d; HR 16(68, 106).
11 HR 33(1), 32(117).