An extract out of the letter of the lord ambassador Boreel, of the 30th of Jan. [1654. N. S.]
There is an express sent into England with order to Mons. de Bordeaux, commissioner of this king there, to assure the lord protector, that in the harbours of France,
they will admit nor lodge no ships, which would do any damage at sea, with commissions of foreign princes, to the subjects of England, Scotland, and Ireland.
The letters out of England, and also those out of the United Provinces, do yet differ
very much concerning the departure of their lordships commissioners out of England; and
upon what terms they should be departed from thence.
There is new instance made again on the behalf of the pope by his nuncio, for the further
recommending of the peace between the two crowns. The Venetian ambassador doth
expect order from his commonwealth to the same purpose.
This court doth very much incline to favour the king of Portugal's business; as well to
assist him against the Spaniards, as also to reconcile the differences between him and your
H. and M. L.
Letter of intelligence.
Upsal, Jan. 20. 165¾. [S. V.]
Vol. x.p. 352.
Our negotiation hath not made as yet any progress, by reason of the absence of the
most of the senators; but now that the grand chancellor is come to town, I suppose
we shall in a short time see what their intentions are, as to an intimate alliance with us.
The chancellor speaks very much love and affection to the commonwealth of England;
and since his coming hither, he hath paid a visit to my lord ambassador, demonstrating much civility and respect to his lordship. I hope there will be a good account
of this affair. Her majesty intends to take a progress, for about the space of a fortnight,
to see the copper-mines.
Regensborgh, the 29th ditto. [S. N.]
The states of the empire are hitherto come no further concerning the capitulation,
viz. whether or no the same should be taken in hand in pleno, or per deputatos, then
that the same should be done before deputies; and that, in the mean time, the point of
justice should be taken in hand. The introduction of the new princess is now upon certain
conditions permitted, and will shortly go forward. A wildshut keeper in Silesia, who by his
own confession, hath murdered 182 persons, amongst others two little children, whom he
affirmeth to have gotten by his own sister, whose hearts having cut out, he had devoured,
is imprisoned, and will shortly receive his reward.
Dantzick, 28 ditto. [S. N.]
From hence there is little, we being shut up with ice. The peace in Poland holdeth,
if the ensuing parliament approveth thereof. The king demandeth 18 powers or
subsidies for the defraying of charges, and disbanding of the army; but it is supposed
the parliament will not be persuaded to grant any, before they have an account of what hath
been raised these two years; which is near upon fifty subsidies; and yet the soldiery hath
wanted their pay, which hath caused much to ruin and destroy the country, by plundering
and taking free quarter; so that upon the examination of these things, there is like to be
great troubles, the gentry venting themselves with much eagerness against some publick
ministers, and likewise against the queen herself, charging her with the transportation of
the greatest part of this treasure, whereby she hath provided a bank for herself and
Amsterdam, the 4th of Feb. [S. N.]
There is a flying report in town, that the English frigat, which went to carry
Mons. Beverning back to England, should be cast away, and Beverning drowned:
but there is no certainty of it; I hope the contrary. This day I saw a copy of a very
sharp letter from the emperor to the states, concerning the restauration of all goods and
privileges belonging to the order of St. John, which doth import very much. It may
perchance bring war betwixt them and the emperor, which would prove very prejudicial
to these countries. I presume this is the work of the Brandenburgher, and the house of
Letters of intelligence.
Upsal, the 20th of Jan. [1653. S. V.]
Vol. x. p. 138.
The lord ambassador Whitlocke is now entered into a treaty concerning the business
of England with the rixchancellor, to whom the queen hath referred the business to
confer with his lordship about it. If it please God to give a blessing to it, I doubt not
but it will prove happy and successful. The queen hath been absent to visit her mother;
but is now returned again, and is pleased to manifest a great deal of respect to the commonwealth of England. The rixchancellor is very courteous and civil to his lordship,
and so are generally all the persons of quality in this place. The news, which came out
of England, is very well liked of here, and I hope will be a furtherance to all the affairs
of that commonwealth.
Copenhagen, the 7th of Feb. [S. N.]
Mons. Williamson, one of the late residents for this crown in England, is departed
hence some days ago, with commission from the king, to congratulate his highness
the lord protector of that commonwealth, the king being overjoyed, that he is included
in the Dutch treaty, thinking that his satisfying of the merchants is all that will be
required at his hands.
Regensborgh, the 2d of Feb. [S. N.]
The states of the empire, being now for the second time, per decretum, admonished by
his imperial majesty to absolve the major part of the said chief difficulties within the
space of three months, or less, (his majesty being resolved at the end of the said three
months to move hence) meet daily, and are very earnest in dispatch of their business. A
very considerable sum of money is come to the emperor's court out of Bohemia, as also
great quantities of wine, whereof a good part was presented to his highness the prince
elector of Bavaria.
Dantzick, the 4th of Feb. [N. S.]
The Tartars, withdrawing themselves out of this kingdom, have, contrary to their
promise, (and notwithstanding 150000 gilders were given them only for that purpose)
spread themselves far abroad in the country, plundering and spoiling the same all over,
and taking away many thousands of men and beasts, which the 1500 Polish horsemen,
that were given them for their convoy, had not been able to hinder, if another party of
5000 horse had not been in all hast sent to their succour; who having undertaken them, beat
some parties of the Tartars, and relieved a great many prisoners. Notwithstanding all
this, it is given out here, that the peace will hold, and be confirmed on the atstanding
rixday; but there is small hopes of it.
Hague, the 11th ditto. [S. N.]
The states general have been assembled yesterday, about the under-writing of the
articles, and ratification of the peace with England. The next week I hope to send
you the result.
The news of the English fleet being strong at sea, and made ready to get out, puts us
to strange conceits. I presume the Swedes delay, until they see what event the peace will
have. Here is a suspicion the French will close with England, which is not pleasing to
Hamburg, the 7th ditto. O. S.
There is a Dutch agent come on here from the Hague, to reside in this city (as is
thought) to obstruct the trade of the English, if the peace succeed not. Monsieur
Williamson, late Danish resident in England, is also come to town, whence, as he gives
out, he is going again for England to congratulate the lord protector; he takes the
Hague in the way, to see the issue of the treaty.
Beuningen, the Dutch embassador in Sweden, to greffier Ruysch.
Vol. x. p. 321.
All that the English embassador to this court doth negotiate, is done with the queen
and the rixchancellor, with whom, in the absence of the queen, he hath had this
week two conferences; so that it will not be possible to write any thing of certain of this
negotiation. It is a common saying, and also of those who do think they know something,
and that do penetrate far into state affairs, that besides a particular complaint concerning
that, which the English pretend to suffer against their rights by the Swedes upon the coast
of Guinea, where they trade, he hath not propounded any thing material, and doth still
talk in generalibus of the affection of his masters, or at present of the lord protector Cromwell,
to this crown; of their power abroad; their authority at home; the pretended justification
of their arms; the sincerity of their designs; and now lastly of the security, safety and
advantageousness of this change lately happened in England; and such-like discourses more,
wherewith he endeavoured to gain credit and favour to lay the foundation of his negotiation;
intending also thereby to penetrate into the affairs of this crown. I find in the mean time to
have nothing else to do, but to persuade them of the quite contrary here with all imaginable arguments; and I do my endeavour to assure her majesty and the lords, that their
H. and M. L. will never forsake that near amity and alliance, that hath always been
between this crown and the United Provinces; yea, though the peace should take effect,
or that the wars should continue, their lordships would still endeavour to confirm the old
amity more and more. In the mean time it is to be presumed, that as long as our negotiation in England is in hope of success, that they will not declare themselves here for the
one or for the other side; and if so, the lord chancellor spoke as he thought, when he said
two days since, that the embassadors of England and I told two several tales; that we
both of us endeavoured to know his opinion; but that he only did it to hear what the one
and the other could say. I gave his excellency yesterday another visit, and did once more
recommend the expedition of the resolution, which the queen hath so often promised me
concerning the harbour of Gottenburgh, as you shall have seen in my foregoing of 23. of
this month. What the issue will be, I shall endeavour to find out in my next audience;
but I was strangely surprised at the lord chancellor, who told me, that her majesty told
him, that, at her return from Newcopping, she would speak with him further about it;
but a day before her majesty's departure thither, promise was made to me, that the resolution should be drawn out, and signed. I used several reasons to press this business; but
was presently taken up with an old complaint often made to me here, concerning their
H. and M. L. prohibition of contraband goods to be carried into England. He told me,
that those that will prohibit Sweden from carrying of goods, are not to be looked upon as
friends, but enemies, extending himself moreover concerning the oppressions and wrongs
this crown suffered by the English war, and the general destruction of all commerce,
which was like to-follow upon it; and withal his excellency said, that he knew no better
advice, but to lay aside all trade, and turn here all the ships into private men of war, and
so take all they could meet with on the eastland sea. I debated the complaint he made
against the prohibition of their H. and M. L. of contraband goods, and endeavoured to
make it appear to him, to be according to jus gentium, according to what other nations have
practised against their H. and M. L. but all would not prevail, so that I do perceive this
will give some offence there, in case the war continue.
And as to the wrongs and oppression, which the Swedish subjects suffer in their commerce
and navigation, I told his excellency, that I did concur with him in it; and that their
H. and M. L. did also concur, that, if the war should continue, it would utterly destroy
the commerce and navigation; and that there was no way to prevent it, but by a salutary
peace; and in case the treaty in England should not take effect, all manner of reason would
persuade this crown, yea, necessitate it, to engage in the common interest. I thought, by
using of so many arguments as I did, to have discovered his excellency's mind concerning
his inclination; but I was heard with patience, without any interruption. I had also much
discourse with his excellency concerning the late alteration of the government in England,
and left it with his lordship to ponder with himself, what disorders do arise out of such great
and irregular revolutions. The English embassador in the mean time doth extol the same
for a great advantage to the English affairs, and, at the first arrival of the news, caused
bonsires to be made before his door. I am told, that he had no new credentials from the
lord protector in his last audience, and that the queen did scruple at it; but I know not
what to believe of it.
Upsal, the 30th January 1654. [N. S.]
E. van Beverningen.
Whitelocke, embassador in Sweden, to secretary Thurloe.
I Thought fitt to give you a particular account of passages here since my last letters unto
you. On Tuesday the 17th January, the rixchancellor came unto mee in the morning;
and in discourse of the newes of England, for his better satisfaction, I read him part of my
letters. Then he discoursed about the forme of gouvernment, wherein I satisfied him. Hee
asked, by what authority that power was given to the lord protector. I answered, by the
generall consent of the people; of the governours of the citties of London and Westminster,
of the magistrates, and of the parliament ittself, who, by writing, did resigne their power
unto the lord protector, and agreed upon this forme of government. Besides, the officers
and souldiers of the army and navy, in whose hands the strength of the nation is, freely
consented hereunto. Wee then fell into discourse about the businesse of my negociation,
wherein I desired to know, whether hee had received satisfaction by what I had discoursed
to him before, and by what I had now shewed him concerning the settlement of government of the commonwealth: to which he gave noe answer; but said, that in my credentiall letters, which I last presented unto the queene, hee conceived there was an omission,
in that the letters desired her majestie to give me credit, but doe not at all expresse, that
my lord protector will ratifie what I shall agree to; and read the copy of my credentials
from my lord protector, upon which he made this observation, and said, that it was the
course in credentialls to have that clause inserted. I answered, that I had not observed that
clause in the credentiall letters, but in the commission and authority whereunto the credentialls
refer; that in my first letters, which I delivered to the queene, that clause was not inserted,
yett not excepted against; that in my commission this clause was inserted of ratifying what
I should doe; and that I had received from my lord protector authority to proceed in my
negociation; and that my comission under the great seal of England was yett remayning
in force; which comission, and my first credentialls, I shewed unto him; and then desired
to know, whether he were satisfied in these points; without which satisfaction, it would
be in vain to meete upon the particular articles, which I had given in three weekes since,
and as yett had noe answere or conference upon them. I told him, that my occasions in
England, especially att this tyme, and in relation to my office, were very greate; neither
could I forgett my private family: that I did beleeve, I should hardly be permitted any
long tyme of continuance here; and therefore I desired such proceeding and dispatch in my
busines, as might consist with the other great affaires of this nation, and with the conveniency of her majestie, and with his excellencies liesure; but in the first place I desired to
know, if he was satisfied upon the aforementioned points concerninge the settlement of our
commonwealth, and concerning my powers: to which he answered, I had fully satisfied
him in both those points; that what he had discoursed, was onlie to this end, that he might
the better understand the affaires of England, about which he was to treat with me by
command of the queene; and therefore it was requisite for him to endeavour to be fully
informed of all those thinges, which might be material therein, not that he had the least
disrespect of the commonwealth of England, or doubt of its continuance or prosperity
which he heartily wisht, and did beleeve, that, by their last settlement, it was in a much
better condition then before. Then he did desire to congratulate the same unto me, and
the deserving honour of my lord protector, whereof he was very glad. And as to what I
said concerning my haveinge binn here soe long without any answere, hee said, the reason
thereof was, that neither her own affaires, nor her publicke ministers, were so ready and
neare about her, as when she was at Stockholme; that for his part, he was readie to give
all the dispatch that might be unto the businesse, and for that purpose would give me a
meetinge, if I pleased, the morrow morning; and hee desired the rather to meete in the
mornings then in the afternoones, finding that tyme fitter for businesses then after dinner.
I told him, I would waite on him the morrow morninge att his owne house, between 8 and
9 of the clock; and soe betweene 11 and 12 of the clock at noone we parted. The 18th
of January, betweene 8 and 9 of the clocke in the morninge, I went to the rixchancellor
att his house, according as I promised him the day before, where we read the propositions
and articles, which I carried with me (a copy whereof I formerly presented unto the queene);
and after a second perusal of them, he objected nothinge against the first article of the propositions, but graunted it. Upon our reading againe of the second article, hee made a
long speech to this purpose, that in these propositions were contained, as hee apprehended,
two thinges; the first whereof related to a mutuall friendship, correspondency, and commerce betweene the two nations, and was of lesser weight then the second, which tended
to a league both offensive and defensive, and to the conservation of the interest of both
nations; that the present condition of both states were to be considered; that the commonwealth of England was already involved in warrs, of which the Swedes should make themselves parties, if they consented unto the second article; that the kingdom of Swedland
had peace with all nations att present, although formerly they had warrs with their neighbours, the Danes, Polonians, Muscovites, and alsoe in Germanie; al things were now setled
with them, and quieted there. And in speaking of Germanie, manie things were remembred concerning the generalls Leven and Ruthen, and of their service there for the crowne
of Swethland, and what the chancellor, upon their departure for Scotland att the beginning
of our warrs, foretold them, which afterwards they found to be true. Hee spake something
alsoe concerninge the warr with Poland, and of their king there att that tyme; neither did
he passe by unremembred the affaires with the Muscovite. Then hee discoursed concerning
the Swedish warrs with the Dane, in which he affirmed, that the Swede had received so
much injury against the ancient league betweene those two nations, that itt was necessary,
for the conservation of the interest of Swethland, to wage warr against the Dane; in which
matter not any prince nor commonwelth had assisted them, either by counsel or otherwise;
and although it was proposed to the French ambassador then in Swethland, hee answered,
that in that businesse hee had nothing in command from his king. The same being urged
to the Dutch ambassadors here, and how much itt would be for their advantage, as to their
trade and commerce to the Sound, received the same answer from them, which the French
had formerly given. Hee said further, that att that tyme the queene sent letters to the parliament of England, in which shee earnestly desired their advice concerninge that businesse,
wherein shee likewise offered them to bee included in the treaty as to the trade of the
English into the Sound; but neither the parliament was at that tyme pleased to give her an
answer, before there was an agreement made betweene the Dane and the Swede. He
affirmed also, that whilst the care of the government of Swethland lay upon him, neither
hee nor the queene, from whom hee had the administration of the kingdom, brought any
detriment upon the parliament of England; but rather favoured their parties, which hee
still doth. And since the late change of government, and the constitutinge a protector
there, hee hath had more hopes then ever of the stability and prosperitie of our commonwealth; notwithstanding, as hee was a counsellor of the kingdome of Sweden, and a delegate from the queen, hee ought to bee carefull, that the kingdom of Swethland, being
now in peace, might not bee ingaged in the warrs of others, which could not be avoyded,
the second article being graunted; and therefore it would require a further consideration.
Hee thereupon desired my excuse, if his long discourse had too much taken up my time;
and said, that his late king Gustavus alwaies gave way to him to speake his mind; and
thereupon desired tyme to consider of the propositions. To which I answered, that hee
might take what time hee pleased for the more ready dispatch of my negociation, itt being
uncertaine how soone I might be called home to my lord. And to that, which he was
pleased to remember, the letters sent to the parliament, to which there was noe answer,
they were dated 1643. att what tyme England was in a great distraction; but assoone as
there was an opportunity, they gave an answere, the parliament of England having
appointed colonel Potley to deliver their letters to the queene; and that I was assured, the
parliament of England looked upon the queene of Sweden and the rixchancellor as their verie
good friendes. Concerning the warr with the Hollanders our neighbours, it was by them,
without any provocation on our parte, injuriously brought upon us by them; which unjust
proceeding of theirs God hath binn pleased to declare, by giving the English several
victories over them: That the commonwealth was not by any straights reduced to crave a
friendship; but they having binn victorious both at home and abroad, were willing by me
to offer their friendship to the queene and kingdom of Sweden. And that in that second
article there was an equall advantage and honour offered them, if not more, then would
accrue to the English thereby; because that by that very article is intended a free trade
and commerce through the Sound against all opposing the traffique of either nation; which
if by an allyance with the commonwealth is preserved, the navigation and commerce
through the Sound and Baltique sea will be of greater emolument to the crowne of Sweden,
then to the English, which hitherto had not binn free; and therefore, in my opinion, that
article ought especially to have been accepted. And what related to a mutuall assistance,
that was to be left to further considerations, and particular meetings to that end. And
that itt was worth notice, that they would not ingage therein for the English, since it
was improbable they could be long without warrs, although at present they were in
peace, the Swedes havinge many enimies, which was better known unto himselfe then me.
Hee replyed, that it was knowne unto him, that the crowne of Sweden had manie enemies, nevertheless they were in peace; but that the English were ingaged in a warr at sea.
To which I said, that it was soe; but that the English power at sea was (God be praised!)
every where well known, and their friendship therefore rather to be desired. The chancellor said, that the mention of a friendship with England was very acceptable; but the
consideration of this parte of the article required more time. The 3d article being againe
read over, the chancellor desired an exposition of the latter part thereof; what lawes and
ordinances were thereby meant. I answered, the lawes of the comonwealth of England in
England, and of the kingdome of Sweaden in Sweaden, necessary for both, since they have
regard to the peace, commerce, and traffique of each; with which answer being satisfied, we
went to the 4th article; which having bein twice read, hee said, that since there were some
at this time in Sweaden, which had binn of the king's party, there residinge with their
families, having houses and revenues, whom it would not be just now to drive away. I
answered, that if such for the future endeavoured any thing against the commonwealth, and
if there were any here excluded from the pardon of the parliament, they were not to harbour
here, nor the rebells nor enemies of this crowne in England; that I would bee ready to
consent to an alteration, as farr as it should be reasonable in that article. Itt being then
past eleaven a clocke, (the time of dinner among the Swedes) I would not then detaine
the chancellor any longer. This afternoone I attended the queene, and had two howers
discourse alone with her, wherin I found her inclinations very well sett as to my buisnes;
and she told me, that she would moderate any difference betweene her chauncellor and
me. I send you heere inclosed the coppy of a paper, which I thought sitt to deliver under
my hand to the queene; to which she promised me an answear, butt I have not yett
received it. I have also sent you a paper, given unto me by Mr. Berkman, secretary to my
lord Laggerfeldt, of which buisnes, and the stay of those shipps, there is too much talke
heere. I earnestly entreat you to be instant with the councell in this buisnes. It seemes
strange, that a shippe having the queene's passe and my lord Laggerfeldt's, should be
seized, especially in this time of treaty, and cannot be discharged. I speake not att all in
relation to my selfe, but the honour of my nation, and the succes of their buisness heere
is concerned in such buisnesses. There is likewise some bales of goods of the queene's,
and of one of her wardrobe, now in the prize-office, which were ordered to be delivered
before I came out of England, butt are not yett had. I begge you to remember these
buisnesses, and to continue your favours to me; and also to pardon this most tedious
letter to you, which you may make use of to his highnesse, and to the councell, as you
thinke fitt. I hold it my duety to give a particular account of my transactions, which
causeth this trouble to you from
Upsale, Jan. 20. 1653.
Your affectionate friend to serve you,
I saw in a letter, that George Cokaine had bin too blame.
I pray send me worde what it is.
For my honorable freind John Thurloe, Esq;
secretary to the councell of state to the commonwealth of England, these.
An intercepted letter.
I HAVE not time to write to you much at this time, I being in hast, but only give you
thankes for your many letters I receaved from you, desiring you to continue it still.
Wee have noe news as yet; the talle teller Mr. Powell is but newly come into the country;
he preached yesterday at Lanbister, but what matter he had I cannot tell as yet; but
time will demonstrate. I receiued an order of his highness my lord protector and his
council, declaring what was treason (fn. 1) . I met with one parson yesterday, as [he was] going
to church, and desired him to publish the same; but Philip, colonel Tayllor's man, told
him, he ought not to do it, unless he had received it from the sheriff; and if so, I am
confident wee should neuer have had it published; whereupon I caused it to be read by
Henry Posser, in the open congregation. This I thought good to let you know, that you
may understand the spirits of men here-abouts. Thus in hast I remain your very
The 20th of Jan. 1653.
For his very good friende Mr. Alexander Griffithes, at
Mr. John Gunter's lodgings, London, these.
A Letter of intelligence.
Paris, last of Jan. [1654. N. S.]
Since my last to you, I received yours of the 22d instant, which I should have
received Tuesday last, were it not the post failed, as he has this day.
By the last letters from Holland we have, that their deputies arrived safely there from
England, and for certain the peace is concluded with England, tho' not yet signed; and
yesterday I have seen half a dozen English and Hollanders in this city, drinking merrily
towards that peace.
His holiness endeavours the best he can to have a general peace among the catholick
princes, as Spain and France; to which purpose he sends now two cardinals legates
a latere to Spain and France; of which by the time.
I forgot in the former to write to you of the three governors of Aire, St. Omer, and
Graveling, committed to prison, by orders from his majesty of Spain, for having a design
to deliver those three places to his majesty of France, being a high piece of treachery.
The 28th instant the procureur general came to the great chamber, where the parliament assembled that day, and told the first president he came in his majesty's name, to
let them understand, that his said majesty had allowed the rentiers of the town-house the
half-quarter payment, which they desired hitherto; therefore desired them not to assemble
any more concerning that matter.
Two days ago happened some differences between the chancellor and Mons. le guard de
sceaux, by reason the last has signed many arrests of the council before the first had seen
them; which being sent to the chancellor afterwards to be signed, he turned them away,
and would not look at them.
The 29th of this month, the first president went to his own house at Montrouge,
where he entertained that day all the presidents en mortier, as also some counsellors of
parliament, being the day of St. Charles Magne, alias, Carolus Magnus, olim rex Galliæ,
which they observe as a holy-day in parliament.
The parliament received some letters lately from the duke of Orleans; what may be
the effect of them, I do not yet know.
Last week the council gave an arrest against the commanders Paul, M. chevalier de la
Ferriers, and others, to deliver the vessels taken by them from the English at sea, with
merchandizes in them contained, to their possessors, to oblige the English to do the like
with the two ships they took lately from the merchants of St. Malo's. How they will
proceed further, I know not.
The dukes of Vendosme and Mercœur are to go to Vendosme, to pass their carnival
there; where the duke of Beaufort and madame la duchesse de Monbason, with many other
signiors and dames, are to meet.
His majesty sends expresses always to the count of Harcourt, to see whether he could
advise him to alter his mind, and stay in France, as he has thursday last; and that he
might not be lost altogether, his said majesty offers him yet Philipsburg for his retreat,
with all his family, and besides 500000 livres in ready money; but that is to get Brisac out
of his hands absolutely. We hear certainly, if he does not accept of this last offer, that
his person shall be seized upon, which will be his total ruin; for Mons. de Charlerois,
lieutenant for the king in Brisac, has gained all the officers and soldiers there; and (which
is worse for him) that the emperor quits him, by reason of the loss of Philipsburg.
Our last letters from Sedan bring, that Mr. Faber their governor parted with 5000
men of the army that Turenne commanded, to take their winter-quarters in the Païs de
Liege, by the king's orders; as also to join with the elector of Cologne's troops and
Liegeois, which made a league or union with those of Provence, to accept of no troops of
Condé and Lorain for their winter-quarters. Some say they be in all 16000 men.
Here arrived, three days ago, deputies from the parliament of Dijon, their first president being dead; and hearing the king was about to send them another out of Paris, they
sent the said deputies, desiring his majesty to be pleased to let them chuse another out of
their own members, being the custom of the place; and if his majesty had done otherwise,
that it had been against their privileges, which they could not in justice endure. What
shall come of it, I know not as yet.
We have from Brussels by the last letters, that M. count de Fuensaldagna is in disgrace,
and has received orders from his majesty of Spain to return to Spain, and give an account
of what money he received, and how he employed it hitherto.
I have nothing to say of the English court; only they have many consultations to remove
for Holland, they expecting still the issue of the peace betwixt you and Holland; as also
divisions amongst themselves, which is a thing they are more sure of, as they say daily,
that it is impossible for the lord protector to continue long protector, having used his
parliament as he did, &c. They fear much the Irish shall have liberty to live with their
priests and friers as they desire; and afterwards that they will never look after themselves,
nor any Roman catholick.
Here is great hope of a general peace; to which the cardinal Mazarin doth not much
Sir, Your humble servant.
Paris, the 31/21 Jan. 165 4/3.
Vol. x. p. 351.
They still doubt here of the peace between the two commonwealths, which makes
them delay an embassage purposed for Sweden, as also protract the time of Charles
Stuart's depart for Germany, from whence all those of the royal palace daily expect
money to pay (say they) their debts.
The rentiers of this city are so pressed for the payment of their half-quarter of rents,
that this court hath been forced to give them fair words, and a continuation of good promises to appease them; whilst their parliament hath verified some edicts (of the declaration
whereof I made mention in my last) concerning laces and other sumptuous apparel;
alledging that the dearth thereof will fall upon the superfluity of the rich; the said parliament having rejected the other points of the said declaration, as being too chargeable for the
The rumour runs of the rendition of Bessort, by composition, unto the marshal de la
We are informed from Italy, that the Spaniards having broken their cessation with the
French, it was thought these last would be obliged to come, and take winter-quarters in
It is written from Namure, that Mons. le prince is yet in those parts, his health daily
increasing, and in some mistrust of the Spaniards.
Letters from Clugni in Burgundy inform us, that the prince of Conti was parted
thence from Auxerre, where he was to sojourn awhile.
All pursuits against the archbishop of Sens are suspended, by reason that the dispute
doth daily increase the number of Jansenists, which makes the said archbishop think he
has already won his cause; and prepares him so much against all his enemies attempts,
that having been threatened with a brief from Rome, whereby the pope will condemn
him to an ignominious punishment, and other mortifications, he hath declared, he feared
them not; and that he would remain at his own house for a fortnight, to look for the
signification of the same; whereof he makes no account, saying always, that it is not for
the pope to reform St. Augustin. The cardinal Mazarin would have had a hand in this
business, to uphold the pope's interest; but the bishop of Comminges hath dissuaded him
from meddling with such matters, telling him, that to do it with reason, he had need to
be as good a theologician as he is a politician.
The 22d day of Jan. 1653.
Be it remembered, that captain John Williams preached at Cannigull in the county
of Radnor, and did take his text out of the 3d of Amos, and the 3d verse; and after
a short space, he fell of from his text, and out of a discontented spirit began to speak of
the alteration of this present time, and to resemble some profites of these times unto the
profite Amos, and the ruleres of this time unto Jeroboam; and resitinge a scripture in the
8th of Amos, and the 9th verse, that the sunn should goe downe at noone day, and our
light turned to darkness; that, lo, in these dayes our sunn was gone down at noone daye,
and our light turned to darkness; and sayd there was a seede sowed in darkness, which
would springe in light; and he did believe this next springe; and alsoe resembling this
present government unto a king suxsidinge his father, which kinge sayd his little
finger should be heaveir than his fatheres loins. And further explaining it by thes wordes,
We were like to have a good tyme, and some easement; but now our taxasion and burthen
is greater, and like to be as long as hee liveth, naming the lord protector; and further saith,
this and more was spoken to his safe: and further speakinge unto the people, they cried for
a kinge; and hee assumed and sayd, they should have a kinge, and they had one alredy,
for any thinge he knewe. This will be proved by sufficient witneses.
Ratification of the states of Utrecht.
Exhibited the 13th of Feb. [1654. N. S.]
The states of the country of Utrecht, after foregoing lawfull summons, being
assembled together, have after the reading of the 29 articles, comprehended in the
project of the union, peace, and correspondency between the commonwealth of England
and the states general of the United Netherland Provinces, agreed and adjusted between
the lords commissioners of this state and those of the government of England, due deliberation and examination of the papers being first made, unanimously concurred, and do
concur hereby with the said 29 articles, without any reserve. Also their lordships do
approve and ratify the same. The said lords states do think fit and understand, that on
the behalf of this province there be declared to the generality as the provincial advice
of that province, that the lords commissioners, namely, Beverning, Nieuport, Vander
Perre, and Jongestal, have special thanks given them for their good endeavours and
offices used by them in the said negotiation, with extraordinary care, good conduct, and
sincere faithfulness, for the good of the state, and for the effecting of their high and
mighty lordships good intentions, according to their successive instructions, resolutions,
and orders; and the said states do hereby also ratify their said negotiation, and the said
lords states do also resolve, that on the behalf of this province all manner of endeavours
shall be used, to the end the ratification of the other provinces may be speedily effected;
and that in the mean time, the lords commissioners, or any one of them, do return forthwith
into England, to agree and adjust the said 29 articles with the lords commissioners of his
highness the lord protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and to sign the same;
and also to endeavour, the sooner the better, that all acts of hostility may cease; and that
notice may be given, in the mean time, to all the publick ministers and consuls of this
state, in any part beyond the seas, that they should admonish all merchants and skippers
to remain in their harbours for a while, till the issue of the English negotiation be
made known unto them; that also their said lordships commissioners, or any one of them,
that shall be sent into England to effect and finish their high and mighty lordships
resolutions, may be authorized and ordered to congratulate his highness the lord protector of the commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland, in the name of their
high and mighty lordships, with the dignity of his lord protectorship; and to declare unto him
especially, that their lordships were heartily glad to understand, that his highness was
arrived to that step of the government of the said commonwealth, whereby he was
enabled to execute of his own accord his good inclination and affection for the perfecting
and concluding of a firm and near alliance between both the commonwealths. Done
at Utrecht, the 1st of February 1654.
Anthony Van Hilten.
Resolution of the states general.
Lunæ, February 2d [1654. N. S.]
The lords deputies of the province of Friesland, here present, have declared in the
assembly, that their lordships had first been informed by common report, and that
the lords of Zealand had afterwards likewise declared from others, to have heard, that
one of their high mightinesses commissaries for the English negotiations was again set
out for England; and whereas not the least notification was given to their high mightinesses,
to what end, and with what orders, the said commissary was dispatched, they find themselves necessitated to declare, that their noble mightinesses the lords states of Friesland,
their lords and masters, do reserve to themselves their right, to explain themselves further
thereupon, and to resolve what they shall think requisite, without consenting thereto.
Whereupon this resolution was taken.
Extract out of the book of resolutions of their noble mightinesses the states of
the city of Groningen and country.
Veneris, 3d Feb. [1654. N. S.]
The lords of the city and country having read the projected 29 articles of peace
between the republick of England and their state, which have been concerted,
together with the report, and the advices of the lords commissioned for the secret conferences; all which being heard and examined, it was resolved to approve of the projected articles. Provided however, that at the head of the said articles, instead of, states
general, shall be placed the words; The state or republick of the United Netherlandish
Provinces: and so throughout in all the following articles.
Further, that it is highly necessary, in relation to the seventh article, §. 1. that the
declaration of the king of Denmark must be first had, before the ratification of the
treaty; and in case his majesty should not be satisfied with the contents of the said
seventh article, that this state, according to the treaty made with the crown of Denmark,
cannot proceed to the ratification of the said seventh article, at least not without a
new and vigorous resolution being taken by their high mightinesses before the ratification
of the treaty, to declare especially, earnestly, and seriously by the lords the commissaries
of this state, to the government of England, as follows; to wit, that in case the government of England, on account of some former pretensions, should come into a war with
the crown of Denmark, and that the same could not be amicably adjusted, that then this
state would be obliged and forced; and accordingly had also taken the resolution, in that
case, vigorously to support the crown of Denmark with help, advice, and assistance, and
to defend the same with their strength, according to the treaty of alliance concluded with
the said crown, and the iterated resolutions of their high mightinesses of the 5th of June
6th of September, 25th of October, and 7th of November 1653. taken here, upon the
ratification of the treaty made between the crown of Denmark and this state.
That in the second article, §. 7. the word league be left out; and that as to the eighth
article, the remarks of their high mightinesses be urged concerning the affairs of the
marine; viz. that the peace be concluded, a regulation being made with mutual consent
touching the marine and prohibited goods, after the example of France and Spain.
That out of the tenth article be omitted the words, are or shall be declared.
That in the twelsth article be contained the agreement concerning the lord prince of
Orange, and his lawful descendants, and that the very words thereof be expressed therein.
That in the sixteenth article, before the words, republicks, princes, be put the word
That the twenty-eighth article, as not to be consented to, be quite left out.
As to the proposition made by the lord Chanut, extraordinary ambassador of the king
of France, made in the assembly of their high mightinesses, it was thought just, reasonable, equitable and necessary, that the said crown, as the oldest and most faithful ally
of this state, should be comprehended and included in the alliance, which is to be made
with England; and this must not be desisted from, for any reason whatsoever.
It is also resolved, that the present lord prince of Orange, his whole family and descendants, be expresly comprehended and included in this treaty.
Agrees after examination.
N. Busch, secretary.
A letter of intelligence.
Nismes, 3d of Feb. [1654. N. S.]
Ye will doe me a singular favour to let me know, if my former letters be com to your
handes; for this is the eighth tyme I have writin to you, bot have not as yett hard
from you. I shall be ravished to receave your commandes, the which ye may be confident I shall obey, so far as power or abilites can reach. Ther is nothing, that shall
pass in this contrey, of which you shall not be advertised; for my acquaintance is such,
that I have particular intelligence of every thing that passeth heir.
Sir, ye may be pleased to give me another adresse then Humes. This last action of
the parlament of Tholouse hath mightily irritated the protestants heir; a sparke wold put
them all on fire. Ther is nothing they ar so panting after as a happie peace betwixt the
two republiques; for till they have certain newes therof, they do not enterpryse aney
thing: they talk, that if wars continue betwixt the two commonwalths, that their adversaries will indevour some plott agenst them, being so inraged since the buisnes of
Vals. Ther only confidence ar in your nation, thinking that it shall pleas the Lord
to mak you the instrument of ther delyverie.
You may write to me either by my owen name, or els,
A monsteur monsieur de la Coudre, merchand a Nismes.
Another letter from the same hand.
3d of Feb. [1654. N. S.]
The troupes of cavalrie we have sein leatly passe heir, are the regiments of Ganzargue
and Guiris, and of Cavillar, the which regiments are come from Xaintonge, as also
three others, which ar newly composed of dismonted troupers com from Catalogne, under
the conduct of Ciniargues, Durand, and Rochsort; all the forsaide troupes doe not excead
1500. It is reported, that their ar 2000 foot to joyne with the foresaid cavalrie, of which
the regiment of duc of Rohans aught to be on of the number, the which passed this day;
such regiment did I neuer sie; for I am confident 30 or 40 well armed men would have
put the whole regiment to flight. Those of Provence resisted in the beginning to lett
them enter; bot we have hard since, that they have passed the bridge called the St.
Esprit. The common bruit heir is, that those troupes are going for Naples, but as yett
we can learn no certaintie. One of the councellors of the parliament of provence being
putt in prisone, for favouring the prince of Conde, in the city of Sistezon, which is on the
river of Durance, had almost killed himself, indevouring to escape, bot taken bak, then
putt in close prisone. The said parliament, which holds at Aix in Provence, is very
eveil—intentioned agenst the protestants. The stats of Languedoc at Monpelier have
condescended to give a million of livres to the king, over and above the common taxes,
that ar exacted on the province. The parlement of Languedoc, which holds at Tholouse
the 21st of January last, have condemned to death, and caused to be executed, Monsieur
the baron of Leran, a gentleman of our religion; who having declaymed and denyed ther
authoritie, as having no power about him, did appeal to the Chamber of the Edicts of
Castres, who by the edicts of Nantes are constituted judges of the Protestants of Languedoc. This action has alarmed all the Protestants of this countrey, who unanimously
resolved to have reparation of this injurie, but first to send commissioners to complean, and
remonstrat the injustice of the action to the king. The Chamber of the Edicts of Castres
have nominat four the most considerable of ther companie, to witt, messieurs de Saussand,
de Ranchin, de Carlot, and de Rozel, to goe to court, for to signifie to his majestie the
affront they have received, as lykways the injustice don to the foreseid gentilman. All
the rest of the churches of Languedoc ar to send commissioners, the names whereof you
shall have in my nixt. Those of the Court of Aides of Montpellier have given foorth
an act, to take and lay hands on the second consul of this towne, as also on others; bot
they dare not put in execution this arrest, thogh it hath pleased the king to send two
arrests for the establishing of the church in Vals; nevertheless one of the papish counsaillers, who is nominat by the king for the establishment of the same, doeth absent
himself, being so concelled by our adversaries, till a revolution and more savourable time
appeare. The sad and lamentable accident, that hath befallen our brethren at Charanton,
make those of this province to lament the miseries of these poore people, (not being
abel to assist them otherways) who have not the permission to assemble themselves within
the walls nor fauxbourgs of the towne; bot ar constrained to reteir themselves from the
towne three or four myles, for to goe about (in the winter tyme) their spiritual exercises.
A Mons. Mons. Humes, merchant à Londres.
Mr. Richard Bradshaw, the English resident at Hamburgh, to secretary Thurloe.
The last week's letters are but now come on: I shall be carefull of the inclosed to my
lord ambassador, from whom I received this paquet per last post. I am sory, the
intimation I gave you of the receipt of your letters, and dispatches of them, was so longe
in cominge to your handes; for I neglected not to doe it by the returne of the very same
post, by which I received them; but it is allwayes twenty days in the ordinary course of
the post, to have answer of a letter hence. Ere theise can reach you, I suppose you have
notice what scuflinge there hath been at the Hague, 'twixt the maritime and the inland
provinces, about signeinge the article their deputies brought over. It is heere thought and
feared, the Orange party will be the strongest. The French ply them so as they will be
too hard for the other; but all conclude them a lost people, if they signe not the ratification. Whatever the issue be, wee have cause to blesse God, that peace on our part
hath been so clearly pursued, and that we may hope for successe in the warre, if forst
to it. It should seem you discoursed them so well ere they parted, as it nothing abated
your care in our naval preparations; and the people's cominge in lyke with the government daily more and more ministers encouragement and hopes, that the Lord will blesse
us in the successe, whether by peace or warre. What hath occured since my last, you will
find in the inclosed, which is all; and that I am
Hamburg, 24 Jan. 165¾.
Your most humble servant,
If it be expected I should heere provide shippinge for the masts
at springe, pray let me have order for it per next. The more
tyme I have, the greater will be the advantage to the state,
for other thinges formerly writ of, which I suppose you will
have leasure ere longe to let me know what I may depend
upon; which I desire of you.
Intelligence from the Hague. Febr. 4. 1654. [N.S.]
Paris, Jan. 30. 1654.
The court is intirely resolved to support the affairs of the lord prince of Liege, and his
bishoprick, as well against the designs of the duke of Lorrain, as against the prince of
Condé and the Spaniards: partly they disturb and weaken thereby their open enemies, as
also (which I now learn here) by reason of a certain treaty made at Munster and Osnabrug,
with the princes, whose territories are situated upon and below the Rhine. For this purpose
Mons. Faber, governor of Sedan, is marching with 5000 men of the army of the marshal
de Turenne, to join the troops of Liege, that are encamped to defend those parts from all
troubles. They would sain see here, that yours would join them likewise, since they say,
that bishoprick, bordering on France and the United Provinces, is of great consequence,
since in time of need one might send that way a speedy succour to one another.
They have here certain advice, that Spain has offered to the present government of England an offensive and defensive alliance; so that France fears there is some mischief a
brewing, and intends, besides the former, to send one more extraordinary ambassador to
England; and the council has publish'd already here this week an ordinance against the
commodore Paul and the chevalier de la Ferriere, that they shall restore to the English all
the ships and effects, which they have taken at sea from the English; for they pretend, that
this ought to be done, in order to oblige the English to restore likewise to us two ships of
St. Malo, which are taken by them.
They have also resolved here, to send an extraordinary ambassy to Sweden, to keep a
balance of affairs there, since they observe that the Spaniards gain every day more credit
with that court; and therefore they suspect, that both these powers may perhaps conclude
an alliance with England. They have constantly observed here with a pretty deal of uneasiness, that they form several strange pretensions against this court, which might be afterwards
easily made use of as a pretence to go further. It is said that Mons. Avancourt is to go in
Mons. d'Estrades has sent an express to this court, whereby he sends word, that he has
discovered at Bourdeaux the chief of the l'Ormer, and secured him in prison; wherefore,
since he is excluded from the amnesty, he desires instructions on that head.
They begin to divulge in Spain, that a marriage between the king of the Romans and
the infanta of Spain is agreed, and will speedily be concluded; which is very much dreaded
here, and in Germany. On the 27th of this month, the attorney general brought a message
from the king to the parliament, that their majesties had granted to the collectors of the rents
of the Hotel de ville the one half quarter which they desired; and therefore that it was
unnecessary to meet on that account.
The king has sent again an express to the count d'Harcourt, to bring him to his duty,
his majesty offering him Philipsburg, to retire thither with his whole family, and 500,000
livres in ready money. If he doth not accept this, he is undone and lost, seeing he is
under the hands of Mons. de Charlerois, as are also the other officers and soldiers that
are at Brisack.
The ambassador of Portugal offers here an offensive and defensive alliance, and one of
his master's daughters to the king in marriage, with 4,000,000 of florins.
My lord the duke of Guise is ready to set out upon his enterprize for Naples.
London, January 30.
The chief thing, which every body gives now his attention to, is the peace between
the two republicks, which the ill-affected, and those that are gainers by these troubles,
pretend to be intirely broke off: but those that wish the welfare of both republicks, and
have the deepest insight in the affairs of secrecy, (as this is kept as yet a secret) say
and assure, that every thing is already done and concluded, and that nothing is wanting
herein, but the ratification on your side, which we expect with the greatest impatience; the
more, since it is dangerous, in affairs of that nature, to be tedious and slow. The rest of
our affairs, God be thanked! have succeeded well. Every body, as well here as from
abroad, comes to congratulate our protector: France, the cardinal Mazarin, Spain, the
prince of Condé, Hamburgh and the Hans-towns, Florence, and other states, have done
the same, either by their ambassadors or agents here; and all the corporations have proclaimed him their protector; and all the parties of the army every-where have sent in
their consent in writing; nay, the nobility themselves seem to be wonderfully pleased.
Our fleet, to the number of forty ships, is gone to the coast of St. Helen's; a like number
cruiseth upon the French coast, against the rovers of Brest. From Scotland we hear
nothing else but the arrival of a Dutch vessel with arms; and that they are still continually raising a great number of men.
They are fitting out at Tilbury Hope a new fleet, viz. 15 of sixty, and 15 of forty
guns, wherewith the Soverain is to go to sea. But it is hoped, that the peace will alter the
design of this armament to something else. They are still bringing in daily a vast many
They write to me, that they have sent from Brabant the nomination of three gentlemen
to Spain, to chuse there one of them, in the place of the ambassador de Brun, who died at
the Hague: those gentlemen are, Mr Molinaer, who is at present at Ratisbon, Mr Bureur,
and Mr Friet.
There is no news yet, that any of the provinces have sent their approbation or ratification to the Hague: however they are expected all together against the tenth of this instant,
when the states of Holland are to meet again.
Written in haste.
Resolution of the states of Friesland.
Lectum the 18th of February, 1654.
The states of Friesland having heard and examined with attention and serious deliberation in our assembly the circumstantial report of the lord Allart P Jongestall (having
been one of the commissioners on the behalf of this state in England) made unto us both
by word of mouth, and in writing, concerning the 29 articles, for the making up of a
treaty between the commonwealth of England and this state, they have thought sitting
and convenient to compare in good order and method the said articles with the instructions
of their high and mighty lordships, given to their commissioners in England from time to
time; and what they shall find to be agreeable to their instructions, they will approve and
ratify the same, as they do hereby approve and ratify the same accordingly; and also the
29 articles agreed on between the commonwealth of England and this state, with the reserve
and precautions as followeth:
First, that in the 5th article of the said 29, after the word keep, shall be put these words,
All those who shall endeavour to assault the one or other commonwealth or territories.
Furthermore, that the declaration of the king of Denmark upon the 8th article ought to
be accepted, before the ratification of these treaties; and in case his majesty is not contented
with the contents of the said 7th article, we do understand, that this state cannot proceed to
the ratification of this treaty, according to the clear text of the alliance made between the
king of Denmark and this State, running as followeth; (fn. 2) That it shall not be free for this
State to treat with those of the present government of England, or to lay down their arms,
without communication of the allied king; neither can any peace, truce, or cessation of
arms be made with the said government of England, unless the said king, with all his
respective kingdoms, be included and comprehended in the said treaty of peace, cessation, or
That the last of the 36 articles ought also to be the last article of this treaty, as being used
by all civil people to be inserted at the end of their treaties and alliances; Hostes erimus,
exceptis regibus, civitatibus & portubus, quibuscum fædus nobis & amicitia est: for this state
never yet made any treaty or alliance with any potentate or commonwealth, but still they
did comprehend their allies in the same.
That the injurious word of murther be omitted out of the 28th article.
That since the government of England did declare to the commissioners, that they would
live in good peace and amity with all their neighbours, and yet they will not comprehend
in this treaty all the allies of this state, and especially the crown of France; this is very
strange, and of dangerous consequence, and a presumption, quod latet anguis in herba; and
that the government either hath, or in time to come may have, the thoughts, which once
Ferdinand king of Arragon had, at the making of a treaty with the king of Navarre, as
Bodin doth relate it in lib. 5. de republ. cap. 6. in these words: Ferdinandus Arragonum
rex, ut Petrum regem Navarræ imperio spoliaret, nibil prius habuit, quam ut illum a Francorum societate sejungeret, ut tandem ab omnibus desertus facile opprimeretur. The including
of the crown of France in this treaty is the best security of this state, and of great honour
and reputation; so likewise the power and opposition of both states, as well of France as
this state, being joined, would be formidable to all those who should offer to injure them.
The including of the crown of France and Denmark in this treaty will be the best means
to secure the commerce and navigation throughout the narrow seas, and to bring it into a
flourishing condition: and withal, if the crown of France and the commonwealth of England
be continually in arms one against the other, you can expect no other than a perpetual
disturbance of the commerce, and no security or safety for those that trade.
And as commerce and trade are the soul and life of the state, therefore it is an undeniable maxim, not only to have peace with all their neighbour nations, but also that they
endeavour to make that all their neighbours have peace one with another. The least
commotion amongst them is a disturbance and destruction to the trade, commerce, and
navigation of this State.
If it be true in any commonwealth, it is most true in this state, that which Sallust faith,
Non exercitus neque thesauri præsidia regni sunt, verum amici. — Non autem istud sceptrum
est, quod regnum custodit, faith Xenophon; sed copia amicorum est regibus sceptrum verissimum
tutissimumque; nec ullum magis boni imperii instrumentum, quam boni amici. Tacit. l. 4. Hist.
Videtur amicitia rempubl. magis continere, & majore quam justitia in studio fuisse legistatoribus;
nam si amicitia inter omnes esset, nihil est quod justitiam desiderarent; at si justi essent, tamen
amicitia præsidium requirerent. So judgeth Arist. l. 8. And of this opinion were their high
and mighty lordships, when they from time to time, by their serious and iterated resolutions of
the 5th of June 1653. did agree and conclude, that the interests of France should be as
much taken to heart as those of this state; and that the crown of France, as well as this
state, (these are the words verbatim) should be brought to an agreement with England;
whereof communication should be given to the king of France by the lord ambassador
Boreel; and all the provinces of this state did approve of the articles for the renewing of
the alliance with France; and conferences were had with his majesty about it, and were
advanced so far, that they were near concluding.
Which reason we do all judge to be of that consequence, that this state ought not to
ratify this treaty, than with the express inclusion of the crowns of France and Denmark;
whereof the first is the ancientest and most considerable ally of this state, that upon
several occasions hath assisted us with such considerable supplies and subsidies, that the memory thereof never ought to be forgotten by the governors of this state.
And we do also understand, that the said lords commissioners, together and at the same
time adorned with the characters of ambassadors, ought to be sent into England with all
speed, with this instruction; we verily believing, that the government of England against
reason and justice will not earnestly insist against the inclusion of the crowns of France and
Denmark, in regard they have declared the same, to be willing to live with their neighbours in good peace and amity: And we do thank the lord Jongestall, one of the commissioners of this state in England from this province, that his lordship did not engage or
prejudice the free deliberation of the whole State, nor of this province, by signing the projected articles, according to the resolution of their high and mighty lordships, of the 5th of
June 1653. Likewise we do hereby return thanks to his lordship, for his care and pains
taken therein for the service of this State. All this done and resolved at the general
assembly, held the 4th of February, 1654. [N. S.]
P. van Doma,
Resolution of the states of Friesland.
Lectum the 28th of February, 1654.
The states of Friesland, with ripe deliberation, having examined the inserted proviso
concerning the lord prince of Orange, do understand, that the obligation made therein
ought reciprocally on that side of the commonwealth of England to be also inserted in the
treaty, after this manner, that the lords protectors, governors, and captain generals, councils
of state, and all other high officers, at present and in time to come, together with the parliament of the commonwealth of England, shall swear justly and uprightly to maintain these
articles of the treaty, and cause their successors to maintain and observe the same, according
to the utmost of their power. So likewise all those, whether the lord prince of Orange, or
whosoever he may be, that shall be chosen by their high and mighty lordships for captain
general, or admiral of their militia by land and water, or by the states of the respective
provinces for stadtholder or governor of the same, shall be obliged and bound to swear to
this treaty, and the articles thereof; and consequently to promise, that they, as much as lyeth
in them, shall help to maintain the same: for if the obligation be only made by the officers
of this state, after the manner as the proviso is made, this state will thereby seem to receive
laws from the commonwealth of England, to make no consederacy; in which the conditions
ought to be equal and reciprocal to both the contractors. And because the government of
England in a formal and after an unusual manner doth set themselves against the prince
of Orange, we do therefore understand, that the name of the lord prince of Orange ought
to be expressed in this article or proviso. Thus resolved the 4th of Febr. 1654. [N. S.]
Agreeth with the original resolution.
P. van Doma,
A letter to secretary Thurloe, from one of the persons who translated his letters of intelligence.
25 January, 1653.
Vol. x. p. 254.
The inclosed this French post broght, and little else, but repeating the gentleman's
being sent from cardinal Mazarin to your lord protector, and to M. Bourdeaux, to
instruct him, how to behave himself in ceremonies and otherwise with the said lord protector; all which is known now better here.
The plot of count Baignie is set forth at large to me; but you had it already more full
and true from Brussels.
They say in Paris, but none dare report it, that count Harcourt gave a defeat to
mareschal de la Ferté Senneterre, wherein the most part of the duke of York his regiment
is slain; but of this I cannot assure you.
The peace of England with Holland is much spoken of there amongst the people, as
done; but the court expect to hear further from Holland, and hope to hear other news.
This is all I had material now, but what you have inclosed.
I pray, if your leisure can at all permit it, let me wait upon you some time this night.
Your most humble servant.
I do not hear the Flanders post yet arrived.
A letter of intelligence.
Ratisbon, 5 Feb./26 Jan. 1654/3.
By this post I have nothing from you; neither did I write to you the post before,
having little to adde to what I gave you a week before. Great admiration is continued
here by the creation of the lord protector Cromwell; and truly I finde indifferently most
men give great acclamations, as well to this as the rest of his resolved valiaunt actions.
Some English alsoe here seem not displeased at it, and less generalie all the Irish; but the
Scotts are mad at it, cursing, swearing, and threatning, &c. The lord Wilmot wondered
not at it, as he sayes, beinge by him always expected.
The affairs of R. Carolus here are yet in eodem statu, and not ended or concluded the
tyme of payment nor the summe, but dailie sued for by the ambassador Wilmot, who
is much affraide, that the treaty betwixt England and Holland retards, although the dissentions here in the diet seem to be the obstacle. This is the true state of Wilmot his
negotiation here this day, whatever is sayd or written to the contrarye; and you may depend
The whole world have their eyes fixed more upon your lord protector, and your treaty
with Holland. I pray give what relation you can of both duelie, because the emperor
is desirous of it, as he told an acquaintance of yours.
I need not write to you of the incursions of Leige and Colen's differences, you being
nearer Brussels, from whence you may have them: here we have not much. The emperor
sent a decree to all the states, that he sees they proceede slowly, to the great damage of the
empire; and he out of his paternal affection doth admonish them to dispatch and make an
end within two months; for he cannot stay longer at Ratisbon, because certain affaires of
Christendom call him to Hungary, and other places; and this ayre agrees not with his complexion and health. The old empress cannot escape this spring.
It was concluded to pay the duke of Lorraine now 250000 crowns, and the rest within
two years, to evacuate two places he has in Germanie. It is concluded here to assist the
elector of Colen against Lorraine and Condé; but it will be too late. The Sweeds pretend
to have Bremen; what shall be the ende, I knowe not.
The equalitie of voices in the councell of electors to both religions is not granted, nor to
make nine electors. Matters are suspended in many points, but great hopes all shall goe
well. The French ambassador complained of the levies made for the king of Spain in
the empire, to be against the peace of Munster; but the diet adjudged it not to be; and
nowe at present the Spanish ambassador here is levying 10,000 horse and foote.
The Muscovite declared war against Poland, thinking no peace to be between the
Polanders, Cossacks, and Tartars; but that peace is made, as you may see by the copy of
that king's letter to the emperor, and another of the vice-chancellor's, which you have here
inclosed. No more now from,