October (5 of 5)
Bordeaux to his father.
6. Novemb. 1654. [N. S]
Vol. xix. p. 455.
I have not much time to spare to write any store of news to the court, notwithstanding there be matter enough. And if the affairs take the course, which I
believe they will, you may expect the news by an express. God grant they may prove
to be good, and that men may be satisfied with my care and pains. I make no doubt,
But men will be apt to censure my labours, as not answering the expectation of the public
after two years negotiation: but whosoever will enter into the particular of my negotiation,
will find, that I have forgot nor omitted nothing to establish a greater band or tye; and
that it is very difficult to persuade some minds, who do believe, that their interest will be
better found in an indifferent state, than in a strict amity; and such as are also sufficiently given to live by plundering and piracy. There hath been nothing resolved on in
the parliament all the last week; to-morrow they are to make an end with the
government, and to turn it into a law. As to the commotion amongst the sea-men,
it doth now again appear to be pacified. The vice-admiral had no hand in it, as was
publish'd at first; only gave consent to the presenting the petition for their pay and
liberty: the first being granted and satisfied, the last was soon forgotten. The colonel,
that is imprisoned about the petition, which I mentioned in my last, is threatened to be
severely punish'd; at least he will be cashiered.
Bordeaux to the count de Charost, governor of Calais.
6. Novemb. 1654. [N. S.]
Vol. xix. p. 451.
I had not time to write to your lordship the last week. Here hath happened a kind
of insurrection amongst the mariners, whereof you will have heard; who in all likelihood were set on by their officers, demanding their pay, and speaking of the liberty of
their country, which begun to cause them here to look about them, and to send
down the admiral presently to pacify them with a good sum of money, which they
conceive will compose their minds. The murmuring of the colonels doth also seem to be
pacified through the imprisoning of one of the colonels, that had signed the petition:
he is threatened to be tried by a council of war. Thus the lord protector doth overcome
all these obstacles; and these little rumours do but establish him the more.
The parliament is still taken up about religion: I am afraid they are not good enough
to be fathers of the church, to form a true canonical one. In all likelihood they will set
the Presbytery uppermost, and give toleration to the others: God grant they may not
smart for it in another world! My negotiation is not concluded, but will be suddenly
ended one way or other.
I praise God for the discovery, that hath been made of the discontented citizens of
Bourdeaux. Here hath been a whispering a long while since of some alteration, that would
suddenly happen in those parts: I know not whether there hath been any treaty with
the lord protector. However, let the business be as it will, time will discover it. In the
mean time the mischief being known, it will be easy to prevent it.
Mons. de Bordeaux to his son the French embassador in England.
Paris, 7. Nov. 1654. [N. S.]
Vol. xix. p. 471.
I have received both your letters, and have nothing to add as to your negotiation.
You know what you have to do: you have your orders and instructions sent you. Make
no long delays; conclude your treaty, and return victorious: you may then obtain your
full desire here.
News sent to Mr. Stouppe.
Paris, 7. Novemb. 1654. [N.S.]
Vol. xix. p. 286.
The third of this instant came into this city an embassador extraordinary from the
great duke of Muscovy. The king hath given him a very magnificent coach. They
speak not yet of the cause of his embassy.
M. de Lionne, who was heretofore secretary of the queen's commandments, goeth
embassador extraordinary to Rome for the king.
They write from Guise, that the prince of Condé had taken from his army 8000
horse, and that his design was unknown; and that marshal de Turenne was encamped
hard by Guise, hoping to put his army into their winter-quarters; and that he staid only
for the orders of the court for that purpose.
The embassador of Sweden, whom the queen had in this city, when she did reign,
departed yesterday according to an express order from the king, who will send another in
his room. The king hath again made known to the queen of Sweden his cousin, that she
should return, or else that she shall receive no more pension.
The letters from Catalonia say, that the prince of Conti was still very sick, and that he
had left to the duke of Candale the ruling of the army, which had taken by composition
Puicerda, and was gone to besiege Belleverde.
A letter of intelligence.
Paris, 7. Nov. 1654. [N. S.]
Vol. xix. p. 471.
No news considerable; but men do believe, that the Spaniards will lose Clermont, as
they did Stenay: and what then will become of the prince of Condé, and the rest?
The duke of Gloucester is become a Roman Papist, and will now speedily make his
abjuration of Protestancy and profession of faith.
The Scotch king is at Cologne, and his counsellors some gone one way, and some
another; upon what designs, I know not; but I believe the chief design is to get money
for his subsistence: and I think, for other things, they are left to time and chance.
A letter of intelligence.
Paris, 7. Novemb. 1654. [N. S.]
Vol. xix. p. 475.
What I wrote to you, as related touching the king's marriage with Savoy's daughter,
it will not take; for he will not hear thereof. M. de Lionne goeth as envoy for
Italy, and carrieth with him a hundred thousand crowns to strengthen the French party
there, and is to reside there as embassador. He will be well supplied, being a nephew to
Mons. Servien. Puicerda is taken by the prince of Conti, and all the garison prisoners of
war; amongst which were 400 Irish, which took part with Inchiquin, who is there,
having sent his regiment with Mons. de Guise. The said Inchiquin hath 300 more
come to him; but the soldiers are no sooner here, but for their ill entertainment they
return again, as those of Arras did; from which there came as good as 1300, and but
400 in . . . .
Here we make preparation to receive the lord protector's embassador; for M. de Bordeaux doth write, that the peace is agreed, and commissioners appointed to value the
reprisals on both sides.
The queen of England is to depart from Paris, and Madrid to be her residence.
There is no certainty of Mons. de Guise's landing, as yet.
Letters of intelligence.
Paris, 7. Novemb. 1654. [N. S.]
Vol. xix. p. 479.
The post of this day is not yet arrived. You have now your letters from Rome;
and from hence, besides the occurrents, you have, that our embassador Bordeaux
now assures of a fair conclusion to be shortly to his negotiation in England, all difficulties
being now removed. This he assures the court, and gives an account of the particulars,
the seven articles, &c. as is best known to you there.
It is certain the duke of Guise passed by Corsica and Sardinia with his fleet, and after
into the Adriatic sea, and was discovered off Apulia, a province of the kingdom of Naples,
where it is thought he will land, if it be possible: which is the last intelligence this court
had from him, that I can learn of. Some believed his design was upon Sardinia; but it
seems not now to have past it, and the old report like to be true, that it was against
Naples; for Mons. Lionne, secretary to this queen, goeth next week embassador from the
king of France to the pope, part of his business being to get free passage from the pope
for the duke of Guife and his army, and for the French army in Piedmont to march thro'
his territories, and meet where conveniently they may. The said Mons. de Lionne has
with him a vast sum of money, to make friends in Rome, as well for this, as for the future
succession of the pope.
The said M. de Lionne in his way stops at Savoy to treat for a marriage for the king
of France for that duke's brother, and the duke to marry one of the cardinal Mazarin's
nieces. This is on foot for truth by Mazarin; and that of Portugal quite broken off.
Of a general peace here is not a word, and as little at present of R. Carolus. His
mother must remove from Palais Royal to a house of the king's, called Madrid, some
two leagues off, where also the duke of York may sojourn.
The young duke of Gloucester goeth to the Jesuits for education: his tutor, a Protestant minister, was dismissed yesterday; they will have him Catholic.
The long stay of your great fleet takes off much of the terror apprehended, and we
boast the duke of Guise is gone. Now it is confirmed here and confessed, the protector;
as also the secretary of state, is well in health, which takes off much of the great hopes
this court had of divisions in England. Cardinal Mazarin is to be archbishop of Rheims.
A great loss this king had lately in Catalonia, all the victuals, provision, and ammunition he had for this winter for the army, being surprised by the marquis of Bayonne, a
Spaniard, in the port called Lansa. This is very secret, but too true: none dare speak
Here is none more at present from,
A letter of intelligence from Paris.
Nov. 7. 1654. [N.S.]
The post of this day is not yet arrived, that I know of; but since my former, another extraordinary arrived from Rome, by which I received your letters, and by
which we are certified the pope is not yet dead, but rather the contrary: great hopes he
will yet live longer, as I believe I shall find in yours from your friend. From hence you
have, that an extraordinary courier or express arrived here yesterday to the court from
the prince of Conti in Catalonia, signifying Puicerda after a siege of ten days was surrender'd to ours upon composition, the 22d last month; where there were 2000 men garisoned, among which was an Irish regiment, which took service in our army, with many
others. In a manner rested not 200 men more, which were conveyed into Barcelona;
and the same day they arrived there, the powder they had in the castle of the town took
fire, by which about forty poor soldiers were lost by accident. We have from Toulon
the twenty-seventh last month, that the duke of Guise writ to M. le comte de Carres
from a place near the island of Sardinia, that his voyage to that place was very happy;
and that he had hopes in his Saviour, the rest would be no less. Since that time divers
barks, coming from sea, report diversly of the said duke, and especially those that sail
from Levant; among which nothing certain. Some say, he is landed at Callari in Sardinia, which he took by the intelligence he had with the governor thereof: others, that
they returned to Gargan; others, landed at Brindal, and have taken Tarente in the Bruse,
and other places: but the most opinion is, that he would be master of Sardinia, which, as
some say, had been more worth to France than the conquering of the kingdom of
Here arrived yesterday fresh news, that nine ships of our army, with four galleys,
landed a quantity of foot towards Barcelona, and thought they were to besiege Roze,
and that the rest went to pillage at sea; of which more by the time. Last tuesday
arrived here an envoy from the Czar of Muscovy, in the king's coach, which was sent for
him as far as St. Denys, accompanied with some embassadors in this town, as the king
ordered. He has not yet got audience, neither yet is certain, what they will do with
Some write from London by the last post, that the great army preparing there are to
go to make wars against the corfairs of Algier, that the commerce might be free in the
Mediterranean seas, and recover a liberty for so many English slaves, that are in the
Turkish servitude. It is also reported, that there is great trouble in Constantinople,
which hinders them to advance their war against the Venetians.
We have from Quesnoy, that our governor there M. de Beauneau does encourage the
garison, desiring them not to fear any body, or that the enemies durst come near them,
their works being so well ended, in a manner that they defy all enemies this year: also, that
the enemies have demolished the suburbs of Valenciennes, for fear of that garison, and
made a new counterscarp, wherewith they might cover themselves from our invasions,
our parties being daily at the gates, and make many of the towns, that have houses
abroad, to pay them contribution, for fear of burning their houses round about their
great towns. So we prevail in Flanders this year.
From Proisy, of the thirty-first of last month, that our army passed the river Oise to
come thither, and that marshal Turenne was willing a while to pass his time in hunting
at Mouchi: but he thought it more necessary to ride with his horses or troopers to gain
some villages in his way to Rocroy, where he intends to stop the enemy from giving
relief to Cletmont. Many officers went into Quesnoy, thinking the place to be besieged
by the enemies; of which no danger, as we hear. Wednesday last in the evening the
king returned from St. Germain, after having feasted there in honour of St. Hubert,
patron of the hunters, where he had a world of people.
The duke of Orleans was in the like manner at Orleans, and the duke of Longueville
with about three hundred gentlemen at Rohegion, where he expected the duchess, his wife,
to be reconciled; and is to live in the castle of Caen with her children, when she comes.
Wednesday last marshal de la Ferté Senneterre parted hence towards his army, with
orders not to form any siege about Clermont in Lorrain, only to keep it blocked, and
hinder all relief from them, till they be forced to yield by necessity, for want either of
victuals; or provisions of war.
Notwithstanding the prince of Condé was so rigorous against Mons. comte de Grandpré,
yet he altered his mind, and gave his consent to change him for M. comte de Coligni
Saligni; yet he was resolved to have his head cut off.
We expect embassadors here shortly from Genoa, Venice, from Florence, and divers
other places; what may their business be, time will discover. I have nothing else at present worth your hearing, only to be,
Your most real servant.
Extract out of the register of the resolutions of their high and mighty lordships the states general of the United Provinces.
Sabbathi, 7. Novemb. 1654. [N. S.]
There was read in the assembly a certain memorandum of the council of war
appointed by their lordships for the trial of the military officers, who should be
found guilty in the yielding up of Brasil; containing in effect, that they had done their
duty in the trial of general Schop, and had found and resolved, that he might be kept
in the prison, and free access had to him till further order. Whereupon being debated,
it is resolved, that he shall have the liberty of the prison, and free access had to him of
wife and children, or any body else; and that his guard shall be discharged.
An extract of a letter from Amsterdam.
I had hopes we should have found our estates in such a posture, upon our unhappy
exclusion from Brazil by the perfidious Portugals, as to have been ready to vindicate
what we have lost: but alas! we are so taken up in domestic broils about a stadtholder,
that the Portugal is secure of his leisure to reckon with him.
Therefore I shall make a discovery to you, that I hope is worthy your embracing.
In Siara, which is a place between Fernamburo and Maragnan, there is a range of
mountains found out, which runs two hundred miles in length, and is a wall and boundary between that part of America on the North sea, and that which looks towards the
South sea and the Peruvian coast. These mountains afford a rich silver mineral, such as
men may behold the silver in it with their eyes; and there is here a certain person knows
how to wash the said mineral for the extraction of silver, with whom our West India company have begun to treat, that he should communicate his skill; and so it should have
gone forward. To which purpose there was a ship sent thither, called the Schonenburgh,
to fetch a lading of some tons of mineral, and bring it home thither to this country,
which was taken by the English in the time of the war between them and these lands;
by which means that business received a stop to this day, and is like to do still by the
troubles, that begin upon us. Notwithstanding I do find, that some here have written
into England, to procure and send hither some quantities of the said mineral, that the
person aforesaid may make a proof and trial of it; and thereupon to truck with the Portugals for their advantage; I say, for their particular profit, and the Portugals. For this
cause I find myself bound for the relation I have to you, and the love I bear to England,
rather to endeavour, that this advantage be yours, than the perfidious Portugals. If you
are not yet so fast allied to the said Portugal by your accord with them, as to deprive
yourselves of such an officer; which indeed would produce an unspeakable benefit, beyond
what Spain hath had in those lands; about which place the Portugals had a garison of
about an hundred men only, it being distant from any of their places near 200 miles.
Now in case his highness the lord protector entertain this offer as a thing to be
weighed and embraced, it would, in the first place, be most necessary, that the aforesaid
mineral already be not carried out, but committed to safe hands and custody. I shall
promise his highness, or any, whom he shall appoint, to make so full a discovery of this
whole business, yea and produce the very person, that shall make trial of that mineral
now in England, in his highness's presence, as he shall desire and appoint. But if England
be so far and so fast agreed with Portugal, as that this motion be frustrate, and not feisable upon that account, then my desire is, that you keep this letter secret by you, that it
may not be known, that a thing of such importance was divulgued by me.
Moreover, I shall let you understand, where and by whom the ship was taken, in which
was the said mineral. The master of the ship dwelleth at Dort, whither, as soon as I had
knowledge of the affair, I sent to know particulars; and give you to understand by letter
from Dort, that the ship was called Schonenburg, and was brought into Foy in Cornwall;
that the master of the ship was examined there by one Mr. Smith, who spake Dutch;
and that the ship was bought by one Mr. Thompson: that the mineral was brought on
shore, and much left in the said vessel Schonenburgh for ballast. The owner of the ship
is called Mr. Trip, a Dutch merchant, who told me, he had written to Crusoe in London,
who negotiates the affairs of the West India company there, to get over by one means or
other some of the said mineral; but they of Foy would not let it go; and since that it was
sent up to the parliament. If it be so, it is well; if not, it were good to send down to
Foy for it, to have it by you at London, in case my lord protector should close with
this offer. Now although I have often seen with my eyes a proof made of this mineral,
and silver bars taken out of it, yet to-morrow I propose to make another trial of it; for
I brought some of this mineral with me from Brasil.
That of the said mineral now in England and here is but of the topmost of the hill;
and it is out of all dispute, that by digging deeper such veins are to be found, which
contain by far much richer ore than this is. The most costly thing, that is used in
working and in trying this mineral, is English lead.
By all that is said, you may gather what an invaluable treasure is to be gotten by this
overture, which is now sadly lost, as to our country, by our intestine broils; which make
us neglect that, which is of such great interest and advantage. This I have thought meet
somewhat largely to commuinicate to you, to the end you may present it to his highness;
which being attested, I doubt not but I shall be judged, all things weighed, to have performed an office well deserving thanks. Thus desiring to hear the acceptance and issue
thereof, with my love to my sister, I rest
Amsterdam, 9. Novemb.
1654. [N. S.]
Your loving brother,
Jacob le Maire.
A letter of intelligence.
Coln, 10. Nov. 1654. [N. S.]
Vol. xix. p. 491.
The last letters from Paris inform us of the French design to make the duke of
Gloucester a Roman Catholic; in order to which he is sent to one of the Jesuits
colleges, called Clermont in Paris. The king of Scots and his council are much troubled
at it, and I believe they will take the best course they can, to prevent it. He hath both
writ and sent an express into France to forbid it, if it be not too late to shut the stabledoor, when the steed is stoln. We are likely to reside here all this winter.
A letter of intelligence.
Cologne, November 10. 1654. [N. S.]
Vol. xix. p. 493.
All that I have to requite you withal for your kindness, is to give you a relation of a
journey of pleasure I took this last week, our trading at this time being but small: I
made shift to get myself into the train of the Scots king and his sister, who went some
few days journey on her way with her towards the Hague, they being both solemnly
invited by the duke of Newburgh to his house, being just her way, and five hours going
from this town, where was one of the greatest and noblest receptions, that ever I saw in
any place in my life. The duke and his lady met the king and his sister some a mile
from his house, his coaches, horses, and equipage being very great. We came in a very
fine barge down the Rhine. Then they went into coaches. In the duke's coach went the
king and his sister, the duke and the duchess, the pretended marquis of Ormond, and lady
Stanhope. There were other coaches provided for those, that attended the Scots king.
From the time they took coach, till they lighted at the door, they were all the way saluted
with great cannon. They stayed that night and all the next day, where their entertainment with all sorts of music, and variety of provisions in all kinds, was very magnificent.
From thence we continued our journey as far as Zanten, where the king and his sister
parted, which truly was a very sad one, as ever I saw in my life. In our way as we passed,
all the towns and garisons saluted them with their cannon, and drew out their horse and
foot, some of which were belonging to the states; and therefore it was thought extraordinary for them to pay such civilities. I am now returned to this town.
News from Paris sent to Mr. Stouppe.
10. November, [1654. N. S.]
Vol. xx. p. 159.
The officers of his royal highness the duke of Orleans residing in this city, to prosecute the payment of what his majesty oweth to his royal highness concerning the rest
of his pensions, having been heard, it was found, that the king oweth him 1,300,000
livres, which have been allowed him, upon condition, that he shall thank the cardinal
Mazarin for it, by whose favour he did obtain them.
Letters from Brussels say, that they did expect there the cardinal of Retz, coming from
Spain with Mons. Pimontelli, who hath been embassador for the king of Spain in Sweden.
They bring, that the rumours, that were spread, that this cardinal was in Spain, are found
true; and not those, that his party hold, who maintain the contrary, saying, that he was gone
through Holland, after that through Germany, and from thence by the territories of the
Venetians to Florence: we shall know shortly, which it is of the two.
Letters from Mazieres do give notice, that their governor, likewise those of Charleville
and of the mount Olympe, would not acknowledge the prince of Condé, nor confer with
the men he had sent unto them.
News there is, that the general Blake had passed the Streights of Gibraltar with thirty
frigats, and that twenty great ships, men of war of Holland, were joined with him, and
that they would be now in the Mediterranean sea. It is not known yet to what purpose.
The last news from Bourdeaux are, that they had taken there one of the exiled, who
was one of the chiefest, that had caused the city to rise, and that he was come with
another of the same crew, to try again to make the inhabitants of this city revolt against
the king, desiring to make them believe, they should be helped by his highness the lord
protector; which being known, the king and his council had given order to the prince of
Conti to send in Guienne the companies, which they have in their army, which was before
in this province, his majesty purposing to give them here their winter quarters. It is said,
that this man, which hath been taken, confessed, that there was a great conspiracy against
the duke of St. Simon, governor of Blaye, and Mons. de l'Estrade, mayor perpetual of
Bourdeaux, whom they were to kill; and that there was a great number of men of Bourdeaux, who were of the same plot. That is the rumour they spread abroad; but it is
believed, that they are only pretended accusations, which the court invents to serve a
pretence for a design it hath to ruin the said city of Bourdeaux. The lords of Grammont,
governor of Bayonne, St. Simon governor of Blaye, and l'Estrade, perpetual mayor of
Bourdeaux, do raise each a regiment of foot to set in the castle Trompette, to put in
awe the inhabitants of Bourdeaux.
The ninth of this instant, the embassador extraordinary of Muscovy had his first audience.
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
10. November, 1654. [N. S.]
Vol. xix. p. 499.
The princess royal arrived here the seventh. The king her brother accompanied
her as far as Zanten, where she embarked in a pleasure-boat; so that her brother did
not enter or pass through any garison of this state. She talks high of the great entertainment, which the duke of Newburgh made her, having treated her three days, and very
gallantly, covering twenty-two tables, and sixty-eight dishes upon each table; and the duke
presented the napkin to the king.
The judges of the council military, appointed for the trial of lieutenant-general Schop,
have remonstrated, that they have proceeded so far in his trial, that they can go no further.
And in regard they are not yet agreed by what judges Schonenburg and Hacx are to be tried,
who are not brought to their trial, they have declared, they can proceed no further, by
reason of the connexity of the cause. Therefore they desire they may be dismissed, and
suffered to go home, till such time, that the state hath resolved concerning the judicature
of the said Schonenburg and Haex; and that there be proceeded in their trial as far as they
have done in that of Schop's.
It is easily perceived, that the military judges do favour Schop, as well in regard he is a
soldier, (not being willing, that a soldier should be tried, and favour shewn to a civil officer,
or that they should be taken with the tail of a fox) as also in regard, that they are Orange party, and
do cross the maxims of good Hollanders.
Upon that is resolved, Fiat, and that they shall have dismission till further order; and
upon the advice of the said council, and at the request of the said Schop himself, they will
permit the said Schop to go at liberty about the prison, where he shall have the best chamber, and be discharged of a great many charges, and the entertaining of the guard, who
were at his charges.
I perceive those of Holland themselves did not greatly contradict it, in all likelihood
desiring, that this cause may be reserved as a reconvention against that, which the generality may or would say or do against the lords Beverning and Nieuport, that so all
may pass then through connivance, or pardon, or general absolution; although
in my advice, a letter at the worst, from protector, will be able to absolve the said lords
Beverning and Nieuport. There is still some disturbance in Overyssel. Prince William
is still at Zwoll, not so much to render the election of stadtholder doubtful or disputable,
as to accommodate the difference, which is for the election of the drossart of Twent.
And yet not one of the nobility of Twent, who are opposites, nor any one deputy of
Deventer, are yet come to Zwoll, altho' prince William doth all he can to make them of
his party. He doth offer thereunto all expedients and possible satisfaction; for as the business of Overyssel will go, the rest will follow: seeing also, that Holland doth make scruple
to assist those of Deventer, for fear likewise, that others do not assist any member or members
disagreeing in Holland, which is a fine raillery; for the king of Spain would not have
likewise, that any of his rebels against him should be assisted, and the king of France
also; but the king of France, had he forborn for all that to assist the United Provinces,
the king of Portugal, the Catalans, and the king of Spain, doth he forbear the assistance
of the prince of Condé ? And do the Hollanders believe, that as occasion serves, Orange party will
not give assistance to Orange party in states general. ?
Mr. Bradshaw, resident at Hamburgh, to secretary Thurloe.
Vol. xix. p. 515.
I am glad to understand from Mr. Needham of the good recoverie of his highnes and
yourselfe. Since my last, here hath come nothinge more to knowledge than what you
will find in the inclosed. I am still expectinge answer from the company at London,
what they will doe of themselves for the curbinge of theise insolent spirits, whoe are
resolved to carry on what they have begun, if his highnes will suffer it; as in my letter
of the tenth instant I more particularly accompted to you. I shall not give you further
trouble at present, but subscribe myselfe,
Hamb. 31. Octob. 1654.
Your most humble servant,
A letter of intelligence.
Hamb. ult. Octob. S. V. [1654.]
Vol. xix. p. 519.
Touching the Bremen affair, it is now believed, that it will come to nothing;
whereas the Swedes are fully resolved to have homage from the city, before they
enter upon any other point: but the Bremeners will in no way condescend thereunto, nor
renounce their predicate of a free rix-city; promising besides to accommodate themselves to every thing, which in reason shall or may be required of them. To-morrow
the terminus is expired, and the Bremeners, who having had commissions as from a rixcity, were sent back again, and injoined to bring their commissions without the title of
a rix-city, or else not appear at all, are not as yet returned. The intervenients of the
states and cities are nothing else but mere spectatores fabulæ, being indeed allowed to be the
assessors at the treaty; but with this condition, not to speak any thing but what is contra
Bremenses pro Suecis, ne offendantur.