T - Tammy

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University of Wolverhampton

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Author

Nancy Cox and Karin Dannehl

Year published

2007

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'T - Tammy', Dictionary of Traded Goods and Commodities, 1550-1820 (2007). URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=58892 Date accessed: 16 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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T

[tee]

Like the HL hinge the T was a modified H hinge, for situations where there is insufficient room on one of the surfaces to use a full length leaf. The leaf was modified to fit the space available. Like other forms of HINGE, they were sometimes called a JOINT.

Found describing HINGE, JOINT

Sources: Inventories (late).

Table leaf

[table frame & leafe]

Either a hinged flap at the side of a TABLE that can be raised if required, or an addition piece of wood that can be inserted to extend the length of a TABLE. Given that they have been noted in the Dictionary Archive as separate items, the latter seems more likely.

OED earliest date of use: 1558

Found described as DUTCH, LITTLE, OLD

Sources: Inventories (mid-period), Inventories (late).

Table napkin

[table napkyn; table napking; table napkine; tabell napkin]

A type of NAPKIN designed to be used at the table to protect the clothes and for wiping the fingers. Since it is sometimes contrasted with a DIAPER NAPKIN, the two may have had slightly different uses. Although the term is found throughout the period, it became less common after 1700, possibly because using a KNIFE and a FORK for eating made its function for wiping the hands less important.

OED earliest date of use: 1564 under Table

Found described as COARSE, FINE, OLD Found made of CANVAS, DIAPER, DOWLAS, LINEN
Found in units of DOZEN

See also DIAPER NAPKIN, DRINKING CLOTH.
Sources: Inventories (early), Inventories (mid-period), Inventories (late).

Tack

[tacke]

This is a term that has a variety of meanings, some of which have been noted in the Dictionary Archive. Occasionally it seems to have been a shortened version of TACKLE or TACKLING, as in 'A small brass Furnace wth brewing tack' [Inventories (1742)]. Something in the same vein seems to have been intended by the appraisers of a probate inventory who listed '1 pere small Tackes 1 pere Cowbartes tow spyttes 1 pere pothockes' valued together at 4s [Inventories (1588)]. Elsewhere such 'tacks' were probably labelled as POT HANGERs.

An equally uncommon, but entirely different, meaning in the Dictionary Archive is of the tack as a form of tenure or tenancy of real estate, especially the LEASEhold tenure of a farm etc., as in 'One Tacke of ground' [Inventories (1637)]. In this sense, the term was most common in the North.

OED earliest date of use in this sense: 1423

These and the many more meanings given in the OED notwithstanding, the most prevalent use of this term in the Dictionary Archive, and in many other sources relating to trade, is for a small NAIL of IRON or BRASS, usually characterised by a large, flat head. The specialized uses to which this type of fastener could be put has spawned a great number of named varieties. In the Dictionary Archive the following have been noted: CARD TACK, CORDWAINERS TACK, CORK TACK, LACQUER TACK, QURE TACK, SADDLERS TACK, SHOEMAKERS TACK and TIN TACK, though there are probably more to be found in other sources.

OED earliest date of use in this sense: 1578

Found described by COPPER, IRON, SMALL, STEEL
Found in units of C, HUNDRED, M, PAPER, THOUSAND Found rated by the THOUSAND

Sources: Houghton, Inventories (early), Inventories (mid-period), Patents, Rates.

Tack nail

[tack naile]

See TACK.

Found described by DOUBLE, SINGLE

Sources: Inventories (mid-period).

Tacket

[tackitt; tackit; tackette; tackett]

A type of NAIL; the OED suggests that it is now a dialect term in the north of England for a HOBNAIL with which the soles of SHOES were studded. In the early-modern period it seems to have had two slightly different meanings. It was a type of nail, hence entries like 'Nails & Tacketts', but it also seems to have fulfilled a similar but not an identical function as the hobnail as they are found together - and not only in the North - in such entries as 'in hobnales and tackettes xliis vjd' [Inventories (1609)].

OED earliest date of use: 1316

Found described by 2d, 3d, 4d, 6d, LARGE, middle sort, WHITE
Found in units of THOUSAND

Sources: Inventories (early), Inventories (mid-period), Inventories (late).

Tackle

Alternative terms are: apparatus, utensils, instruments, implements, appliances; equipment, furniture, gear; particularly for horses and for the purpose of fishing as FISHING TACKLE.

In the Dictionary Archive, the term is found in a number of contexts, as 'a pully Brass Tackle and Rope' [Inventories (1699)], 'gun tackle' [Inventories (1724)], 'a parcell of Shoemakers tackle' [Inventories (1738)], 'a Saddle without Tackle' [Inventories (1769)], 'Windmill _with all moving Tackle' [Newspapers (1760)].

It can rarely be distinguished from TACKLING, while TACK sometimes has similar meanings.

OED earliest date of use: c1250; 1683 as Harness and 1398 for its application to fishing

Sources: Inventories (mid-period), Inventories (late), Newspapers.

Tackling

[taklinge; tacklinge; tackeling]

According to the OED, the primary meaning of this term is the rigging or TACKLE of a ship, as in 'one barge called the Marye withe his tacklinges' [Inventories (1586)], and 'Caples and Halsers, Ropes, and all other Tackling for Ships' [Acts (1592)]. The term then came to applied more generally to any gear, furnishings, fittings, accoutrements, outfit, baggage, etc. In the Dictionary Archive it was used in this sense particularly for the equipment of husbandry, as in a husbandman's 'carts, ladders, and other tackling from the pike to the plough' [Houghton]. More specifically it was applied HORSE HARNESS as in 'one Mare with her tackling' [Inventories (1691)] and horse tackling complete' [Inventories (1809)]. It can rarely if ever be distinguished from TACKLE.

OED earliest date of use: c1422 as applied to the rigging etc. of a ship; 1558 to gear generally; 1645 to a horse's harness

Sources: Acts, Diaries, Houghton, Inventories (early), Inventories (mid-period), Inventories (late), Newspapers.

Taffeta

[taphity; taphitar; taft; tafity; taffyta; taffity; taffitie; taffitey; taffetye; taffety; taffetee; taffaty; taffatue; taffatie; taffatee; taffata; tafetie; tafeta; tafati; taf]

A name applied at different times to different TEXTILEs, but essentially 'a thin, plain weave, stiffened with extra weft threads' [Kerridge (1985)]. In the early modern period this usually denoted a light thin SILK or UNION - STUFF of decided brightness or lustre. The term was occasionally used elliptically to denote TAFFETA RIBBON or the YARN prepared for weaving taffeta. Much taffeta came from the Levant, hence LEVANT TAFFETA, a term that in the early-modern period was applied both to the Far East and to the Near East; that is, both from BENGAL, INDIA and CHINA as well as from PERSIA. The ITALIANs mastered the art of weaving silk in widths up to 27 INCH, called BROAD to distinguish it from NARROW WARE that was often no more than RIBBON. Note however that the Books of Rates show imported taffetas up to an ELL wide. From Italy, knowledge of the technique spread first to FRANCE, hence TOURS TAFFETA, and then to the Low Countries, whence it found its way to this country with colonies of immigrant weavers in Canterbury, LONDON, Southwark and NORWICH by the early-seventeenth century. Their skills were soon copied by ENGLISH weavers [Kerridge (1985)].

Taffeta was highly fashionable and was subject to all the vagaries of fashion as exemplified by Savary des Bruslons in the 1720s: 'Taffetas are made in all colors. Some are glossy, some changeable, some striped with silk, gold or silver; others are flamed, checked or with patterns ... Many others have names, dictated by fashion or by the fancy of the manufacturers, so bizarre that it would be both useless and difficult to give them all, aside from the fact that their names rarely last through the year in which they were created ...' [Montgomery (1984)]. Some of this fashionablility is indicated in the descriptors found in the Dictionary Archive; the damning ORDINARY, but also more favourably CRIMSON and SCARLET, STRIPED with GOLD or SILVER, RICH and with VELVET ground, not to mention STITCHED TAFFETA. One result was that retailers who hoped to serve the fashionable world had to stock taffeta in variety. For example, in 1667 Thomas Cole of London had 15 peeces of East India taffeta at 40s the piece, 14 peeces of bengole taffeta at 18s the piece, 4 yards of India taffeta in remnants valued at 12s (along with other remnants), 22 yards & a halfe of grass taffety valued at 18s and 108 yards of striped Scotch taffety at 14d p yard in his warehouse, while in his shop he had 12 yards of Harlam taffety at 15d [Inventories (1667)]. His near contemporary in Coventry, Julius Billers, had at least sixteen different varieties of taffeta ribbon, as well as 60 ells of coloured taffeta at 9s ell [Inventories (1676)].

It is almost impossible to say anything definitive about value. Apart from the distinction between broad and NARROW taffetas, the expense of the processing and the state of fashion each played its part in pricing. Valuations have been noted in the Dictionary Archive ranging from less than 1s up to 12s the YARD.

OED earliest date of use: 1373

Found described as 1d, 2d, 4d, 6d, 8d, 10d, 12d, ALAMODE, BENGAL, BLACK, BROAD, CHINA, COLOURED, CRIMSON and SCARLET, DOUBLE, DUCAPE, ELL WIDE, FRENCH, fugger, grass, GREEN and RED, GREY, Harlam, INDIA, INDIAN, JEAN, leamen (probably LEVANT), louell, NARROW, ORDINARY, PERSIAN, PINK, QUARTER, RICH, SCARLET, SCOTCH, SILK, SKY, STITCHED, STRAW coloured, STRIPED, striped with GOLD and SILVER, STUFF, VELVET ground, VIOLET coloured, WHITE Found describing SARSNET, SILK, WEFT Found used to make BREECHES, CAP, COIF, DOUBLET, GOWN, HAT, HOOD, LINING, MASK, NEGLIGE, NIGHT CAP, PETTICOAT, PURSE
Found imported from Holland in BALE, CHEST Found in units of ELL, END, GROSS, OUNCE (WEFT), PIECE, POUND (WEFT), YARD

See also HERBA TAFFETA, LEVANT TAFFETA, SPANISH TAFFETA, STITCHED TAFFETA, TAFFETA RIBBON, TOURS TAFFETA, TUFTAFFETA.
Sources: Diaries, Houghton, Inventories (early), Inventories (mid-period), Inventories (late), Newspapers, Patents, Rates, Tradecards.
References: Kerridge (1985), Montgomery (1984).

Taffeta ribbon

[taffety-ribbon; taffeety & broad satin ribon; taffaty ribbin; taff 6d reban; tafety reban; taf rib; ribbons ferrit and taffity]

Most RIBBONS were made of a smooth SILK - TEXTILE such as TAFFETA or SATIN (hence such phrases as 'taffety & broad satin ribon') and those with no descriptors were probably made of one or the other of the above. However, taffeta ribbon appears in many inventories of shops suggesting that it was a sufficiently distinctive product to warrant separating it out from other ribbons. In common with other NARROW WARE, taffeta ribbon was sometimes measured in its width by the thickness of the PENNY piece. However, the entries in [Inventories (1676)] of ½d and 1½d taffeta ribbons call into question this assumption and suggest that ribbons may sometimes have been defined by the price at which they were sold. Valuations, on the other hand, are confusing. Several units of measure were used and superficially they appear to have varied incomprehensibly. However, this can be explained. It seems that although appraisers listed taffeta ribbons by the DOZEN they often actually valued them by the YARD. Valuations of the third common unit, the GROSS then also make sense, being twelve times the value of the dozen, which was itself twelve times the yard.

OED earliest date of use: 1660

Found described as ½d, 1½d, 2d, 3d, 6d, 8d, 10d , BLUEBROAD, CHERRY colour, COLOURED, FLOWERED, OLD FASHIONED, WHITE
Found in units of DOZEN, GROSS, PIECE, YARD

Sources: Inventories (early), Inventories (mid-period), Inventories (late), Tradecards.

Tail comb

A HAIR COMB with teeth at one end and a handle tapering to a point at the other. It was mainly used for dressing curls and putting the finishing touches to a head dress [Cox (1966, pb 1969)].

Not found in the OED online

Sources: Inventories (late).
References: Cox (1966, pb 1989).

Tailors thimble

[tayl'rs thymble; taylors thymnell; taylors thimble; taylors thimbell; taylers thimble]

A THIMBLE open at both ends and designed for a tailor's use.

OED online earliest date of use: c1874 under Luck

Found described as BRASS
Found in units of DOZEN, GROSS

See also DOUBLE THIMBLE, SHIPS THIMBLE.
Sources: Inventories (early), Inventories (mid-period), Inventories (late).

Talc

[talke; talk]

In popular and commercial use, the term was loosely applied to, or including, mica or MUSCOVIA GLASS, as well as SOAPSTONE. In its powdered form it was used as an adulterant of HAIR POWDER, though this was prohibited in 1711 [Acts (1711)]. It has also been used more generally as a cosmetic (talcum powder), as a lubricant, and as a filler in paper manufacture. Most tailor's chalk today is talc [Wikipedia (online)]. Talc, under that name, has not been noted neither in the shops nor advertised, except in the form of an UNGUENTUM [Inventories (1673)].

OED earliest date of use: 1601

Found among the DRUGS in the Rate Books, rated by the POUND

See also GREEN TALC, SOAPSTONE, WHITE TALC.
Sources: Acts, Rates.
References: Wikipedia (online).

Tallow tub

[tallow tubb]

A TUB used by TALLOW chandlers. When scraps had been rendered to release their fat, the hot tallow was strained through a STRAINING TUB into a 'Tub, which they call a settling Tub, a Tallow or Rendering Tub' [Holme (2000)].

Not found in the OED online

Found described as OLD

Sources: Inventories (early), Inventories (mid-period), Inventories (late).
References: Holme (2000).

Tamarind lozenges

TAMARIND lozenges have been noted offered for sale only once in circumstances that leave it unclear whether they were intended for medicinal purposes or merely as a SWEETMEAT. Possibly this was intentional. Although the fruit of the tamarind was in the Materia Medica [Pemberton (1746)] and used as a mild purge, it also has a pleasant taste [Tradecards (1800)].

Not found in the OED online

Found in units of small BOX

See also LOZENGE.
Sources: Tradecards.
References: Pemberton (1746).

Tamarine

[tamerine]

A TEXTILE; a lightweight STUFF, often STRIPED, probably of continental origin and made of SILK and HAIR, which by 1666 was being made wholly of WORSTED

OED earliest date: 1691

Found described as BLACK, BOW DYE, COLOURED, FLOWERED, LACED, STRIPED Found included among NORWICH - WORSTED - STUFFS, STUFFS
Found in units of DOUBLE PIECE, YARD

Sources: Inventories (mid-period), Inventories (late).
References: Kerridge (1985), 56, 87.

Tameletto

[tamelletto; tamelletoe; tamelleto; tamaletto]

A TEXTILE, probably a STUFF. There is some confusion as to the correct name. Tameletto is found in the shops in the Dictionary Archive, while CAMELETTO is found in the Book of Rates of 1660 made of 'half silk, half haire' and rated by the yard [Rates (1660)]. Florence Montgomery notes 'camletto' as a variant of CAMLETEEN', and does not include 'Tamaletto' [Montgomery (1984)]. On balance it seems likely that there was only one fabric, however spelt. It was probably similar to CAMLET or CAMLETEEN.

Not found in the OED online

Found described as BLACK, COLOURED, HAIR, MIXED, OLD
Found in units of PIECE, YARD

Sources: Inventories (early), Inventories (mid-period).
References: Montgomery (1984).

Tammy

[tamy; tammey; tamies; tamey; tamett; tamet]

[We have assumed 'tamine' and variant spellings of this are 'ESTAMINEs' and not tammies.]

As with STAMIN, STAMMEL and STAMMET, there is much confusion. Kerridge suggests that when the French term 'ESTAMINE' came into English usage, it was gradually modified, through 'tammet' (in various variant spellings) to 'tammy'. Occurrences in the Dictionary Archive suggest that Kerridge's outline of the development of the term is probably correct. Tammy and tammet were given similar descriptors or valuations, so both are included here. Tammet is quite common in the Dictionary Archive until the end of the seventeenth century, when tammy becomes the standard term.

Kerridge further suggests that tammies of whatever quality shared the same characteristics, being light weight, plain-weave fabrics that were strong and stringy. They were also glazed by hot-pressing or other means, hence were easily cleaned and useful for such articles as LINING, CHILDREN's garments, CURTAINs, etc. Montgomery quotes an extract from an American manuscript of the 1830s that said many DRESSes made of CHINTZ 'were lined with tammy stuff, to keep them stiff & never to be washed'. Tammies were also used as BOLTING CLOTHs and in SIEVEs and strainers. One special form, called bunt or bunting, was sold for making flags. WORSTED tammies were made in NORWICH and other parts of east Norfolk from about 1600. It remained a hugely popular fabric until the end of the period. Some shops had a dozen varieties or more. Of all the STUFFs it was the one that advertisers most often chose to list.

Tammy was often dyed, using BOW DYE which gave a good SCARLET. It was also frequently dyed a YELLOW, a less than common colour in dyeing. All yellows available at the time were not fast to light. Since tammy was often used for linings, which would be less subject to fading than fabrics used outwardly, it would be practicable to exploit yellow for this purpose, and there seems to no other reason why yellow should have been favoured. Towards the end of the eighteenth century, patterns seem to have become more popular.

Tammy may also have been the name of the YARN used to make the cloth of that name, alternatively called STAMMET by Kerridge, but according to the Dictionary Archive more likely to have been STAMMEL. This use of the term 'tammy' for the yarn may account for its appearance as a descriptor in the early part of the period for such fabrics as BAYS and SEMPERTERNUM. Tammy YARN was shrunk and smoothed by scouring. Kerridge illustrates this by a weaver's inventory of 1661, which listed made tammies along with some scoured yarn ready to be made up. The term, and presumably the fabric, apparently became obsolete before 1858, though the name was revived as a trade term in the late nineteenth century.

The OED's quotations indicate that it was used to make a GOWN (1666) and RIDING DRESS (1758).

OED earliest date: 1665; 1769 as a STRAINER

Found included among STUFFS, WOOLLEN DRAPERY Found described as ASH COLOUR, BLACK, black and white, BLUE, blue and red striped, blue and white, BOW DYE, BROAD, BROWN, calendared, CLARET coloured, CLOTH COLOURED, COARSE, COLOURED, COVENTRY, ENGLISH, fealmart, FINE, flame coloured, GOLD coloured, GREEN, green and white, IN GRAIN, light coloured, MANCHESTER, MARBLE, MIXED, NARROW, ORANGE coloured, ORDINARY, PINK coloured, PLAIN, PRINTED, red and white striped, redyed, Robinsons, rose coloured, SAD coloured, SCARLET, SCOTCH, SINGLE, STRIPED, TURKEY, washed, WATERED, YARD WIDE, YELLOW Found describing BAYS, SEMPERTERNUM, SHAG, TURKEY Found made of WOOL Found used to make COAT, SOUP STRAINER
Found in the shops measured by PIECE, YARD

Sources: Inventories (early), Inventories (mid-period), Inventories (late), Newspapers, Tradecards.
References: Kerridge (1985), 53-4, Montgomery (1984), 360-1.