Of Towers and Castels.
The Tower of London.; In my annales.; Tower of London builded by William Conqueror, namely the white Tower.
THE Citie of London (saith Fitzstephen) hath in the East
a verie great and a most strong Palatine Tower, whose turrets
and walles doe rise from a deepe foundation, the morter therof
being tempered with the bloud of beasts. In the west part are
two most strong Castels, &c. To begin therefore with the
most famous Tower of London, situate in the East, neare
vnto the riuer of Thames, it hath beene the common opinion:
and some haue written (but of none assured ground) that
Iulius Cæsar, the first conquerour of the Brytains, was the
originall Authour and founder aswell thereof, as also of many
other Towers, Castels, and great buildings within this Realme:
but (as I haue alreadie before noted) Cæsar remained not here
so long, nor had hee in his head any such matter, but onely to
dispatch a conquest of this barbarous Countrey, and to proceede to greater matters. Neither do the Romane writers
make mention of any such buildings erected by him here.
And therefore leauing this, and proceeding to more grounded
authoritie, I find in a fayre Register booke containing the acts
of the Bishops of Rochester, set downe by Edmond de Hadenham, that William the first, surnamed Conquerour, builded
the Tower of London, to wit, the great white and square
Tower there, about the yeare of Christ 1078. appoynting
Gundulph, then Bishop of Rochester, to bee principall surueyer
and ouerseer of that worke, who was for that time lodged in
the house of Edmere a Burgesse of London, the very wordes
of which mine Authour are these: Gundulphus Episcopus mandato Willielmi Regis magni præfuit operi magnæ Turris
London, quo tempore hospitatus est apud quendam Edmerum
Burgensem London, qui dedit vnum were Ecclesiæ Rofen.
H. Huntington. W. Malmes. Mathew Paris. Iohn London. Castle by the Tower builded.
Ye haue before heard, that the wall of this Citie was all
round about furnished with Towers and Bulwarke, in due distance euery one from other, and also that the Riuer Thames,
with his ebbing and flowing, on the South side, had subuerted
the said wall, and towers there. Wherefore king William,
for defence of this Citie, in place most daungerous, and open
to the enemie, hauing taken downe the second Bulwarke in
the east part of the wall, from the Thames builded this Tower,
which was the great square Tower, now called the white
tower, and hath beene since at diuerse times enlarged with
other buildings adioyning, as shalbe shewed. This tower was
by tempest of winde, sore shaken in the yeare 1090. the fourth
of William Rufus, and was againe by the sayd Rufus, and
Henrie the first repayred. They also caused a Castell to be
builded vnder the said tower, namely, on the South side
towards the Thames, and also incastelated the same round
Henrie Huntington libro sexto, hath these words. William
Rufus challenged the inuesture of Prelates, he pilled and shaued
the people with tribute, especially to spend about the Tower of
London, and the great hall at Westminster.
First Constables of the Tower.; Eastsmithfield a vineyearde.; Ex charta.; Geffrey Magnauille Earle of Essex Constable of the Tower and Shiriffe of London. Richard de Lucia Custos of the Tower.
Othowerus, Acolinillus, Otto, and Geffrey Magnauille Earle
of Essex, were foure the first Constables of this tower of
London, by succession: all which helde by force a portion of
lande (that pertained to the Priory of the holy Trinitie within
Aldgate) that is to say, Eastsmithfield, neare vnto the tower,
making thereof a Vineyard, and would not depart from it, till
the seconde yeare of king Stephen, when the same was adiudged
and restored to the church. This said Geffrey Magnauille
was earle of Essex, Constable of the tower, Shiriffe of London,
Middlesex, Essex, and Hertfordshires, as appeareth by a
Charter of Mawde the Empresse, dated 1141. He also fortified the tower of London agaynst king Stephen, but the king
tooke him in his Court at Saint Albones, and would not deliuer
him till hee had rendered the tower of London, with the Castles
of Walden, and Plashey in Essex. In the yeare 1153, the
tower of London, and the Castell of Windsore, were by the
king deliuered to Richard de Lucie, to be safely kept. In the
yeare 1155, Thomas Becket being Chancelor to Henrie the
second, caused the Flemings to bee banished out of England,
their Castels lately builded to be pulled downe, and the tower
of London to be repayred.
Roger of Wendover. John Beuer.; The Tower of London compassed about with a wall & a ditch.; S. Katherines mill stoode where now is the Iron gate of the Tower.
About the yeare 1190, the second of Richard the first,
William Longshampe Bishop of Elie, Chancellor of England,
for cause of dissention betwixt him and Earle Iohn the kings
brother that was rebell, inclosed the tower and Castell of
London, with an outward wall of stone imbattailed, and also
caused a deepe ditch to be cast about the same, thinking (as
I haue said before) to haue enuironed it with the Riuer of
Thames. By the making of this inclosure, and ditch in East
smithfield: the Church of the holie Trinitie in London, lost
halfe a marke rent by the yeare, and the Mill was remoued
that belonged to the poore brethren of the Hospitall of Saint
Katherine, and to the Church of the holy Trinitie aforesaid,
which was no small losse and discommoditie to either part,
and the garden which the king had hyred of the brethren for
six Marks the yeare, for the most part was wasted and marred
by the ditch. Recompence was often promised, but neuer
performed, vntill king Edward comming after, gaue to the
brethren fiue Markes and a halfe for that part which the ditch
had deuoured: and the other part thereof without, hee yeelded
to them againe, which they hold: and of the saide rent of fiue
Markes and a halfe, they haue a deede, by vertue whereof,
they are well payed to this day.
Mathew Paris. Bulwarkes of the Tower builded.; west gate and bulwarkes of the Tower fel downe.; Wall and bulwarks againe fall down and new builded.; Ditch made about the bulwarke without the west gate of the Tower. H. 3 his orchard by the Tower.
It is also to be noted, and cannot bee denied, but that the
said inclosure and ditch, tooke the like or greater quantitie of
ground from the Citie within the wall, namely one of that part
called the tower hill, besides breaking downe of the Citie wal,
from the white tower to the first gate of the Citie, called the
Posterne, yet haue I not read of any quarell made by the
Citizens, or recompence demaunded by them for that matter,
because all was done for good of the Cities defence thereof,
and to their good likings. But Mathew Paris writeth, that in
the yeare 1239. King Henrie the third fortified the tower of
London to an other end, wherefore the Citizens fearing, least
that were done to their detriment, complayned, and the king
answered, that hee had not done it to their hurt, but saith he,
I will from henceforth doe as my brother doth, in building
and fortifying castels, who beareth the name to bee wiser than
I am. It followed in the next yeere, sayth mine Authour,
the sayd noble buildings of the stone gate and bulwarke, which
the king had caused to be made by the tower of London, on
the west side thereof, was shaken as it had beene with an
earthquake, and fell downe, which the king againe commaunded to bee builded in better sort than before, which was
done, and yet againe in the yere 1247. the said wall and bulwarks that were newly builded, wherin the king had bestowed
more then twelve thousand Marks, were vnrecouerably throwne
downe, as afore: for the which chance the Citizens of London
were nothing sorie, for they were threatned that the said wall
and bulwarkes were builded, to the end that if any of them
would contend for the liberties of the Citie, they might be
imprisoned, & that many might be laid in diuerse prisons,
many lodgings were made that no one should speake with
another: thus much Mathew Paris for this building. More
of Henrie the third his dealings against the citizens of London,
we may read in the said Authour, in 1245. 1248. 1249. 1253.
1255. 1256. &c. But concerning the saide wall and bulwarke,
the same was finished though not in his time: for I read that
Edward the first, in the second of his raigne, commaunded
the Treasurer and Chamberlain of the Exchequer, to deliuer
out of his Treasurie, vnto Miles of Andwarp, 200. Markes, of
the fines taken of diuerse Marchants or Usurers of London,
for so be the words of the Record, towards the worke of the
ditch then new made, about the said Bulwarke, now called
the Lion tower. I find also recorded, that Henrie the third
in the 46. of his raigne, wrote to Edward of Westminster,
commaunding him that he should buy certaine perie plants,
and set the same in the place without the tower of London,
within the wall of the said Citie, which of late he had caused
to be inclosed with a mud wall, as may appeare by this that
followeth: the Maior and Communaltie of London were fined
for throwing downe the said earthen wall against the tower of
London, the 9. of Edward the second. Edward the fourth in
place thereof builded a wall of Bricke. But now for the Lion
Tower, and Lions in Englande the originall, as I haue read,
First parke in England.; Lions in Wodstocke parke. Lions sent to Henrie the 3. and kept in the Tower.
Henrie the first builded his Mannor of Wodstocke, with a Parke, which he walled about with stone, seuen miles in
compas, destroying for the same diuerse villages, churches &
chappels, and this was the first Parke in England: hee placed
therein, besides great store of Deere, diuers straunge beastes
to be kept and nourished, such as were brought to him from
farre countries, as Lions, Leopards, Linces, Porpentines, and
such other. More I reade that in the yeare 1235. Fredericke
the Emperour sent to Henrie the third three Leopards, in
token of his regal shield of armes, wherein three Leopards were
pictured, since the which time, those Lions and others haue
beene kept in a part of this bulwarke, now called the Lion
tower, and their keepers there lodged. King Edward the
second in the twelft of his raigne, commaunded the shiriffes of
London to pay to the keepers of the kings Leopard in the
tower of London vi. d. the day, for the sustenance of the
Leopard, and three halfe pence a day for diet of the said
keeper, out of the fee farme of the sayd Citie.
More, the 16. of Edward the third, one Lion, one Lionesse,
one Leopard, and two Cattes Lions, in the said tower, were
committed to the custodie of Robert, the sonne of Iohn
Edward the 4. builded Bulwarks without the Tower.
Edward the fourth fortified the tower of London, and
inclosed with bricke, as is aforesaid, a certaine peece of ground,
taken out of the Tower hill, west from the Lion tower, now
called the bulwarke. His officers also in the 5. of his raigne,
set vpon the sayd hill both scaffold, and gallowes, for the
execution of offenders, whereupon the Maior, and his brethren
complained to the king, and were answered, that the same was
not done in derogation of the Cities liberties, & therefore caused
proclamation to be made, &c. as shall be shewed in Towerstreete.
Richard the 3. repayred the tower.
Richard the third repayred and builded in this Tower
White tower repayred by Henrie the 8.; A bulwarke of the Tower blowne vp.
Henrie the 8. in 1532. repayred the white tower, and other
parts thereof. In the yeare 1548. the second of Edward the 6.
on the 22. of Nouember in the night, a French man lodged in
the round bulwarke, betwixt the west gate and the Posterne,
or drawbridge, called the warders gate, by setting fire on
a barrel of Gunpowder, blew up the said Bulwarke, burnt
himselfe, and no mo persons. This Bulwarke was forthwith
againe new builded.
Gates and Posternes of the tower.
And here because I haue by occasion spoken of the west
gate of this tower, the same, as the most principal, is vsed for
the receipt, and deliuerie of all kindes of carriages, without
the which gate be diuerse bulwarks and gates, turning towards
the north, &c. Then neare within this west gate opening
to the South, is a strong posterne, for passengers, by the
ward house, ouer a draw bridge, let downe for that purpose.
Next on the same South side towarde the East, is a large
watergate, for receipt of Boats, and small vessels, partly
vnder a stone bridge, from the riuer of Thames. Beyond it
is a small Posterne, with a draw bridge, seldome letten downe,
but for the receipt of some great persons, prisoners. Then
towards the East is a great and strong gate, commonly
called the Iron gate, but not vsually opened. And thus
much for the foundation, building, and repayring of this
tower, with the Gates and Posternes may suffice. And now
somewhat of accidents in the same, shall be shewed.
Actions of the tower.; Iustices sate in the tower.
In the yeare 1196. William Fitzosbert, a Citisen of London
seditiously mouing the common people to seeke libertie, and
not to be subiect to the rich, and more mightie, at length
was taken and brought before the Archbishop of Canterburie,
in the tower, where he was by the Judges condemned, and
by the heeles drawn thence to the Elmes in Smithfield, and
Patent the 15. of king Iohn.; Mat. paris.
1214. King Iohn wrote to Geffrey Magnauille to deliuer
the tower of London, with the prisoners, armour and all
other things found therein, belonging to the king, to William
Archdeacon of Huntingdon. The yeare 1216. the first of
Henrie the third, the sayd Tower was deliuered to Lewes of
France, and the Barons of England.
plees of the crown pleaded in the tower.
In the yeare 1206. Plees of the Crowne were pleaded in the
Tower: Likewise in the yeare 1220. and likewise in the yeare
1224. and again in the yere 1243. before William of Yorke,
Richard Passelew, Henry Bathe, Ierome of Saxton Iusticers.
Mat. paris.; Constantine Fitz Aelulfe hanged.
In the yeare 1222. the Citizens of London hauing made
a tumult against the Abbot of Westminster, Hubert of Burge,
chiefe Iustice of England, came to the Tower of London,
called before him the Maior and Aldermen, of whom he
inquired for the principall authors of that sedition: amongest
whome one named Constantine Fitz Aelulfe auowed, that he
was the man, and had done much lesse then he ought to
haue done: Whereupon the Iustice sent him with two other
to Falks de Breauté, (fn. 1) who with armed men, brought them to the
gallowes, where they were hanged.
Griffith of Wales fell from the Tower.
In the yeare 1244. Griffith the eldest sonne of Leoline,
prince of Wales, being kept prisoner in the Tower, deuised
meanes of escape, and hauing in the night made of the hangings, sheetes, &c. a long line, he put himselfe downe from the
toppe of the Tower, but in the sliding, the weight of his body,
being a very bigge and a fatte man, brake the rope, and he
fell and brake his necke withall.
Sheriffes of London prisoners in the Tower.
In the yeare 1253. King Henry the third imprisoned the
Sheriffes of London in the Tower more than a Moneth, for
the escape of a Prisoner, out of Newgate, as ye may reade in
the Chapter of Gates.
K. Henry lodged in the Tower, and helde his parliament there.
In the yeare 1260. King Henry with his Queene, (for feare
of the Barons) were lodged in the Tower. The next yeare
he sent for his Lords, and held his Parliament there.
Citizens of London despised the Queen, wife to H. the 3.
In the yeare 1263. when the Queene would haue remooued
from the Tower by water, towardes Windsore, sundrie Londiners got them together to the Bridge, vnder the which
she was to passe, and not onely cryed out vpon her with
reprochfull words, but also threw myre and stones at her, by
which she was constrained to returne for the time, but in the
yeare, 1265. the saide Cittizens were faine to submit themselues to the king for it, and the Mayor, Aldermen, and Sheriffes
were sent to diuers prisons, and a Custos also was set ouer
the Cittie, to witte Othon Constable of the Tower, &c.
Leoline prince of Wales his head set on the Tower.
In the yeare 1282. Leoline Prince of Wales being taken at
Blewth (fn. 2) Castle, Roger Lestrange cut off his head, which Sir
Roger Mortimer caused to bee crowned with Iuie, and set it
vppon the Tower of London.
Justices of the Bench sent to the Tower.
In the yeare 1290. diuers Iustices aswell of the Bench, as of
the assises, were sent prisoners to the Tower, which with
greate sommes of money redeemed their Libertie. E. 2. the 14.
of his raigne, appointed for Prisoners in the Tower, a Knight
ij.d. the day, an Esquier, i.d. the day, to serue for their dyet.
Justices sate in the Tower.
In the yeare 1320. the Kinges Justices sate in the Tower,
for tryall of matters, whereupon Iohn Gisors late Mayor of
London and many other fled the Citty for feare to bee charged
of thinges they had presumptuously done.
Mortimer made an escape out of the Tower.
In the yeare 1321. the Mortimers yeelding themselues to
the King, he sent them Prisoners to the Tower, where they
remayned long, and were adiudged to be drawne and hanged.
But at length Roger Mortimer of Wigmore, by giuing to his
Keepers a sleepie drinke, escaped out of the Tower, and his
unckle Roger being still kept there, dyed about fiue yeares after.
Citizens of London wrested the keyes of the Tower from the Constable.
In the yeare 1326. the Citizens of London wanne the
Tower, wresting the keyes out of the Constables handes,
deliuered all the Prisoners, and kept both Cittie and Tower, to
the vse of Isabel the Queene, and Edward her sonne.
Mortimer drawne from the Tower to the Elmes, and hanged.
In the yeare 1330. Roger Mortimer Earle of March was
taken and brought to the Tower, from whence hee was drawne
to the Elmes, and there hanged.
A mint in the Tower, Florences of gold coined there.; The kings Exchange in Bucles Bery.; Round platers called Blanks, deliuered by weight. Argent & pecunia, after called Esterling.; W. Conqueror weare no beard.; W. Malmsbery.
In the yeare 1344. King Edward the 3. in the 18. yeare of
his raigne, commaunded Florences of gold to be made and
coyned in the Tower, that is to say, a penie peece of the
value of sixe shillings and eight pence, the halfe peny peece
of the value of three shillinges and foure pence, and a farthing
peece worth 20. pence, Perceuall de Port of Luke being then
Maister of the coyne. And this is the first coyning of Gold
in the Tower, whereof I haue read, and also the first coynage
of Gold in England: I finde also recorded that the saide King
in the same yeare, ordayned his Exchange of mony to be kept
in Sernes Tower, a part of the Kinges house in Buckles bury.
And here to digresse a little (by occasion offered,) I finde
that in times before passed, all great sommes were paid by
weight of golde or siluer, as so many pounds, or markes of
siluer, or so many poundes or markes of gold, cut into
Blankes, and not stamped, as I could proue by many
good authorities which I ouerpasse. The smaller sommes
also were paid in starlings, which were pence so called, for
other coynes they had none. The antiquity of this starling
peny vsuall in this realme, is from the raigne of Henry the
second: notwithstanding the Saxon coynes before the conquest were pence of fine siluer the full weight, and somewhat
better then the latter sterlinges, as I haue tryed by conference
of the pence of Burghrede king of Mercia, Aelfred, Edward,
and Edelred, kings of the West Saxons, Plegmond Archbishoppe of Canterbury, and others. William the Conquerors penie also was fine siluer of the weight of the Easterling, and had on the one side stamped an armed heade, with
a beardles face: for the Normans ware no beardes, with a
scepter in his hand: the inscription in the circumference was
this, Le Rci Wilam on the other side a Crosse double to the
ring, betweene fower rowals of sixe poyntes.
King Henry the first his penny was of the like weight,
finenes, forme of face, crosse. &c.
This Henry in the eight yeare of his raigne, ordayned the
peny which was round, so to bee quartered, by the crosse,
that they might easily bee broken, into halfe pence and
farthinges. In the first, second, thirde, fourth, and fift of
king Richard the first, his raigne, and afterwards I find commonly Easterling money mentioned, and yet oft times the
same is called argent, as afore, & not otherwise.
Weight of starling pence 32. granes of wheat.
The first great summe that I read of to be paid in Esterlinges, was in the fift of Richard the first, when Robert Earle
of Leycester being prisoner in France, proffered for his ransome a thousand marks Easterlings, notwithstanding the
Easterling pence were long before. The weight of the Easter
ling penie may appeare by diuers statutes, namely of weights
and measures, made in the 51. of Henry the third in these
words, Thirty two graines of Wheat, drie and round, taken in
the middest of the eare shoulde be the weight of a starling
penie, 20. of those pence shoulde waye one ounce, 12. ounces
a pound Troy. It followeth in the statute eight pound to
make a gallon of Wine, and eight gallons a bushel of London
measure, &c. Notwithstanding which statute, I finde in the
eight of Edward the first, Gregorie Rokesley Mayor of
London, being chiefe Maister or minister of the Kinges
Exchaunge, or mintes, a new coyne being then appointed,
the pound of Easterling money should contain as afore 12.
ownces, to witte fine siluer, such as was then made into foyle,
and was commonlie called siluer of Guthurons lane, II.
ounces, two Easterlings, and one ferling or farthing, and the
other 17. pence ob. q. to bee laye (fn. 3) . Also the pound of money
ought to weigh xx.s. iij.d. by accounte, so that no pound
ought to be ouer xx.s. iiij.d. nor lesse then xx.s. ij.d. by
account, the ounce to weigh twenty pence, the penny weighte,
24. graynes, (which 24. by weight then appointed, were as
much as the former 32 graines of Wheate) a penny force, 25.
graines and a halfe, the pennie deble or feeble,22. graines, and
a halfe, &c.
The pennie Easterling how it tooke the name.; H. 2 made a new coyne in the 3. of his raigne.
Now for the penny Easterling, how it took that name,
I think good briefly to touch. It hath beene saide that
Numa Pompilius the second king of the Romaines, commaunded money first to bee made, of whose name they were
called Numi, and when Copper pence, siluer pence, and gold
pence were made, because euery siluer peny was worth ten
Copper pence, and euery golde pennie worth ten siluer pence,
the pence therefore were called in Latine Denarii, and oftentimes the pence are named of the matter and stuffe of Gold
or siluer. But the money of England was called of the
workers and makers thereof: as the Floren of Gold is called of
the Florentines, that were the workers thereof, and so the Easterling pence took their name of the Easterlinges which did first
make this money in England, in the raign of Henry the second.
Starling mony, when it tooke beginning in this land.
Thus haue I set downe according to my reading in Anti
quitie of money matters, omitting the imaginations of late
writers, of whome some haue said Easterling money to take
that name of a Starre, stamped in the border or ring of
the penie: other some of a Bird called a Stare or starling
stamped in the circumference: and other (more vnlikely) of
being coyned at Striuelin or Starling, a towne in Scotland, &c.
Of halfpence and farthinges.; The Kinges Exchange at London.
Now concerning half pence and farthings, the accounte of
which is more subtiller then the pence, I neede not speake
of them more then that they were onely made in the Exchaunge at London, and no where else: first poynted to bee
made by Edward the I. in the 8. of his raigne, & also at
the same time, the saide Kinges coynes some few groates of
silver, but they were not vsuall. The kinges Exchaunge at
London, was neare vnto the Cathedrall Church of Sainte
Paule, and is to this daye commonlie called the olde Chaunge,
but in Euidences the olde Exchaunge.
Mints in England. patent 9. Iohn.; Diminishing of coyne.
The Kinges Exchaunger in this place, was to deliuer out
to euery other Exchaunger throughout England, or other the
kings Dominions, their Coyning irons, that is to say, one
Standerde or Staple, and two Trussels, or Punchons: and
when the same were spent and worne, to receyue them with
an account, what summe had been coyned, and also their
Pix, or Boxe of assay and to deliuer other Irons new grauen,
&c. I find that in the ninth of king Iohn, there was besides
the Mint at London, other Mints at Winchester, Excester,
Chichester, Canterburie, Rochester, Ipswich, Norwich, Linne,
Lincolne, Yorke, Carleil, Northhampton, Oxford, S. Edmondsbury, and Durham. The Exchanger, Examiner, and Trier,
buyeth the siluer for Coynage: answering for euery hundred
pound of siluer, bought in Bolion, or otherwise, 98.l. 15.s. for
he taketh 25s. for coynage.
Starling mony forbidden to be transported.
King Edward the first, in the 27. of his raigne, held a
Parliament at Stebenheth, in the house of Henry Waleis
Maior of London, wherein amongst other things there handled,
the transporting of starling money was forbidden.
Th. Walsing. First groates and halfe coyned.; Coines of gold enhaunced.
In the yeare 1351. William Edington Bishop of Winchester,
and Treasurer of England, a wise man, but louing the kings
commoditie, more then the wealth of the whole Realme, and
common people (sayth mine Authour), caused a new coyne
called a groate, and a halfe groate to bee coyned and stamped,
the groate to be taken for iiii.d. and the halfe groate for
ii.d. not conteyning in weight according to the pence called
Easterlings, but much lesse, to wit, by v.s. in the pound:
by reason whereof, victuals, and marchandizes became the
dearer through the whole realme. About the same time
also, the old coine of gold was chaunged into a new, but the
old Floren or noble, then so called, was worth much aboue
the taxed rate of the new, and therefore the Marchants ingrossed vp the olde, and conueyed them out of the Realme,
to the great losse of the kingdome. Wherefore a remedie
was prouided by chaunging of the stampe.
In the yeare 1411. king Henrie the fourth caused a new
coyne of Nobles to be made, of lesse value then the old by
iiii.d. in the Noble, so that fiftie Nobles should be a pound
More plentie of coyne in gold then in siluer.
In the yeare 1421. was granted to Henrie the fift, a fifteen
to be payd at Candlemasse, and at Martinmasse, of such
money as was then currant gold, or siluer, not ouermuch
clipped or washed, to wit, that if the noble were worth fiue
shillings eight pence, then the king should take it for a ful
Noble of sixe shillings eight pence, and if it were lesse of
value then fiue shillings eight pence, then the person paying
that golde, to make it good to the value of fiue shillings eight
pence, the king alway receyuing it for an whole noble of sixe
shillings eight pence. And if the Noble so payed be better
then fiue shillings eight pence, the king to pay againe the
surplusage that it was better then fiue shillings eight pence.
Also this yere was such scarcitie of white money, yt though
a Noble were so good of Gold and weight as sixe shillings
eight pence, men might get no white money for them.
Coynes of gold allayed, and also raised in value.; Rose nobles.
In the yeare 1465. king Edward the fourth caused a newe
coyne both of gold and siluer to be made, whereby he gained
much, for he made of an olde Noble, a Royall: which he
commaunded to go for x.s. Neuerthelesse to the same royall
was put viii.d. of alay, and so weyed the more, being smitten
with a new stampe, to wit, a Rose. He likewise made halfe
Angels of v.s. and farthings of v.s. vi.d. Angelets of vi.s. viii.d.
and halfe Angels, iii.s. iiii.d. Hee made siluer money of three
pence, a groate, and so of other coynes after that rate, to the
great harme of the Commons. W. Lord Hastings the kinges
Chamberlaine, being maister of the kinges Mints, saith the
Record, vndertooke to make the monyes vnder forme following, to wit, of golde a peece of viii.s. iiii.d. starling, which
should be called a noble of golde, of the which there shoulde
be fiftie such pieces in the pound weight of the tower: an
other peece of golde, iiij.s. ii.d. of sterlings, and to be of them
an hundred such peeces in the pound: and a third peece of
gold, ii.s. i.d. starling, two hundreth such peeces in the pound,
euery pound weight of the Tower to be worth xx. pound,
xvi.s. viii.d. of starlings, the which should be 23. Carits,
3. graines, and halfe fine, &c. and for siluer, 37.s. 6.d. of starlings, the peece of foure pence, to be Cxii. groates, and two
pence in the pound weight.
Halfe faced grotes.
In the yeare 1504. king Henrie the seuenth appoynted
a new coyne, to wit, a groat, and halfe groat, which bare but
halfe faces; the same time also was coyned a groat, which was
in value xii.d. but of those but a few, after the rate of fortie
pence the ounce.
Gold and siluer inhanced.
In the yeare 1526. the xviii. of Henrie the 8. the Angell
noble being then the sixt part of an ounce Troy, so that six
Angels was iust an ounce, which was fortie shillinges starling,
and the Angell was also worth two ounces of siluer, so that
sixe Angels were worth xii. ounces of siluer which was fortie
shillings. A Proclamation was made on the sixt of September,
that the Angell shoulde goe for vii.s. iiii. d. the Royall for
a xi.x. and the Crowne for iiii.s. iiii.d. And on the fift of
Nouember following, againe by Proclamation, the Angell was
enhaunced to vii.s. vi.d. and so euerie ounce of golde to be
xlv.s. and the ounce of siluer at iii.s. ix.d. in value.
Base monies, coyned and currant in England.; Crownes and half crownes of siluer coinued. Starling monies hoored vp. xxi. s. currant ginen for an Angell of golde. Philip Commines.; Leather mony in France.
In the yeare 1544. the 35. of Henrie the 8. on the xvi. of
May, proclamation was made for the inhauncing of gold to
xlviii. shillings, and siluer to iiii. s. the ounce. Also the king
caused to bee coyned base monyes, to wit, peeces of xii.d.
vi.d. iiii.d. ii.d. and penny, in weight as the late starling, in shew
good siluer, but inwardly Copper. These peeces had whole,
or broad faces, and continued currant after that rate, till the
5. of Edward the sixt, when they were on the ninth of Julie
called downe, the shilling to nine pence, the grote to three
pence, &c. and on the xvii. of August, from nine pence to sixe
pence, &c. And on the xxx. of October was published new
coynes of siluer and gold to be made, a peece of siluer v.s.
starling, a peece ii.s. vi.d. of xii.d. of vi.d. a penny with
a double Rose, halfe penny a single Rose, and a farthing with
a Porteclose. Coynes of fine Golde, a whole Soueraigne of
xxx.s. an Angell of x.s. an Angelet of v.s. Of crowne gold,
a Soueraigne xx.s. halfe Soueraigne x.s. v.s. ii.s. vi.d. and
base monyes to passe as afore, which continued till the second
of Queene Elizabeth, then called to a lower rate, taken to the
mint, and refined, the siluer whereof being coyned with a new
stampe of her Maiestie, the drosse was carried to foule high
wayes, to highten them. This base monyes, for the time,
caused the olde starling monyes to be hourded vp, so that
I haue seene xxi. shillings currant giuen for one old Angell
to guild withall. Also rents of lands and tenements, with
prises of victuals, were raised farre beyond the former
rates, hardly since to bee brought downe. Thus much for
base monyes coyned and currant in England haue I knowne:
But for Leather monyes as many people haue fondly talked,
I find no such matter. I reade that king Iohn of France being
taken prisoner by Edward the black prince, at the battaile
of Poyters, paied a raunsome of three Millions of Florences,
whereby he brought the realme into such pouertie, that manie
yeares after they vsed Leather money, with a little stud or
naile of siluer in the middest thereof. Thus much for mint,
and coynage, by occasion of this tower (vnder correction of
other more skilfull) may suffice, and now to other accidents
French king prisoner in the Tower.
In the yeare 1360. the peace betweene England and France
being confirmed, King Edward came ouer into England, and
straight to the Tower, to see the French king then prisoner
there, whose ransome he assessed at three Millions of Florences,
and so deliuered him from prison, and brought him with honour
to the Sea.
Rebels of Kent enter the Tower.
In the yeare 1381. the Rebels of Kent drew out of the tower
(where the king was then lodged) Simon Sudberie, Archbishop
of Canterburie, Lord Chancellor: Robert Hales, Prior of
S. Iohns, and Treasurer of England: William Appleton Frier,
the kings confessor, and Iohn Legge a Sargeant of the kings,
and beheaded them on the Tower hill, &c.
Richard the 2, prisoner in the tower.
In the yeare 1387. king Richard held his feast of Christmas
in the Tower. And in the yeare 1399. the same king was
sent prisoner to the Tower.
Porter of the Tower beheaded.
In the yeare 1414. Sir Iohn Oldcastell brake out of the
tower. And the same yeare a Parliament being holden at
Leycester, a Porter of the Tower was drawne, hanged and
headed, whose head was sent vp, and set ouer the Tower
gate, for consenting to one Whitlooke, that brake out of the
In the yeare 1419. Frier Randulph was sent to the tower,
and was there slaine by the Parson of S. Peters in the tower.
Counterfeit phisitian, his head set on the tower of London.
In the yeare 1426. there came to London a lewde fellow,
feyning himselfe to be sent from the Emperor to the yong
king Henrie the sixt, calling himselfe Baron of Blakamoore,
and that hee should be the principall Phisition in this kingdome, but his subtiltie being knowne, he was apprehended,
condemned, drawne, hanged, headed and quartered, his head
set on the tower of London, and his quarters on foure gates
of the Citie.
Insting in the tower.
In the yeare 1458. in Whitson weeke, the Duke of Sommerset, with Anthonie Riuers, and other foure, kept Iustes
before the Queene in the Tower of London, against three
Esquiers of the Queenes, and others.
In the yeare 1465. king Henrie the sixt was brought prisoner
to the tower, where he remained long.
Henrie the 6 murdered in the tower.
In the yeare 1470. the tower was yeelded to sir Richard
Lee Maior of London, and his brethren the Aldermen, who
forthwith entered the same, deliuered king Henrie of his
imprisonment, and lodged him in the kings lodging there, but
the next yeare he was againe sent thither prisoner, and there
Duke of Clarence drowned in the tower. Edward the 5. murdred in the tower.
In the yeare 1478.George Duke of Clarence, was drowned
with Malmesey in the tower: and within fiue yeares after king
Edward the fift, with his brother, were said to be murthered
patent I. of Henrie the 7.
In the yeare 1485.Iohn Earle of Oxford was made Con
stable of the tower, and had custodie of the Lions graunted
Instes and turneying in the tower.
In the yeare 1501. in the Moneth of May, was royall Turney of Lordes and knights in the tower of London before the
In the yeare 1502. Queene Elizabeth, wife to Henrie the 7.
died of childbirth in the tower.
In the yeare 1512. the Chappell in the high white tower
was burned. In the yeare 1536. Queene Anne Bullein was
beheaded in the tower. 1541. LadieKatherine Haward, wife
to king Henrie the 8. was also beheaded there.
William Foxley slept in the tower 14 days & more without waking.
In the yeare 1546. the 27 of April, being Tuesday in Easter
weeke, William Foxley, Potmaker for the Mint in the tower of
London, fell asleepe, and so continued sleeping, and could not
be wakened, with pricking, cramping, or otherwise burning
whatsoeuer, till the first day of the tearme, which was full
xiiii. dayes, and xv. nights, or more, for that Easter tearme
beginneth not afore xvii. dayes after Easter. The cause of his
thus sleeping could not be knowne, though the same were
diligently searched after by the kings Phisitians, and other
learned men: yea the king himselfe examining the said
William Foxley, who was in all poynts found at his wakening
to be as if hee had slept but one night. And he lived more
then fortie yeares after in the sayde Tower, to wit, vntil the
yeare of Christ, 1587, and then deceased on Wednesday in
Vse of the Tower to defend the Citie.
Thus much for these accidents: and now to conclude thereof
in summarie. This tower is a Citadell, to defend or commaund
the Citie: a royall place for assemblies, and treaties. A Prison
of estate, for the most daungerous offenders: the onely place
of coynage for all England at this time: the armorie for warlike prouision: the Treasurie of the ornaments and Jewels of
the crowne, and generall conseruer of the most Recordes of the
kings Courts of iustice at Westminster.
Tower on London Bridge.
Tower at the north end of the draw bridge.
The next tower on the riuer of Thames, is on London bridge
at the north end of the draw bridge. This tower was newe
begun to be builded in the yeare 1426. Ihon Reynwell Maior
of London, layd one of the first corner stones, in the foundation of this worke, the other three were laid by the Shiriffes,
and Bridgemaisters, vpon euerie of these foure stones was
engrauen in fayre Romane letters, the name of Ihesus. And
these stones, I haue seene layde in the Bridge store house,
since they were taken vp, when that tower was of late newly
made of timber. This gate and tower was at the first strongly
builded vp of stone, and so continued vntill the yeare 1577. in
the Moneth of Aprill, when the same stone arched gate, and
tower being decayed, was begun to be taken downe, and then
were the heades of the traytours remoued thence, and set on
the tower ouer the gate at the bridge foote, towards Southwarke. This said tower being taken downe a newe foundation
was drawne: and sir Iohn Langley Lord Maior laid the first
stone, in the presence of the Shiriffes, and Bridgemaisters, on
the 28. of August, and in the Moneth of September, the yere
1579. the same tower was finished, a beautifull & chargeable
peece of worke, all aboue the bridge being of timber.
Tower on the South of London Bridge.
Tower at the south end of the bridge.; William Dunthorne. The southgate of London bridge burned.
AN other tower there is on London bridge, to wit, ouer the
gate at the South ende of the same bridge towards Southwarke. This gate with the tower thereupon, and two Arches
of the bridge fell downe, and no man perished by the fall
thereof, in the yeare 1436. Towards the new building whereof,
diuerse charitable Citizens gaue large summes of monies:
which gate being then againe new builded, was with xiij.
houses more on the bridge in the yere 1471. burned by the
Marriners and Saylers of Kent, Bastard Fauconbridgebeing
Baynards Castell. Fitzstephen. Geruase of Tilbury.
In the west part of this Citie (saith Fitzstephen) are two
most strong Castels, &c. Also Geruasius Tilbery, in the raigne
of Henrie the second, writing of these castels, hath to this
effect. Two Castels, saith hee, are built with walles and rampires, whereof one is in right of possession, Baynardes: the
other the Barons of Mountfitchet: the first of these Castels
banking on the Riuer Thames, was called Baynards Castell,
of Baynarde a noble man that came in with the Conquerour,
and then builded it, and deceased in the raigne of William
Rufus: after whose decease Geffrey Baynardsucceeded, and
then William Baynard, in the yeare IIII. who by forfeyture
for fellonie, lost his Baronrie of little Dunmow, and king
Henrie gaue it wholy to Robert the sonne of Richard the
sonne of Gilbard of Clare, and to his heyres, togither with the
honour of Baynards Castell. This Robert married Maude de
Sent Licio, Ladie of Bradham, and deceased 1134. was buried
at Saint Needes by Gilbert of Clare his father, Walter his
sonne succeeded him, he tooke to wife Matilde de Bocham,
and after her decease, Matilde the daughter and coheyre of
Richard de Lucy, on whom he begate Robertand other: he
deceased in the yeare 1198. and was buried at Dunmow, after
whom succeeded Robert Fitzwater, a valiant knight.
Lib. Dunmow.; Robert Fitzwater banished. Banards castle destroyed. Virginitie defended with the losse of worldly goods, and life of the bodie, for life of the soule.
About the yeare 1213. there arose a great discord betwixt
king Iohn and his Barons, because of Matilde, surnamed the
fayre, daughter to the said Robert Fitswater, whome the king
vnlawfully loued, but could not obtaine her, nor her father
would consent thereunto, wherevpon, and for other like causes,
ensued warre through the whole Realme. The Barons were
receyued into London, where they greatly endamaged the
king, but in the end the king did not onely, therefore, banish
the said Fitzwater amongest other, out of the Realme, but
also caused his Castell called Baynard, and other his houses
to be spoyled: which thing being done, a messenger being
sent vnto Matilde the fayre, about the kings sute, whereunto
shee would not consent, she was poysoned. Robert Fitzwater,
and other being then passed into France, and some into
King Iohns oath.; Robert Fitzwalter restored to the kings fauour. Baynards castell againe builded.
It hapned in the yere 1214. king Iohn being then in France
with a great armie, that a truce was taken betwixt the two
kings of England and France, for the tearme of fiue yeares.
And a riuer or arme of the sea being then betwixt eyther
Host, there was a knight in the English host, that cried to
them of the other side, willing some one of their knightes to
come and iust a course or twaine with him: wherevpon
without stay, Robert Fitzwater being on the French part,
made himselfe readie, ferried ouer, and got on horsebacke,
without any man to helpe him, and shewed himselfe readie
to the face of his chalenger, whome at the first course, he
stroake so hard with his greate Speare, that horse and man
fell to the ground: and when his Speare was broken, hee went
backe againe to the king of France, which when the King had
seene, by Gods tooth, quoth hee (after his vsuall oath) he
were a king indeed, that had such a knight: the friends of
Robert hearing these wordes, kneeled downe, and saide: O
king, he is your knight: it is Robert Fitzwater, and thereupon
the next day hee was sent for, and restored to the kinges
fauour: by which meanes peace was concluded, and he receiued his liuings, and had license to repaire his Castell of
Baynard and other Castels.
The keeping of Hertford castel belonged to Robert Fitzwalter.
The yeare 1216. the first of Henrie the third, the Castell of
Hartford being deliuered to Lewes the French <Prince>, and
the Barons of England, Robert Fitzwater requiring to haue
the same, because the keeping thereof did by ancient right
and title pertaine to him, was aunswered by Lewes, that
English men were not worthie to haue such holdes in keeping, because they did betray their owne Lord, &c. This
Robert deceased in the yeare 1234. and was buried at Dunmow, and Walter his son that succeeded him, 1258. his
Baronie of Baynard was in the ward of king Henry in the
nonage of Robert Fitzwater. This Robert tooke to his second
wife, Aelianor daughter and heire to the Earle of Ferrars, in
the yeare 1289, and in the yeare 1303. on the xij. of March,
before Iohn Blondon Maior of London, he acknowledged his
seruice to the same Citie, and sware vpon the Euangelists,
that he would be true to the liberties thereof, and maintaine the
same to his power, and the counsell of the same to keepe, &c.
The right<s> that belonged to Robert Fitzwalter
Chastalian of London, Lord of Wodeham,
Robert Fitzwalter Castilian and Banner bearer of London.; Banner of S. Paule.; Rights belonging to Robert Fitzwater.
The sayd Robert and his heyres, ought to be, and are chiefe
Banerers of London, in fee for the Chastilarie, which hee and
his auncestors had by Castell Baynard, in the said Citie. In
time of warre, the said Robert and his heyres ought to serue
the Citie in maner as followeth: that is, the said Robert
ought to come, he beeing the twentieth man of armes on
horsebacke, couered with cloath, or armour vnto the great
West doore of Saint Paule, with his Banner displayed before
him, of his armes: and when he is come to the said doore,
mounted and apparelled, as before is said, the Maior with his
Aldermen, and Shiriffes armed in their armes shall come out
of the saide Church of Saint Paule, vnto the saide doore, with
a Banner in his hande, all on foote, which Banner shall be
Guiles, the Image of Saint Paule golde: the face, hands,
feete, and sword of siluer: and assoone as the said Robert
shall see the Maior, Aldermen, and Shiriffs come on foot out
of the church, armed with such a Banner, he shall alight from
his horse, and salute the Maior, and say to him: Sir Maior,
I am come to do my seruice, which I owe to the Citie. And
the Maior and Aldermen shall answere. Wee giue to you as to
our Bannerer of fee in this Citie, this Banner of this Citie to
beare, and gouerne to the honour and profite of the Citie to our (fn. 4)
power. And the said Robert and his heyres shall receiue the
Banner in his hands, and shall goe on foote out of the gate
with the Banner in his handes, and the Maior, Aldermen,
and Shiriffes shall follow to the doore, and shall bring a horse
to the said Robert worth xx.l. which horse shall be sadled
with a saddle of the Armes of the said Robert, (fn. 5) and shall be
sadled with a Saddle of the Armes of the said Robert, (fn. 5) and
shall be couered with sindals of the said Armes. Also they
shall present to him twentie poundes starling money, and
deliuer to the Chamberlaine of the sayd Robert for his
expences that day: then the saide Robert shall mount
vppon the horse which the Maior presented to him, with the
Banner in his hand, and as soone as he is vp, he shall say to
the Maior, that he cause a Marshall to be chosen for the
hoste, one of the Citie, which Marshall being chosen, the sayd
Robert shall commaund the Maior and Burgesses of the Citie,
to warne the Commoners to assemble togither, and they shall
all go vnder the Banner of Saint Paul, and the said Robert
shall beare it himselfe vnto Aldgate, and there the said
Robert, and Maior shall deliuer the said Banner of Saint
Paule, from thence, to whome they shall assent or thinke good.
And if they must make any issue foorth of the Citie, then
the sayde Robert ought to choose two foorth of euery warde,
the most sage personages, to foresee to the safe keeping of the
Citie, after they be gone foorth. And this counsell shall bee
taken in the Priorie of the Trinitie neare vnto Aldgate.
And before euery towne or Castell which the hoast of
London besiege, if the siege continue a whole yeare, the saide
Robert shall haue for euerie siege of the Communaltie of
London an hundreth shillings for his trauaile, and no more.
These be the rights that the sayd Robert hath in the time of
warre. Rights belonging to Robert Fitzwalter, and to his
heyres in the Citie of London, in the time of peace, are these,
that is to say, the sayd Robert hath a soken or warde in the
Citie, that is, a wall of the Chanonrie of Saint Paule, as a
man goeth downe the streete before the Brewhouse of Saint
Paule, vnto the Thames, and so to the side of the Mill, which
is in the water that commeth downe from the Fleete bridge,
and goeth so by London walles, betwixt the Friers preachers
and Ludgate, and so returneth backe by the house of the
said Friers, vnto the said wall of the said Chanonrie of Saint
Paule, that is all the parish of Saint Andrew, which is in the
gift of his auncesters, by the said signioritie: and so the said
Robert hath appendant vnto the saide soken all these thinges
vnder written, that he ought to haue a soke man, and to
place what sokeman he will, so he be of the sokemanrie, or
the same warde, and if any of the sokemanrie bee impleaded
in the Guild hall, of any thing that toucheth not the bodie
of the Maior that for the time is, or that toucheth the bodie
of no shiriffe, it is not lawfull for the soke man of the sokemanrie of the sayde Robert Fitzwalter to demaund a Court of
the sayd Robert, and the Maior, and his Citizens of London
ought to graunt him to haue a Court, and in his Court he ought
to bring his iudgements as it is assented and agreed vpon in
this Guild hall, that shall bee giuen them. If any therefore
be taken in his sokemanry, he ought to haue his Stockes and
imprisonment in his soken, and he shall be brought from
thence to the Guild hall before the Maior, and there they
shall prouide him his iudgement that ought to bee giuen of
him: but his iudgement shall not bee published till hee
come into the Court of the saide Roberts, and in his libertie.
And the iudgement shall bee such, that if he haue deserued
death by treason, he to be tied to a post in the Thames at
a good wharfe where boates are fastened, two ebbings and
two flowings of the water. And if he be condemned for a
common theefe, he ought to be ledde to the Elmes, and there
suffer his iudgement as other theeues: and so the said Robert
and his heyres hath honour that he holdeth a great Franches
within the Citie, that the Maior of the Citie, and Citizens
are bound to doe him of right, that is to say, that when the
Maior will holde a great counsaile, hee ought to call the saide
Robert, and his heyres to bee with him in counsaile of the
Citie, and the saide Robert ought to be sworne to bee of
counsaile with the Citie against all people, sauing the king
and his heyres. And when the saide Robert commeth to the
Hoystings in the Guildhall of the Citie, the Maior or his
Lieutenant ought to rise against him, and set him downe
neare vnto him, and so long as he is in the Guildhall, all the
iudgement ought to be giuen by his mouth, according to the
Record of the recorders of the sayde Guildhall, and so many
waifes as come so long as he is there, hee ought to giue them
to the Bayliffes of the Towne, or to whom he will, by the
counsaile of the Maior of the Citie. These bee the Francheses
that belonged to Robert Fitzwater, in London, in time of
peace, which for the antiquitie thereof I haue noted out of an
Baynards Castell perished by fire.; Humfrey duke of Glocester new builded it. Richard D. of Yorke honor of Baynards castell.; Edward the 4. elected king in S. Johns field.; Edward the 4 tooke on him the crowne in Baynards castell.
This Robert deceased in the yeare 1305. leauing issue Walter
Fitzrobert, who had issue Robert Fitzwalter, vnto whom in
the yeare 1320. the Citizens of London acknowledged the
right which they ought to him and his heires for the Castell
Baynard: he deceased 1325. vnto whom succeeded Robert
Fitzrobert, Fitzwaltar, &c. More of the Lord Fitzwaltar
may ye reade in my Annales in 51. of Edward the third. But
how this honour of Baynards Castell with the appurtennances
fell from the possession of the Fitzwaters, I haue not read:
onely I find that in the yeare 1428, the seuenth of Henrie the
sixt, a great fire was at Baynards Castell, and that same
Humfrey Duke of Glocester, builded it of new: by his death
and attaindor, in the yere 1446. it came to the hands of
Henrie the sixt, and from him to Richard Duke of Yorke, of
whom we reade, that in the yeare 1457. he lodged there as in
his own house. In the yeare 1460. the 28. of Februarie, the
Earles of March, and of Warwike, with a great power of men,
(but few of name) entered the Citie of London, where they
were of the citizens joyously receyued, and vpon the third of
March, being Sunday, the said Earle caused to be mustred
his people in Saint Iohns field: where, vnto that hoast was
shewed and proclaymed certaine articles and poynts wherin
K.Henry, as they sayd, had offended, and thereupon it was
demaunded of the said people, whether the said H. was worthie
to reigne as king any longer or not: whereunto ye people
cried, nay. Then it was asked of them whether they would
haue the E. of March for their king: & they cried, yea, yea.
Wherupon certain captains were appoynted to beare report
thereof vnto the sayd E. of March, then being lodged at his
castell of Baynard. Whereof when the Earle was by them
aduertized, he thanked God, & them for their election, notwithstanding he shewed some countenance of insufficiencie in
him to occupie so great a charge, till by exhortation of the
Archbishop of Canterbury, the Bishop of Excester, & certaine
Noble men, he granted to their petition: and on the next
morrow at Paules he went on Procession, offred, & had Te
Deum sung. Then was he with great royaltie conueyed to
Westminister, and there in the great Hall, (fn. 6) sate in the kinges
set, (fn. 6) with Saint Edwards scepter in his hand.
Richard the third tooke on him the crowne in Baynards castle.
Edward the fourth being dead, leauing his eldest sonne Edward, and his second sonne Richard both infantes, Richard
D. of Glocester, being elected by the Nobles and Commons in
the Guildhall of London, tooke on him the tytle of the Realme
and kingdome, as imposed vpon him in this Baynardes Castle,
as yee may reade penned by Sir Thomas Moore, and set downe
in my Annales.
H. the 7. lodged in Baynards Castle.
Henry the seauenth about the yeare 1501. the 16. of his
raigne, repayred or rather new builded this house, not imbattoled, or so strongly fortified Castle like, but farre more
beautifull and commodious for the entertainement of any
Prince or greate Estate: In the seauenteenth of his raigne,
hee with his Queene, were lodged there, and came from thence
to Powles Church, where they made their offering, dined in
the Bishops pallace, and so returned. The 18. of his raigne hee
was lodged there, and the Ambassadors from the King of the
Romaines, were thether brought to his presence, and from
thence the King came to Powles, and was there sworn to the
King of Romans, as the said king had sworne to him.
King Henry the 7. and knights of the Garter rode in their habites from the Tower to powles church.
The 20. of the saide King, hee with his Knightes of the
Order, all in their habites of the Garter, rode from the Tower
of London through the Cittie, vnto the Cathedral Church of
Saint Pawles, and there heard Euensong, and from thence
they rode to Baynardes Castle, where the king lodged, and
on the nexte morrow, in the same habite they rode from
thence againe to the said Church of Saint Pawles, went on
Procession, hard the diuine seruice, offered and returned.
The same yeare the king of Castle was lodged there.
The Counsell assembled at Baynards castle and proclaimed Queene Marie.
In the yeare 1553. the 19. of July, the Counsell partlie
moued with the right of the Lady Maries cause, partly considering that the most of the Realme was wholy bent on her
side, changing their mind from Lady Iane lately proclaimed
Queene, assembled themselues at this Baynardes Castle, where
they communed with the Earle of Pembrooke and the Earle
of Shrewesbury and Sir Iohn Mason Clearke of the Counsell,
sent for the Lord Mayor, and then riding into Cheape to the
Crosse, where Gartar King at Armes, Trumpet being sounded,
proclaimed the Lady Mary Daughter to king Henry the eight,
and Queene Katheren Queene of England, &c.
This Castle now belongeth to the Earle of Pembrooke.
A tower by Baynards castle builded by E. the 2.
Next adioyning to this Castle was sometime a Tower, the
name thereof I have not read, but that the same was builded
by Edwarde the second, is manifest by this that followeth.
King Edward the third in the second yeare of his Raigne,
gaue vnto William de Ros, of Hamelake in Yorkeshire, a
Towre vppon the water of Thames, by the Castle Baynarde
in the Cittie of London, which Tower his Father had builded:
he gaue the saide Tower and appurtenances to the said William
Hamelake, and his heyres, for a Rose yearely to bee paid for all
seruice due, &c. This Tower as seemeth to mee, was since
called Legats Inne, the 7. of E. the fourth.
Tower of Mountfiquit.
Tower of Mountfiquit.; Barons of London.
The next Tower or Castle, banckiting also on the riuer of
Thames, was as is afore shewed called Mountfiquits Castle of
a Noble man, Baron of Mountfiquit, the first builder therof,
who came in with William the Conqueror, and was since named
Le Sir Mounfiquit: This Castle he builded in a place, not
far distant from Baynardes, towardes the West. The same
William Mounfiquit liued in the raigne of Henry the first, and
was witnes to a Charter, then granted to the Cittie for the
Sheriffes of London. Richard Mountfiquit liued in King
Iohns time, and in the yeare, 1213. was by the same King
banished the realm into France, when peraduenture King Iohn
caused his Castle of Montfiquit, amongst other Castles of the
Barons to bee ouerthrown: the which after his returne, might
bee by him againe reedified, for the totall destruction thereof
was aboute the yeare, 1276. when Robert Kiliwarble (fn. 7) Archbishoppe of Canterbury beganne the foundation of the Fryers
Preachers Church there, commonly called the Black Fryers, as
appeareth by a Charter the fourth of Edward the I. wherein
is declared that Gregorie de Rocksley Mayor of London, and
the Barons of the same Citie granted, and gaue vnto the saide
Archbishoppe Roberte, two lanes or wayes next the streete
of Baynardes Castle, and the Tower of Montfiquit, to be
applyed for the enlargement of the said Church and place.
Tower in the Thames.
One other Tower there was also situate on the riuer of
Thames neare vnto the said Blacke Fryers Church, on the
west parte thereof builded at the Citizens charges, but by
licence and commaundement of Edward the I. and of Edward
the 2. as appeareth by their grantes: which Tower was then
finished, and so stood for the space of 300. yeares, and was at
the last taken down by the commaundement of Iohn Sha
Mayor of London, in the yeare 1502.
Tower or Castle on the west of London by Sainte Brides church.; vita Arkenwald.
An other Tower or Castle, also was there in the West parte
of the Cittie, pertayning to the King: For I reade that in the
yere 1087. the 20 of William the first, the Cittie of London
with the church of S. Paule being burned, Mauritius then
Bishop of London afterwarde began the foundation of a new
Church, whereunto king William, sayeth mine Author, gaue
the choyce stones of this Castle standing neare to the banke
of the riuer of Thames, at the west end of the Citie. After
this Mauritius, Richard his successor, purchased the streetes
about Paules Church, compassing the same with a wall of
stone and gates. King Henry the first gaue to this Richard
so much of the Moate or wall of the Castle, on the Thames
side to the South, as should be needful to make the saide wall
of the Churchyearde, and so much more as should suffice to
make a way without the wall on the North side, &c.
The Kinges house by Saint Brides in Fleetstreet.; Lib, Burton, sup. Trent.; Mathew Paris, manu scripta. Parliament at S. Brides.; Bridewel builded by Henry the eight.
This Tower or Castle thus destroyed stood, as it may seeme,
in place where now standeth the house called Bridewell. For
notwithstanding the destruction of the said Castle or Tower,
the house remayned large, so that the Kings of this Realm
long after were lodged there, and kept their Courtes: for
vntill the 9. yeare of Henry the third, the Courts of law and
iustice were kept in the kinges house, wheresoeuer hee was
lodged, and not else where. And that the kinges haue beene
lodged and kept their Law courts in this place, I could shew
you many authors of Recorde, but for plaine proofe this one
may suffice. Hæc est finalis concordia, facta in Curia Domini
regis apud Sanct. Bridgid. London, a die Sancti Michaelis in
15. dies, Anno regni regis Iohannis 7. coram G. Fil. Petri.
Eustacio de Fauconberg, Iohanne de Gestlinge, Osbart filio
Heruey, Walter de Crisping Iusticiar. & aliis Baronibus Domini
Regis. More (as Mathew Paris hath) about the yeare 1210.
King Iohn in the 12. of his raigne, summoned a Parliament at
S. Brides in London, where hee exacted of the Clergie and
religious persons the summe of 100000. poundes, &c besides
all this the white Monkes were compelled to cancell their
Priuiledges, and to pay 40000. poundes to the King &c. This
house of S. Brides of latter time being left, and not vsed by
the kinges: fell to ruine, insomuch that the verie platforme
thereof remayned for great part wast, and as it were, but a
layestall of filth and rubbish: onely a fayre Well remayned
there, a great part of this house, namely, on the west, as hath
been said, was giuen to the Bishop of Salisbury, the other
part towardes the East, remayning waste, vntil king Henry
the 8. builded a stately and beautifull house thereupon, giuing
it to name Bridewell, of the parish and well there: this house
he purposely builded for the entertainement of the Emperour
Charles the 5. who in the yeare 1522. came into this Citie, as
I haue shewed in my summarie, Annales, and large Chronicles.
Barbican or Burhkenning.
On the northwest side of this Citie, neare vnto Redcrosse
streete, there was a Tower commonlie called Barbican, or
Burhkenning, for that the same being placed on a high ground,
and also builded of some good height, was in olde time vsed
as a Watch Tower for the Cittie, from whence a man might
behold and view the whole Citie towards the South, as also
into Kent, Sussex and Surrey, and likewise euery other way,
east, north, or west.
Some other Burhkennings or Watch Towers there were of
olde time, in and about the Cittie, all which were repayred,
yea and others new builded, by Gilbart de Clare Earle of
Glocester, in the raigne of King Henry the third, when the
Barons were in Armes, and held the Citie against the King,
but the Barons being reconciled to his fauour in the yeare
1267. hee caused all their Burhkenninges, watchtowers, and
Bulwarkes made and repayred by the sayd Earle, to be plucked
downe, and the ditches to be filled vp, so that nought of them
might be seene to remaine: and then was this Burhkenning
amongest the rest ouerthrowne and destroyed: and although
the ditch neare thereunto, called Hounds ditch was stopped
vp, yet the streete of long time after was called Houndes
ditch, and of late time more commonly called Barbican.
The plot or seate of this Burhkenning or watch tower,
king Edward the third in the yeare 1336. and the 10. of
his raigne, gaue vnto Robert Vfford Earle of Suffolke, by
the name of his Mannor of Base court, in the parish of
S. Giles without Cripplegate of London, commonly called
Tower Royal.; John Frosard.; Lib. S. M. eborum.; The king of Ermony came into England.; Richard the 2. lodged in the Tower Royal.
Tower Royall was of old time the kings house, king Stephen
was there lodged, but sithence called the Queenes Wardrobe:
the Princesse, mother to king Richard the 2. in the 4. of his
raigne was lodged there, being forced to flie from the tower of
London, when the Rebels possessed it: But on the 15. of
June (saith Frosard) Wat Tylar being slaine, the king went
to this Ladie Princesse his mother, then lodged in the Tower
Royall, called the Queenes Wardrobe, where she had tarried
2. daies and 2. nights: which Tower (saith the Record of
Edward the 3. the 36. yeare) was in the Parish of S. Michael
de Pater noster, &c. In the yere 1386, king Richard with
Queene Anne his wife, kept their Christmasse at Eltham,
whither came to him Lion king of Ermony, vnder pretence to
reforme peace, betwixt the kinges of England and France, but
what his comming profited he only vnderstood: for besides
innumerable giftes that he receyued of the King, and of the
Nobles, the king lying then in this (Tower) Royall at the
Queenes Wardrobe in London, graunted to him a Charter of a
thousand poundes by yeare during his life. He was, as hee
affirmed, chased out of his kingdome by the Tartarians. More
concerning this Tower shall you read when you come to
Vintrie ward, in which it standeth.
Sernes Tower in Bucklesburie.
Sernes Tower in Bucklesberie, was sometimes the kinges
house. Edward the third in the eighteenth yeare of his
reigne, appoynted his Exchaunge of monyes therein to be
kept, and in the 32. hee gaue the same Tower to his free
Chappell of Saint Stephen at Westminster.