Of Towers and Castels

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Centre for Metropolitan History

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C. L. Kingsford (editor)

Year published

1908

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44-71

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'Of Towers and Castels', A Survey of London, by John Stow: Reprinted from the text of 1603 (1908), pp. 44-71. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=60021 Date accessed: 20 October 2014.


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Of Towers and Castels.

The Tower of London.; In my annales.; Tower of London builded by William Conqueror, namely the white Tower.

THE Citie of London (saith Fitzstephen) hath in the East a verie great and a most strong Palatine Tower, whose turrets and walles doe rise from a deepe foundation, the morter therof being tempered with the bloud of beasts. In the west part are two most strong Castels, &c. To begin therefore with the most famous Tower of London, situate in the East, neare vnto the riuer of Thames, it hath beene the common opinion: and some haue written (but of none assured ground) that Iulius Cæsar, the first conquerour of the Brytains, was the originall Authour and founder aswell thereof, as also of many other Towers, Castels, and great buildings within this Realme: but (as I haue alreadie before noted) Cæsar remained not here so long, nor had hee in his head any such matter, but onely to dispatch a conquest of this barbarous Countrey, and to proceede to greater matters. Neither do the Romane writers make mention of any such buildings erected by him here. And therefore leauing this, and proceeding to more grounded authoritie, I find in a fayre Register booke containing the acts of the Bishops of Rochester, set downe by Edmond de Hadenham, that William the first, surnamed Conquerour, builded the Tower of London, to wit, the great white and square Tower there, about the yeare of Christ 1078. appoynting Gundulph, then Bishop of Rochester, to bee principall surueyer and ouerseer of that worke, who was for that time lodged in the house of Edmere a Burgesse of London, the very wordes of which mine Authour are these: Gundulphus Episcopus mandato Willielmi Regis magni præfuit operi magnæ Turris London, quo tempore hospitatus est apud quendam Edmerum Burgensem London, qui dedit vnum were Ecclesiæ Rofen.

H. Huntington. W. Malmes. Mathew Paris. Iohn London. Castle by the Tower builded.

Ye haue before heard, that the wall of this Citie was all round about furnished with Towers and Bulwarke, in due distance euery one from other, and also that the Riuer Thames, with his ebbing and flowing, on the South side, had subuerted the said wall, and towers there. Wherefore king William, for defence of this Citie, in place most daungerous, and open to the enemie, hauing taken downe the second Bulwarke in the east part of the wall, from the Thames builded this Tower, which was the great square Tower, now called the white tower, and hath beene since at diuerse times enlarged with other buildings adioyning, as shalbe shewed. This tower was by tempest of winde, sore shaken in the yeare 1090. the fourth of William Rufus, and was againe by the sayd Rufus, and Henrie the first repayred. They also caused a Castell to be builded vnder the said tower, namely, on the South side towards the Thames, and also incastelated the same round about.

Henrie Huntington libro sexto, hath these words. William Rufus challenged the inuesture of Prelates, he pilled and shaued the people with tribute, especially to spend about the Tower of London, and the great hall at Westminster.

First Constables of the Tower.; Eastsmithfield a vineyearde.; Ex charta.; Geffrey Magnauille Earle of Essex Constable of the Tower and Shiriffe of London. Richard de Lucia Custos of the Tower.

Othowerus, Acolinillus, Otto, and Geffrey Magnauille Earle of Essex, were foure the first Constables of this tower of London, by succession: all which helde by force a portion of lande (that pertained to the Priory of the holy Trinitie within Aldgate) that is to say, Eastsmithfield, neare vnto the tower, making thereof a Vineyard, and would not depart from it, till the seconde yeare of king Stephen, when the same was adiudged and restored to the church. This said Geffrey Magnauille was earle of Essex, Constable of the tower, Shiriffe of London, Middlesex, Essex, and Hertfordshires, as appeareth by a Charter of Mawde the Empresse, dated 1141. He also fortified the tower of London agaynst king Stephen, but the king tooke him in his Court at Saint Albones, and would not deliuer him till hee had rendered the tower of London, with the Castles of Walden, and Plashey in Essex. In the yeare 1153, the tower of London, and the Castell of Windsore, were by the king deliuered to Richard de Lucie, to be safely kept. In the yeare 1155, Thomas Becket being Chancelor to Henrie the second, caused the Flemings to bee banished out of England, their Castels lately builded to be pulled downe, and the tower of London to be repayred.

Roger of Wendover. John Beuer.; The Tower of London compassed about with a wall & a ditch.; S. Katherines mill stoode where now is the Iron gate of the Tower.

About the yeare 1190, the second of Richard the first, William Longshampe Bishop of Elie, Chancellor of England, for cause of dissention betwixt him and Earle Iohn the kings brother that was rebell, inclosed the tower and Castell of London, with an outward wall of stone imbattailed, and also caused a deepe ditch to be cast about the same, thinking (as I haue said before) to haue enuironed it with the Riuer of Thames. By the making of this inclosure, and ditch in East smithfield: the Church of the holie Trinitie in London, lost halfe a marke rent by the yeare, and the Mill was remoued that belonged to the poore brethren of the Hospitall of Saint Katherine, and to the Church of the holy Trinitie aforesaid, which was no small losse and discommoditie to either part, and the garden which the king had hyred of the brethren for six Marks the yeare, for the most part was wasted and marred by the ditch. Recompence was often promised, but neuer performed, vntill king Edward comming after, gaue to the brethren fiue Markes and a halfe for that part which the ditch had deuoured: and the other part thereof without, hee yeelded to them againe, which they hold: and of the saide rent of fiue Markes and a halfe, they haue a deede, by vertue whereof, they are well payed to this day.

Mathew Paris. Bulwarkes of the Tower builded.; west gate and bulwarkes of the Tower fel downe.; Wall and bulwarks againe fall down and new builded.; Ditch made about the bulwarke without the west gate of the Tower. H. 3 his orchard by the Tower.

It is also to be noted, and cannot bee denied, but that the said inclosure and ditch, tooke the like or greater quantitie of ground from the Citie within the wall, namely one of that part called the tower hill, besides breaking downe of the Citie wal, from the white tower to the first gate of the Citie, called the Posterne, yet haue I not read of any quarell made by the Citizens, or recompence demaunded by them for that matter, because all was done for good of the Cities defence thereof, and to their good likings. But Mathew Paris writeth, that in the yeare 1239. King Henrie the third fortified the tower of London to an other end, wherefore the Citizens fearing, least that were done to their detriment, complayned, and the king answered, that hee had not done it to their hurt, but saith he, I will from henceforth doe as my brother doth, in building and fortifying castels, who beareth the name to bee wiser than I am. It followed in the next yeere, sayth mine Authour, the sayd noble buildings of the stone gate and bulwarke, which the king had caused to be made by the tower of London, on the west side thereof, was shaken as it had beene with an earthquake, and fell downe, which the king againe commaunded to bee builded in better sort than before, which was done, and yet againe in the yere 1247. the said wall and bulwarks that were newly builded, wherin the king had bestowed more then twelve thousand Marks, were vnrecouerably throwne downe, as afore: for the which chance the Citizens of London were nothing sorie, for they were threatned that the said wall and bulwarkes were builded, to the end that if any of them would contend for the liberties of the Citie, they might be imprisoned, & that many might be laid in diuerse prisons, many lodgings were made that no one should speake with another: thus much Mathew Paris for this building. More of Henrie the third his dealings against the citizens of London, we may read in the said Authour, in 1245. 1248. 1249. 1253. 1255. 1256. &c. But concerning the saide wall and bulwarke, the same was finished though not in his time: for I read that Edward the first, in the second of his raigne, commaunded the Treasurer and Chamberlain of the Exchequer, to deliuer out of his Treasurie, vnto Miles of Andwarp, 200. Markes, of the fines taken of diuerse Marchants or Usurers of London, for so be the words of the Record, towards the worke of the ditch then new made, about the said Bulwarke, now called the Lion tower. I find also recorded, that Henrie the third in the 46. of his raigne, wrote to Edward of Westminster, commaunding him that he should buy certaine perie plants, and set the same in the place without the tower of London, within the wall of the said Citie, which of late he had caused to be inclosed with a mud wall, as may appeare by this that followeth: the Maior and Communaltie of London were fined for throwing downe the said earthen wall against the tower of London, the 9. of Edward the second. Edward the fourth in place thereof builded a wall of Bricke. But now for the Lion Tower, and Lions in Englande the originall, as I haue read, was thus.

First parke in England.; Lions in Wodstocke parke. Lions sent to Henrie the 3. and kept in the Tower.

Henrie the first builded his Mannor of Wodstocke, with a Parke, which he walled about with stone, seuen miles in compas, destroying for the same diuerse villages, churches & chappels, and this was the first Parke in England: hee placed therein, besides great store of Deere, diuers straunge beastes to be kept and nourished, such as were brought to him from farre countries, as Lions, Leopards, Linces, Porpentines, and such other. More I reade that in the yeare 1235. Fredericke the Emperour sent to Henrie the third three Leopards, in token of his regal shield of armes, wherein three Leopards were pictured, since the which time, those Lions and others haue beene kept in a part of this bulwarke, now called the Lion tower, and their keepers there lodged. King Edward the second in the twelft of his raigne, commaunded the shiriffes of London to pay to the keepers of the kings Leopard in the tower of London vi. d. the day, for the sustenance of the Leopard, and three halfe pence a day for diet of the said keeper, out of the fee farme of the sayd Citie.

More, the 16. of Edward the third, one Lion, one Lionesse, one Leopard, and two Cattes Lions, in the said tower, were committed to the custodie of Robert, the sonne of Iohn Bowre.

Edward the 4. builded Bulwarks without the Tower.

Edward the fourth fortified the tower of London, and inclosed with bricke, as is aforesaid, a certaine peece of ground, taken out of the Tower hill, west from the Lion tower, now called the bulwarke. His officers also in the 5. of his raigne, set vpon the sayd hill both scaffold, and gallowes, for the execution of offenders, whereupon the Maior, and his brethren complained to the king, and were answered, that the same was not done in derogation of the Cities liberties, & therefore caused proclamation to be made, &c. as shall be shewed in Towerstreete.

Richard the 3. repayred the tower.

Richard the third repayred and builded in this Tower somewhat.

White tower repayred by Henrie the 8.; A bulwarke of the Tower blowne vp.

Henrie the 8. in 1532. repayred the white tower, and other parts thereof. In the yeare 1548. the second of Edward the 6. on the 22. of Nouember in the night, a French man lodged in the round bulwarke, betwixt the west gate and the Posterne, or drawbridge, called the warders gate, by setting fire on a barrel of Gunpowder, blew up the said Bulwarke, burnt himselfe, and no mo persons. This Bulwarke was forthwith againe new builded.

Gates and Posternes of the tower.

And here because I haue by occasion spoken of the west gate of this tower, the same, as the most principal, is vsed for the receipt, and deliuerie of all kindes of carriages, without the which gate be diuerse bulwarks and gates, turning towards the north, &c. Then neare within this west gate opening to the South, is a strong posterne, for passengers, by the ward house, ouer a draw bridge, let downe for that purpose. Next on the same South side towarde the East, is a large watergate, for receipt of Boats, and small vessels, partly vnder a stone bridge, from the riuer of Thames. Beyond it is a small Posterne, with a draw bridge, seldome letten downe, but for the receipt of some great persons, prisoners. Then towards the East is a great and strong gate, commonly called the Iron gate, but not vsually opened. And thus much for the foundation, building, and repayring of this tower, with the Gates and Posternes may suffice. And now somewhat of accidents in the same, shall be shewed.

Actions of the tower.; Iustices sate in the tower.

In the yeare 1196. William Fitzosbert, a Citisen of London seditiously mouing the common people to seeke libertie, and not to be subiect to the rich, and more mightie, at length was taken and brought before the Archbishop of Canterburie, in the tower, where he was by the Judges condemned, and by the heeles drawn thence to the Elmes in Smithfield, and there hanged.

Patent the 15. of king Iohn.; Mat. paris.

1214. King Iohn wrote to Geffrey Magnauille to deliuer the tower of London, with the prisoners, armour and all other things found therein, belonging to the king, to William Archdeacon of Huntingdon. The yeare 1216. the first of Henrie the third, the sayd Tower was deliuered to Lewes of France, and the Barons of England.

plees of the crown pleaded in the tower.

In the yeare 1206. Plees of the Crowne were pleaded in the Tower: Likewise in the yeare 1220. and likewise in the yeare 1224. and again in the yere 1243. before William of Yorke, Richard Passelew, Henry Bathe, Ierome of Saxton Iusticers.

Mat. paris.; Constantine Fitz Aelulfe hanged.

In the yeare 1222. the Citizens of London hauing made a tumult against the Abbot of Westminster, Hubert of Burge, chiefe Iustice of England, came to the Tower of London, called before him the Maior and Aldermen, of whom he inquired for the principall authors of that sedition: amongest whome one named Constantine Fitz Aelulfe auowed, that he was the man, and had done much lesse then he ought to haue done: Whereupon the Iustice sent him with two other to Falks de Breauté, (fn. 1) who with armed men, brought them to the gallowes, where they were hanged.

Griffith of Wales fell from the Tower.

In the yeare 1244. Griffith the eldest sonne of Leoline, prince of Wales, being kept prisoner in the Tower, deuised meanes of escape, and hauing in the night made of the hangings, sheetes, &c. a long line, he put himselfe downe from the toppe of the Tower, but in the sliding, the weight of his body, being a very bigge and a fatte man, brake the rope, and he fell and brake his necke withall.

Sheriffes of London prisoners in the Tower.

In the yeare 1253. King Henry the third imprisoned the Sheriffes of London in the Tower more than a Moneth, for the escape of a Prisoner, out of Newgate, as ye may reade in the Chapter of Gates.

K. Henry lodged in the Tower, and helde his parliament there.

In the yeare 1260. King Henry with his Queene, (for feare of the Barons) were lodged in the Tower. The next yeare he sent for his Lords, and held his Parliament there.

Citizens of London despised the Queen, wife to H. the 3.

In the yeare 1263. when the Queene would haue remooued from the Tower by water, towardes Windsore, sundrie Londiners got them together to the Bridge, vnder the which she was to passe, and not onely cryed out vpon her with reprochfull words, but also threw myre and stones at her, by which she was constrained to returne for the time, but in the yeare, 1265. the saide Cittizens were faine to submit themselues to the king for it, and the Mayor, Aldermen, and Sheriffes were sent to diuers prisons, and a Custos also was set ouer the Cittie, to witte Othon Constable of the Tower, &c.

Leoline prince of Wales his head set on the Tower.

In the yeare 1282. Leoline Prince of Wales being taken at Blewth (fn. 2) Castle, Roger Lestrange cut off his head, which Sir Roger Mortimer caused to bee crowned with Iuie, and set it vppon the Tower of London.

Justices of the Bench sent to the Tower.

In the yeare 1290. diuers Iustices aswell of the Bench, as of the assises, were sent prisoners to the Tower, which with greate sommes of money redeemed their Libertie. E. 2. the 14. of his raigne, appointed for Prisoners in the Tower, a Knight ij.d. the day, an Esquier, i.d. the day, to serue for their dyet.

Justices sate in the Tower.

In the yeare 1320. the Kinges Justices sate in the Tower, for tryall of matters, whereupon Iohn Gisors late Mayor of London and many other fled the Citty for feare to bee charged of thinges they had presumptuously done.

Mortimer made an escape out of the Tower.

In the yeare 1321. the Mortimers yeelding themselues to the King, he sent them Prisoners to the Tower, where they remayned long, and were adiudged to be drawne and hanged. But at length Roger Mortimer of Wigmore, by giuing to his Keepers a sleepie drinke, escaped out of the Tower, and his unckle Roger being still kept there, dyed about fiue yeares after.

Citizens of London wrested the keyes of the Tower from the Constable.

In the yeare 1326. the Citizens of London wanne the Tower, wresting the keyes out of the Constables handes, deliuered all the Prisoners, and kept both Cittie and Tower, to the vse of Isabel the Queene, and Edward her sonne.

Mortimer drawne from the Tower to the Elmes, and hanged.

In the yeare 1330. Roger Mortimer Earle of March was taken and brought to the Tower, from whence hee was drawne to the Elmes, and there hanged.

A mint in the Tower, Florences of gold coined there.; The kings Exchange in Bucles Bery.; Round platers called Blanks, deliuered by weight. Argent & pecunia, after called Esterling.; W. Conqueror weare no beard.; W. Malmsbery.

In the yeare 1344. King Edward the 3. in the 18. yeare of his raigne, commaunded Florences of gold to be made and coyned in the Tower, that is to say, a penie peece of the value of sixe shillings and eight pence, the halfe peny peece of the value of three shillinges and foure pence, and a farthing peece worth 20. pence, Perceuall de Port of Luke being then Maister of the coyne. And this is the first coyning of Gold in the Tower, whereof I haue read, and also the first coynage of Gold in England: I finde also recorded that the saide King in the same yeare, ordayned his Exchange of mony to be kept in Sernes Tower, a part of the Kinges house in Buckles bury. And here to digresse a little (by occasion offered,) I finde that in times before passed, all great sommes were paid by weight of golde or siluer, as so many pounds, or markes of siluer, or so many poundes or markes of gold, cut into Blankes, and not stamped, as I could proue by many good authorities which I ouerpasse. The smaller sommes also were paid in starlings, which were pence so called, for other coynes they had none. The antiquity of this starling peny vsuall in this realme, is from the raigne of Henry the second: notwithstanding the Saxon coynes before the conquest were pence of fine siluer the full weight, and somewhat better then the latter sterlinges, as I haue tryed by conference of the pence of Burghrede king of Mercia, Aelfred, Edward, and Edelred, kings of the West Saxons, Plegmond Archbishoppe of Canterbury, and others. William the Conquerors penie also was fine siluer of the weight of the Easterling, and had on the one side stamped an armed heade, with a beardles face: for the Normans ware no beardes, with a scepter in his hand: the inscription in the circumference was this, Le Rci Wilam on the other side a Crosse double to the ring, betweene fower rowals of sixe poyntes.

King Henry the first his penny was of the like weight, finenes, forme of face, crosse. &c.

Roger Houeden.

This Henry in the eight yeare of his raigne, ordayned the peny which was round, so to bee quartered, by the crosse, that they might easily bee broken, into halfe pence and farthinges. In the first, second, thirde, fourth, and fift of king Richard the first, his raigne, and afterwards I find commonly Easterling money mentioned, and yet oft times the same is called argent, as afore, & not otherwise.

Weight of starling pence 32. granes of wheat.

The first great summe that I read of to be paid in Esterlinges, was in the fift of Richard the first, when Robert Earle of Leycester being prisoner in France, proffered for his ransome a thousand marks Easterlings, notwithstanding the Easterling pence were long before. The weight of the Easter ling penie may appeare by diuers statutes, namely of weights and measures, made in the 51. of Henry the third in these words, Thirty two graines of Wheat, drie and round, taken in the middest of the eare shoulde be the weight of a starling penie, 20. of those pence shoulde waye one ounce, 12. ounces a pound Troy. It followeth in the statute eight pound to make a gallon of Wine, and eight gallons a bushel of London measure, &c. Notwithstanding which statute, I finde in the eight of Edward the first, Gregorie Rokesley Mayor of London, being chiefe Maister or minister of the Kinges Exchaunge, or mintes, a new coyne being then appointed, the pound of Easterling money should contain as afore 12. ownces, to witte fine siluer, such as was then made into foyle, and was commonlie called siluer of Guthurons lane, II. ounces, two Easterlings, and one ferling or farthing, and the other 17. pence ob. q. to bee laye (fn. 3) . Also the pound of money ought to weigh xx.s. iij.d. by accounte, so that no pound ought to be ouer xx.s. iiij.d. nor lesse then xx.s. ij.d. by account, the ounce to weigh twenty pence, the penny weighte, 24. graynes, (which 24. by weight then appointed, were as much as the former 32 graines of Wheate) a penny force, 25. graines and a halfe, the pennie deble or feeble,22. graines, and a halfe, &c.

The pennie Easterling how it tooke the name.; H. 2 made a new coyne in the 3. of his raigne.

Now for the penny Easterling, how it took that name, I think good briefly to touch. It hath beene saide that Numa Pompilius the second king of the Romaines, commaunded money first to bee made, of whose name they were called Numi, and when Copper pence, siluer pence, and gold pence were made, because euery siluer peny was worth ten Copper pence, and euery golde pennie worth ten siluer pence, the pence therefore were called in Latine Denarii, and oftentimes the pence are named of the matter and stuffe of Gold or siluer. But the money of England was called of the workers and makers thereof: as the Floren of Gold is called of the Florentines, that were the workers thereof, and so the Easterling pence took their name of the Easterlinges which did first make this money in England, in the raign of Henry the second.

Starling mony, when it tooke beginning in this land.

Thus haue I set downe according to my reading in Anti quitie of money matters, omitting the imaginations of late writers, of whome some haue said Easterling money to take that name of a Starre, stamped in the border or ring of the penie: other some of a Bird called a Stare or starling stamped in the circumference: and other (more vnlikely) of being coyned at Striuelin or Starling, a towne in Scotland, &c.

Of halfpence and farthinges.; The Kinges Exchange at London.

Now concerning half pence and farthings, the accounte of which is more subtiller then the pence, I neede not speake of them more then that they were onely made in the Exchaunge at London, and no where else: first poynted to bee made by Edward the I. in the 8. of his raigne, & also at the same time, the saide Kinges coynes some few groates of silver, but they were not vsuall. The kinges Exchaunge at London, was neare vnto the Cathedrall Church of Sainte Paule, and is to this daye commonlie called the olde Chaunge, but in Euidences the olde Exchaunge.

Mints in England. patent 9. Iohn.; Diminishing of coyne.

The Kinges Exchaunger in this place, was to deliuer out to euery other Exchaunger throughout England, or other the kings Dominions, their Coyning irons, that is to say, one Standerde or Staple, and two Trussels, or Punchons: and when the same were spent and worne, to receyue them with an account, what summe had been coyned, and also their Pix, or Boxe of assay and to deliuer other Irons new grauen, &c. I find that in the ninth of king Iohn, there was besides the Mint at London, other Mints at Winchester, Excester, Chichester, Canterburie, Rochester, Ipswich, Norwich, Linne, Lincolne, Yorke, Carleil, Northhampton, Oxford, S. Edmondsbury, and Durham. The Exchanger, Examiner, and Trier, buyeth the siluer for Coynage: answering for euery hundred pound of siluer, bought in Bolion, or otherwise, 98.l. 15.s. for he taketh 25s. for coynage.

Starling mony forbidden to be transported.

King Edward the first, in the 27. of his raigne, held a Parliament at Stebenheth, in the house of Henry Waleis Maior of London, wherein amongst other things there handled, the transporting of starling money was forbidden.

Th. Walsing. First groates and halfe coyned.; Coines of gold enhaunced.

In the yeare 1351. William Edington Bishop of Winchester, and Treasurer of England, a wise man, but louing the kings commoditie, more then the wealth of the whole Realme, and common people (sayth mine Authour), caused a new coyne called a groate, and a halfe groate to bee coyned and stamped, the groate to be taken for iiii.d. and the halfe groate for ii.d. not conteyning in weight according to the pence called Easterlings, but much lesse, to wit, by v.s. in the pound: by reason whereof, victuals, and marchandizes became the dearer through the whole realme. About the same time also, the old coine of gold was chaunged into a new, but the old Floren or noble, then so called, was worth much aboue the taxed rate of the new, and therefore the Marchants ingrossed vp the olde, and conueyed them out of the Realme, to the great losse of the kingdome. Wherefore a remedie was prouided by chaunging of the stampe.

In the yeare 1411. king Henrie the fourth caused a new coyne of Nobles to be made, of lesse value then the old by iiii.d. in the Noble, so that fiftie Nobles should be a pound Troy weight.

More plentie of coyne in gold then in siluer.

In the yeare 1421. was granted to Henrie the fift, a fifteen to be payd at Candlemasse, and at Martinmasse, of such money as was then currant gold, or siluer, not ouermuch clipped or washed, to wit, that if the noble were worth fiue shillings eight pence, then the king should take it for a ful Noble of sixe shillings eight pence, and if it were lesse of value then fiue shillings eight pence, then the person paying that golde, to make it good to the value of fiue shillings eight pence, the king alway receyuing it for an whole noble of sixe shillings eight pence. And if the Noble so payed be better then fiue shillings eight pence, the king to pay againe the surplusage that it was better then fiue shillings eight pence. Also this yere was such scarcitie of white money, yt though a Noble were so good of Gold and weight as sixe shillings eight pence, men might get no white money for them.

Coynes of gold allayed, and also raised in value.; Rose nobles.

In the yeare 1465. king Edward the fourth caused a newe coyne both of gold and siluer to be made, whereby he gained much, for he made of an olde Noble, a Royall: which he commaunded to go for x.s. Neuerthelesse to the same royall was put viii.d. of alay, and so weyed the more, being smitten with a new stampe, to wit, a Rose. He likewise made halfe Angels of v.s. and farthings of v.s. vi.d. Angelets of vi.s. viii.d. and halfe Angels, iii.s. iiii.d. Hee made siluer money of three pence, a groate, and so of other coynes after that rate, to the great harme of the Commons. W. Lord Hastings the kinges Chamberlaine, being maister of the kinges Mints, saith the Record, vndertooke to make the monyes vnder forme following, to wit, of golde a peece of viii.s. iiii.d. starling, which should be called a noble of golde, of the which there shoulde be fiftie such pieces in the pound weight of the tower: an other peece of golde, iiij.s. ii.d. of sterlings, and to be of them an hundred such peeces in the pound: and a third peece of gold, ii.s. i.d. starling, two hundreth such peeces in the pound, euery pound weight of the Tower to be worth xx. pound, xvi.s. viii.d. of starlings, the which should be 23. Carits, 3. graines, and halfe fine, &c. and for siluer, 37.s. 6.d. of starlings, the peece of foure pence, to be Cxii. groates, and two pence in the pound weight.

Halfe faced grotes.

In the yeare 1504. king Henrie the seuenth appoynted a new coyne, to wit, a groat, and halfe groat, which bare but halfe faces; the same time also was coyned a groat, which was in value xii.d. but of those but a few, after the rate of fortie pence the ounce.

Gold and siluer inhanced.

In the yeare 1526. the xviii. of Henrie the 8. the Angell noble being then the sixt part of an ounce Troy, so that six Angels was iust an ounce, which was fortie shillinges starling, and the Angell was also worth two ounces of siluer, so that sixe Angels were worth xii. ounces of siluer which was fortie shillings. A Proclamation was made on the sixt of September, that the Angell shoulde goe for vii.s. iiii. d. the Royall for a xi.x. and the Crowne for iiii.s. iiii.d. And on the fift of Nouember following, againe by Proclamation, the Angell was enhaunced to vii.s. vi.d. and so euerie ounce of golde to be xlv.s. and the ounce of siluer at iii.s. ix.d. in value.

Base monies, coyned and currant in England.; Crownes and half crownes of siluer coinued. Starling monies hoored vp. xxi. s. currant ginen for an Angell of golde. Philip Commines.; Leather mony in France.

In the yeare 1544. the 35. of Henrie the 8. on the xvi. of May, proclamation was made for the inhauncing of gold to xlviii. shillings, and siluer to iiii. s. the ounce. Also the king caused to bee coyned base monyes, to wit, peeces of xii.d. vi.d. iiii.d. ii.d. and penny, in weight as the late starling, in shew good siluer, but inwardly Copper. These peeces had whole, or broad faces, and continued currant after that rate, till the 5. of Edward the sixt, when they were on the ninth of Julie called downe, the shilling to nine pence, the grote to three pence, &c. and on the xvii. of August, from nine pence to sixe pence, &c. And on the xxx. of October was published new coynes of siluer and gold to be made, a peece of siluer v.s. starling, a peece ii.s. vi.d. of xii.d. of vi.d. a penny with a double Rose, halfe penny a single Rose, and a farthing with a Porteclose. Coynes of fine Golde, a whole Soueraigne of xxx.s. an Angell of x.s. an Angelet of v.s. Of crowne gold, a Soueraigne xx.s. halfe Soueraigne x.s. v.s. ii.s. vi.d. and base monyes to passe as afore, which continued till the second of Queene Elizabeth, then called to a lower rate, taken to the mint, and refined, the siluer whereof being coyned with a new stampe of her Maiestie, the drosse was carried to foule high wayes, to highten them. This base monyes, for the time, caused the olde starling monyes to be hourded vp, so that I haue seene xxi. shillings currant giuen for one old Angell to guild withall. Also rents of lands and tenements, with prises of victuals, were raised farre beyond the former rates, hardly since to bee brought downe. Thus much for base monyes coyned and currant in England haue I knowne: But for Leather monyes as many people haue fondly talked, I find no such matter. I reade that king Iohn of France being taken prisoner by Edward the black prince, at the battaile of Poyters, paied a raunsome of three Millions of Florences, whereby he brought the realme into such pouertie, that manie yeares after they vsed Leather money, with a little stud or naile of siluer in the middest thereof. Thus much for mint, and coynage, by occasion of this tower (vnder correction of other more skilfull) may suffice, and now to other accidents there.

French king prisoner in the Tower.

In the yeare 1360. the peace betweene England and France being confirmed, King Edward came ouer into England, and straight to the Tower, to see the French king then prisoner there, whose ransome he assessed at three Millions of Florences, and so deliuered him from prison, and brought him with honour to the Sea.

Rebels of Kent enter the Tower.

In the yeare 1381. the Rebels of Kent drew out of the tower (where the king was then lodged) Simon Sudberie, Archbishop of Canterburie, Lord Chancellor: Robert Hales, Prior of S. Iohns, and Treasurer of England: William Appleton Frier, the kings confessor, and Iohn Legge a Sargeant of the kings, and beheaded them on the Tower hill, &c.

Richard the 2, prisoner in the tower.

In the yeare 1387. king Richard held his feast of Christmas in the Tower. And in the yeare 1399. the same king was sent prisoner to the Tower.

Porter of the Tower beheaded.

In the yeare 1414. Sir Iohn Oldcastell brake out of the tower. And the same yeare a Parliament being holden at Leycester, a Porter of the Tower was drawne, hanged and headed, whose head was sent vp, and set ouer the Tower gate, for consenting to one Whitlooke, that brake out of the tower.

In the yeare 1419. Frier Randulph was sent to the tower, and was there slaine by the Parson of S. Peters in the tower.

Counterfeit phisitian, his head set on the tower of London.

In the yeare 1426. there came to London a lewde fellow, feyning himselfe to be sent from the Emperor to the yong king Henrie the sixt, calling himselfe Baron of Blakamoore, and that hee should be the principall Phisition in this kingdome, but his subtiltie being knowne, he was apprehended, condemned, drawne, hanged, headed and quartered, his head set on the tower of London, and his quarters on foure gates of the Citie.

Insting in the tower.

In the yeare 1458. in Whitson weeke, the Duke of Sommerset, with Anthonie Riuers, and other foure, kept Iustes before the Queene in the Tower of London, against three Esquiers of the Queenes, and others.

In the yeare 1465. king Henrie the sixt was brought prisoner to the tower, where he remained long.

Henrie the 6 murdered in the tower.

In the yeare 1470. the tower was yeelded to sir Richard Lee Maior of London, and his brethren the Aldermen, who forthwith entered the same, deliuered king Henrie of his imprisonment, and lodged him in the kings lodging there, but the next yeare he was againe sent thither prisoner, and there murdered.

Duke of Clarence drowned in the tower. Edward the 5. murdred in the tower.

In the yeare 1478.George Duke of Clarence, was drowned with Malmesey in the tower: and within fiue yeares after king Edward the fift, with his brother, were said to be murthered there.

patent I. of Henrie the 7.

In the yeare 1485.Iohn Earle of Oxford was made Con stable of the tower, and had custodie of the Lions graunted him.

Instes and turneying in the tower.

In the yeare 1501. in the Moneth of May, was royall Turney of Lordes and knights in the tower of London before the king.

In the yeare 1502. Queene Elizabeth, wife to Henrie the 7. died of childbirth in the tower.

In the yeare 1512. the Chappell in the high white tower was burned. In the yeare 1536. Queene Anne Bullein was beheaded in the tower. 1541. LadieKatherine Haward, wife to king Henrie the 8. was also beheaded there.

William Foxley slept in the tower 14 days & more without waking.

In the yeare 1546. the 27 of April, being Tuesday in Easter weeke, William Foxley, Potmaker for the Mint in the tower of London, fell asleepe, and so continued sleeping, and could not be wakened, with pricking, cramping, or otherwise burning whatsoeuer, till the first day of the tearme, which was full xiiii. dayes, and xv. nights, or more, for that Easter tearme beginneth not afore xvii. dayes after Easter. The cause of his thus sleeping could not be knowne, though the same were diligently searched after by the kings Phisitians, and other learned men: yea the king himselfe examining the said William Foxley, who was in all poynts found at his wakening to be as if hee had slept but one night. And he lived more then fortie yeares after in the sayde Tower, to wit, vntil the yeare of Christ, 1587, and then deceased on Wednesday in Easterweeke.

Vse of the Tower to defend the Citie.

Thus much for these accidents: and now to conclude thereof in summarie. This tower is a Citadell, to defend or commaund the Citie: a royall place for assemblies, and treaties. A Prison of estate, for the most daungerous offenders: the onely place of coynage for all England at this time: the armorie for warlike prouision: the Treasurie of the ornaments and Jewels of the crowne, and generall conseruer of the most Recordes of the kings Courts of iustice at Westminster.

Tower on London Bridge.

Tower at the north end of the draw bridge.

The next tower on the riuer of Thames, is on London bridge at the north end of the draw bridge. This tower was newe begun to be builded in the yeare 1426. Ihon Reynwell Maior of London, layd one of the first corner stones, in the foundation of this worke, the other three were laid by the Shiriffes, and Bridgemaisters, vpon euerie of these foure stones was engrauen in fayre Romane letters, the name of Ihesus. And these stones, I haue seene layde in the Bridge store house, since they were taken vp, when that tower was of late newly made of timber. This gate and tower was at the first strongly builded vp of stone, and so continued vntill the yeare 1577. in the Moneth of Aprill, when the same stone arched gate, and tower being decayed, was begun to be taken downe, and then were the heades of the traytours remoued thence, and set on the tower ouer the gate at the bridge foote, towards Southwarke. This said tower being taken downe a newe foundation was drawne: and sir Iohn Langley Lord Maior laid the first stone, in the presence of the Shiriffes, and Bridgemaisters, on the 28. of August, and in the Moneth of September, the yere 1579. the same tower was finished, a beautifull & chargeable peece of worke, all aboue the bridge being of timber.

Tower on the South of London Bridge.

Tower at the south end of the bridge.; William Dunthorne. The southgate of London bridge burned.

AN other tower there is on London bridge, to wit, ouer the gate at the South ende of the same bridge towards Southwarke. This gate with the tower thereupon, and two Arches of the bridge fell downe, and no man perished by the fall thereof, in the yeare 1436. Towards the new building whereof, diuerse charitable Citizens gaue large summes of monies: which gate being then againe new builded, was with xiij. houses more on the bridge in the yere 1471. burned by the Marriners and Saylers of Kent, Bastard Fauconbridgebeing their Captaine.

Baynards Castle

Baynards Castell. Fitzstephen. Geruase of Tilbury.

In the west part of this Citie (saith Fitzstephen) are two most strong Castels, &c. Also Geruasius Tilbery, in the raigne of Henrie the second, writing of these castels, hath to this effect. Two Castels, saith hee, are built with walles and rampires, whereof one is in right of possession, Baynardes: the other the Barons of Mountfitchet: the first of these Castels banking on the Riuer Thames, was called Baynards Castell, of Baynarde a noble man that came in with the Conquerour, and then builded it, and deceased in the raigne of William Rufus: after whose decease Geffrey Baynardsucceeded, and then William Baynard, in the yeare IIII. who by forfeyture for fellonie, lost his Baronrie of little Dunmow, and king Henrie gaue it wholy to Robert the sonne of Richard the sonne of Gilbard of Clare, and to his heyres, togither with the honour of Baynards Castell. This Robert married Maude de Sent Licio, Ladie of Bradham, and deceased 1134. was buried at Saint Needes by Gilbert of Clare his father, Walter his sonne succeeded him, he tooke to wife Matilde de Bocham, and after her decease, Matilde the daughter and coheyre of Richard de Lucy, on whom he begate Robertand other: he deceased in the yeare 1198. and was buried at Dunmow, after whom succeeded Robert Fitzwater, a valiant knight.

Lib. Dunmow.; Robert Fitzwater banished. Banards castle destroyed. Virginitie defended with the losse of worldly goods, and life of the bodie, for life of the soule.

About the yeare 1213. there arose a great discord betwixt king Iohn and his Barons, because of Matilde, surnamed the fayre, daughter to the said Robert Fitswater, whome the king vnlawfully loued, but could not obtaine her, nor her father would consent thereunto, wherevpon, and for other like causes, ensued warre through the whole Realme. The Barons were receyued into London, where they greatly endamaged the king, but in the end the king did not onely, therefore, banish the said Fitzwater amongest other, out of the Realme, but also caused his Castell called Baynard, and other his houses to be spoyled: which thing being done, a messenger being sent vnto Matilde the fayre, about the kings sute, whereunto shee would not consent, she was poysoned. Robert Fitzwater, and other being then passed into France, and some into Scotland, &c.

King Iohns oath.; Robert Fitzwalter restored to the kings fauour. Baynards castell againe builded.

It hapned in the yere 1214. king Iohn being then in France with a great armie, that a truce was taken betwixt the two kings of England and France, for the tearme of fiue yeares. And a riuer or arme of the sea being then betwixt eyther Host, there was a knight in the English host, that cried to them of the other side, willing some one of their knightes to come and iust a course or twaine with him: wherevpon without stay, Robert Fitzwater being on the French part, made himselfe readie, ferried ouer, and got on horsebacke, without any man to helpe him, and shewed himselfe readie to the face of his chalenger, whome at the first course, he stroake so hard with his greate Speare, that horse and man fell to the ground: and when his Speare was broken, hee went backe againe to the king of France, which when the King had seene, by Gods tooth, quoth hee (after his vsuall oath) he were a king indeed, that had such a knight: the friends of Robert hearing these wordes, kneeled downe, and saide: O king, he is your knight: it is Robert Fitzwater, and thereupon the next day hee was sent for, and restored to the kinges fauour: by which meanes peace was concluded, and he receiued his liuings, and had license to repaire his Castell of Baynard and other Castels.

The keeping of Hertford castel belonged to Robert Fitzwalter.

The yeare 1216. the first of Henrie the third, the Castell of Hartford being deliuered to Lewes the French <Prince>, and the Barons of England, Robert Fitzwater requiring to haue the same, because the keeping thereof did by ancient right and title pertaine to him, was aunswered by Lewes, that English men were not worthie to haue such holdes in keeping, because they did betray their owne Lord, &c. This Robert deceased in the yeare 1234. and was buried at Dunmow, and Walter his son that succeeded him, 1258. his Baronie of Baynard was in the ward of king Henry in the nonage of Robert Fitzwater. This Robert tooke to his second wife, Aelianor daughter and heire to the Earle of Ferrars, in the yeare 1289, and in the yeare 1303. on the xij. of March, before Iohn Blondon Maior of London, he acknowledged his seruice to the same Citie, and sware vpon the Euangelists, that he would be true to the liberties thereof, and maintaine the same to his power, and the counsell of the same to keepe, &c.

The right<s> that belonged to Robert Fitzwalter Chastalian of London, Lord of Wodeham, were these.

Robert Fitzwalter Castilian and Banner bearer of London.; Banner of S. Paule.; Rights belonging to Robert Fitzwater.

The sayd Robert and his heyres, ought to be, and are chiefe Banerers of London, in fee for the Chastilarie, which hee and his auncestors had by Castell Baynard, in the said Citie. In time of warre, the said Robert and his heyres ought to serue the Citie in maner as followeth: that is, the said Robert ought to come, he beeing the twentieth man of armes on horsebacke, couered with cloath, or armour vnto the great West doore of Saint Paule, with his Banner displayed before him, of his armes: and when he is come to the said doore, mounted and apparelled, as before is said, the Maior with his Aldermen, and Shiriffes armed in their armes shall come out of the saide Church of Saint Paule, vnto the saide doore, with a Banner in his hande, all on foote, which Banner shall be Guiles, the Image of Saint Paule golde: the face, hands, feete, and sword of siluer: and assoone as the said Robert shall see the Maior, Aldermen, and Shiriffs come on foot out of the church, armed with such a Banner, he shall alight from his horse, and salute the Maior, and say to him: Sir Maior, I am come to do my seruice, which I owe to the Citie. And the Maior and Aldermen shall answere. Wee giue to you as to our Bannerer of fee in this Citie, this Banner of this Citie to beare, and gouerne to the honour and profite of the Citie to our (fn. 4) power. And the said Robert and his heyres shall receiue the Banner in his hands, and shall goe on foote out of the gate with the Banner in his handes, and the Maior, Aldermen, and Shiriffes shall follow to the doore, and shall bring a horse to the said Robert worth xx.l. which horse shall be sadled with a saddle of the Armes of the said Robert, (fn. 5) and shall be sadled with a Saddle of the Armes of the said Robert, (fn. 5) and shall be couered with sindals of the said Armes. Also they shall present to him twentie poundes starling money, and deliuer to the Chamberlaine of the sayd Robert for his expences that day: then the saide Robert shall mount vppon the horse which the Maior presented to him, with the Banner in his hand, and as soone as he is vp, he shall say to the Maior, that he cause a Marshall to be chosen for the hoste, one of the Citie, which Marshall being chosen, the sayd Robert shall commaund the Maior and Burgesses of the Citie, to warne the Commoners to assemble togither, and they shall all go vnder the Banner of Saint Paul, and the said Robert shall beare it himselfe vnto Aldgate, and there the said Robert, and Maior shall deliuer the said Banner of Saint Paule, from thence, to whome they shall assent or thinke good. And if they must make any issue foorth of the Citie, then the sayde Robert ought to choose two foorth of euery warde, the most sage personages, to foresee to the safe keeping of the Citie, after they be gone foorth. And this counsell shall bee taken in the Priorie of the Trinitie neare vnto Aldgate. And before euery towne or Castell which the hoast of London besiege, if the siege continue a whole yeare, the saide Robert shall haue for euerie siege of the Communaltie of London an hundreth shillings for his trauaile, and no more. These be the rights that the sayd Robert hath in the time of warre. Rights belonging to Robert Fitzwalter, and to his heyres in the Citie of London, in the time of peace, are these, that is to say, the sayd Robert hath a soken or warde in the Citie, that is, a wall of the Chanonrie of Saint Paule, as a man goeth downe the streete before the Brewhouse of Saint Paule, vnto the Thames, and so to the side of the Mill, which is in the water that commeth downe from the Fleete bridge, and goeth so by London walles, betwixt the Friers preachers and Ludgate, and so returneth backe by the house of the said Friers, vnto the said wall of the said Chanonrie of Saint Paule, that is all the parish of Saint Andrew, which is in the gift of his auncesters, by the said signioritie: and so the said Robert hath appendant vnto the saide soken all these thinges vnder written, that he ought to haue a soke man, and to place what sokeman he will, so he be of the sokemanrie, or the same warde, and if any of the sokemanrie bee impleaded in the Guild hall, of any thing that toucheth not the bodie of the Maior that for the time is, or that toucheth the bodie of no shiriffe, it is not lawfull for the soke man of the sokemanrie of the sayde Robert Fitzwalter to demaund a Court of the sayd Robert, and the Maior, and his Citizens of London ought to graunt him to haue a Court, and in his Court he ought to bring his iudgements as it is assented and agreed vpon in this Guild hall, that shall bee giuen them. If any therefore be taken in his sokemanry, he ought to haue his Stockes and imprisonment in his soken, and he shall be brought from thence to the Guild hall before the Maior, and there they shall prouide him his iudgement that ought to bee giuen of him: but his iudgement shall not bee published till hee come into the Court of the saide Roberts, and in his libertie. And the iudgement shall bee such, that if he haue deserued death by treason, he to be tied to a post in the Thames at a good wharfe where boates are fastened, two ebbings and two flowings of the water. And if he be condemned for a common theefe, he ought to be ledde to the Elmes, and there suffer his iudgement as other theeues: and so the said Robert and his heyres hath honour that he holdeth a great Franches within the Citie, that the Maior of the Citie, and Citizens are bound to doe him of right, that is to say, that when the Maior will holde a great counsaile, hee ought to call the saide Robert, and his heyres to bee with him in counsaile of the Citie, and the saide Robert ought to be sworne to bee of counsaile with the Citie against all people, sauing the king and his heyres. And when the saide Robert commeth to the Hoystings in the Guildhall of the Citie, the Maior or his Lieutenant ought to rise against him, and set him downe neare vnto him, and so long as he is in the Guildhall, all the iudgement ought to be giuen by his mouth, according to the Record of the recorders of the sayde Guildhall, and so many waifes as come so long as he is there, hee ought to giue them to the Bayliffes of the Towne, or to whom he will, by the counsaile of the Maior of the Citie. These bee the Francheses that belonged to Robert Fitzwater, in London, in time of peace, which for the antiquitie thereof I haue noted out of an olde Recorde.

Baynards Castell perished by fire.; Humfrey duke of Glocester new builded it. Richard D. of Yorke honor of Baynards castell.; Edward the 4. elected king in S. Johns field.; Edward the 4 tooke on him the crowne in Baynards castell.

This Robert deceased in the yeare 1305. leauing issue Walter Fitzrobert, who had issue Robert Fitzwalter, vnto whom in the yeare 1320. the Citizens of London acknowledged the right which they ought to him and his heires for the Castell Baynard: he deceased 1325. vnto whom succeeded Robert Fitzrobert, Fitzwaltar, &c. More of the Lord Fitzwaltar may ye reade in my Annales in 51. of Edward the third. But how this honour of Baynards Castell with the appurtennances fell from the possession of the Fitzwaters, I haue not read: onely I find that in the yeare 1428, the seuenth of Henrie the sixt, a great fire was at Baynards Castell, and that same Humfrey Duke of Glocester, builded it of new: by his death and attaindor, in the yere 1446. it came to the hands of Henrie the sixt, and from him to Richard Duke of Yorke, of whom we reade, that in the yeare 1457. he lodged there as in his own house. In the yeare 1460. the 28. of Februarie, the Earles of March, and of Warwike, with a great power of men, (but few of name) entered the Citie of London, where they were of the citizens joyously receyued, and vpon the third of March, being Sunday, the said Earle caused to be mustred his people in Saint Iohns field: where, vnto that hoast was shewed and proclaymed certaine articles and poynts wherin K.Henry, as they sayd, had offended, and thereupon it was demaunded of the said people, whether the said H. was worthie to reigne as king any longer or not: whereunto ye people cried, nay. Then it was asked of them whether they would haue the E. of March for their king: & they cried, yea, yea. Wherupon certain captains were appoynted to beare report thereof vnto the sayd E. of March, then being lodged at his castell of Baynard. Whereof when the Earle was by them aduertized, he thanked God, & them for their election, notwithstanding he shewed some countenance of insufficiencie in him to occupie so great a charge, till by exhortation of the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Bishop of Excester, & certaine Noble men, he granted to their petition: and on the next morrow at Paules he went on Procession, offred, & had Te Deum sung. Then was he with great royaltie conueyed to Westminister, and there in the great Hall, (fn. 6) sate in the kinges set, (fn. 6) with Saint Edwards scepter in his hand.

Richard the third tooke on him the crowne in Baynards castle.

Edward the fourth being dead, leauing his eldest sonne Edward, and his second sonne Richard both infantes, Richard D. of Glocester, being elected by the Nobles and Commons in the Guildhall of London, tooke on him the tytle of the Realme and kingdome, as imposed vpon him in this Baynardes Castle, as yee may reade penned by Sir Thomas Moore, and set downe in my Annales.

H. the 7. lodged in Baynards Castle.

Henry the seauenth about the yeare 1501. the 16. of his raigne, repayred or rather new builded this house, not imbattoled, or so strongly fortified Castle like, but farre more beautifull and commodious for the entertainement of any Prince or greate Estate: In the seauenteenth of his raigne, hee with his Queene, were lodged there, and came from thence to Powles Church, where they made their offering, dined in the Bishops pallace, and so returned. The 18. of his raigne hee was lodged there, and the Ambassadors from the King of the Romaines, were thether brought to his presence, and from thence the King came to Powles, and was there sworn to the King of Romans, as the said king had sworne to him.

King Henry the 7. and knights of the Garter rode in their habites from the Tower to powles church.

The 20. of the saide King, hee with his Knightes of the Order, all in their habites of the Garter, rode from the Tower of London through the Cittie, vnto the Cathedral Church of Saint Pawles, and there heard Euensong, and from thence they rode to Baynardes Castle, where the king lodged, and on the nexte morrow, in the same habite they rode from thence againe to the said Church of Saint Pawles, went on Procession, hard the diuine seruice, offered and returned. The same yeare the king of Castle was lodged there.

The Counsell assembled at Baynards castle and proclaimed Queene Marie.

In the yeare 1553. the 19. of July, the Counsell partlie moued with the right of the Lady Maries cause, partly considering that the most of the Realme was wholy bent on her side, changing their mind from Lady Iane lately proclaimed Queene, assembled themselues at this Baynardes Castle, where they communed with the Earle of Pembrooke and the Earle of Shrewesbury and Sir Iohn Mason Clearke of the Counsell, sent for the Lord Mayor, and then riding into Cheape to the Crosse, where Gartar King at Armes, Trumpet being sounded, proclaimed the Lady Mary Daughter to king Henry the eight, and Queene Katheren Queene of England, &c.

This Castle now belongeth to the Earle of Pembrooke.

A tower by Baynards castle builded by E. the 2.

Next adioyning to this Castle was sometime a Tower, the name thereof I have not read, but that the same was builded by Edwarde the second, is manifest by this that followeth. King Edward the third in the second yeare of his Raigne, gaue vnto William de Ros, of Hamelake in Yorkeshire, a Towre vppon the water of Thames, by the Castle Baynarde in the Cittie of London, which Tower his Father had builded: he gaue the saide Tower and appurtenances to the said William Hamelake, and his heyres, for a Rose yearely to bee paid for all seruice due, &c. This Tower as seemeth to mee, was since called Legats Inne, the 7. of E. the fourth.

Tower of Mountfiquit.

Tower of Mountfiquit.; Barons of London.

The next Tower or Castle, banckiting also on the riuer of Thames, was as is afore shewed called Mountfiquits Castle of a Noble man, Baron of Mountfiquit, the first builder therof, who came in with William the Conqueror, and was since named Le Sir Mounfiquit: This Castle he builded in a place, not far distant from Baynardes, towardes the West. The same William Mounfiquit liued in the raigne of Henry the first, and was witnes to a Charter, then granted to the Cittie for the Sheriffes of London. Richard Mountfiquit liued in King Iohns time, and in the yeare, 1213. was by the same King banished the realm into France, when peraduenture King Iohn caused his Castle of Montfiquit, amongst other Castles of the Barons to bee ouerthrown: the which after his returne, might bee by him againe reedified, for the totall destruction thereof was aboute the yeare, 1276. when Robert Kiliwarble (fn. 7) Archbishoppe of Canterbury beganne the foundation of the Fryers Preachers Church there, commonly called the Black Fryers, as appeareth by a Charter the fourth of Edward the I. wherein is declared that Gregorie de Rocksley Mayor of London, and the Barons of the same Citie granted, and gaue vnto the saide Archbishoppe Roberte, two lanes or wayes next the streete of Baynardes Castle, and the Tower of Montfiquit, to be applyed for the enlargement of the said Church and place.

Tower in the Thames.

One other Tower there was also situate on the riuer of Thames neare vnto the said Blacke Fryers Church, on the west parte thereof builded at the Citizens charges, but by licence and commaundement of Edward the I. and of Edward the 2. as appeareth by their grantes: which Tower was then finished, and so stood for the space of 300. yeares, and was at the last taken down by the commaundement of Iohn Sha Mayor of London, in the yeare 1502.

Tower or Castle on the west of London by Sainte Brides church.; vita Arkenwald.

An other Tower or Castle, also was there in the West parte of the Cittie, pertayning to the King: For I reade that in the yere 1087. the 20 of William the first, the Cittie of London with the church of S. Paule being burned, Mauritius then Bishop of London afterwarde began the foundation of a new Church, whereunto king William, sayeth mine Author, gaue the choyce stones of this Castle standing neare to the banke of the riuer of Thames, at the west end of the Citie. After this Mauritius, Richard his successor, purchased the streetes about Paules Church, compassing the same with a wall of stone and gates. King Henry the first gaue to this Richard so much of the Moate or wall of the Castle, on the Thames side to the South, as should be needful to make the saide wall of the Churchyearde, and so much more as should suffice to make a way without the wall on the North side, &c.

The Kinges house by Saint Brides in Fleetstreet.; Lib, Burton, sup. Trent.; Mathew Paris, manu scripta. Parliament at S. Brides.; Bridewel builded by Henry the eight.

This Tower or Castle thus destroyed stood, as it may seeme, in place where now standeth the house called Bridewell. For notwithstanding the destruction of the said Castle or Tower, the house remayned large, so that the Kings of this Realm long after were lodged there, and kept their Courtes: for vntill the 9. yeare of Henry the third, the Courts of law and iustice were kept in the kinges house, wheresoeuer hee was lodged, and not else where. And that the kinges haue beene lodged and kept their Law courts in this place, I could shew you many authors of Recorde, but for plaine proofe this one may suffice. Hæc est finalis concordia, facta in Curia Domini regis apud Sanct. Bridgid. London, a die Sancti Michaelis in 15. dies, Anno regni regis Iohannis 7. coram G. Fil. Petri. Eustacio de Fauconberg, Iohanne de Gestlinge, Osbart filio Heruey, Walter de Crisping Iusticiar. & aliis Baronibus Domini Regis. More (as Mathew Paris hath) about the yeare 1210. King Iohn in the 12. of his raigne, summoned a Parliament at S. Brides in London, where hee exacted of the Clergie and religious persons the summe of 100000. poundes, &c besides all this the white Monkes were compelled to cancell their Priuiledges, and to pay 40000. poundes to the King &c. This house of S. Brides of latter time being left, and not vsed by the kinges: fell to ruine, insomuch that the verie platforme thereof remayned for great part wast, and as it were, but a layestall of filth and rubbish: onely a fayre Well remayned there, a great part of this house, namely, on the west, as hath been said, was giuen to the Bishop of Salisbury, the other part towardes the East, remayning waste, vntil king Henry the 8. builded a stately and beautifull house thereupon, giuing it to name Bridewell, of the parish and well there: this house he purposely builded for the entertainement of the Emperour Charles the 5. who in the yeare 1522. came into this Citie, as I haue shewed in my summarie, Annales, and large Chronicles.

Barbican or Burhkenning.

On the northwest side of this Citie, neare vnto Redcrosse streete, there was a Tower commonlie called Barbican, or Burhkenning, for that the same being placed on a high ground, and also builded of some good height, was in olde time vsed as a Watch Tower for the Cittie, from whence a man might behold and view the whole Citie towards the South, as also into Kent, Sussex and Surrey, and likewise euery other way, east, north, or west.

Some other Burhkennings or Watch Towers there were of olde time, in and about the Cittie, all which were repayred, yea and others new builded, by Gilbart de Clare Earle of Glocester, in the raigne of King Henry the third, when the Barons were in Armes, and held the Citie against the King, but the Barons being reconciled to his fauour in the yeare 1267. hee caused all their Burhkenninges, watchtowers, and Bulwarkes made and repayred by the sayd Earle, to be plucked downe, and the ditches to be filled vp, so that nought of them might be seene to remaine: and then was this Burhkenning amongest the rest ouerthrowne and destroyed: and although the ditch neare thereunto, called Hounds ditch was stopped vp, yet the streete of long time after was called Houndes ditch, and of late time more commonly called Barbican. The plot or seate of this Burhkenning or watch tower, king Edward the third in the yeare 1336. and the 10. of his raigne, gaue vnto Robert Vfford Earle of Suffolke, by the name of his Mannor of Base court, in the parish of S. Giles without Cripplegate of London, commonly called the Barbican.

Tower Royal.; John Frosard.; Lib. S. M. eborum.; The king of Ermony came into England.; Richard the 2. lodged in the Tower Royal.

Tower Royall was of old time the kings house, king Stephen was there lodged, but sithence called the Queenes Wardrobe: the Princesse, mother to king Richard the 2. in the 4. of his raigne was lodged there, being forced to flie from the tower of London, when the Rebels possessed it: But on the 15. of June (saith Frosard) Wat Tylar being slaine, the king went to this Ladie Princesse his mother, then lodged in the Tower Royall, called the Queenes Wardrobe, where she had tarried 2. daies and 2. nights: which Tower (saith the Record of Edward the 3. the 36. yeare) was in the Parish of S. Michael de Pater noster, &c. In the yere 1386, king Richard with Queene Anne his wife, kept their Christmasse at Eltham, whither came to him Lion king of Ermony, vnder pretence to reforme peace, betwixt the kinges of England and France, but what his comming profited he only vnderstood: for besides innumerable giftes that he receyued of the King, and of the Nobles, the king lying then in this (Tower) Royall at the Queenes Wardrobe in London, graunted to him a Charter of a thousand poundes by yeare during his life. He was, as hee affirmed, chased out of his kingdome by the Tartarians. More concerning this Tower shall you read when you come to Vintrie ward, in which it standeth.

Sernes Tower in Bucklesburie.

Sernes Tower in Bucklesberie, was sometimes the kinges house. Edward the third in the eighteenth yeare of his reigne, appoynted his Exchaunge of monyes therein to be kept, and in the 32. hee gaue the same Tower to his free Chappell of Saint Stephen at Westminster.

Footnotes

1 Breauté] Brent 1603
2 Blewth] Builth
3 laye]=alay, alloy,N.E.D.
4 our] your 1633
5 –2 Sic 1603; om 1633
6 –1 v. l. in 1603 set in the kinges seat.
7 Kilwardby