The Suburbes without the Walles of the said
Citie, briefely touched. As also without the Liberties,
more at large described.
Hauing spoken of this citie, the originall, & increase, by
degrees. The Walles, Gates, Ditch, Castles, Towers, Bridges,
the Schools and houses of learning. Of the orders and
customes, sports and pastimes. Of the honour of Citizens,
and worthines of men. And last of all, how the same Citie is
diuided into parts & Wards. And how the same be bounded.
And what Monuments of antiquity, or ornaments of building,
be in euery of them, as also in the Borough of Southwarke:
I am next to speake briefly of the Suburbs, as wel without the
gates, & wals, as without the liberties. And of the monuments
Fitz Stephen.; Liber Albus.; Suburbe without the Postern by the Tower of London. Wapping in the Woze.; Nightingall lane. Hermitage. West smithfield. Bramley. Shadwell.; Lime hurst.; Free schoole and Almes houses at Radcliffe.; Tower hill without the walles.
Concerning the estate of the Suburbs of this Citie, in the
raigne of H. the 2. Fitz Stephen hath these words.Vpwards
on the west (saith he) is the kings Pallace; which is an incomparable building, rising with a vawmure & bulwark. Aloft
upon the riuer, 2 miles, from the wall of the city, but yet
conioyned with a continuall Suburb. On all sides, without
the houses of the Suburbs, are the citizens gardens & orchards,
planted with trees, both large, sightly, & adioyning togither.
On the north side, are pastures, & plain medows, with brooks
running through them, turning water mils, with a pleasant
noise. Not far off, is a great forrest, a well wooded chase,
hauing good couert for Harts, Buckes, Does, Boores & wild
Bulles. The corne fields are not of a hungry sandie mould,
but as the fruitfull fields of Asia: yeelding plentifull encrease,
& filling the barnes with corne. There are near London on
the north side, especiall welles in the Suburbes, sweet, holesome,
and cleare. Amongst which, Holywell, Clarkenwell, and saint
Clemons well, are most famous, & most frequented by schollers
& youthes of the City in summer euenings, when they walke
forth to take the aire. Thus farre out of Fitz Stephen, for the
Suburbs at the time. The 2. of H. the 3. the Forest of
Midlesex and the Warren of Stanes were disaforested: since
the which time, the suburbs about London hath bin also
mightily increased with buildings: for first, to begin in the
East, by the Tower of London, is the Hospitall of saint
Katheren, founded by Matilde the Queene, wife to King
Stephen, as is afore shewed in Portsoken ward, from this
precinct of S. Katheren to Wapping in the Woze. (fn. 1) the vsuall
place of execution for hanging of Pirats & sea Rouers, at the
low water marke there to remaine, till three tides had ouerflowed them, was neuer a house standing within these 40
yeares: but since the gallowes being after remooued farther off,
a continuall streete, or filthy straight passage, with Alleyes
of small tenements or cottages builded, inhabited by saylors
victualers, along by the riuer of Thames, almost to Radcliff,
a good mile from the Tower. On the east side, and by north
of the tower, lieth East Smithfield, Hogs streete, and tower
hill, and east from them both was the new abbey called Grace,
founded by E. the 3. From thence Radcliffe, vp East smithfield, by Nightingall lane (which runneth south to the Hermitage, a Brewhouse so called of an Hermite sometime being
there) beyond this lane to the Mannor of Bramley (called in
record of R. the 2. Villa east smithfield, & Villa de Bramley)
and to the Mannor of Shadwell, belonging to the Deane of
Pauls, there hath been of late, in place of Elme trees many
small tenements raysed, towards Radcliffe: And Radcliffe it
selfe hath beene also encreased in building eastward (in place
where I haue knowne a large high way, with fayre Elme trees
on both sides) that the same hath now taken hold of Lime
Hurst, Lime Host, corruptly called Lime house, sometime
distant a mile from Radcliffe. Hauing said this much for
building, at Wapping, East Smithfield, Bramley and Shadwell, all on the south side of the high way to Radcliff: now
one note on the North side, also concerning pirates. I reade
that in the yeare 1440. in the lent season, certaine persons
with 6. ships brought from beyond the seas fish to victuaile
the city of London, which fish when they had deliuered, and
were returning homeward, a number of sea theeues, in a barge,
in the night came vpon them, when they were a sleep in their
vessels, riding at anker on the riuer Thames, and slew them,
cut their throates, cast them ouer boord, tooke their money,
and drowned their ships for that no man should espie or accuse
them. Two of these theeues were after taken, and hanged in
chaynes vpon a gollowes set vpon a raysed hill, for that
purpose made, in the field beyond East Smithfield, so that
they might be seene farre into the riuer Thames. The first
building at Ratcliffe in my youth (not to be forgotten) was
a fayre free schoole, and Almes houses, founded by Auice
Gibson, wife to Ni. Gibson Grocer, as before I haue noted.
But of late yeares ship-wrights and (for the most part) other
marine men, haue builded many large and strong houses for
themselues, and smaller for Saylers, from thence almost to
Poplar, and so to Blake wal. Now for Tower hil, the plaine
there is likewise greatly diminished by Merchants, for building
of small tenements: from thence towards Aldgate was the
Mineries, whereof I haue spoken.
From Aldegate east, againe lieth a large street, replenished
with buildings, to wit, on the north side, the parish church of
S. Bottolph, and so other buildings, to Hog lane, & to the
barres on the both sides.
Suburbe without Aldegate.
Also without the barres, both the sides of the streete bee
pestered with Cottages, and Allies, euen vp to White chappel
church: and almost halfe a mile beyond it, into the common
field: all which ought to lye open & free for all men. But
this common field, I say, being sometime the beauty of this
City on that part, is so incroched vpon by building of filthy
Cottages, and with other purprestures, inclosures and Laystalles (notwithstanding all proclaimations and Acts of Parliament made to the contrary) that in some places it scarce
remaineth a sufficient high way for the meeting of Carriages
and droues of Cattell, much lesse is there any faire, pleasant
or wholsome way for people to walke on foot: which is no
small blemish to so famous a city, to haue so vnsauery and
vnseemly an entry or passage thereunto.
Of white chappell.; S. Mary Matfellon. A deuout widow murdered.
Now of white Chappell church somwhat, and then backe
againe to Aldegate. This church is as it were a chappel of
ease to the parrish of Stebinhith, & the Parson of Stebinhith
hath the gift thereof: which being first dedicated to the name
of God, and the blessed Virgin, is now called S. Mary Matfellon. About the year 1428 the 6. of King H. the 6. a deuout
widow of that parish had long time cherished, and brought vp
of Almes, a certayne Frenchman or Briton borne, which most
vnkindly and cruelly in a night murthered the said widow
sleeping in her bed, and after fled with such Iewels and other
stuffe of hers as he might carry: but he was so freshly pursued
that for feare he tooke the church of Saint George in Southwarke, and challenged priuiledge of Sanctuary there, and so
abiured the kings land. Then the Constables (hauing charge
of him) brought him into London, intending to haue conuaied
him Eastward, but so soone as he was come into the parish
where before hee had committed the murther, the wiues cast
vpon him so much filth and ordure of the streete, that (notwithstanding the best resistance made by the Constables) they
slew him out of hand: and for this feate, it hath beene
sayd, that parish to haue purchased that name of saint Mary
Matfellon, but I finde in Record, the same to be called Villa
beatæ de Mariæ de Matfellon in the 21. of Richard the second.
More, we reade that in the yeare 1336. the 10. of E. the 3.
the Bishop of Alba, Cardinall, and Parson of Stebunhith,
Procurator generall in England, presented a Clarke to be
Parson in the church of blessed Mary called Matfellon, without
Aldegate of London, &c.
Now againe from Aldegate northwest to Bishops gate, lyeth
Hounds ditch, and so to Bishops gate.
Suburbe without Bishops gate.
North and by east from Bishops gate, lieth a large street
or high way, hauing on the west side therof, the parish church
of S. But<tolphe>.
Norton fall gate. Priory of S. John Baptist at Holywell.
Then is the Hospitall, of S. Mary of Bethelem, founded by
a Cittizen of London, and as before is shewed, vp to the
Barres, without the which is Norton fall gate, a libertie so
called, belonging to the Deane of Powles. Thence vp to the
late dissolued Priory of S. Iohn Baptist, called Holywell,
a house of Nuns, of old time founded by a Bishop of London:
Stephen Grausend Bishop of London, about the yeare 1318
was a benefactor therevnto, reedified by sir Thomas Louell
knight of the Garter, who builded much there, in the raignes
of H. the 7. and of H. the 8. Hee endowed this house with fayre
lands, and was there buried in a large chappel by him builded
for that purpose. This Priory was valued at the suppression
to haue of lands 293.li. by year, and was surrendred 1539. the
31. of H. the 8. The church thereof being pulled downe,
many houses haue been builded for the lodginges of noble
men, of strangers borne and other.
A Crosse at Soersditch now a Smithes Forge.
From Holy well in the high streete, is a continuall building
of tenementes to Sewers ditch, hauing one small side of a fielde,
already made a Garden plotte. Ouer against the north corner
of this field, between it and the Church of Saint Leonarde in
Shoreditch, sometime stood a Crosse, now a Smithes Forge,
diuiding three wayes: forth right the high way is builded vpon
eyther side, more then a good flight shoote, towardes Kinges
land, Newington, Totanham, &c.
On the left hand is Ealdestreete, which reacheth West to
a stone Crosse, ouer against the North ende of Golding lane,
and so to the ende of Goswell streete. On the right hand of
this Ealdestreete, not farre from Soers ditch, but on the North
side thereof, is Hoxton, a large streete with houses on both
sides, and is a Prebend belonging to Powles church in London,
but of Soers ditch parish.
On the right hand beyond Soresditch church toward Hackney, are some late builded houses vpon the common soyle,
for it was a leystall, but those houses belong to the parish of
On the other side of the high way from Bishopsegate and
Hounds ditch is the Dolphin, a common Inne for receipt of
trauellers, then a house builded by the L. Iohn Powlet, then
Fishers Folly, and so vp to the west ende of Berwardes Lane,
is a continuall building of small cottages, then the Hospitall
called S. Mary Spittle hard within the Barres, whereof I haue
spoken in Bishopsgate warde.
Soerditch so called more then 400. yeares since, as I can proue by record.
From the which bars towardes Soersditch on that side, is
all along a continuall building of small and base tenements,
for the most part lately erected.
Almeshouses in Soersditch.; Rotten Row or Russel row.
Amongst the which (I meane of the auncientest building)
was one row of proper small houses with Gardens for poore
decayed people, there placed by the Prior of the said Hospitall:
euery one Tenant whereof paid one penny rent by the yeare
at Christmas, and dined with the Prior on Christmas day: but
after the suppression of the Hospitall, these houses for want
of reparations in few yeares were so decayed, that it was called
Rotten Rowe, and the poore worne out (for there came no new
in their place): the houses, for a small portion of money, were
solde from Goddard to Russell a Draper, who new builded
them, and let them out for rent enough, taking also large
Fines of the Tenantes, neare as much as the houses cost him
purchase; and building: for hee made his bargaines so hardly
with all men, that both Carpenter, Brickelayer, and Playsterer,
were by that Worke vndone. And yet in honour of his name,
it is now called Russels Row.
Parish Church of S. Leonarde at Soersditch.
Now for the parrish of S. Leonards at Soersditch, the Archdeacon of London is alwayes Parson thereof, and the Cure is
serued by a Vicar. In this church haue beene diuers honourable persons buried, as appeareth by monuments yet remayning:
(fn. 2) sir Iohn Elrington with Margaret his wife, daughter and heyre
to Thomas Lord Itchingham, widdow to William Blount, sonne
and heyre to Walter Blount the first Lord Mountioy, which
Margaret dyed 1481.
Sir Humfrey Starkie Recorder of London, Baron of the
Exchequer, Iohn Gadde Shereman of London, and Anne his
wife, 1480. sir Thomas Seymore Mayor of London, deceased
1535. sir Thomas Leigh Doctor of law, 1545. Item, vnder one
fayre monument lyeth buried the Lady Katherine daughter
to Edwarde Duke of Buckingham, wife to Raph Neuell Earle
of Westmerland, who dyed 1553. also Elianor daughter to
sir William Paston, wife to Thomas Mannars Earle of Rutland,
1551. Margaret daughter to Raph Neuell Earle of Westmerland, and wife to Henry Mannars Earle of Rutland, 1560
Katherine daughter to Henry Neuel Earle of Westmerland,
and wife to Sir Iohn Constable of Holdernes, 1591. Anne
daughter to T. Mannars Earle of Rutland, sir T. Mannars
4. son to Thomas Earle of Rutland, 1591. Oliuer Mannars,
5. son to Thomas Earle of Rutland, 1563. all vnder one
monument. Richard and Harry Yong 1545. (fn. 2)
Notwithstanding that of late one Vicker there, for couetousnes
of the brasse which he conuerted into coyned siluer, plucking vp
many plates fixed on the graues, & left no memory of such as
had beene buried vnder them: A greate iniurie both to the liuing
and the dead, forbidden by publike proclamation, in the raigne
of our soueraigne Lady Queene Elizabeth, but not forborn by
many, that eyther of a preposterous zeale, or of a greedy minde
spare not to satisfie themselues by so wicked a meanes.
A Fuller of Shoreditch for falsely accusing hanged and quartered. Deut. 16. The reward of a false brother.; Bethlem crosse.
One note of Shoreditch, and so an ende of that suburbe.
I reade that in the year 1440. the 18. of H. the 6. a Fuller
of Shorditch appeached of treason many worthy Esquiers and
Gentlemen of Kent, but he being proued false, was attaint,
condemned and had iudgement to be drawne, hanged and
quartered, which was done, his head set on London bridge,
and his quarters on the gates: this iustice was done, according
to the 16. of Deuteronomie. 'The iudges shall make diligent
inquisition, and if the witnes bee founde false, and to haue
giuen false witnes against his brother, then shall they doe
vnto him, as he had thought to doe vnto his brother,' &c.
I reade of the Kinges Mannor Vocatus (fn. 3) Shorditch place in the
parrish of Hackney, but how it tooke that name I know not,
and therfore I wil turn backe from Shoreditch Crosse to
Bethelem-Crosse, and so passe through that Hospitall into the
More fielde, which lyeth without the Posterne called Moregate.
Fensbery fields & Morefieldes an vnprofitable ground.
This fielde of old time was called the More. As appeareth
by the Charter of William Conqueror to the Colledge of
S. Martin declaring a running water to passe into the Citie
from the same More. Also Fitzstephen writeth of this More,
saying thus: When the great Fenne or More, which watereth
the walles on the north side is frozen, &c. This Fen or More
field stretching from the wall of the City betwixt Bishopsgate
and the posterne called Cripples gate to Fensbery, and to
Holy, well, continued a wast and vnprofitable ground a long
time, so that the same was all letten for foure markes the
yeare, in the raigne of Edward the 2: but in the yeare 1415.
the 3. of Henry the 5. Thomas Fawconer Mayor, as I haue
shewed, caused the wall of the Citty to be broken toward the
said More, and builded the Posterne called Moregate, for the
ease of the Cittizens to walke that waye vppon Causeyes
towardes Iseldon and Hoxton: moreouer he caused the ditches
of the Citie, and other the ditches from Soers ditch to Deepe
ditch, by Bethelem into the More ditch, to be new cast and
cleansed, by meanes whereof the sayde Fenne or More was
greatly dreyned and dryed: but shortly after, to wit in 1477,
Raph Ioceline Mayor, for repayring the Wall of the Cittie,
caused the sayde More to bee searched for Clay and Bricke
to bee brente there, &c. by which meanes this fielde was made
the worse for a long time.
Gardens without Moregate, destroyed and made plaine ground.; Ditches east to dreine the Morefield.; Slewces to conuey the standing water out of the More.; Morefield raysed, and wind mils set thereon.
In the yeare 1498. all the Gardens which had continued
time out of mind, without Moregate, to witte, aboute and
beyonde the Lordship of Finsbery, were destroyed. And of
them was made a playne field for Archers to shoote in. And
in the yeare 1512. Roger Atchley Mayor caused diuers dikes
to be cast, and made to drein the waters of the sayde More
fields, with bridges arched ouer them, and the groundes about
to bee leuelled, whereby the sayd fielde was made somewhat
more commodious, but yet it stoode full of noysome waters:
Whereupon in the yeare 1527. sir Thomas Semor Mayor
caused diuers sluces to be made, to conuey the sayd waters
ouer the Towne ditch, into the course of Walbrooke, and so
into the Thames: and by these degrees was this Fenne or
More at length made main and hard ground, which before
being ouergrowne with Flagges, sedges and rushes, serued to
no vse, since the which time, also the further groundes beyonde
Fensbury Court haue been so ouerheightned with Laystalles
of dung, that now three windmilles are thereon set: the ditches
be filled vp, and the bridges ouerwhelmed.
Edward Hall.; Hedges pulled downe and ditches filled vp.; Banqueting houses like Banquerontes bearing great shew and little worth.
And now concerning the inclosures of common grounds
about this cittie, whereof I mind not much to argue, Edwarde
Hall setteth downe a note of his time, to wit in the fift or
sixte of Henry the eight: before this time sayth hee, the
inhabitantes of the Townes aboute London, as Iseldone,
Hoxton, Shorsditch and others, had so inclosed the common
fieldes with hedges, and ditches, that neyther the yong men
of the City might shoote, nor the auncient persons walke for
theyr pleasures in those fieldes, but that either their bowes
and arrowes were taken away or broken, or the honest persons
arrested or indighted: saying, that no Londoner ought to goe
out of the City, but in the high Waies. This saying so
grieued the Londoners, that suddainlie this yeare a great
number of the Citie assembled themselues in a morning, and
a Turner in a fooles coate came crying through the Citty,
shouelles and spades, shouelles and spades: so many of the
people followed that it was a wonder to behold, and within
a short space all the hedges about the City were cast down,
and the diches filled vp, and euery thing made plaine, such
was the diligence of these workmen: the kinges councell hearing
of this assembly came to the gray Fryers, & sent for the Mayor
and councell of the city to know the cause, which declared to
them the iniurie and annoying done to the citizens, and to their
liberties, which though they wold not seeke disorderly to redresse, yet the comminalty & yong persons could not be stayed
thus to remedy the same. When the kings councell had heard
their answere, they dissimuled the mater & commanded the
Mayor to see that no other thing were attempted, but that
they should forthwith call home the younger sort: who hauing
speedily atchieued their desire, returned home before the
Kings Councell, and the Mayor departed without more
harme: after which time (sayeth Hall) these fieldes were neuer
hedged: but now wee see the thing in worse case than euer,
by meanes of inclosure for Gardens, wherein are builded many
fayre summer houses, and as in other places of the Suburbes,
some of them like Midsommer Pageantes, with Towers,
Turrets, and Chimney tops, not so much for vse or profite,
as for shewe and pleasure, bewraying the vanity of mens
mindes, much vnlike to the disposition of the ancient Citizens,
who delighted in the building of Hospitals, and Almes
houses for the poore, and therein both imployed their wits,
and spent their wealthes in preferment of the common commoditie of this our Citie.
Suburbe without Criplegate.; Parish church of S. Giles.
But to come backe againe to Moregate, and from thence
west through a narrow lane called the Posterne, because it
hath at eyther end a doore to be shut in the night season,
betwixt the More ditch inclosed with bricke for Tenter yardes,
and the Gardens of the sayd More fielde, to More lane, a part
of the Suburbe without Creplesgate: without this Posterne
called Cripplesgate also lay a part of the sayde More euen to
the Riuer of the Wels, as in another place I haue shewed, and
no houses were there builded till the latter end of the raigne
of William the Conqueror, and of his sonne William Rufus:
about which times some fewe houses being there builded
along East and West, thwart before the said gate, one Alfune
builded for the inhabitants a Parish Church, which is of Saint
Giles, somewhat west from the sayde gate, and is now on the
banke of the towne ditch, and so was there a street since
called Forestreet, as standing before the gate.
This Alfune, in the raigne of Henrie the first, became the
first Hospitaler of S. Bartlemewes Hospitall in Smithfield, as
in an other place I haue noted. And this Parish Church of
S. Giles being at the first a small thing, stood in place where
now standeth the Vicarage house: but hath beene since at
diuerse times much enlarged, according as the Parish hath
increased, and was at the length newly builded in place where
now it standeth. But the same new church being large,
strongly builded, and richly furnished with ornaments, was in
the yeare 1545. by casualtie of fire sore burnt and consumed,
notwithstanding it was againe within a short space of time
repayred, as now it sheweth.
Some little distance from the east end of this Church,
standeth a fayre Conduit castellated in Forestreet. Then had
yee a Bosse of sweet water in the wall of the churchyard,
lately made a pompe, but already decayed.
Then had yee a fayre Poole of sweete water neare to the
Church of saint Giles, wherein Anne of Lodbery was drowned,
as I haue before declared.
In the East ende of Forestreete is More lane: then next is
Grubstreete, of late yeares inhabited for the most part by
Bowyers, Fletchers, Bowstring makers, and such like, now
little occupied, Archerie giuing place to a number of bowling
Allies, and Dicing houses, which in al places are increased,
and too much frequented.
Euerades Well streete.
This street stretcheth North to Euerades Well street, which
thwarteth it to White Crosse street. The next from Forestreete North is White Crosse street, likewise extending it
selfe vp to the West ende of Euerades Well streete, and from
the end thereof to Ealdstreete.
From the west end of Forestreete lyeth Red crosse street,
from the which Crosse on the right hand East lyeth Beech
lane, and reacheth to the White crosse streete. From Red
Crosse north lyeth Golding lane, which stretcheth vp to a
Crosse in Ealdestreet, which Golding lane on both the sides
is replenished with many tenements of poore people.
On the left hand and west of the Red Crosse lyeth a streete
of old time called Houndes ditch, and of later time named
Barbican, of such cause as I haue before noted. And thus
haue you all the Suburbe without Creplegate, being almost
altogither in the Parish of S. Giles, which hath more then
1800. Householders, and aboue 4000. Communicants.
Suburbe without Aldersgate.
Without Aldersgate on the left hand is the Parish Church
of S.Buttolph, on the North side of the which church lyeth
a way called little Britane streete, towardes the Priorie of
Saint Bartholomew in Smithfield, but the high way without
Aldersgate runneth straight North from the said gate vnto
Houndes ditch or Barbican streete on the right hand, and
Long lane on the left hand which runneth into Smithfield.
Then from the farther ende of Aldersgate streete, straight
North to the Barre, is called Goswell street, replenished with
smal tenements, cottages, and Allies, Gardens, banquetting
houses, and bowling places.
Beyond these bars, leauing the Charterhouse on the left
hand or the west side, the way stretcheth vp towards Iseldon,
and on the right hand, or East side, at a Red Crosse turneth
into Ealdstreete, so called, for that it was the old high way
from Aldersgate streete for the Northeast parts of England
before Bishopsgate was builded, which streete runneth East
to a Smithes Forge, sometime a Crosse before Shoreditch
Church, from whence the passengers and Carriages were to
turne North to Kings land, Tottenham, Waltham, Ware, &c.
Hospital without Aldersgate.
There was sometime in this suburbe without Aldersgate an
hospitall for the poore, but an Alien of Clunie, a French
order, and therefore suppressed by king Henrie the fift, who
gaue the house with lands and goods to the parish of saint
Buttolph, and a brotherhoode of the Trinitie was there founded,
which was afterwards suppressed by Henry the 8. or Edward
There is at the farthest north corner of this Suburbe a
windmill which was sometime by a Tempest of winde ouerthrowne, and in place thereof a Chappell was builded by
Queene Katherine (first wife of Henrie the eight,) who named
it the Mount of Caluerie, because it was of Christs passion,
and was in the end of Henry the eight pulled downe, and
a Windmill newly set vp as afore.
Suburbe without Newgate.
Without Newgat lyeth the West and by North Suburbe, on
the right hand or Northside whereof betwixt the said gate,
and the Parish of saint Sepulchre turneth a way towards west
Smith field, called as I haue shewed Giltspurre streete, or
Knightriders street, then is Smithfield it selfe, compassed
about with buildings as I haue before declared in Faringdon
S. Iohns street.; Charterhouse.; No mans land.; Pardon church yard by the Charterhouse.
And without the barre of West Smithfield lyeth a large
street or way, called of the house of S. Iohn there, S. Iohns
streete, and stretcheth towards Iseldon, on the right hand
whereof stoode the late dissolued Monasterie, called the
Charterhouse, founded by sir Walter Manny knight, a stranger
borne, Lord of the towne of Manny in the Dioces of Cambrey,
beyond the seas, who for seruice done to king Edward the
third was made knight of the Garter. This house he founded
upon this occasion. A great Pestilence entring this Iland,
began first in Dorsetshire, then proceeded into Deuonshire,
Somerset shire, Glocester shire, and Oxforde shire, and at
length came to London, and ouerspred all England, so
wasting the people, that scarce the tenth person of all sortes
was left aliue, and Churchyards were not sufficient to receiue
the dead but men were forced to chuse out certain fields for
burials, wherevpon Raph Stratford Bishop of London in the
yeare 1348. bought a peece of ground called no mans land, which
he inclosed with a wall of Bricke and dedicated for buriall of
the deade, builded therevpon a proper Chappell, which is now
enlarged and made a dwelling house, and this burying plot
is become a fayre Garden, retaining the old name of Pardon
About this in the yeare 1349. the said sir Walter Manny
in respect of daunger that might befal in this time of so great
a plague and infection, purchased thirteene Acres and a rode
of ground adioyning to the said no mans land, and lying in
a place called Spittle Croft, because it belonged to S. Bartilmewes Hospitall, since that called the new Church Haw, and
caused it to be consecrated by the said Bishop of London to
the vse of burials.
Charterhouse churchyard prepared for buriall of the poore, so to remaine for euer.; Bull of Pope Clement.; Vse of the Fraerie Cart.
In this plot of ground there was in that yeare more then
50000. persons buried, as I haue reade in the Charters of
Edward the third: Also I haue seene and read an Inscription
fixed on a stone Crosse, sometime standing in the same churchyard and hauing these wordes: Anno Domini 1349. regnante
magna pestilentia, consecratum fuit hoc Camiterium, in quo
&infra septa presentis monasterii, sepulta fuerunt mortuorum
corpora plusquam quinquaginta millia, prater alia multa abhinc
usque ad presens, quorum animabus propitietur deus Amen. In
consideration of the number of Christian people here buried,
the sayd sir Walter Manny caused first a Chappell to be
builded, where for the space of twentie three yeares offerings
were made, and it is to be noted that about 100000. bodies of
Christian people had in that Churchyard beene buried, for the
sayde knight had purchased that place for the buriall of poore
people, trauailers and other that were diseased to remaine for
euer, whervpon an order was taken for the auoyding of contention betweene the parsons of Churches and that house, to
wit, that the bodies should be had vnto the Church where they
were Parishioners, or died, and after the funerall seruice done,
had to the place where they should be buried. And the yeare
1371. hee caused there to bee founded an house of Carthusian
Monks, which he willed to be called the Salutation, and that
one of the Monkes should be called Prior, and he gaue them
the saide place of thirteene Acres and a Rode of land, with the
Chappell, and houses there builded for their habitation: he
also gaue them the three Acres of land lying without the
walles on the North part betwixt the landes of the Abbot of
Westminster, and the lands of the Prior of S. Iohn, (which
three Acres were purchased, inclosed, and dedicated by Raph
Stratford Bishop of London, as is afore shewed,) remained till
our time, by the name of Pardon Churchyard, and serued for
burying of such as desperately ended their liues, or were
executed for Felonies, who were fetched thither vsually in
a close cart, bayled ouer and couered with blacke, hauing
a plaine white Crosse thwarting, and at the fore end a Saint
Iohns Crosse without, and within a Bell ringing by shaking
of the cart, whereby the same might be heard when it passed,
and this was called the Fraerie Cart, which belonged to Saint
Iohns, and had the priuiledge of Sanctuarie. In this Charter
house were the Monuments of the sayd sir Wætar Manny,
& Margaret his wife, Marmaduke Lumley, Laurence Brumley
knight, sir Edward Hederset knight, sir William Manny knight,
Dame Iahan Borough, Iohn Dorewentwatar knight (fn. 4) , Robert
Olney Esquire, Katherine daughter to sir William Babington
knight, Blanch daughter to Hugh Waterton, Katherine wife to
Iohn at Poole, daughter and heyre to Richard de Lacie, William
Rawlin, sir Iohn Lenthaine, and Dame Margaret his wife,
daughter to Iohn Fray, Iohn Peake Esquire, William Baron,
and William Baron Esquire, sir Thomas Thwaites knight,
Philip Morgan Bishop of Ely, 1434.
In the Cloystrie, Bartholomew Rede knight, Maior of London,
buried 1505. sir Iohn Popham, &c.
This Monasterie at the suppression in the 29. of Henrie the
8. was valued at 642.l. 4.d. halfepenny yearely.
Charter house lane.; Conduit by the Charterhouse.
A little without the Barres of west Smithfield is Charterhouse lane, so called, for that <it> leadeth to the sayd plot of
the late dissolued Monasterie, in place whereof, first the Lord
North, but since Thomas Howarde late Duke of Norffolke,
haue made large and sumptuous buildinges, both for lodging
and pleasure. At the gate of this Charter house is a faire
water Conduit, with two cockes seruing the vse of the neighbours to their great commoditie.
Saint Iohns streete from the entring this lane is also on both
the sides replenished with buildinges vp to Clarken Well.
On the left hand of which street lyeth a lane called Cow
crosse, of a crosse sometime standing there, which lane turneth
downe to another lane called Turnemill streete, which stretcheth
vp to the West side of Clarken Well, and was called Turnemill
streete for such cause as is afore declared.
One other lane there is called S. Peters, lane, which turneth
from saint Iohns streete to Cow crosse.
Priorie of S. Iohn of Ierusalem.
On the left hand also stoode the late dissolued Priorie of
saint Iohn of Irusalem in England, founded about the yeare
of Christ IIco. by Iorden Briset Baron, and Muriell his wife,
neare vnto Clarkes well besides west Smithfield, which Iorden (fn. 5)
hauing first founded the Priorie of Nunes at Clarks well
bought of them ten Acres of land, giuing them in exchange
ten Acres of land in his Lordship of Welling hall in the
Countie of Kent, saint Iohns Church was dedicated by Eraclius
Patriarke of the holy resurrection of Christ at Ierusalem, in
the yeare 1185. and was the chiefe seate in England of the
religious knights of S. Iohn of Ierusalem, whose profession
was, besides their dayly seruice of God, to defende Christians
agaynst Pagans, and to fight for the Church, vsing for their
habite a blacke vpper garment, with a white Crosse on the
fore part thereof, and for their good seruice was so highly
esteemed, that when the order of Templars was dissolued,
their lands and possessions were by parliament graunted vnto
these, who after the losse of Ierusalem recouered the Isle of
Rodes from the Turke, and there placed themselues, beeing
called thereof for many yeares knights of the Rhodes, but after
the losse thereof, 1523. they remooued to the Isle of Malta,
Manfully opposing themselues agaynst the turkish inuasions.
The Rebels of Essex and of Kent, 1381, set fire on this
house, causing it to burne by the space of seauen dayes togither, not suffering any to quench it, since the which time
the Priors of that house haue newe builded both the Church
and houses therevnto appertaining, which church was finished
by Thomas Docwrey late Lord Prior there, about the yeare
1504, as appeareth by the inscription ouer the gate house, yet
remayning. This house at the suppression in the 32. of H.
the 8. was valued to dispend in lands 3385. li. 19.s. 8.d. yearely,
sir W. Weston being then Lord Prior, dyed on the same
seuenth of May, on which the house was suppressed, so that
great yearely pensions being granted to the knights by the
king, and, namely to the Lord Prior during his life 1000.li. hee
neuer receiued penny.
The king tooke into his hands all the lands that belonged
to that house and that order wheresoeuer in England and
Ireland, for the augmentation of his Crowne.
This Priory church and house of saint Iohn was preserued
from spoyle, or downe pulling so long as king Henry the eight
raigned, and was imployed as a storehouse for the kings toyles
and tents, for hunting, and for the warres, &c. but in the third
of king Edward the sixt, the Church for the most part, to
wit, the body and side Iles with the great Bell Tower, (a most
curious peece of workemanshippe, grauen, guilt, and inameled
to the great beautifying of the Cittie, and passing all other
that I haue seene) was vndermined and blowne up with Gunpowder,
the stone thereof was imployed in building of the
Lord Protectors house at the Strand: that part of the Quire
which remayneth, with some side Chappels, was by Cardinall
Poole in the raigne of Queene Mary, closed vp at the west
end, and otherwise repaired, and sir Thomas Tresham knight
was then made Lord Prior there, with restitution of some
lands, but the same was againe suppressed in the first yeare
of Queene Elizabeth.
There was buried in this Church, brethren of that house,
and knights of that order. Iohn Botell, William Bagecore,
Richard Barrow, Iohn Vanclay, Thomas Launcelen, Iohn Mallory, William Turney, William Hulles, —Hils or Hayles, Iohn
Weston, Redington, William Longstrother, Iohn Langstrother,
William Tong, Iohn Wakeline. Then of other: Thomas
Thornburgh Gentleman, William West, Gentleman, Iohn
Fulling, and Adam Gill Esquiers, sir Iohn Mortimor, and
Dame Elianor his wife, Nicholas Siluerston, William Plompton Esquier, Margaret Tong, and Isabel Tong, Walter Bellingham alias Ireland, king of Armes of Ireland, Thomas
Bedle Gentleman, Katheren daughter of William Plompton
Esquier, Richard Turpin Gentleman, Iohan wife to Alexander
Dikes, Iohn Bottle and Richard Bottle Esquiers, Rowland
Darcie, Richard Sutton Gentleman,Richard Bottill Gent.
Sir W. Harpden knight, Robert Kingston Esquier, and Margery his wife, Iohn Roch, Richard Cednor Gentleman, Simon
Mallory 1442. William Mallory, Robert Longstrother, Ralph
Asteley, William Marshall, Robert Sauage, Robert Gondall
Esquiers, and Margery his wife, William Bapthorpe Baron of
the Exchequer, 1442.
Priory of Clerken well.
North from the house of S. Iohns, was the Priory of Clarken
well, so called of Clarkes well adioyning, which Priory was
also founded about the yeare 1100. by Iorden Briset Baron,
the sonne of Ralph, the sonne of Brian Briset: who gaue to
Robert a Priest, fourteene Acres of land lying in the field next
adioyning to the said Clarkes well, thereupon to build an
house of religious persons, which he founded to the honour of
God, and the Assumption of our Lady, and placed therein
blacke Nuns. This Iorden Briset gaue also to that house one
peece of ground thereby, to build a wind mill vpon, &c. He
and Muriell his wife were buried in the Chapter house there:
more buried in this Church, Iohn Wikes Esquier, and Isabell
his wife, Dame Agnes Clifford, Ralph Timbleby, Esquier,
Dame Iohan Baronnesse of Greystocke, Dame Iohan, Lady
Ferrars. And of later time in the parish Church, Constances (fn. 6)
Bennet, a Greeke borne, he gaue two houses, the one in saint
Iohns streete, the other in Turnmill street, the rents of them to
be distributed in Coales euery yeare against Christmas, to the
poore of that parish.
William Herne, a Maister of defence, and yeoman of the
gard, 1580. gaue lands and tenements to the Clothworkers in
London, they to pay yearely for euer, fourteene pound to the
Churchwardens of Clarken well, and fourteene pound to the
Churchwardens of S. Sepulchers, towards reparations of these
Churches, & reliefe of the poore men, more, he gaue after the
death of one man, yet liuing, eight li. the yeare for euer, to
the mending of high wayes.
Thomas Sackeford Esquier, one of the masters of requests,
gaue to the poore of that parish 40. shillings the yeare for
euer, out of his Almes house at Woodbridge in Suffolke,
where he is buried. Henry Stoke, Gardiner, buried there,
gaue 20.s. the yeare for euer, towards reparation of that
church. This Priory was valued to dispend 262.li. 9.s. by
yeare, and was surrendred the 30. of H. the 8. Many faire
houses are now builded about the Priory, namely by the high
way towards Iseldon.
So much of the Church which remaineth, (for one great Ile
thereof fell downe) serueth as a parish Church of Saint Iohn,
not onely for the Tenementes, and neare inhabitantes, but
also (as is afore sayde) for all vp to Highgate, Moswell &c.
Neare vnto this Church besides Clarkes well lane, diuers
other welles, namely Skinners well, Fags well, Tode (fn. 7) well,
Loders well, Rede well &c. now dammed vp.
Portpoole, in Greyes Inne lane, Greyes, Inne an Inne of Court.
Now to returne agayne to Giltspurre street, where I first
began with this Suburbe, there standeth the Parrish Church
of Saint Sepulchre in the Bayly, as is before shewed, from
this streete to Turnagaine lane by Hosiar lane, Cow lane
& Holdborn Conduite downe Snore hill to Oldborne bridge,
and vp Oldborne hill, by Gold lane on the right hand, and
Lither lane beyond it, to the Barres, beyond the which Barres
on the same side, is Porte Poole, or Grayes Inne lane, so
called of the Inne of Courte, named Grayes Inne, a goodly
house there scituate, by whome builded or first begun I haue
not yet learned, but seemeth to be since Edward the thirds
time, and is a prebend to Paules Church in London.
This lane is furnished with faire buildings, and many tenements on both the sides, leading to the fieldes, towards Highgate and Hamsted.
Widow Alington her building.
On the high streete haue ye many fayre houses builded,
and lodgings for Gentlemen, Innes for trauellers, and such
like vp almost (for it lacketh but little) to saint Giles in the
fieldes: amongst the which buildinges for the most part being
very new, one passeth the rest in largenesse of roomes, lately
builded by a Widdow sometime wife to Richard Alington
Esquier, which Richard Alington deceased in the yeare 1561.
And thus much for that north side of Oldborne.
South side of Oldborne.
Now from Newgate on the left hand or south side lyeth
the old Bayly, and so downe by Seacole lane end to Oldborne
bridge, vp Oldborne hill, by Shooe lane and Fewters lane to
Old Temple.; The Bishop of Lincolns Inne.; Southampton house.; New streete.
Beyond the barres had ye in old time a Temple builded by
the Templars, whose order first began in the yeare of Christ
1118. in the 19. of Henry the first. This Temple was left and
fell to ruine since the yeare 1184. when the Templars had
builded them a new Temple in Fleet streete, neare to the
Riuer of Thames. A great part of this old Temple was
pulled downe but of late in the yeare 1595. Adioyning to
this old Temple, was sometime the Bishop of Lincolnes Inne,
wherein he lodged when he repayred to this City. Robert de
Curars (fn. 8) Bishop of Lincolne, builded it about the yeare 1147.
Iohn Russell Bishop of Lincolne, Chauncellor of England in
the raigne of Richard the third, was lodged there. It hath of
late yeares belonged to the Earles of Southampton, and therefore called Southampton house. Master Ropar hath of late
builded much there, by meanes whereof part of the ruines of
the old Temple were seene to remaine builded of Cane stone,
round in forme as the new Temple by Temple barre and
other Temples in England. Beyond this old Temple, and
the Bishoppe of Lincolnes house, is New streete, so called
in the raigne of H. the 3. when he of a lewes house
founded the house of Conuerts, betwixt the old Temple and
New streete or Chancery lane.
The same street hath sithence beene called Chauncery lane,
by reason that king E. the 3. annexed the house of Conuerts
by patent to the office of Custos Rotulorum, or maister of the
Rolles, in the 51. of his raigne.
Coursitors office in Chancery lane.
In this streete the first faire building to be noted on the
east side, is called the Coursitors office, builded with diuers
fayre lodgings for Gentlemen, all of Bricke and timber, by sir
Nicholas Bacon late Lord keeper of the great Seale.
Neare vnto this Coursitors office, be diuers faire houses
& large gardens, builded and made in a ground, sometime
belonging to one great house on the other side the street,
there made by Ralph Neuel Bishop of Chichester. This
ground he had by the gift of H. the 3. as appeareth. The
king granteth to Ralph Bishop of Chichester Chancellor, that
place with the Garden which Iohn Herlison forfeyted in that
street, called Newstreete, ouer against the land of the sayde
Bishoppe in the same streete, which place with the garden and
appurtenance was the kinges exchete by the libertie of the cittie
of London, as it was acknowledged before the king in his court
at the tower of London, in the last pleas of the crown of that
Cittie, cart. 11. H. 3.
Then was the house of conuertes, wherein now the Rowles
of Chancery be kept. Then the Sergeants Inne, &c.
Black fryers Church in Oldborne.
On the West side of Newstreete, towardes the North ende
thereof, was of olde time the church, and house of the Preaching Friers: the which house I finde that in the yeare of
Christ, 1221. the Friers Preachers 13. in number came into
England, and hauing to their Prior one named Gilbert de
Fraxineto in company of Peter de la Roche Bishoppe of
Winchester, came to Canterbury, where presenting themselves
before the Archbishop Steuen <Langton>, hee commaunded
the sayde Prior to preach, whose sermon he liked so well,
that euer after hee loued that order. These Fryers came to
London, and had their first house without the Wall of the
Cittie by Oldborne, neare vnto the old Temple.
Earle of Kent buried in the Blacke Fryers.
Hubert de Burgo Earle of Kent was a great benefactor vnto
these Fryers, and deceasing at his Mannor of Bansted in
Surrey, or after some writers, at his Castle of Barkamsted in
Hartfordshire, in the yeare 1242. was buried in their Church,
vnto the which church he had giuen his place at Westminster,
which the sayde Fryers afterward solde to Walter Grey Archbishop of Yorke, and he left it to his successors in that sea,
for euer to be their house when they should repaire to the
Cittie of London. And therefore the same was called Yorke
place, which name so continued vntill the yeare 1529. that
king Henry the eight tooke it from Thomas Wolsey Cardinall
and Archbishop of Yorke, and then gaue it to name White
Margaret sister to the King of Scottes, Widdowe to Gilbert (fn. 9)
Earle Marshall, deceased 1244. and was buried in this church.
Conuocations of Black Fryers in Oldborn
In the yeare 1250. the Fryers of this order of preachers
through Christendome and from Ierusalem, were by a conuocation assembled together, at this their house by Oldborne,
to entreat of their estate, to the number of 400. hauing meat
and drink found them of almes, because they had no possessions
of their owne. The first day the king came to their Chapter,
found them meate and drinke, and dined with them. An
other day the Queene founde them meate and drinke: afterward the Bishop of London, then the Abbot of Westminster,
of S. Albons, Waltham, and others. In the yeare 1276.
Gregory Rokesley Mayor and the Barons of London graunted
and gaue to Robert Kilwerbie Archbishop of Canterbury, two
lanes or wayes next the street of Baynards Castle, and the
Tower of Mountfichet to be destroyed. On the which place
the sayde Robert builded the late new church, with the rest of
the stone that were left of the sayde Tower. And thus the
blacke Fryers left their church and house by Oldborne, and
departed to their new. This olde Fryer house, (iuxta Holborne
sayeth the Patent) was by king Edwarde the first, in the 16.
of his raigne, giuen to Henry Lacy Earle of Lincolne.
Bishop of Chichesters Inne.
Next to this house of Fryers, was one other great House,
sometime belonging to the Bishop of Chichester, Whereof
Mathew Paris writeth thus: Raph de noua villa, or Neuill,
Bishop of Chichester and Chauncellor of England, sometime
builded a noble house, euen from the grounde, not farre from the
newe Temple and house of Conuertes, in the which place hee
deceased in the yeare 1244.
Lincolns Inne.; Lincolns Inne and Inne of Court.
In this place after the decease of the sayde Bishoppe, and
in place of the house of Blacke Fryers, before spoken of,
Henry Lacy Earle of Lincolne, Constable of Chester, and
Custos of England, builded his Inne, and for the most parte
was lodged there: hee deceased in this house in the yeare
1310. and was buried in the new worke, (whervnto he had
beene a great benefactor) of saint Pauls Church, betwixt our
Lady chappell and saint Dunstones Chappell. This Lincolnes
Inne sometime pertayning to the Bishops of Chichester, as
a part of the sayde great house, is now an Inne of Court,
retayning the name of Lincolnes Inne as afore, but now lately
encreased with fayre buildinges, and replenished with Gentlemen studious in the common lawes. In the raigne of H. the 8.
sir Thomas Louell was a great builder there, especially he builded
the gate house and forefront towardes the east, placing thereon
aswell the Lacies armes as his owne: hee caused the Lacies
armes to bee cast and wrought in leade, on the louer of the
hall of that house, which was in the 3. Escutcheons a Lyon
rampart for Lacie, 7. Mascules voyded for Quincie, and 3.
Wheat sheaues for Chester. This Louer being of late repayred
the sayde Escutcheons were left out. The rest of that side
euen to Fleetstreete is replenished with fayre buildings.
Hospitall of S. Giles founded.
Now the high Oldborne street, from the north end of Newstreet, stretcheth on the left hand in building lately framed,
vp to S. Giles in the field, which was an Hospitall founded by
Matilda the Queene, wife to Henry the first, about the yeare
1117. This Hospitall, sayeth the record of Edward the third,
the 19. yeare, was founded without the barre veteris Templi
London & conuer sorum.
Burton Lagar an Hospitall in Leycestershire.
This Hospitall was founded, as a sell to Burton Lager of
Ierusalem, as may appeare by a deed dated the 24. of H.
the 7. in these wordes: Thomas Norton knight, Mayster of
Burton Lager of Ierusalem in England, and the Bretheren of
the same place, keepers of the Hospitall of saint Giles without
the barres of the olde Temple of London, haue solde to Geffrey
Kent Citizen & Draper of London a messuage or house with
two sollars (fn. 10) aboue edified in the parrish of Alhallowes Hony lane
in west Chepe, adioyning to the west part of a tenement called the
Gote on the Hope, pertayning to the Drapers of London, for xxx.li.
S. Giles bowle.
At this Hospitall, the prisoners conuayed from the City of
London towardes teyborne, there to be executed for treasons,
fellonies, or other trespasses, were presented with a great
Bowle of Ale, thereof to drinke at theyr pleasure, as to be
theyr last refreshing in this life.
Suburbe without Ludgate.
Now without Ludgate lyeth the south end of the olde Bayly,
then down Ludgate hill by Fleet lane, ouer Fleet bridge, vp
Fleetestreete by Shooe lane, Fewtars lane, Newstreet or
Chauncerie lane, and to Shire lane by the Barre on the right
hand. And from Ludgate on the left hand or south side by
Bride lane, Water lane, Crokers lane, Sergeants Inne, and the
new Temple by the barre: all which is of Faringdon Ward as
is afore shewed.