Parishes
Tingewick

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Victoria County History

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William Page (editor)

Year published

1927

Pages

249-251

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'Parishes : Tingewick', A History of the County of Buckingham: Volume 4 (1927), pp. 249-251. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=62577 Date accessed: 20 October 2014.


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TINGEWICK

Tedinwiche (xi cent.); Tengewicha (xii cent.); Tingewic, Tyngwyk (xiii–xvi cent.).

This parish covers nearly 2,178 acres, of which 1,215 are pasture, 530 arable, and 181 woods and plantations. (fn. 1) The soil is principally gravelly loam with the subsoil various. The general level of the land is well over 300 ft. above the ordnance datum, and reaches 392 ft. on the borders of Oxfordshire. The land falls towards the north and east, where it is liable to floods from the River Ouse and its tributaries.

The village lies along the road from Buckingham to Deddington (Oxon.) and is of a fair size, the irregularly built houses standing on both sides of the High Street. Several of the houses in the village are of the 17th century, and have thatched roofs. At the east entrance to the village a lane leads north to the church, which stands on a slight hill, with the rectory, built in 1854. to the north-west of the churchyard. Browne Willis, the antiquary, writing in 1735, speaks of an arched gateway leading to the rectory-house, conjectured by him to have been built by William of Wykeham, and used by the Oxford scholars in times of pestilence. (fn. 2) The rectory-house to which he alludes may be identical with the one described in a terrier dated 22 September 1607, during the incumbency of Erasmus Williams. (fn. 3) The house consisted of fifteen bays, ten tiled and five thatched, and among the lands attached to it were Northam and Stratford Howes Meadows, an orchard, two gardens, and Bull Hook Meadow, which was charged with keeping a bull for the use of the parishioners. (fn. 4)

Slightly to the north-east of the church is the Manor Farm, lately the residence of Mr. H. Arnatt, J.P., members of whose family were lessees under New College for a considerable period. Sheahan, about 1860, spoke of it as an ancient building with a mullioned window of four lights in the east front. (fn. 5)

Tingewick House, the residence of Mr. G. Robarts, is south of the High Street.

There is a Wesleyan chapel, built in 1863, and a Congregational chapel, dating from 1875.

Little Tingewick, a settlement of a few houses on the Oxfordshire border, is about three-quarters of a mile west of the village on the Buckingham road, which here passes over Sand Pit Hill.

In 1860–2 the remains of a Roman villa were found in Stollidge Field, (fn. 6) about a quarter of a mile northeast of the village, and below Tingewick Mill.

The parish was inclosed under an Act of 1773, which included the neighbouring parish of Radclive. (fn. 7) The inhabitants of another adjacent parish, Preston Bissett, put in a claim to right of common for sheep and cattle on Preston Hill and Behind Wood in Tingewick. (fn. 8) A similar claim on Tingewick Wild or Common, a space of 500 acres, had been made in the early years of the 18th century by the freeholders of Preston Bissett. (fn. 9)

Manor

Ten hides in TINGEWICK, assessed as a manor in 1086 among the lands of the Bishop of Bayeux, had been held before the Conquest by Alnod, a man of King Edward, who could sell. (fn. 10) Ilbert de Laci, the bishop's undertenant in 1086, shortly afterwards bestowed the manor on the abbey of the Holy Trinity on Mount St. Catherine, above Rouen, (fn. 11) and an entry on the Pipe Rolls for 1165 to the effect that 'Tengewicha Abbotis' rendered account of half a mark (fn. 12) refers to the abbey's tenancy. Thirty years later the abbot was sued by William son of Gregory for land in Tingewick, (fn. 13) and in 1209 he received a quitclaim from Gilbert de Finmere, who claimed to hold Tingewick Manor of the abbey in fee farm, (fn. 14) a further renunciation of rights in 2 carucates of land taking place in 1224. (fn. 15) Ralf Dungun, who held the manor in 1254–5, (fn. 16) was probably lessee or bailiff of the abbot, to whom John de Littlehill gave some lands in Tingewick in 1268. (fn. 17) John de Walemond, keeper of the manor in 1276, was fined £20 for the death of Richard le Tailor, and the goods of the abbot seized for that death were restored by the king. (fn. 18) Notwithstanding this pardon, the chests of the abbot at Harmondsworth, a Middlesex manor, were broken into and the deeds carried away. (fn. 19) The abbey of the Holy Trinity had a cell at Harmondsworth, (fn. 20) and the priors of that house are often returned as lords of Tingewick Manor, (fn. 21) Richard, the prior in 1279, complaining that houses and lands in Tingewick, demised to John his predecessor for nine years by Robert de Gibervill, had been re-entered by the said Robert, who broke the locks of the doors and carried away the goods. (fn. 22) In 1291 the lands, rents, &c., of the abbot in Tingewick were assessed at £14 10s. 6d., and the fruits, flocks and animals at £1. (fn. 23) The trees on the estate were felled and carried away by malefactors in 1316, when the abbot's servants were also assaulted. (fn. 24) Roger Sorel, procurator of the abbey of the Holy Trinity, was in possession of the manor in 1340, when an extent was taken. There was then a capital messuage with other hourses, old and in bad condition, a garden, dovecote and a water-mill, (fn. 25) which had been included in the valuation of 1291, (fn. 26) and was perhaps identical with the building assessed at 4s. in 1086. (fn. 27) In 1391 licence was obtained by the abbey to alienate Tingewick Manor and other possessions to William of Wykeham, Bishop of Winchester, for the use of Winchester College, Oxford. (fn. 28) Ever since that date the manorial rights of Tingewick have been vested in the Warden and Fellows of New College, as it was afterwards called. (fn. 29)

Church

The church of ST. MARY MAGDALENE consists of a chancel measuring internally 30 ft. by 16 ft., nave 46 ft. by 18 ft., north aisle 8 ft. wide, south aisle, west tower 12 ft. by 11 ft. and a south porch.

The three eastern bays of the north arcade of the nave are probably pierced in the wall of a 12thcentury church, the nave of which was lengthened westwards and the north aisle added about 1200. This aisle appears to have been considerably altered and perhaps widened at a later period, possibly in the 17th century. The present chancel and west tower were built in the late 15th century, and the south aisle was added in 1830 and the south porch in 1867. The walling is of rubble, and the roofs are covered with slate.

In the east wall of the chancel is a late 15th-century window of three cinquefoiled lights with vertical tracery in a four-centred head. The two windows in each side wall are square-headed and of two lights; the western window on the north side is rather smaller than the others and has tracery, while the eastern window on the south side has its sill brought down to form a sedile. In the normal position is a piscina with a cinquefoiled head and projecting basin, contemporary, like the windows, with the 15th-century rebuilding of the chancel. The chancel arch, which is the whole width of the chancel, is four-centred and of two chamfered orders springing from corbels. Above it were formerly painted the arms of William and Mary.

The north arcade of the nave is of four bays, the three eastern arches being round-headed, while the westernmost arch is pointed; each is of a single order with chamfered angles, and is inclosed by a label with a serrated moulding on the underside. The east respond has a small impost moulding, and the angles are chamfered. The two eastern piers are round, and have shallow bell capitals with square moulded abaci truncated at the angles; both originally had moulded bases, but that of the second pier has been cut away. The third pier, which probably marks the extent of the original nave, is rectangular, and has a moulded abacus. The modern south arcade has pointed arches supported by octagonal columns.

In the east wall of the north aisle, placed a little to the south of the centre of the wall, is a pointed window of two plain lights with a pierced spandrel in the head. The position of the window suggests that the aisle may have been widened, perhaps in 1634, the date inscribed on a stone now set in the south wall of the modern south aisle, and probably recording some repair or alteration to the fabric. The easternmost window in the north wall is a single light, with a round head inclosed by a roughly pointed label; the window has been made up of fragments from elsewhere, the jambs being of 12th-century moulded stones. The window to the west of this is formed in the pointed head of the blocked north doorway. In the west wall is a window like that at the north-east, but renewed externally. At the east end of the aisle are traces of a former rood doorway. The details of the south aisle are modern.

The 15th-century tower is of three stages, with western diagonal buttresses, a vice turret at the southeast rising only to the intermediate stage, and an embattled parapet. Below the parapet is a moulded cornice, with plain gargoyles at the angles and a grotesque boss in the centre of each face. The tower arch is of two pointed and chamfered orders. In the west wall of the ground stage is a pointed doorway with an outer square inclosing order and unfinished spandrels; above it is a restored window of two lights with tracery in a pointed head. At the south-east is a pointed doorway opening to the vice. The intermediate stage is lighted by a single cinquefoiled light in the south wall, and the bell-chamber has pointed windows of two trefoiled lights on all four sides.

The font is modern. The altar table is of the late 16th century.

On the north wall of the chancel is an elaborate brass, set in a frame of stone, to Erasmus Williams, a former rector (d. 1608). Upon the brass is his halffigure with a design symbolical of his attainments in music, painting, astronomy and geometry, and below is an epitaph signed by 'R. Haydock.' On the same wall is a monument to Anna, the wife of Thomas Oldys, rector of the parish (d. 1696).

There is a ring of five bells and a sanctus bell: the treble, fourth and sanctus are by Robert Atton, and are dated 1627, 1623 and 1622 respectively; the second is by Bartholomew Atton, 1591; the third is of the 15th century, and is inscribed 'Nomen Magdalene Campana Gerit Melodie'; and the tenor is by Henry Bagley, 1721.

The plate consists of a silver chalice and flagon, a silver paten inscribed E. O., and an electro-plated paten.

The registers begin in 1560.

Advowson

The church of Tingewick, valued at £7 6s. 8d. in 1291, (fn. 30) and £13 6s. 8d. in 1535, (fn. 31) has always descended with the manor, (fn. 32) the patronage being now vested in New College, Oxford.

Charities

Charles Longland, by his will proved in the P.C.C., in 1688 directed his trustees to purchase a parcel of land called Yard-land, containing about 4½a., the rent thereof to be distributed among poor widows, possessing certain qualifications. The land is let at £7 12s. 6d. a year, which is distributed among about twenty recipients.

Elizabeth North, by her will, date unknown, bequeathed £40, the trust of which is believed to have been intended for poor maids. The legacy is now represented by £40 11s. 2d. consols with the official trustees, producing £1 a year, which is distributed equally among five poor people.

In 1751 the Rev. Francis Edmonds, a former rector, by deed founded a charity for the education and clothing of six boys and six girls. The endowment consists of a rent-charge of £15 issuing out of lands in the town of Buckingham, which is applied for educational purposes.

The Poor's Plot consists of 22 a., awarded in 1775 for the use of the poor. The land is let in allotments, producing about £13 yearly, which is distributed in money gifts.

Footnotes

1 Statistics from Bd. of Agric. (1905).
2 Browne Willis, Hist. and Antiq. of Buckingham, 313.
3 Ibid. His will, made 28 March, was proved 7 May 1608 (P.C.C. 40 Windebanck).
4 Willis, loc. cit.
5 Sheahan, Hist. and Topog. of Bucks. 316.
6 Rep. of Roy. Com. on Hist. Monum. North Bucks. 299; V.C.H. Bucks. ii, 12.
7 Priv. Act, 13 Geo. III, cap. 66.
8 Ibid.
9 Exch. Dep. Hil. 5 & 6 Anne, no. 25.
10 V.C.H. Bucks. i, 238.
11 Ibid. 212.
12 Pipe. R. 13 Hen. II (Pipe R. Soc.), 109.
13 Rot. Cur. Reg. (Rec. Com.), i, 44.
14 Pipe R. Beds. and Bucks. 11 John, m. 4.
15 Feet of F. case 14, file 14, no. 7.
16 Hund. R. (Rec. Com.), i, 29.
17 Feet of F. case 16, file 40, no. 1.
18 Cal. Pat. 1272–81, p. 166.
19 Ibid. 236.
20 Tanner, Not. Mon.
21 Feud. Aids, i, 108; Mins. Accts. bdle. 1125, no. 1. The abbot is returned as lord in Testa de Nevill (Rec. Com.), 244; Feud. Aids, i, 87.
22 Cal. Pat. 1272–81, p. 346.
23 Pope Nich. Tax. (Rec. Com.), 47.
24 Cal. Pat. 1313–17, pp. 425, 427.
25 Chan. Inq. p.m. 14 Edw. III (2nd nos.), no. 63.
26 Pope Nich. Tax. (Rec. Com.), 47.
27 V.C.H. Bucks. i, 238.
28 Cal. Pat. 1388–92, pp. 378, 407, 434.
29 Willis, op. cit. 313; Priv. Act, 13 Geo. III, cap. 66; Lysons, Mag. Brit. i (3), 650; Lipscomb, Hist. and Antiq. of Bucks. iii, 123.
30 Pope Nich. Tax. (Rec. Com.), 32.
31 Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), iv, 239.
32 See also Inst. Bks. (P.R.O.); Bacon, Liber Regis. 489.