Monuments in the cathedral

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Institute of Historical Research

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Author

Edward Hasted

Year published

1800

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383-424

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'Monuments in the cathedral', The History and Topographical Survey of the County of Kent: Volume 11 (1800), pp. 383-424. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=63674 Date accessed: 22 October 2014.


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Monuments in the cathedral

The ACCOUNT of MONUMENTS and GRAVESTONES, throughout this church, has been purposely reserved to mention them in this place altogether, that the description of the fabric might not be interrupted by the recital of such a number of them; many of them in the nave and martyrdom had been curiously and richly inlaid with ornaments and inscriptions on brass, but all of them have been long since defaced and the brasses purloined from them.

Mention has been made before, that on the new paving of the nave a few years ago, the several gravestones and tombs in it were removed elsewhere; (fn. 1) the antient ones, especially of the archbishops and the priors, to make good the pavement of the sermonhouse, and the modern ones to the lower south wing or cross isle. For the inscriptions on the several brasses throughout this church, we are principally indebted to Weever and Somner, as we are to Battely and Dart for the later memorials, each of whom have respectively preserved the memory of such as remained in their times; (fn. 2) from them we learn that of those in the nave the lowermost gravestone in the middle space being one of a much larger size than usual, having been richly inlaid with brats, with the portrait of a bishop in his robes, and an inscription likewise, was for John Bokingham, bishop of Lincoln, who died in king Richard II.'s reign, about the year 1397, having resigned his bishopric and become a monk of this priory, where he died. (fn. 3)

Some little distance higher was an inscription in French, with the figure of a knight in armour, and shields of arms, for Sir William Septvans, who died in 1407. (fn. 4) Near it was an inscription in Latin, with the figures of a knight and his wife, with their shields of arms, for Sir William Septvans, who died anno 1448, and Elizabeth his wife, daughter of Sir John Peche, and these verses,
Sum quod eris, volui quod vis, credens quasi credis.
Vivere forte diu, mox ruo morte specu
Cessi quo nescis, nec quomodo, quando sequeris.
Hinc simul in cælis ut simus quoque preceris.

Not far from thence an inscription in Latin, with a figure of a man and shield of arms, for Odomar Heng ham, esq. who died in 1411. (fn. 5) Nearer the south side an inscription in Latin on a large grey stone, with the figure of a knight and his shields of arms, for the most noble Sir John Guildford, one of the counsellors of Henry VII. He died anno 8 Henry VII. 1493.

Near the above an inscription in Latin, with the figures of a man in long robes, and a woman and shields of arms, for William Bruchelle, five Brenchley, formerly justice of the common pleas, who died in Holborne, in the suburb of London, in 1446, and Joane his wife, who died in 1453. (fn. 6)

Not far from the above, an inscription in English, and figure of a man in a long gown, for Edm. Haut, esq. who died in 1488.

Nearer the north side, an inscription and figure of a knight with shields of arms, as follows:
Thomas Fogge, jacet hic, jacet hic sua sponsa Johanna,
Sint celo cives per te Deus hos et Osanna;
Regni Protector Francos Britones superavit
Nobilium rector sicuti Leo Castra predavit
Et quoq, Militiam sic pro patria peramavit
Ad summan patriam deus hunc ab agone vocavit. (fn. 7)

In the north isle of the nave was an inscription in Latin, and the figure of a priest in his long robes, for Master Richard Willeford, once chaplain of the chantry of Arundell, who died in 1520. Another for Robert Clifford, esq. brother to Richard Clifford, bishop of London, who died in 1422; and another for Sir William Arundell, justice of our lord the king.

At the upper end of the nave, between the pillars, were three large handsome raised tombs of Petworth marble, all richly inlaid with brasses; the one on the north side having had the portrait of an archbishop in his pontifical dress, for archbishop Islip, who died in 1366; the lower one on the south side having a like portraiture and ornaments on it, for archbishop Wittlesey, who died in 1374. The tomb above this last, having had an inscription and portraits of a man in long robes, and a woman, for William Lovelace, fergeant at law, and high steward of the liberties of Christ-church, and of Anne his first wife; he died anno 1576.

At the upper end of the middle space near the steps leading to the choir, there were several large gravestones of marble, which had been laid over priors of this church, and two over archbishops, as appeared by the marks remaining on them, each having been richly ornamented with brasses, having their portraits in their pontifical habits, shields of arms, &c. (fn. 8)

Weever mentions (fn. 9) a monument erected here to the memory of that valiant knight Sir William Molineux, of Seston, in Lancashire, who at the battle of Nauarret in Spain, was made knight banneret by Edward the black prince, anno 1367, under whose command he served likewise for a long time in the wars of France, whence returning home, he died in Canterbury, anno 1372, and was buried here; but even the place where the monument stood has been long since unknown.

John Monins, esq. of Swanton, by his will proved in 1568, directed to be buried in the parish church of Waldershare, and that there should be bestowed towards the rearing of a convenient tomb of stone, in the sheere church of this county, as a monument of him, the sum of 100 marcs.

Somner mentions several gravestones in the nave of this church, the particular places of which are unknown; these were of the prebendaries Myllys and Gardiner, formerly monks of this priory, and named prebendaries in the foundation charter of this church; of Thomas Hoo the younger, of Canterbury, anno 1407; of alderman Dobbs, anno 1580; of the lady Crook, wife of Sir Gerard Crook, anno 1579; besides which, he says, there were several others, which being mostly of mean and obscure persons, he did not think them worthy to mention.

To the above may be added, the memorials on gravestones of Adrian Saravia, prebendary of this church, and his first wife Catherine D'Alliz; he died in 1612; his monument will be mentioned hereafter; of John Sandford, prebendary, who died in 1629; of one for Nicholas, John and Nicholas Sympson, grandfather, father and son; the first and the last of them both S. T. P. and prebendaries of this church; the one died 1630; the other in 1609. The son being bred a merchant, on the raging of the civil war, retired into the country, where he died in 1680.

Dart has added these more modern ones, since defaced, and removed with the others. In the south isle, before the chapel door of the Nevils, surrounded by antient defaced gravestones, a blue one for Jacob de Prez, D. D. obt. 1717. Some gravestones over several children of Herbert Randolph, esq. and one for Elizabeth, daughter of John Best, esq. and widow of Herbert Randolph, esq. obt. 1697.

In the north isle a stone and inscription for the three daughters of Dr. Thomas Green, archdeacon and prebendary; another for Sarah, wife of Matthew Griffith, D. D. chaplain to king Charles I. and daughter of Richard Smith, D. D. chaplain to queen Anne; one for Walter Knight, A. M. minister of the gospel, afternoon lecturer on the Lord's day, in this place; another for Robert, son of Robert, the only son surviving of Dr. Isaac Bargrave, late dean of Canterbury, obt. 1659, æt. five years, and lies amidst the ashes of his father, brothers John, Isaac and Henry, and his sister Jane.

Farewell, sweet boy, and farewell all in thee,
Blest parents can in their best children see;
Thy life to wooe us unto heaven was lent us,
Thy death to wean us from the world is sent us.

Also for Isaac Bargrave, his brother, obt. 1663. Memorials for several of the family of Sprakeling; one for Dr. John Aucher, prebendary, obt. 1700; for Nicholas Wooton, organist, obt. 1700; for Francis Barton, esq. obt. 1639; for John, son of Christopher Allen, gent. of Borden, obt… In the middle space, a gravestone for Nathaniel Herring, esq a native of Jamaica, obt. 1716; for Theodorus Beacon, M. D. and his unmarried daughter Elizabeth; he died in 1729.

The modern gravestones, of later date, which were removed to the south cross isle, were mostly in memory of the several prebendaries and of their families; the former of which will be taken notice of in the account of them, in the further part of this work hereafter.

There are some few mural tablets against the sides of the nave, viz. against the north wall for Thomas Sturman, auditor of this church, who died in 1632, which being almost obliterated, was replaced by Dr. John Bargrave, vice-dean, in 1679; for Orlando Gibbons, of Cambridge, organist of the royal chapel to king Charles I. who came to Canterbury, to attend the solemnity of that prince's marriage with queen Henrietta Maria, but died here of the small-pox, on Whitsunday, 1625. (fn. 10) The monument has his but on it; for Wm. Gardiner, prebendary; obt. 1544; (fn. 11) for Adrian Saravia, prebendary; he died in 1612; the inscription on his gravestone has been mentioned before; for John Turner, S. T. P. canon of Lincoln, and prebendary of Canterbury; he married Sarah Tucker, a clergyman's daughter in Suffolk; he died in 1720; for Richard Colfe, S. T. P. prebendary, who died in 1613; a very handsome monument for Sir John Boys, having his effigies habited in his doctor's robes, in a reclining posture, lying on it; he was of the family of Fredville, and was bred to the law, he was steward to five archbishops of Canterbury; assessor in the court to three wardens of the five ports, recorder of the city of Canterbury, founder of Jesus hospital in the suburbs; he married two wives, first, Dorothy Pawley; secondly, Jane Walker, but left, no child; he died 1612, æt. 77; underneath are the figures of his two wives and of an infant lying in swadling cloaths, on a tablet between them; at top are his arms between those of his two wives. This monument being much abused in the great rebellion, was repaired by his relation Grotius Boys, son of Geoffry, of Betshanger; (fn. 12) at a small distance is a mural tablet for Dr. Thomas Boys, of Fredville, who married the daughter of Richard Rogers, S.T.P. dean of Canterbury, and suffragan to the archbishop; and likewise for Elizabeth, second daughter of Sir William Boys, M. D. great-grandson of the aforesaid Thomas Boys; she died in 1722.

Against the south wall, an oval tablet of white marble for John Porter, esq. of Wandsworth, in Surry; he died in 1764; he married Catherine, daughter of lieutenant-general George Sutton, by whom he left one son and five daughters; at the top the arms of Porter, three bells and a canton, and at bottom Requiescat in Pace; (fn. 13) another like tablet for Richard Cope Hopton, esq. of these precincts, who died in 1786; and further an elegant monument of sculpture, in white marble, executed by Rysbrack, for John Sympson, esq. the only surviving son of John Sympson, of the profession of the law, the first born of Nicholas Sympson; he studied the liberal arts, and particularly physic, at Merton college, Oxford; he died in 1748.

At a little distance eastward from this monument is an antient one against the wall, the letters of which are much defaced by time; at the under part of it there has been seemingly the effigies of one or more persons. The following is the inscription on it:

He thats imprisoned in this narrow room,
Wer't not for custom needs nor verse, nor tomb;
Nor can from these a memory be lent
To him who must be his tombs monument.
And by the virtue of his lasting fame,
Must make his tomb live long, not it his name;
For when this gaudy monument is gone,
Children of th' unborn world shall spy the stone
That covers him and to their fellows cry,
Tis' here, tis hereabouts BERKELEY does lie,
To build his tomb then, is not thought so safe
Whose virtue must outlive his epitaph. (fn. 14)

On the outside of the south wall of the nave, but with a door opening into it till lately, stood Nevil,s chapel, formerly Brenchley's chantry, and fitted up by dean Nevil, about the year 1600, as a place of burial for himself and his relations, as has been already taken no tice of before. In this chapel were two handsome monuments; that on the east side consisted of two compartments; under one arch of it was the effigies of dean Nevill, in his habit, kneeling at a desk, who was buried here in 1615; under the other arch, that of his brother 'Alexander Nevill, habited in armour, in the like posture; he was the eldest son of Richard Nevill, esq. by Ann Mantel, daughter of Sir Walter Mantel; he died in 1614; opposite was the monument of Richard Nevill, esq. and Anne his wife, the dean's fa ther and mother, and Thomas Nevill, his uncle, erected in 1599 by the dean; but the dates of the death and age of the dean, and the age of his brother Alexander, who died in 1614, are on their monument left blanks, as having probably been erected in their lives time, and not inserted afterwards; Richard Nevill, abovementioned, was born in Nottinghamshire, whose father and elder brother were Sir Alexander and Sir Anthony Nevill, he spent the decline of his life at Canterbury, having married Ann, daughter of Sir Walter Mantel, and the lady Margaret, (who after Sir Walter's death, married Sir William Hault, and lastly Sir James Hales) they were all buried in this chapel. (fn. 15)

In the lower south wing or cross isle, are several modern mural monuments, viz. of William Kingsley, archdeacon and prebendary; he died in 1647, and of Damaris his wife, who survived him, and died in October, 1678; another for the famous and learned Meric Cafaubon; both he and his father Isaac Casaubon having been canons of this church; he died in 1671; one for John Castilion, S.T.P. dean of Rochester, and canon of this church, who died in 1688; against the principal pillar are two monumental compartments, one for Mrs. Frances Holcombe, wife of Samuel Holcombe, S.T.P. and prebendary, daughter of George Hetherington, gent. of London, and Susan his wife, of the antient family of Wilmer, in Yorkshire; of four children she bore, Frances, Samuel and Ann Survived; she died in 1725; the other for Samuel Holcombe, S.T.P. above-mentioned; he died in 1761; this monument was erected by his children Samuel Holcombe, A.M. prebendary of Worcester, and Frances; another for Miss Jane Hardres, only daughter of Sir Thomas Hardres, king's forjeant at law, and Philadelphia his wife; she died in 1675.

At the corner between the south door and St. Michael's chapel, is a mural monument for John Battely, S.T.P. rector of Adisham, and canon and archdeacon of this church and diocese; he died in 1708. On the other side of the entrance into the above chapel, against the corner pillar, is a marble monument of two compartments, for Herbert Randolph, A.M. eldest son of Herbert Randolph, esq. of this city, and Mary his wife, daughter of John Castilion, dean of Rochester. He married Catherine, daughter of Edward Wake, S.T.P. prebendary of this church; and after her death, Mary, daughter of Nathaniel Denew, esq. He was first of Christ church, in Oxford, and then fellow of All Souls college; afterwards rector of Deal and of Woodchurch, and a six preacher of this cathedral.— Dart says, that in this isle were gravestones for Elizabeth, widow of Thomas Hayman, and Thomas their only son. She died in 1615; he in 1634; for Mrs. Jane Hamand, rest obliterated; for … Crisp, citizen of London, obt. 1632, æt. 21; for Catherine, widow of Nicholas Drake, esq. who had by her former husband, William Kingsley, five sons and one daughter, descended from the Tothills, in Devonshire, and was the youngest of thirty-three children, of William Tothill, and survived them all. She died in 1622. For Jane Ansell, widow, daughter of Robert Moyle, esq. of Buckwell, obt. 1632. Near St. Michael's chapel, for William Belk, S.T.P. prebendary, obt. 1676; for Thomas Belk, S.T.P. prebendary, son of the former, obt. 1712. A small stone for Ursula Horsmonden, obt. 1682. These gravestones have all been removed from their places, and have been intermixed with those removed from the nave, on making the new pavement there and placed here, as has been already noticed before.

Adjoining to the east side of this isle, is St. Michael's, otherwise called the Somerset chapel, entirely filled with sculptured monuments, all which are entire and well preserved, owing to their not being erected to the memories of churchmen; almost a sure destruction to them, in the time of the great rebellion.

In the middle of this chapel is a beautiful and sumptuous raised tomb or monument of alabaster, on which lie, in full proportion, the effigies, excellently sculptured, of Margaret, daughter of Thomas, and sister and coheir of Edmund Holand, both earls of Kent; beside her lie her two husbands: on her left John Beaufort, marquis of Dorset and earl of Somerset; and on her right Thomas Plantagenet, duke of Clarence; (fn. 16) round the edge of the tomb were these two verses in brass, now worn away:

Hic jacet in tumulo Thomas Clar. nunc quasi nullus;
Qui fuit in Bello Clarus nec clarior ullus.

The mural monuments are; on the left or north side, one for lieutenant-colonel Prude, slain at the siege of Mastricht, in the Belgic wars, in 1632. On it is his effigies clad in armour, kneeling on a cushion on one knee; and underneath these verses:

Stand soldiers ere you march, by way of charge
Take an example here, that may enlarge
Your minds to noble actions. Here in peace
Rests one whose life was war, whose rich increase
Of fame and honor from his valour grew,
Unbegged, unbought; for what he won he drew
By just desert: having in service been
A soldier till near sixty from sixteen
Years of his active life: Continually
Fearless of death, yet still prepar'd to die
In his religious thoughts: For midst all harms
He bore as much of piety as arms.
Now soldiers on, and fear not to intrude
The gates of death, by th' example of this Prude.

He married Mary, daughter of Sir Adam Spracklin, and had by her four sons and three daughters. His surviving son Searles erected this monument.

Next to this, eastward, is another monument, adorned likewise with much sculpture, for Sir Thomas Thornhurst and his lady. He was son of Sir Stephen Thornhurst, employed in the Dutch, German and Spanish wars, as a general, and was slain in the expedition against the Isle of Rhee, in 1627; by Barbara his wife, one of the coheirs of Thomas Shirley, esq. he had three children, Barbara, Anthony and Cecilia. On it are their effigies, his, clad in armour, in a reclining posture, holding his shield of arms in his left hand; hers, lying at full length beside him, having a book in her right hand. Underneath are the figures of their three children; above them all is a tablet with these verses:

Stay gentle reader, pass not slightly by,
This tomb is sacred to the memory
Of noble Thornhurst; what he was and who
There is not room enough in me to show,
Nor his brave story out at length t' explain
Both Germanies, the new found world and Spain,
Ostends long siege and Newports battle tryed
His worth; at last warring with France he dyed.
His blood sealed that last conquest, for black Rhee
Gave him at once a death and victory
His death as well as life victorious was
Fearing lest Rhee (as might be brought to pass)
By others might be lost in time to come
He took possession till the day of doom.

Eastward of the above is another handsome monument, for lady Thornhurst, sometime the wife of Sir Richard Baker, of Sisinghurst, by whom she had two daughters, the lady Grisogone Lennard and the ladyCicely Blunt. She died in 1609; on it is her effigies lying at full length, her head reclining on her right hand, and in her left a book; above is that of a man kneeling, with his hands joined and uplisted, he is clad in armour with his sword and spurs on. Underneath her figure, on one side the base, is that of dame Grisogone Lennard; on the other, that of dame Cicely Blunt, both kneeling in the full dress of the times.

The next monument still further eastward, is that of the lady Dorothy Thornhurst, daughter of Roger Drew, esq. of Dentworth, who after the decease of Dr. Hippocrates d' Otten, a celebrated physician of the illustrious family of Otten, in Holsatia, married a second time to Sir Stephen Thornhurst, and survived him. She died in 1620; on it is her effigies, kneeling, her hands joined and uplisted as in the attitude of prayer, as large as life, elegantly carved in alabaster; before her is a desk, with a book lying open on it. On the base of the tomb are these verses:

Si Laudata Venus, Funo, si sacra Minerva,
Quis te collaudet fœmina? talis eras;
Te Te magnaninam, pulchram, Doctamq; Cadentem,
Et talem tantis Dotibus urna teget?
Spiritus astra ferit, sic inter Sidera Sidus,
Cœlicolam receipt Cœlicolumq; Domus.

At the east end, a handsome one of white marble, for Miss Anne Milles, called the Beauty of Kent, having her bust carved in white marble on it; she was daughter of Samuel Milles, esq. and Anne his wife. She died unmarried in 1714, æt. 20. On the pavement below is a remarkable antient tomb of stone, coffin shaped, having a cross carved on the top, for archbishop Stephen Langton; only the head part of it is within the chapel, the wall of which crosses the middle of it, by which it appears that the old chapel, in which it was first erected, was of a larger extent than the present one. (fn. 17) Next is a mural monument, being a cenotaph, for Sir George Rooke, who lies buried in St. Paul's church, in Canterbury. On it is placed his bust, dressed in a large full curled wig, after the manner of Sir Cloudesly Shovel's, in Westminster abbey. He was son of Sir William Rooke, knight, and vice admiral of England. The French flying from the fight in 1692, he in an open boat, amidst the fire of great and small shot, in the presence of so many French, a deed scarce credible, having first prepared the fire ships, burnt thirteen ships of war near La Hogue; afterwards the difference between the Swedes and Danes being composed, he by his advice left the north in peace and returned southward, where a whole fleet of the enemies convoying ships, were either burnt or taken at Vigo. He safely brought to England the galleons, ships of immense burthen, laden with treasure; and with the utmost integrity lodged the spoils in the public treasury. He took Gibraltar with the fleet in fewer hours than a regular army afterwards in vain besieged it months, and with the same career of success, his navy being much inferior in strength, he put to flight the whole French fleet, which, though well provided, dared not to hazard a battle. He retired after all to his paternal seat near this city, where he died in 1708; he married three wives; first, Mary Howe, of Cold Berwick, in Wiltshire; secondly, Mary Lutterell, of Dunster castle, in Somersetshire; and thirdly, Catherine Knatchbull, of Mersham Hatch, in Kent; by therine second of whom he left George, his only son.

On the south side a mural monument of alabaster, for Sir James Hales, who being appointed treasurer in the expedition to Portugal, and returning from thence died in 1589; for Alice his widow, who died in 1592; and for Cheney Hales, their only son, who was snatched away by an untimely death. Richard Lee, esq. the surviving husband of the said Alice, erected this monument. On it, is sculptured a ship on the seas, on the side of which two men are putting down a man in armour, with his hands joined and uplisted, into the sea; underneath which, on the shore, is an elderly man with a beard, in a long loose gown and hood over his head, kneeling on a cushion, his hands joined in the attitude of prayer, before a stone desk, on which lies a book open; in the back ground is a small chapel and a few trees about it. On the side of the desk is a shield, being the arms of Lee, impaling those of dame Alice Hales; in a compartment underneath, is the effigies of a youth in a cloak, kneeling on a cushion before a stone desk, on which is a book open, his hands joined in the attitude of prayer.

Next to this, in the corner, is a handsome one, with military trophies, for brigadier Francis Godfrey, groom of the bedchamber to prince George of Denmark, and a colonel in the army. He died in 1712.

There are two small brass plates fixed to the walls of this chapel; one against the north wall for prior Richard Oxinden, who died in 1338; the other against the south wall for prior Robert Hathbrand, who died in 1370. On each are engraved their figures; they were both buried in this chapel.

At the entrance of this chapel, upon a gravestone, are the arms of Musgrave, and an inscription to the memory of Mary Musgrave, descended by the mother from the noble family of the Whartons; she died in 1623, æt. 19; and near the foot of the duke of Clarence's monument, a gravestone for Sir Edward Master, eldest son of Jacob Master, esq. of East Langdon, who married Ethelred Streynsham, eldest daughter and coheir of Robt. Streynsham, esq. of Ospringe, who having been married forty years, and become the father of fifteen children by her, died in 1648.

In the opposite or north cross isle, commonly called the martyrdom, against the north wall is the monument of archbishop Peckham, (fn. 18) under an arch, which has been adorned with carving and gilding; this is of stone, but the effigies of the archbishop, lying at length in his pontifical hat it, is of oak wood, entirely sound, near five hundred years old It is not fixed to the tomb, but lies fastened to a slab of the same wood, none of which has seemingly ever been painted. The upper part of the mitre is wanting; (fn. 19) he died in 1292.

Next to this, against the same wall, is the monument of archbishop Warham, of beautiful gothic stone-work; on which is the figure of the archbishop, lying at full length in his pontifical habit; the brasses of the coats of arms on the base of the tomb, have been purloined. He died in 1534. This beautiful monument has lately been thoroughly cleaned from the white-wash which covered it, so that it now displays all its original beauties and perfect elegance of gothic architecture; and for the future preservation of this and the other monuments in the martyrdom, the dean and chapter, at whose expence this improvement has been made, have inclosed the whole with an iron railing.

Against the east wall, where was formerly the altar of St. Thomas Becket, close to the passage into the undercroft, is a mural monument, for Alexander Chapman, S. T. P. on which is his bust in white marble. He was archdeacon of Stow, in Lincolnshire, and prebendary of this church; he died in 1729. Near the cloister door is a mural tablet, for the Rev. John Clerke, A. M. born at Witney, in Oxfordshire, and lastly, rector of the united parishes of St. Mary Bothaw and St. Swithin, London; who after a short stay at the deanry here, whither he had retired on account of his health, died in 1700. His widow Rebecca, daughter of George Hooper, gent. of Worcestershire, erected this monument. At a small distance from this is another, for Priscilla, daughter of Thomas Fotherbye, esq. wife of William Kingsley, gent. She died in 1683.

At the entrance of this isle is a gravestone, over John Bargrave, S. T. P. canon of this church, who died in 1680; and further in it another, for James Jefferies, S. T. P. canon likewise of it, who died in 1689; and one near archbishop Peckham's monument, for Dr. Charles Elstob, a prebendary of this church. On the pavement are several large stones, which have been robbed of their brasses. There are three of these over the graves of archbishops Ufford, Stafford and Dean; and three more over those of the priors Finch, Selling, and Goldstone, all which appear to have been richly inlaid, having had on them their portraits, in their pontifical habits, shields of arms, inscriptions, &c. (fn. 20)

In this place Mr. Somner says, there was in his time, a stone with an inscription on brass, in Latin, for Sir John Fineux, and Elizabeth his wife, daughter of Paston. He was chief justice of the king's bench, under both the reigns of king Henry VII and VIII. and was a great benefactor to the convent of the White Friars, in this city. Another for dame Tuston Montague, wife of Sir James Montague, attorney. general to queen Anne, obt. 1712. In the south-west corner, one for Dr. Thomas Fotherby, the son of Thomas and grandson of Martin, bishop of Salisbury; he married Elizabeth, daughter of Manwaring Hammond, esq. obt. 1710. Adjoining to the east side of this cross isle, and separated from it only by a gothic screen of open work, is the chapel, formerly called the Virgin Mary's, but now the Dean's chapel, from several deans of this church having been buried in it; six of them being deposited here since the reformation. The first of these was Richard Rogers, S. T. P. who lies under a handsome table monument, on the north side. He was suffragan to the archbishop of Canterbury, and thirteen years dean of this church; and died in 1597. On the south side is a tomb, the sides of which are adorned with sculpture of sculls, human bones and other such emblems of mortality, erected for dean Charles Fotherbye, of Great Grimsby, in Lincolnshire, archdeacon, then prebendary, and lastly, dean of this church; he died in 1619. His widow Cecilia lies buried in the same tomb. (fn. 21) Near to this, on the same side, is a mural monument, having on it the effigies of dean John Boys, sitting in his study, with a table and reading desk before him, leaning his head on his hand. The pillars and entablature, on which are four escutcheons of his arms, and those of the deanry, are of the Ionic order, all of white marble; he died suddenly in his study, in the year 1625. At the east end under the window is a handsome mural monument for dean Thomas Turner, canon residentiary of St. Paul's London, then dean of Rochester, and lastly dean of this church; he died in 1672. On the north side is an oval half length painting on copper, for dean Isaac Bargrave: it is copied from one of Cornelins Janson, in the deanry; it is inclosed in a beautiful frame of white marble, at the bottom of which is his coat of arms and inscription; he died in 1642. Here likewise was intombed Elizabeth Dering his wife, who died in 1667.

About the middle of the chapel is a black marble stone and inscription for dean John Potter, S. T. P. who died in 1770, and for Martha his wife; on opening the grave for the dean, some bones were found which might probably be those of prior Goldstone, the founder of this chapel, and buried in it.

Near the entrance is a memorial for James Wedderburn, born at Dundee, in Scotland, dean of the royal chapel there, and lastly bishop of Dumblain, for four years; he died in 1639; and another for John Bourchier, archdeacon of Canterbury, who died in 1495, whose coat of arms, as well as several devices and legends relating to him, are dispersed throughout the east window of this chapel.

In the upper south isle, adjoining to the choir, under the second south window eastward, even with the wall, is the tomb of archbishop Walter Reynolds, who died in 1327, with his effigies in his pontifical robes, lying at full length on it, but much defaced, the inscription round it obliterated; and at the feet of it, under the next window, that of archbishop Hubert Walter, who died in 1193, of the like form, only with a dog at his feet, and in the same condition. Their robes were once adorned with the armorial bearings of their families; (fn. 22) but a thick covering of white-wash, the usual modern embellishment of church monuments, has for a long time hid the remains of them; the inscription on the latter tomb was hardly discernable in Weever's time, and the place only is now to be traced where it once was. On the opposite or north side next the choir door, is the monument of archbishop cardinal Kemp, on the south side of the presbytery, having an inscription round it in brass, all entire to this day; he died in 1454— Next above this, on the south side of the high altar, is that of archbishop Stratford, who died in 1341, having his effigies on it, lying at length in his pontifical dress, made of alabaster, but without any inscription. Above this is the monument of archbishop Sudbury, who being beheaded by the rebels in London in 1381, his body was brought hither and buried in this tomb; a fragment of his epitaph round it in brass yet remains. To this tomb the mayor and aldermen of this city were used to come, with much form and ceremony, yearly to visit it, in grateful commemoraration of the great benefactions he had made to this city. (fn. 23)

Opposite to this last, is the tomb of archbishop Mepham, of black marble, making a part of a very elegant screen of stone work between this side isle and St. Anselm's chapel, under the great south window of which is a raised part said to be the tomb of archbishop Bradwardin, who died in 1349, but without any inscription or ornament.

In this chapel, at first dedicated to St. Peter and St. Paul, were deposited the remains of St. Anselm, who died in 1107, whence it was afterwards called by his name; this chapel having escaped the fire, it is probable his bones rested here till the reformation, when it is reasonable to suppose, his relics met with the same fatefrom the king's commissioners, that those of Becket, Winchelsea, and others in this church did, which had been the objects of popular superstition.

At the north-east corner of the cross isle or wing below this chapel, was, as is conjectured, the tomb of archbishop Winchelsea; in this place, where he is said to have been buried in 1313, there are some broken places in the great pillar, and several marble pillars adjoining to it are so broken as to shew plainly that some high built monument or the like, had been once erected there; most probably it was demo lished at the time of the reformation, on account of the great veneration he was held in by the common people.

On the opposite side of the choir, in the north isle are two monuments; on the south side of it adjoining to the choir, being the westernmost of the two, is that of archbishop Chicheley, who died in 1443, founder of All Souls college; it was made in his life tme at his own expence, (fn. 24) and is very rich in carving, gilding and painting; there are several small figures of the apostles; of death, time, &c. round the two pillars at the ends of it; upon the tomb, which is of marble, lies the effigies of the archbishop in his pontifical dress, his cross beside him, as in full health; at his head are two angels sitting, and at his feet two priests kneeling, in the attitude of prayer; underneath the tomb is hollowed, and at the bottom of it, as an emblem of that mortality and humiliating state to which he was one day to come, is the archbishop's figure again represented as an emaciated corpse, almost naked. The inscription on brass round it is entire. (fn. 25)

The other monument, higher up on the northern side of the high altar, is that of cardinal archbishop Bourgchier, erected by himself in his life time, as has been already noticed before. It is a high and stately monument, composed of Bethersden marble, the front of which is full of nitches, once filled with small figures, but they have been long since taken from thence; the inscription round it in brass is still entire; he died in 1486.

Opposite this tomb, over the door of the audit room, is a small mural tablet to the memory of Tho. Cocks, auditor and register of this church, in the beginning of the last century.

Ascending the steps at the east end of this isle, we come to the Trinity chapel; built behind the high altar of this church, the place in the midst of which the rich and much adorned shrine of St. Thomas Becket formerly stood, and which, from the sanctity of it, was reserved for the tombs and burials of such only as were of high rank and distinction.

The pillars of this chapel were built to form a circle round the eastern part of the above shrine, and between them, all the monuments in it, except one, are placed. The first on the north side, is that of king Henry IV. and his queen, Joane of Navarre, who was his second wife; (fn. 26) their effigies, in their royal robes and crowned, curiously sculptured of white marble or alabaster, lying at full length on it; his feet against a lion couchant, hers against a leopard, (the queen on the right hand,) under a canopy carved, painted and gilded, having on it three shields, one with the arms of England and France quarterly; another with the same, impaling Evreux and Navarre, and a third, Evreux and Navarre quarterly; all these on a ground diapered with eagles volant, and the word Soverayne, as the king's device and motto; and ermines, collared and chained, with the word Attemperance for that of the queen. There is likewise a tablet, at the foot of the tomb on which is the painting of an angel, standing and supporting a large escutcheon, charged with the same achievements. The devices and mottos above-mentioned enrich the cornice of the canopy, but what is particular, the word Soverayne and the eagles are on the side where the queen lies, and the erminesand Attemperance on the side of the king. Against the pillars at the head of the monument hangs a tablet, painted with the murder of archbishop Becket, now much decayed. (fn. 27)

This monument has suffered not a little within memory; much of the rich carving of the canopies over the heads of the king and queen having been broken off and destroyed some few years ago, and the figures themselves have suffered greatly from the heavy hands of the careless and ignorant labourers, who have at times been employed and left to themselves to clean it. (fn. 28)

On the opposite side to the above is the monument of Edward the black prince, the eldest son of king Edw. III. who died at the archbishop's palace here, (fn. 29) on June 8, anno 1376, and his funeral exequies were celebrated in this church on the feast of St. Michael following. (fn. 30) It is a noble monument, very entire and very beautiful; his figure, large as life, lies at length on it, his feet againsta lion coucbant, all in gilt brass; the figure compleatly armed, except the head, on which is a scull-cap with a coronet round it, once set with stones, of which only the collets now remain; and from hence hangs a hood of mail down to his breast and shoulders; below which, is his surcoat of arms, old France and England quarterly; the head of the figure rests on a casque or helmet joined to his cap, which supports his crest (a lion) formed after the trophies above the monument, where are his gauntlets curiously finished and gilt; his coat, on which are the arms above-mentioned, quilted with fine cotton, and at least as rich as any of those worn now by the officers at arms on public occasions, but much disfigured by time and dust; and the scabbard of his sword, which appears by it to have been but a small one. (fn. 31) His shield hangs upon a pillar near the head of his tomb, on which are the same arms of old France and England quarterly; it once had handles to it. (fn. 32)

Round the edge of the tomb is a long inscription in brass of French prose and verse, the whole of which is printed both in Weever, Sandford, Battely, and others; the former, being the only material part of it, is as follows:

Ly gift le noble Monsr. Edward aisnez filz du tres noble Roy Edward tiers: Prince d' Aquitaine & de Gales, Duc de Cornwaille & Count de Castre, qi morust, en la feste de la Trinite gestrit le viii jour deJuin Pan de grace mil trois cens Septante Sisine. lalm de qi Dieu eit mercy. Amen.

The sides and ends of the tomb are adorned with sculpture and shields of arms, on which are alter nately the arms of old France and England quarterly, with a file of three points, over the shield a label, on which is the word Houmout in old English letters.—The other shield has his own arms, viz. three ostrich featbers, the quill end of each in a socket, with a label crossing, on which is his motto Ich Dien, and a label above the shield in like manner, as the other beforementioned, with the like words Ich Dien on it. (fn. 33) On the canopy over the monument is painted the figure of our Saviour, now defaced, and the four Evangelists, with their symbols in small compartments at the four corners of it.

Between the two next pillars, eastward, is the elegant tomb of archbishop Courtney, who died in 1396, having his essigies in alabaster, dressed in his pontisical vestments, lying at full length on it, but without any inscription; many have contended this to have been only a cenotaph, as was frequently the custom in those times for great personages, and that the archbishop was buried in the chancel of the collegiate church at Maidstone, where there was a tomb and inscription, telling us that he lay buried there; but more of this will be found mentioned in the archbishop's life hereafter.

Under the next arch is a plain simple tomb for Odo Colignie, bishop elect of Beauvais, cardinal Chastilion, poisoned in 1571, as tradition reports, to prevent his embracing the Protestant religion, for which purpose he had come to England, and put himself under the protection of queen Elizabeth. (fn. 34) This tomb is no more than a covering of brick-work and plaiste over the coffin, which is laid on the pavement, and is much in the shape and form of many of the like sort in our country church-yards. Those who appointed his remains to be laid in this honorable place, did not, to all appearance, think it worth while to be at the expence of a decent repository for them.

Opposite to this tomb, on the north side of the chapel, at the foot of king Henry IV.'s monument, is that of dean Wotton, who died in 1566; he was descended of a noble family in this county, and was an eminent statesman and an accomplished courtier; for he found means to continue in favour and to act in a public character under four reigns, in which there were as many changes in religion. His figure, which represents him kneeling on his tomb, his hands joined and uplifted, in the attitude of prayer before a desk, on which is a book lying open, is an excellent piece of sculpture, the head especially, which is said to have been taken from the life, and executed at Rome during his stay there; the countenance has vast expression in it; he is represented in his doctor's robes, bare-headed and with short curly hair and beard; by the figure he seems to have been of a very small stature.

Near the south wall of this chapel, opposite to archbishop Courtney's monument, is one by itself, of a very singular form; it is so unlike all the monuments since the conquest, which I have seen described, that it seems more like one of Saxon antiquity, being made in the manner and shape of their shrines, rather than Norman. It was designed to stand close to a wall, but does not do so here; it is shewn as the tomb of archbishop Theobald, but the general opinion is to the contrary, (fn. 35) though it remains unknown for whom it was otherwise designed.

At the end of this chapel is a small circular building, being the eastern extremity of this church, called Becket's crown, in which, on the north side, is the tomb of cardinal archbishop Pole. It is a plain one, and of plaister, but of a form not inelegant; on it was this inscription, Depositum cardinalis Poli; above it there were, on the wall, some beautiful paintings in fresco, but these are sadly gone to decay, and there remains but little to be seen of them; but they are described to have been two angels supporting a shield of the cardinal's arms of eight coats, and between them two cherubims, holding a cardinal's hat; over this tomb is still remaining an old painting of St. Chrysostom carrying our Saviour over a river.

HAVING described the monuments and burials in the upper part of this church, I shall now descend to the cript or undercrost, where there are but few monuments or gravestones remaining. That part of the undercrost, now used as the French church, has the pavement so entirely covered with a coating of dirt so thick, that whatever remains on the original pavement, cannot be seen; but beyond this part of the undercrost, being the western extremity of it, there is to be seen agravestone laid over one of the archbishops or priors, having had on it his portrait in his pontisical habit and shields of arms, and otherwise richly ornamented, all in brass, which has been long since torn away from it. (fn. 36)

Further eastward from the French church, nearly under the high altar, is the monument of cardinal archbishop Morton, who died in 1500; his figure in his pontisical habit lies at length on it; around the arch over it, there have been many small figures and much ornamental sculpture. This was a very costly and superb monument, but the zealots in the time of the great rebellion desaced it shamefully; at a small distance nearly eastward from it, is his gravestone, in the middle of what was formerly the chapel of the Virgin Mary, which appears to have had on it his portrait, in his pontisical habit, with shields of arms and other ornaments in brass, all long since torn from it; by his will he directed to be buried before the image of the blessed Virgin Mary, commonly called our Lady of the Undercrost. (fn. 37) His monument, as above-mentioned, is between two pillars near the south-west corner of the chapel.

On the south side of this chapel, close to the outside of it, there is a handsome monument for Joane, daughter of Bartholomew de Burgherst, lady Mohun, prepared and set up at her own cost; (fn. 38) on the tomb is her figure, lying at full length; the inscription in French, being pour dieu priez por l'ame Johane Burwaschs que fut Dame de Mohun; but this has, as well as the rest of the monuments in this part of the undercrost, been from time to time much defaced by the carelessness of the workmen belonging to the church, who make this place the common repository for their materials, ladders and other such like unwieldy lumber; of course it is suffered to remain in a very silthy condition.

Not far distant south-eastward from this, is an antient tomb for Isabel, countess of Athol, on which is her figure at full length; (fn. 39) this has suffered likewise much within these few years; three handsome pannels of alabaster on the front of it, with shields of arms, having either through carelessness or mischief, been beat down from it; these lay for some years entire enough to have been replaced with little expence and trouble, but they are now lost and destroyed.

Still further eastward, there are several bodies interred, especially in that part which composes the vaults allotted to the first prebendary; these lie nearly even with the pavement, the stones of which seem to form the lids of the coffins.

Besides those who we know had monuments or memorials on their gravestones in this church, there were others, who were buried in it, for ought that we know, without any; several of these, among which are many of the first archbishops, with their places of sepulture, have already been mentioned, in the account of the sabric of the church; notwithstanding which, it may not be unacceptable to take some notice here of the burial-places of the several archbishops, from the time of St. Augustine, the first of them, who, as well as the nine succeeding archbishops, including Nothelm, were buried in St. Augustine's monastery, as was afterwards archbishop Jambert; Elsin, archbishop elect, died in the Alpes with cold, and was buried abroad, but where is not known. Archbishop Robert being ejected in 1052, died and was buried in the abbey of Gemetica, in Normandy.— Archbishop Stigand was buried at Winchester.— Archbishop Baldwin died, and was buried in the Holy Land. Archbishop Reginald, his successor, died within a few days after his election, and was buried in the church of Bath, of which diocese he was bishop. Archbishop Richard Wethershead, in his return from Rome, died and was buried at St. Gemma. St. Edmund, archbbishop, died and was buried in foreign parts. Archbishop Boniface died and was buried in the country of Savoy; and Robert Kilwardbye, his successor, died and was buried abroad, at Viterbo, in Italy. Archbishop Langham died and was buried at Avignon, whence his body was afterwards removed to Westminster abbey, of which place he had been abbot. The number of those, who were not buried in this church, being twenty one.

Those who were buried in it, having neither monument or gravestone at this time, whose places of burial in it have been already pointed out before, were the archbishops Cuthbert, Bregwin, Athelard, Wlfred, Fleologild, Ceolnoth, Athelred, Plegmund, Athelm, Wlfelm, Odo, Dunstan, Athelgar, Siricius, Elfric, Elphage, Living, Agelnoth, Edsin, Lansranc, Anselm, Rodulph, Corboil, Theobald, Thomas Becket, Richard, Winchelsea, Islip, Wittlesey and Arundel; these are in number thirty. The archbishops Walter, Langton, Peckham, Reynolds, Mepham, Stratford, Bradwardin, Sudbury, Courtney, Chicheley, Kemp, Bourghchier, Morton, Warham and Pole, in number fourteen, have monuments still remaining, as described before; as are the gravestones of archbishops Ufford, Stafford and Dean, making in the whole together forty-eight archbishops, who have been buried in this church, all whose remains, except those of archbishops Becket and Winchelsea, still rest within it.

There is no memorial extant of the sepultures of any of the primary deans of this church, who presided over it, instead of priors, before archbishop Lanfranc's time. Of the priors of this church, I shall observe that of the first six and twenty, ten of whom were translated to higher preferments, four of them resigned, two of them were deposed, and one of them died at Rome. The remaining nine of them continued priors to the time of their death, but we have no record or memorial of the places of their interment, except that of Wibert in 1167, in the chapter-house, and the two inscriptions, the one at the foot of a buttress on the outside of the north wall; the other on the outside of the south wall of the church nearest to archbishop Becket's chapel; which are conjectured to have been placed there, the first in memory of prior Lee, who died in 1234; the last for prior Nicholas de Sandwich, his successor, who died in 1289; both which will be noticed hereafter.

Among the rest of the priors, Richard Oxinden and Robert Hathbrand, were buried in St. Michael's chapel, where their inscriptions on brass plates still remain. The priors Finch, Selling and Goldstone, the second of that name, were buried in the martyrdom, where their gravestones, though robbed of their brasses, still remain. Prior Thomas Chillenden was buried in the nave of the church, towards the south side of it, just by archbishop Arundel; prior Woodnesborough, just above him, and prior Eleham just above him; prior Salisbury lies also in the upper part of the nave of the church, the gravestones of all whom were remaining over them, till they were of late removed on the laying down the new pavement of the nave.

Prior Thomas Goldstone, the first of that name' was buried in the chapel of the blessed Virgin Mary, founded by him, now called the dean's chapel. There is nothing known of the burial places of the priors Gillingham, Mongeham, Oxney, and Petham, nor or William Molash, whose death is recorded in the register of the church; some of them most probably were buried in the chapter-house, but which of them, excepting Wibert, is not known. The several inscrip tions on their gravestones in this church, will be mentioned hereafter, in the account of them.

The burials of the several deans of this church since the new foundation of it, have been noticed already in the description of their monuments in the different parts of it, viz. of dean Wotton in the Trinity chapel, of dean Nevill in the late chapel, called by his name, on the south side of the nave, and of the deans Rogers, Fotherbye, Boys, Bargrave, Turner, and Potter, in the dean's chapel.

There was but one archdeacon buried in this church before the reformation, viz. archdeacon Bourgchier, who lies in the dean's chapel, and but one since Dr. Kingsley, who was buried in the lower south cross isle, except dean Fotherbye, is mentioned, who had been likewise archdeacon.

The prebendaries interred in this church are many, all whom, and the several places where they lie, may be found in the account of them hereafter, taken from their memorials, their wills, and the parish register of this church.

To these burials may be added that of queen Ediva, who was laid in the same grave with archbibishop Living; of Richard Fitzalan, earl of Arun. del, (fn. 40) and of Gerald Fitzmaurice, who was justice of Ireland in the beginning of king Henry III.'s reign. (fn. 41)

There were many persons, without doubt, buried in this church, who from the high estimation it was held in, were mostly of note and superior quality, who have no memorials at present left of them; nor are their particular places of sepulture, or even their names known. (fn. 42)

The parish register of this church does not begin till the year 1564, anno 4th Elizabeth; by it the burials in it appear to have for the most part been those of persons of family, clergymen of eminent note, or members of this church and their families. Besides those whose monuments and gravestons have been mentioned before, the register mentions the burials of the lady Edmondes, brought from beyond seas in 1615; Sir John Cullimore in 1620; the lady Lovelace in 1627; Sir John Wild in 1635; the lady Fotherbye in 1686; the lady Mansfield in 1643; lady Wild and lady Heyman, both in that year; Awdry lady Master in 1658; Sir John Fotherbye in 1666; Charles, earl of Bellamont and baron Wotton, in 1602; the lady Hardres in the south cross isle, and lady Rebecca Parker in the same, in 1691; the lady Anne Head, of these precincts, in the same, in 1711, near her father and mother; Sir William Boys in the nave, in 1744, and the lady Anne his widow, in 1753; and Chaworth Brabason, earl of Meath, in the south isle of the nave, in 1763.

Besides which there are frequent entries in it, among others, of the burials of the families of Master, Somner, Randolph, Spracklyn, Simpson, Wilsford, and Hardres.

In the wills registered in the Prerogative-office in Canterbury, I find, among others, the following di rections for burials in this church; of John Charte, aliasToppenden, a petty canon, in 1556, in the nave; John Honywood, of Sene, in Newington, in 1557; Richard Fysher, alderman in 1575, in the nave; William Roberts, of St. Alphage, in 1583, beside his father; Richard Baseley, of these precincts, preacher of the gospel, in 1585, in the nave near the bodies of John Bale and Robert Pownall, his companions in exile, professors and preachers of God's word, whose goodness had restored them to their native country; Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Rooke, gent. late of Mersham, in 1599; William Heyman, of these precincts, the same year, beside his sister Emlen Heyman, and his brother and sister Hill; George Smith, gent. of St. Mildred's in 1610; Nicholas Parker, of the precincts, in 1617, in the nave near his late wife; Mrs. Mary Sympson, of the same, in 1617, in her husband's grave; Francis Tooke, late of the lady Wootton's palace, in 1626, in the nave; Anne Seller, of Christ-church, widow, in 1625, in the same, near her late husband John Seller, clerk, B. D. Elizabeth, daughter of Theodore Beacon, M. D. of Canterbury, in 1629, and directed a tomb stone to be laid there, with an inscription, shewing that her father and brother were there buried; George Marson, clerk, of Christ-church, in 1632, on the south side of the church, in the narrow place between Sir Stephen Thornhurst's chapel and the stairs there, going up behind the choir; Thomas Boys, gent. of St. Gregories, in 1625, in the grave in which his first wife lay, a small remembrance to be made upon a stone for his two wives, himself and his daughter Frances; Thomas Hovenden, alderman of Canterbury, in the north isle, near his only daughter Anne; and Frances, widow of John Bargrave, D. D. prebendary of Canterbury, in 1686, in the nave near her father Sir John Wild, deceased.

The cemeteries of this church, adjoining to it, were not appropriated, especially the larger or outward one, to the members of it only, but to the inhabitants of the city in general, till of late years. In the wills in the Prerogative-office before-mentioned, I find mention of the following burials in them.

Of Thomas Prowde, of St. Alphage parish, in 1468, near the porch of the church, where his wife was buried near him, in 1493; Richard Clerk, rector of Great Mongeham, in the cemetery in 1476; John Webbe, of Canterbury, in the same year; just within the gate near the sepultures of Roger Laborne, John Wilcocks, of this city, in 1485; Joan Bettenham in 1490; John Brimme, clerk, in the same year; Peter Maxey, clerk, chaplain of the prince's chantry, in 1492; John Rotheram, of Northgate, in 1494, and Margaret his wife, in 1499; Henry Pygott, of St. Alphage, in the inner cemetery in 1500; Elizabeth Colphin, of St. Elphis, in 1501, in the sanctuary of Christ-church, near her children; John Hawkyns, chantry priest of Arundel's chantry, in 1511, in some holy place within the precincts, as the lord prior and convent should devise, and in his will mentions Sir Philip his fellow chaplain, and gives that joined close there to those of the house of the chantry; Thomas Sydrake, chaplain, of the city of Canterbury, in 1516, in the cemetery; James Corsume, chantry priest of prince Edward's chantry, in 1518, near the monument of Sir Richard Pereson, his late associate there, and mentions the chapels of the above chantry, St. Clement, St. Mary sublus undercroft, St. Augustine and St. John Baptist, near the tomb of St. Thomas, all in this church; Christopher Taylor, of St. Alphage, in 1518, in the sanctuary, under the yough tree; Agnes Vincent, in the same year in the cemetery, and mentions the children of the ambry of Christ-church, and gave to the prior and convent to admit her sister of the chapter with them, her best gerdyll; Sir William Haddon, chantry priest of Christ-church, in 1529, near the sepulture of Sir John Lancaster; John Geamyn, of St. Margaret's, in 1525, in the seyntuary; he gave a legacy to the brotherhood of St. Loys, in Christ-church; John Bremar, of St. Alphage, in 1529, in the sanctuary; Sir Henry Arundel, one of the priests of the almery, in 1540, in the church yard; Richard Burcharde, of Canterbury, in 1534, in the sanctuary, next Agnes his wife, and directed that his executors should provide two pair of stone crosses to be made and wrought after those standing at the sepulture of William Bremour; the one pair at his sepulture, the other at that of his wife; William Page, clerk, one of the chantry priests of Arundel's chantry, in 1549, in the church-yard, near the sepulture of Richard Peresey; he gave eight-pence a piece to the five chantry priests of Christ-church; Richard Thompson, clerk, petty canon in 1563; John Pettowse, clerk, petty canon in 1560, and Richard Turpyne, of St. Alphage, in 1574, against the tomb there.

Footnotes

1 On searching the graves and moving the remains of those antiently buried in this nave, for new making of the ground to lay the present new pavement on, it was then sound that this was not the first time these depositories of the dead had been disturbed. for every coffin and grave had been opened and yansacked, most probably in the time of the great rebellion, by the Purians, partly out of enmity to the place, but principally in search of whatever of value might have been deposited in them.
2 See Weever's Funeral Monuments, p. 234. Batt. Somn. appendix, No xxxii.
3 He was in that reign keeper of the privy seal, and afterwards bishop of Lincoln, whence, in 1397, pope Boniface IX. bearing him some grodge, translated him by force to Lichfield, a bishoptis of much interior value, which he resused to accept and chusing rather a retired monastic course of life, he became a monk of this church, where he spent the remainder of his days, living here 24 weeks at his own costs, and dying in the prior's lodgings, called the Master Honours. By his will he gave several legacies, viz. to the church, to the prior Thomas Chillenden, and to every monk. He appointed that 100 pence should be given to 100 poor people, to every one a penny annually, on the anniversary of his death, for ever; he appointed the above prior his executor, who out of his goods, which were sold, purchased ornaments and vestments for this church, to the value of 240l. the particulars of which are recited in the obituary. He appointed to be buried towards the lower end of the nave of this church, having made an agreement, as appears by the records of it, with the prior and convent, to build him with all convenient speed, a chantry chapel near his sepulture, but it is not known whereabouts. See pat. I Henry IV. p. v. m xxvi. When the present new pavement was made, his skeleton was found entire, but nothing else, nor any part of his coffin remaining. William Haukyn, chaplain of the chapel of John Bokyngham, died in 1468; and Robert Barton, another of the chaplains, in 1488, and desired to be buried in the place where the rest of the chaplains were usually buried.
4 This Sir William Septvans, says Weever, p. 234, served in the wars of France under king Edward III. It appears by his will in the consistory court of Canterbury, that his residence was at Milton, near Canterbury, and that which was very remarkable, he gave manumission to divers of his slaves and natives.
5 Weever says, he dwelt at Cowsted in Stockbury.
6 See an account before of the chantry chapel, built for him, adjoining the south side of the nave, not far from his place of burial, afterwards called dean Nevil's chapel. By his will he gave to the fabric of this church 100l.
7 By his will in the consistory court of Canterbury, anno 1407, he gave ten marcs to the work of this church; and it is recorded in the obituary, that Sir Thomas Fogge gave 20l. sterling, towards the new chapter-house; and his wife gave 20d. to each monk in the convent. She was descended from the royal blood of the kings of England, being daughter of Sir Stephen de Valence, who was descended from William de Valence, earl of Pembroke, half brother by the mother to king Henry III.— She died July 8, 1425.
The shield of arms of this Sir Thomas Fogge, carved and painted on wood, hung till of late on the pillar of the nave, next his place of burial. William Fogg, gent. of St. Elphe, was buried here in 1525; and as by his will he expresses it, near his ancestors. He gave by it to the bell-ringers of Christ-church, for the pele, and for the making of his poole 3s. 4d. He left an infant son Francis by Katherine his wife.
8 It may be observed, that the grave-stones of the priors are easily to be distinguished from those of the archbishops, though their miters, robes, &c. from the marks on them where the brass was formerly inlaid, plainly appear to have been similar; those of the latter, having in their hands a staff, with a plain cross, formee, at the top; whereas those of the former had in theirs, a pastoral staff, with an ornamented crook. Leland, in his Itinerary, vol. vi. says, "these high tumbs of bishops be in the body of the church, Simon Iselepe, Whitelesey, Arundel."
9 See Funeral Monuments, p. 234.
10 See an account of him in Wood's Ath. vol. i. See Fasti, col. 222.
11 By his will he ordered a stone of forty shillings value, to be laid over him.
12 On the removal of the earth for making the new pavement of the nave, the stone coffin under this monument was found with the outward side of it already broken to pieces; in it were three skulls, lying close together at one end, and a number of bones in a heap promiscuously in the middle of it. Under the window, eastward, from this monument, there was found lying on the foundation, which about three feet under the surface projected like a shelf, a skeleton, the body of which had been to all appearance richly habited; some of the material's of the cloathing remained in small pieces or tatters, seemingly a stuff of gold tissue, aud a piece of a leaden plate, on which could be read ARCHIEP. and the word PRIMAS, seemingly very antient; the remaining part of the lead had crumbled away. These, perhaps, were the remains of archbishop Theobald, who was buried somewhere hereabouts, in the year 1184.
13 This motto is constantly put on all the monuments and gravestones in this kingdom, of those of the Roman Catholic persuasion, of which this gentleman was one; seemingly from an apprehension that their remains might be disturbed by the Protestants.
14 In the Prerog, off. Canterbury, I find the will of Robert Berkeley, gent. of Christ-church, proved in 1614; but I know not whether it be the same above-mentioned.
15 In 1787 the cathedral being new paved, this chapel was removed, when the monuments in taking down were almost entirely destroyed. The figure of the Dean, and that of his brother which is mutilated, have since been placed in the chapel of the Virgin Mary. Of the inscriptions, that to the memory of the Dean is now the only one remaining perfect, which is placed between the two figures. See Todd's Deans of Can terbury, p. 80.
16 In one of the registers of this church, mention is made of the earl of Somerset's having been admitted during his life time into the fraternity of this convent. He died on April 21, being Palm Sunday, 1410. Thomas, duke of Clarence, second son of king Henry IV. was slain in battle in France, on Easter eve, 1421, anno 9 Henry V. The lady Margaret lived to a good old age, and dying a widow on Dec. 31, 1440, was buried here.— She erected this monument in her life time for herself and her two husbands. On her head, as well as the duke's, are ducal coronets; on her robes were depicted the arms of England within a bordure, argent. His arms were depicted on his breast. The duke of Clarence by his testament, dated July 10, 1417, directed to be buried in this cathedral, at the feet of his father, king Henry IV. and appointed his executors to purchase the patronage of some church, worth 401. per annum, and to procure the same to be appropriated to the prior and monks of it, to maintain four secular priests there, to celebrate divine service for ever, and named in it king Henry V. his brother, his nextheir. Margaret his wife survived him, by whom he left no issue, but he had one illegitimate son, called John the Bastard of Clarence, who was in the skirmish, in which his father was slain, and recovering his dead body from the enemy, carried it first to the duchess, who was then in Normandy, and from thence to Canterbury, where it was interred. Rym. Foed. vol. ix. p. 462.
17 Leland, in his Itinerary, vol. vi. f. 3, p. 4, says, "In the cross isle that standeth beneath the degrees of the quire southward lye buried in St. Annes chapel Simon Langhtoun and also another bishop of Cantewarbyri there Iyeth also John Counte of So … and another of them with a lady … of Claraunce."
18 Some have doubted if this is archbishop Peckham's monument. Leland, in his Itinerary, vol. vi. ascribes it to him, of which see hereafter.
19 It seems singular that this figure should be left so exceedingly plain, when all the rest of the monument is profusely painted and gilt, and that it should not be fixed to the rest of the tomb, but be moveable. This has made some suppose, that it never originally belonged to it, but was a figure placed occasionally over the grave of any deceased archbishop, immediately after his interment, and remained there till his gravestone or monument was ready for it.
20 Leland, in his Itinerary, vol. vi. says, "In the cross isle betwixt the body of the chirche and the quire northward ly buried Pechem and Wareham also under slate stones of marble Deane asore priour of Lanthony and another bishop. The lyith the olde priour. was so wel letterid."
21 At the ends of his tomb, many of the first ornaments have been cut away, to make room for something that required more than the tombs take up, both in length and height, but whether altars or monuments, does not appear.
22 Archbishop Revnolds's robes were of azure, powdered all over with golden griffins.
23 At Sudbury, the place of his birth, they claim to have his body buried in St. Gregories church; and some time ago they shewed his head there.
24 It is said to have been sculptured in Italy.
25 This beautiful monument of their founder, was formerly kept in constant repair and preservation, at the expence of All Soul's college. But the allowance made for that purpose has been for some years withdrawn, and the college has in vain been applied to on this account.
26 Stow says, that she died on July 9, anno 1437, at Havering, in Essex, from whence her body was first removed to Bermondsey, and thence conveyed to Canterbury, and was there solemnly intombed by king Henry her husband, who died on March 20, 1413; and had by his will, made about three years before his death, ordered his body to be buried here. Stow, in his Annals, Weever, and Brook in his Catalogue of the Kings of England, say, that the king was buried by the lady Mary his first wife, in the monastery of Christ-church; and Weever gives that reason for his being buried there. But we are otherwise informed by Henry de Knighton, who assures us, col. 2741, that anno 1394, Mary, the wife of Henry, earl of Derby, afterwards king Henry IV. was buried in the New College at Leicester.
27 All records agree that the king's corpse was brought by water to Faversham, and thence by land to Canterbury; where his funeral was celebrated with such pomp and state, as was suitable to his regal eminence; his son king Henry V. and the nobility being present, upon the Trinity Sunday following his death. But there was a story sabricated, by one of the persons who was in the boat, which brought the king's body by water towards Canterbury; that whilst they were on the passage, a great storm arose, which so endangered the lives of the persons in the vessel, as well as of the nobility, which followed in eight smaller ones; that in despair, they agreed to cast the corpse into the sea, which having done, there was immediately a calm; after which they carried on the cossin, covered over with cloth of gold, with all manner of solemnity to Canterbury, and there honorably buried it. Anglia Sacra, vol. ii. p. 373. Pecke's Desid. Curios. B. vii. p. 5. The story is printed at the end of Clement Maidstone's treatise of the martyrdom of Richard Scroope, archbishop of York, who was executed for treason against this king.
28 The ingenious Mr. Carter, the engraver, some few years ago made a curious and accurate draft, which he painted in water colours, of this monument, and has since engraved it.
29 Thus Stow and others, but some historians say, he died at the royal palace at Westminster.
30 He is said to have given by his will, several jewels, vessels, and images of gold, rich vestments, &c. to this church, all which are recorded in the obituary. Leland, in his Icinerary, vol. vi. f. 3, p. 2, says, "Edwarde the black prince Iyeth right agayne hym, (viz. king Henry the IV th.) under a pillar by South. He dyed in the Bishops palace in Cantewabyri and gave a great chalice of gold and cruettes of gold besids many other jocales unto Christes church." But in his will, printed at length in Weever, p. 208, there is no mention of this whatever, nor any gift to the church of Canterbury.
31 The sword itself as is reported, was taken away by Oliver Cromwell.
32 Mr. Bristow has been informed by the Rev. and learned Mr. Todd, a member of this church, that, in a curious and scarce book, entitled The Elements of Armories, by E. Bolton, 410. Lond. 1610, there is a picture, and an account, of the black prince's target; which appears to have been then as conspicuous, as the other arms already described: From this book the picture opposite is copied, and the following account ex. tracted:
"Our Saxon ancestors vsed shields of skin, among whom for that the artificer put sheep fells to that purpose, the great Athelstane king of England vtterly forbad by a lawe such deceit, as in the printed booke of Saxon lawes is extant to bee seene. With this vsage of agglewing, or fastning hard tanned hides for desense, agrees their etymologie, who deriue Scutum the Latin of a shield, from the Greeke word Exúuros, a skinne. The Triangular, (or Samnit) was vniuersallie among vs the antient fashion of shields for men of armes, but not the onely. For assurance whereof, I will delight you with two diuerse proportions, the one of an honorary belonging to the most renowned Edward, prince of Wales, the other, (an honorarie also) appertaining to his third brother, king of Castile and Leon, duke of Lancaster. The sayd victorious princes toombe, is in the goodly cathedral church erected to the honor of Chirst in Canterbvrie: There (beside his quilted coat-armour with halse sleeues, taberd fashion, and his triangular sheild, both of them painted with the royall armories of our kings, and differenced with siluer labels) hangs this kinde of pauis, or targat, curiously (for those ames) embost, and painmted, the schucheon in the bosse being worne out, and the arms (which it seems were the same with his coate-armour, and not any peculiar deuise) desaced, and is altogrther of the same kinde with that, upon which (Froisard reports) the dead body of the lord Robert of Dvras, and nephew to the cardinall of Pierregovert, was laid, and sent vnto that cardinall, from the battell of Poictiers, where the Blacke Prince obtained a victorie, the reowne whereof is immortall." pp. 66, 67, and 68.


Mr. Todd thinks it remarkable, that no notice should have been taken of this target by the historians of the cathedral; and supposes that it shared perhaps the same fate with the renowed warrior's sword, which was stolen in the great rebellion.
33 These words perhaps, were designed to express the intrepid character he bore, as a soldier;houmout, signifying in the German language, a bold and high spirit; the other, Ich Dien, I serve as a dutiful son and subject. There seems to have been an altar opposite this tomb, where masses were celebrated for his soul; a stone step very much worn being under a window there; and within memory, the prince's plame of feathers and the arms of Frances and England, as on the monument, were in painted glass here; the Chucheon with the feathers has long been broken and lost; the other was some years ago taken away to mend a window in another place.
34 See an account of him in Biog. Brit. vol. iv. p. 2381 [c] Strype's Annals, vol. ii. p. 238.
35 Archbishop Theobald's remains after the fire in 1174, were deposited, says Gervas, under a marble tomb, before the altar of St. Mary, in the nave of the church, and we have no account where they were removed to, on the rebuilding of it.— If the remains lately found there as above-mentioned, a few years ago, were not his, they might perhaps have been, together with his tomb, removed to this place; and the present one here then may be the same mentioned by Gervas, for it can hardly be supposed that they removed the one without the other.
Some have conjectured this tomb to have been erected for archbishop Anselm, and that his relics were removed hither from the chapel of St. Peter and St. Paul, where they had been before deposited. St. Anselm being a native of Piedmont, the late king of Sardinia, in king George II.'s reign, was desirous of having his remains sent over to him, and his ambassador in England so far succeeded as to obtain leave and authority to have a search made here, for that purpose. A person, commissioned accordingly, applied to the late Mr. Gostling, whom he thought the best able to assist him in his enquiry, for his opinion, whether this tomb might not probably contain the remains of that prelate; but he was so fully convinced by him, that all search after any such would be fruitless, that the monument was left untouched, and the search was entirely laid aside.
36 Leland says, in his Itin. vol, vi. there lyeth x fishops (that is archbishops) buried in the cryptes.
37 Mr. Collier says, he was buried under the choir, in a fine chapel, built by himself.
38 From the charter or instrument of her chantry, recorded in a leiger of this church, and dated in 1395, anno 19 Rich. II. we learn, that she lived in the days of that Prince and wrote herself lady Dunster, (Domina de Donesteer) wife of John de Mohun, of Dunster, being descended, as it seems, from that noble house of the Mohun's, of Dunster castle, in Somersetshire. By the indenture between her and the prior and convent, in consideration of her payment of 350 marcs sterling, and certain utensils and accoutrements convenient for her chantry; (with which money the manor of Selgrave was purchased and amorlized to the monks, with the king's licence), they granted to her a perpetual chantry, and covenanted with her, that when she died, her corpse should be laid in the tomb, which she had of her own cost prepared and set up, near the altar of our Lady in the undercrost; and being so intombed there, should never be removed, nor the name of the tomb altered, but be honorably kept, and 5s. per annum to the clerk, who kept the Lady chapel, for keeping clean her tomb, with many other matters in the indenture; which, that the chantry might not be forgotten with their successors, the monks caused to be enrolled and recorderd in their martyrology, that upon her obit day it might be annually recited. See Battely's Somner, p. 100. The dean and chapter now possess the above manor, but the intent of it, as to the tomb, has been long since neglected.
39 She was daughter of Richard de Chilham, natural son of king John, wife first of David Strabolgi, earl of Athol, and afterwards of Alexander Baliol; she died at Chilham in F b. 1292. See Weever, P. 214.
40 See Rapin, vol. i. p. 508.
41 King Henry III. in his 28th year, issuing his commands from Rochester, to the keepers of the archbishopric, to cause a fair stone to be laid in this church, over the body of Gerald Filzmaurice, justice of Ireland, with his shield of arms, who died at Canterbury. See Stow, B. i. p. 136.
42 Among the manuscripts in the Cotton libr. MSS. CLAUDIUS, B. IX. 2f. 265, are the names of the martyrs, confessors and virgins, whole bodies have been buried in the metropolitical church of Canterbury; printed in Dart, append. p. xxvi. No. ix. Among the Harleian manuscripts is one, No. 1366 2, containing church notes, such as arms, epitaphs, &c. taken in the cathedral, archbishop's palace, chapter house, crypts, cloysters, deanry, in the parocnial churches and in Sir Thomas Wood's house in Canterbury, in 1599.