The archbishops
William Warham to Edmund Grindal

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Institute of Historical Research

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Author

Edward Hasted

Year published

1801

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438-462

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'The archbishops: William Warham to Edmund Grindal', The History and Topographical Survey of the County of Kent: Volume 12 (1801), pp. 438-462. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=63703 Date accessed: 03 September 2014.


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William Warham to Edmund Grindal

69. WILLIAM WARHAM succeeded to this patriarchal chair in 1503, (fn. 1) to which he was translated from London, of which see he was then bishop. He was descended of an antient family seated at Walsanger, in the parish of Okecliffe, commonly called Okely, in Hampshire, in which parish he was born; he was first educated at Wickham's college, in Winchester, from whence he was sent to New college, in Oxford, where he became fellow, and proceeded doctor of laws, and afterwards practised as an advocate in the arches, and in 1448 became moderator of the civil law school, and taking orders, had the rectory of Barley, in Hertfordshire, conferred on him, as appears by the church windows there; after which he was dignified with several promotions, both ecclesiastical and civil; for in 1493 he was made. chancellor of Wells, and next year constituted master of the rolls, (fn. 2) when being sent ambassador to Philip, duke of Burgundy, concerning the two counterfeits Lambert and Perkin Warbeck, he behaved himself in that business so wisely, that the king highly commended him, (fn. 3) and in 1502, on his return, preferred him, being then a privy councellor, to the bishopric of London, (fn. 4) and made him keeper of the great seal, and lord chancellor of England, (fn. 5) in which office he succeeded archbishop Dene, as well as in this archbi shopric, (fn. 6) and as legate of the apostolic see. (fn. 7) His entertainment, which was kept in his palace at Canterbury, on his inthronization, on March 9, being Passion Sunday, anno 1504, was truly magnificent, the duke of Buckingham performing the office of high steward, during the solemnity, many of the nobility, superior clergy and others of rank, being present as guests at it.

At this palace king Henry VII. in his 24th year, took up his abode as the archbishop's guest, during which time he made his last will, which is dated at Canterbury, on April 10 that year, 1509, by which he founded one anniversary mass in Christ church, and another in St. Augustine's monastery. (fn. 8)

On the scite of this antient palace, archbishop Warham is said to have intended to have raised a most sumptuous one for himself and his successors; but on account of a difference which arose between him and the citizens, concerning the limits of his ground here, he changed his former intention, and in his displeasure bestowed on his palace at Otford, which before this was but a mean house, 33,000l. leaving nothing of the former building standing, but the walls of the hall and chapel; notwithstanding which, he had already liberally builded at Knole, a palace of the archbishopric, little more than two miles from it. (fn. 9)

In the beginning of the year 1506, he was unanimously elected chancellor of the university of Oxford, and after king Henry VIII.'s accession to the throne, he held the great seal for the first seven years of that reign, and the king appears to have esteemed him highly, insomuch that he appointed him, together with the earl of Surry, sponsors at the christening of his eldest son; (fn. 10) notwithstanding which, Wolsey by his ill treatment, at length obliged him to resign the seal; for that prelate's power and interest with the king and court of Rome, were so much greater than the archbishop's, that during the whole of the cardinal's administration, he was little more than the shadow of a metropolitan; but as he was a man of parts and principle, so he could not see the insolence and depravity of the cardinal, without complaining of it to the king, which put the two prelates upon ill terms as long as Wolsey lived. (fn. 11)

Archbishop Warham is said to have understood the interest of the nation, and the canon law, as well as most men of his time. He was a friend to merit and learning, and encouraged a more rational and useful knowledge, than was to be acquired by the learning of the schools.

Erasmus gives a true character of archbishop Warham, when he commends him for his humanity, learning, integrity and piety, and concludes by saying, that he was a most perfect and accomplished prelate.

He was an especial benefactor to the university of Oxford, particularly by contributing to the finishing of St. Mary's church, and the divinity school there; he gave several books and manuscripts to All Souls and New college, in Oxford, and to Wickham's college, near Winchester, and he is said to have given the iron railing to Rochester bridge; and he was a principal contributer in 1519 to the church of Lambeth. He was a benefactor to the fabric of this cathedral, especially to the great tower of it, on which his arms are still to be seen in memory of it; so that excepting the above, and the great sums he laid out on his palaces, we read of no other public benefactions during his long continuance in this see.

Having sat as archbishop for twenty eight years, he died on August 3, 1532, at St. Stephen's, near Canterbury, in the house of William Warham, archdeacon of Canterbury, his kinsman, having by his last will assigned the place of his sepulture in his own cathedral, and expressed his hopes that his successor would not charge his executors with dilapidations, as he had expended above 30,000l. in building and repairing the edifices belonging to this see; he was accordingly buried in a small chapel built by himself, for the purpose, upon the north side of the martyrdom in his own cathedral, where there is an elegant tomb with his effigies at full length in his pontifical habit, lying on it; (fn. 12) in this chapel he founded a chantry of one priest, daily to celebrate for his soul, which was suppressed with the priory in king Henry VIII.'s time.

70. THOMAS DRANMER, S. T. P. was elected archbishop, the next in succession, in the year 1532. (fn. 13) He was born at Arlaiston, in Northamptonshire, on July 2, 1489, and educated at Jesus college, in Cambridge, where he became fellow and A. M. and afterwards divinity reader, moderator and S. T. P. in that university; on the death of archbishop Warham, the king foreseeing the importance it would be of, to the designs which he had in hand, that the see of Canterbury should be filled with a person of that moderate disposition, which would not be likely to thwart his measures, and one, who being inclined to the changes he was bringing forward in religion, he could the better influence in his future designs, sent to Cranmer, then abroad in Germany, to inform him of his intention to advance him to this see, and desiring him to return home for that purpose. This, after some little hesitation he did, and it is said, rather in obedience to the king's commands than his own inclination; for he foresaw the storms which were arising, and the difficulties and troubles it would bring on him. On his return, however, he accepted of the promotion, and was consecrated in St. Stephen's chapel, in the royal palace at Westminster; (fn. 14) but before his consecration, he made a solemn protestation in the presence of a public notary, that the oath he was then about to take to the pope, should not bind him from doing whatsoever he was bound to do, to God, the church, or the king.

He was instrumental in beginning the reformation in the reign of king Henry VIII. and zealous in carrying it forward in that of king Edward VI. when queen Mary came to the crown, he was advised to make his escape by flight, but he retired only into Kent, where he spent a few days at his palace of Beaksborne, from whence he removed to that of Ford in the same neighbourhood, where he received a summons to appear at Westminster, before the privy council; soon after which he was committed prisoner to the tower, and from thence conveyed to a prison in Oxford, where, after he had been brought to a public disputation with the papists concerning the real presence in the sacrament, he was led to his trial. and through the queen's implacable hatred to him, on account of her mother's divorce, and her bigotry and the inveterate malice of his enemies, he was, in the first year of queen Mary's reign, attainted of high treason in parliament, and his archbishopric was immediately sequestered; and though the queen afterwards pardoned the treason, yet he was degraded, excommunicated, and condemned to suffer death as an heretic, so that being delivered over to the secular power, he was accordingly burnt at Oxford, on March 21, 1555, (fn. 15) aged 67, and in the 23d year of his primacy.

Archbishop Cranmer had acquired learning, both in the canon and civil law, equal to most of his cotemporaries; but he had a defect in his stile which was diffused and unconnected, even for that age. He had a natural simplicity and openness of heart, which made him unfit for the courts of princes, where truth and candour are but of little use; he was affable, gentle and easy to be intreated, full of benevolence and condescension, and very inoffensive; at the same time he was exceedingly timorous, which caused him frequently to comply with the king's measures, and that where the most valuable rights of his church were to be given up for the purpose; in this he has been blamed by most historians, nor can his servility in it ever meet with a defence. The archbishop left issue one son, of his own name. (fn. 16)

Besides his life, to be found in Parker's Antiquitates Brit. Eccles. Godwin and others; it was written at large by Mr. Strype, in folio, in which a list of his writings may be seen.

Among the Har'eian manuscripts are the archbishop's five books on the Eucharist; his Reform of the ecclesiastical laws; his renunciation of the papal authority and submission to king Henry VIII. his discourse concerning cardinal Pole's finding so much favour at Rome, many letters to and from him, many pieces concerning him, his life, his letters to the king and others, and many other papers relating to him.

There is a seal of archbishop Cranmer's appendant to a deed, anno 1536, among the Chartœ Antiquœ, in the treasury of the dean and chapter; 4 inches by 2½ diam. the upper part blurred; but it is the murder of Becket; underneath the archbishop, kneeling; on one side a shield, with the arms of the see impaled with his own; on the other, another with his own arms; legend, THOME CRANMER; the rest obliterated, p. 128.

He bore for his arms, Argent, on a chevron, azure, three cinquefoils, or, between three cranes, sable; but king Henry VIII. changed the craites to pelicans, vulnerating their breasts.

71. REGINALD POLE, cardinal of the church of Rome, and related to the blood royal, was elected archbishop of this see in the year 1555, and was consecrated on March 22 that year, the day after Cranmer's execution. (fn. 17)

He was the fourth son of Sir Richard Pole, knight of the garter, cousin-german to king Henry VII. his mother being the lady Margaret, countess of Salisbury, daughter of George, duke of Clarence, the youngest brother of king Edward IV. (fn. 18) He was born at Stoverton castle, in Staffordshire, and brought up at the monastery of Carthusians at Shene, in Surry, whence he went to Magdalen college, in Oxford, and became fellow of Corpus Christi, in the same university. He was first promoted to a prebend in the church of Salisbury, and was afterwards, in 1517, admitted to that of Knaresborough, in the church of York, and likewise to the deanry of the collegiate church of Wimborne, in Dorsetshire.

Being sent abroad by king Henry VIII. he resided seven years at Padua, where he became acquainted with and entertained in his family several of the most learned men of the time; (fn. 19) in the meanwhile the king made him dean of Exeter, and having abolished the papal power, sent for him home; but Pole refusing to return, was, about the year 1536, deprived of his preferments. (fn. 20) To make him amends, however, for the king's displeasure, pope Paul III. on May 22, that year, created him a cardinal, (fn. 21) and deputed him ambassador to the emperor, and the king of France; he was afterwards made legate, and sat in the council of Trent; he was twice elected pope, but not approving of the proceedings of the election, he at last lost it. Upon this disappointment, he retired to Verona, where he remained till queen Mary's accession to the throne, who sent to him to return and take upon him the direction of the affairs of the church in this king. dom; shortly after which he arrived in the character of legate from pope Julius III. landing at Dover on Nov. 22, 1555, his attainder having been reversed in parliament, by the first act that passed in that queen's reign; he came to London two days afterwards, but privately, for the papal power not being yet re-established, he could not be received in quality as legate; but the parliament having addressed the queen to reconcile the kingdom to the see of Rome, and offered to repeal all laws repugnant to it, the cardinal went with much solemnity to the house, and in a long speech gave them and the whole nation a plenary absolution, and to proceed by degrees, he took out a licence under the great seal, for his legantine power. Being but in deacon's orders on his coming into the kingdom, he was ordained priest, and was afterwards, on March 22, the same year, anno 1555, being the 2d of queen Mary's reign, consecrated archbishop of Canterbury, by Heath, archbishop of York, and six other bishops, in the church of the Franciscan friars, which had been newly restored by the queen, who was present herself at the solemnity; on the 25th he received the pall in Bow-church, in London, and on the 31st was in throned by proxy; (fn. 22) the queen having furnished the palace at Lambeth for him at her own expence and she afterwards honoured him with her company there several times. In October following he was elected chancellor of the university of Oxford, and soon after, as is affirmed by some, of Cambridge likewise: and he afterwards governed this church with a conduct that has gained him the love, the praise and the admiration of posterity. But at the latter end of the queen's reign; pope Paul IV. having taken a dislike to him, for his mild and gentle proceedings, revoked his legantine commission, and cited him to appear personally at the court of Rome, to answer such matters as should be objected to him; and in order to divest him of all power in England, he bestowed a cardinal's hat on William Peto, the noted Franciscan friar of Greenwich, and made him his legate a latere, in the archbishop's 100m, on June 13, 1557, and gave him besides the bishopric of Salisbury.

When the queen was informed of the pope's intentions, she made use of every endeavour to defend and support the archbishop, who on his part was not inactive in this affair, but dispatched his friend Ormaret to Rome, to render an account of his conduct, and the state of religion in England, and in the mean time, the queen stood so stoutly in the defence of her kinsman, that she would not suffer the new legate either to enter the realm as legate, or to enjoy the bishopric, which the pope had assigned him, and she accordingly sent to forbid his entrance into it, (fn. 23) and the legantine power was left entire as before, to the archbishop.

At last, by the queen's firmness, her remonstrances, and an alteration of circumstances, the pope, who foresaw that he should again lose England if he obstinately persisted in his resentment, condescended to stisle it, and was outwardly reconciled to the archbishop, telling Ormaret, that he was now satisfied that Pole had been misrepresented, and that he plainly saw no one living could escape calumny. But it is said, that the pope's change of behaviour arose from a secret article which he made that year, in a treaty of peace with the duke of Alva, in the name of the king of Spain, whose general he was, in which cardinal Pole was expressly restored to his legantine authority; which seems not improbable, considering the queen's resolution not to admit of any other in that character. (fn. 24)

The cardinal was in person of a middling stature, handsome and comely, his countenance was fresh coloured, his eyes sparkling, and had a look of nobility, mixed. with a placid gentleness; and he had a couttesy of behaviour, which insured both respect and affection from all who approached him; he was besides, of excellent piety, a man of learning and of great integrity.

The divisions at this time among the Protestants, their want of discipline, their disregard of the sacred orders, and their seizing the church revenues, together with the prejudices of education, inclined him to think, that religion could not be supported without a power equal to the pope's; but in this he was governed purely by motives of conscience. Had interest or ambition swayed him, he would have complied with king Henry's measures, and would then probably have stood foremost in that prince's favour, neither would he have declined his election to the popedom, if wealth and greatness had been his object. His whole conduct was noble and exemplary in all respects, and had he lived under a pope of less haughtiness, or a queen of less bigotry, his measures might have been fatal to the reformed religion; the great pattern of disinterestedness, regularity, and application which he shewed himself, his care to reform the manners of the clergy, and the abuses which their sloth and negligence had introduced, and the candid and gentle treatment with which he desired the Proteltants might be used, joined to his constant opposition to the fire and the sword, gave the Papists room to suspect him of leaning towards the heretics; wherefore he was never taken into their councils, or at least never heard or attended to in them. But in this they were mistaken, for it was the sweetness of his temper and the solidity of his judgment, that both concurred to engage him to oppose cruelty and violence, although he had at the same time an invincible attachment to the see of Rome, to a degree of superstition, and thought it impossible to maintain the order and unity of the church without it; in short, to sum up his character, he was a man of as great probity and virtue, and of as excellent endowments of mind, as any of his predecessors who had sat in this see before, had ever been, and have since, to the present time.

He died on Nov. 17, 1558, a few hours after the queen's decease, having sat in the patriarchal chair of this see two years and almost eight months; (fn. 25) forty days after which, his body having laid in state, was with much pomp, brought to his own cathedral, where it was entombed on the north side of Becket's crown; his monument, which is only a plain tomb, yet remains, and on it this short epitaph, Depositum Cardinalis Poli. (fn. 26)

He bore for his arms, Per pale, sable, and or, a saltire engrailed, counterchanged.

He is said to have given to his church of Canterbury, two silver candlesticks of great weight; a golden cross, a crozier and mitre, two rings, and a silver bason for holy water.

He was the last archbishop who was intombed in this church, their burials having ever since been discontinued here; a circumstance, seemingly strange, that not one of the archbishops since the reformation, should chuse to be buried in their own cathedral, in which they had so many bright and illustrious examples; but all, as it were with one accord, have shrunk from a burial in it, though it was the antient and accustomed place of archiepiscopal sepulture, affecting rather an obscure burial in some one private parish church or other.

He constituted Aloysio Priuli, a noble Venetian, his heir, who had been his intimate friend and companion abroad, and who coming back with him into England, continued so at the time of his death; but this noble person refused every benefit arising from it, and accepted only of two prayer books, which were constantly used by the cardinal, contenting himself with distributing the legacies and gifts, according to the directions in his will.

The several books and treatises, written by the cardinal, (fn. 27) may be seen enumerated in Wood's Ath. (fn. 28) and likewise the several lives of him written by different persons, to which may be added, a more modern one, being the life of the cardinal, published by Mr. Phillips, in 1764, which has since, however, met with a refutation.

72. MATHEW PARKER, S. T. P. succeeded cardinal Pole in this archbishopric, to which he was elected and consecrated in 1559. He was born at Norwich, (fn. 29) and educated at Corpus Christi, alias Bennet college, in Cambridge; in the time of king Henry VIII. he was promoted to be one of the king's chaplains, and was made tutor to the princess Elizabeth; after which he was made a prebendary of Ely, and in 1544 master of Benner college, above-mentioned, of which he had been fellow; afterwards being chaplain to king Edward VI. he was by the king made dean of Lincoln, and had likewise the prebend of Coringham, in that church, conferred on him, and the rectory of Landbeach; besides which, he had the deanry of the college of Stoke Clare, in Suffolk, which was suppressed by king Edward VI. notwithstanding Dr. Parker used all his endeavours for the preservation of it; but in queen Mary's reign, in 1554, he was deprived of all his preferments, for having entered into the state of matrimony, and afterwards lived a private and retired life, by which he escaped all the storms of those days; from this obscure state he was called forth by queen Elizabeth, who advanced him to this archbishopric, the highest station in the English church, though not till after several persons had refused it, on which, and not before, he proceeded in his degree of S. T. P. his consecration was performed with great solemnity, before a number of spectators in the chapel of Lambeth palace, on Dec. 17, 1559, by the bishops of Chichester, Exeter, Hereford, and the bishop suffragan of Bedford, free from the ceremonies of the church of Rome, for there were used no mitre nor pall, no pastoral staff nor ring, no gloves nor sandals; nor was there the authority of any bulls from Rome, to establish or confirm it. Being thus seated in this see, he became an excellent governor of the church committed to his charge, and strictly adhered to its doctrine and discipline, by which he incurred the ill will of the great men in power, and of most of the Puritans; but he was so firm and resolute in what he undertook to defend and maintain, that he would neither be frightened nor dissuaded from his purpose and intention. On his coming to the archbishopric, he partly rebuilt and partly repaired his palace at Canterbury, which he found burnt and almost wholly destroyed, at the expence of 1400l. (fn. 30) and he afterwards having entertained queen Elizabeth and her whole court for seven days at Croydon, entertained her sumptuously in his palace of Canterbury, in her progress through this county in 1573, and the queen's visits to him at Lambeth palace were afterwards frequent. During his continuance in the see, he performed many pious and charitable acts; he was a great benefactor to the public library at Cambridge, and to Bennet, Caius and Trinity colleges, in that university; in the former of which he founded thirteen scholarships; in the latter, one; and he repaired the regent walk, in that university; he founded a grammar school at Stoke Clare, in Suffolk, and another at Rochdale, in Lancashire, and gave 10l. per annum. for the preaching of six sermons at five churches in Norfolk, in Rogation week, and he repaired, pewed and beautified the chancel of Beaksborne church.

He was a great patron and encourager of learned men, and was himself a great lover and promoter of that learning especially, which served to illustrate the history of this country, in which he was indefatigable, and spared no cost whatever. For this purpose, the regulation of his family was laudably adapted, for as he assigned to all his domestics some business, and kept none idle about him, so those who were not employed in the management of his revenues, or the affairs of his household, were entertained for binding books, engraving, and painting, in transcribing manuscripts, or in drawing and illuminating; and having built the library of Bennet college, he deposited in it printed books to a very considerable value, and all his manuscripts relating to the reformation and church history; which have been of no small service to later historians.

He published new editions of the histories of Matthew Paris, Matthew Westminster and Walsingham, and of the four gospels in the Saxon language; and a little before his death, he finished the lives of his predecessors, archbishops of Canterbury, under the title of De Antiquitate Britannicæ Ecclesiæ, &c. (fn. 31) in which he is said to have been principally assisted by Josceline, one of his chaplains, and it seems at first not to have been generally known who was the author of it. (fn. 32)

Willis says, that the archbishop was raised by Providence, to retrieve the learned monuments of our forefathers, which had been so miserably dispersed at the dissolution of monasteries, that nothing less than the protection of so great a man could have saved them from being irrevocably lost. The above very excellent history, drawn up and published by his direction, shewed his regard to the church; and the vast expence he was at in collecting, not only Saxon manuscripts, but all other books, by which the history of this nation might be illustrated, demonstrated his affections for every thing by which the piety and learning of our forefathers might be transmitted to posterity.

He was the author, among many other treatises, (fn. 33) of one in defence of priest's marriages, to which he was probably induced by the sufferings he had undergone, and the inconveniences he then felt with the rest of the married clergy from the queen's severity to them on that account; for queen Elizabeth ever discountenanced those of them, who entered into this state, and she made it a continual obstacle to their preferment; nor did those of the bishops and dignified clergy, in general, have their wives and families to reside with them in their palaces, and cathedral precincts, but hired houses, or lodgings for them elsewhere. (fn. 34)

The character of this worthy prelate, given by the author of the Athenæ, is certainly both just and true; who tells us, (fn. 35) he was a very religious and learned man, of modest manners and behaviour; he was well read in the English history, and a diligent and curious collector of antient manuscripts, which had been scattered at the dissolution of monasteries, which he gave to the college in which he had been educated. He was reported to have been a person of great charity, a noted benefactor to the public, and an eminent ornament to the places which gave him birth and education; to which may be added, that he had neither ambition nor avarice in his disposition, and notwithstanding his public benefactions, the appearance of his family and the hospitality of his table, at which entertainments to the nobility were not unfrequent, were always suitable to his dignity; for though he left two sons, who were both married, yet he did not exert himself to amass a heap of wealth for them out of the revenues of the church, in or der to raise a name and to give his family the rank of quality (fn. 36)

The archbishop's life has been written at large by Mr. Strype, in folio, London, 1711, with a copious appendix of instruments relating to it.

Having sat in the chair of this see for fifteen years and five months, he died on May 17, 1575, at his palace of Lambeth, having directed his funeral to be solemnized without pomp, noise or expence, his bowels to be buried in the Duke's chapel, in Lambeth church, (fn. 37) and his body in the chapel of Lambeth palace, (fn. 38) at the upper end against the communion table, on the south side against his accustomed place of prayer (fn. 39) under an altar tomb which he had erected for himself, the inscription on which was written by Dr. Haddon.

The legacies in his will, both public and private, were very numerous; among the latter were, those to the queen; the several bishops who were his friends; Sir Nicholas Bacon, keeper of the great seal; Sir William Cecil, lord high treasurer; Sir William Cordel, and Mr. Justice Manwood, and the doctors of the college of the arches in London; among the former, besides his benefactions already noticed to Bennet, and the other colleges above mentioned, he ordered his executors to prepare chambers in the former of them, for three other of his scholars, to each of whom he gave 3l. 6s. 8d. yearly, to be given in such manner as his executors by their writing should prescribe; of which scholars he ordered, that the first should be elected by them from the school of Canterbury, being a native of it; the second from the school of Aylsham, and the third from the school of Wymondham, being both natives of those towns.

He devised a charitable donation to the mayor and citizens of Norwich, in which city he was born, and to the mayor and citizens of Canterbury and their successors 100l. to be lent out to one or more manufacturers of wool, in that city, by whom the poor of it might from thence be employed, according to the judgment and consent of the dean and chapter; to be lent every third year, if they should see proper.—For which he directed, that the commonalty, or some able citizens of Canterbury shall be bound, in order that his legacy should not at any time be lost; and he besides bequeathed a benefaction to the university library. (fn. 40)

The archbishop bore for his arms, Gules, on a chevron, argent, three stars of the first, between three keys of the second.

73. EDMUND GRINDAL, S. T. P. succeeded to this see in the same year 1575. (fn. 41) He was the son of William Grindal, gent. of St. Bees, in Cumberland, he was first scholar, then fellow in 1538, of Pembroke hall, in Cambridge; in 1540 he proceeded A. M. and in 1544 had the college titles for orders; four years after which he was chosen master of the college, and assistant to the chancellor in his court; then B. D. in 1549 he was Margaret professor; he was next chaplain to bishop Ridley, chaunter of St. Paul's, and by the bishop's means, was promoted to be one of the king's chaplains; and in 1552 to a prebend of Westminster, when he quitted his fellowship; the year after which, on queen Mary's accession, he fled with many others, for their religion's sake, into Germany, and there is a letter of his to Ridley, printed and dated at Frankfort in 1555. (fn. 42)

He was, says Camden in his Annals, anno 1583, a religious and grave man, who returning from banishment on queen Elizabeth's accession, was first promoted to the see of London. being consecrated on Dec. 1, 1559; (fn. 43) before which he had been chosen master a second time of Pembroke college (fn. 44) In 1570 he was translated to York, and thence again to Canterbury in 1575, as above-mentioned; (fn. 45) at first he enjoyed much of the queen's favour, but being accused of countenancing the conventicles of the turbulent ministers, and their prophecies, (fn. 46) of which his enemies took advantage, he quite lost the queen's favour, and was also ordered by her to keep his house; (fn. 47) during which time and his remaining under the queen's displeasure, the bishops of his province wrote to her in his behalf. About this time he became blind, and continued so for two years before his death, when having sat as archbishop for the space of almost seven years and an half, he died on July 6, 1583, aged 64, at his palace of Croydon, and was buried in the middle chancel of that church, on the south side of the altar, where there is a handsome monument erected to his memory, having his effigies on it at full length, in his doctor's robes.

The small wealth which he had gathered, he in great measure bestowed upon the founding of a school at St. Bees, the place of his nativity, and for the advancement of learning in both the universities. The charitable benefactions which he gave by his will were; to the above mentioned school 30l. per ann. to Queen's college, (fn. 48) in Oxford, 20l. per annum, the greatest part of his books, 87 ounces of silver plate, and the discharge of a debt of 40l. owing to him from the college; to Pembroke hall, in Cambridge, 24l. per annum; (fn. 49) the remainder of his books, and a gilt cup of forty ounces, called the Canterbury cup; to St. Mary Magdalen's college, in the same university, 5l. per annum, in lands; to Christ's college there, forty ounces of silver plate; to the parish of Croydon, the sum of 50l. to buy lands for the benefit of the poor, and to the city of Canterbury 100l. to be kept in stock for ever, for the use of the poor traders and dealers in wool in that city. (fn. 50)

Archbishop Grindal is said, when he returned from banishment on the accession of queen Elizabeth, to have first translated into this country the Tamarisk, so very useful in medicine, against the diseases of the spleen. (fn. 51)

There are several letters from and to the archbishop among the Harleian manuscripts, viz. of Nicholas Ridley to him; of the archbishop to Zanchius, and to Bullinger; of John Fox to the archbishop, and of the archbishop to him; his remarkable letter on the defence of prophesyings; his directions concerning preachers; his speech whilst under the queen's displeasure; the archbishop's letter to lord Sussex, and another letter concerning him. The archbishop left behind him the character of being a good natured, friendly, inoffensive man, a learned, useful prelate, and a sincere pious Christian, and an amiable example of all Christian virtue.

He bore for his arms, granted to him by Dethic, garter king at arms, quarterly, or, and azure, a cross, or, and ermine, in each quarter a dove, or, and azure, counter changed of the field.

The archbishop's life is written by Mr. Strype, at large, in folio, London.

Footnotes

1 See Biog, Brit. vol. vi. p. 4314, 4337.
2 Dugd. Orig. p. 8.
3 Rym. Fæd. vol. xii.
4 Rym. Fæd. vol. xiii. p. 27.
5 See Dugd. Orig. p. 80.
6 The temporalities were restored on Jan. 24, 19 Henry VII. anno 1504. Rym. Fæd. vol. xiii. p. 90. It appears by his register, cited by Dr. Gibson in his Codex, p 122, that before and after his consecration, he had eleven several bulls and instruments from Rome for that purpose, and archbishop Cranmer had the same number.
7 Archbishop Warham was chancellor, and the pope's legate, anno 1508, 24 Hen. VII. Rym. Fæd. vol. xi. p. 238. He resigned both these offices on December 22, anno 1515, 7 king Henry VIII. at Westminster, to cardinal Wolsey. Rym. Fæd. vol. xi. p. 529; but the resignation of the latter seems to have been only that of legate a latere, for Warham is stiled legate two years afterwards, in anno 1517. Rym. Fæd. vol. xi. p. 589; and he continued so at his death, and Wolsey was legate a latere during life at the same time. Rym. Fæd. vol. xi. p. 589, passim.
8 Harleian MSS. No. 297-2, and No. 1498. 184-153.
9 See Lambarde, p. 566.
10 Hall's Chron. f. 9.
11 Archbishop Warham's stiling himself Wolsey's brother, gave great offence to the cardinal. See Fiddes's Life of Wolsey, p. 176, 206.
12 This monument, from its preserving the true symmetry of gothic architecture, induced the dean and chapter to restore it to its original grandeur, at the expence of 160l. The repairs began in Sept. 1796, and the monument was compleated in 1797. It is composed of Caen stone. The tomb is removed from the west side of the monument and placed in the centre. The iron rails are removed, with every other impediment that obstructed the sight, and it is now considered the first model of beauty and elegance in this kingdom. In repairing the monument the arms of archbishop T. Becket was discovered. On the upper part of the monument are six shields, and on the front of the tomb six shields, with the arms of T. Becket and archbishop Warham alternately.
13 Biog. Brit. vol. iii. p. 1510; and Wood's Ath. vol. i. p 663, where there is a full account of him.
14 He was elected by the prior and convent, having first obtained the king's licence, and was afterwards accepted and confirmed by the pope, as in former times; and the temporalities were restored on April 29, 24 Hen. VIII. anno 1533. Rymer's Fæd. vol. xiv. p. 456. He was consecrated by the bishops of Exeter, St. Asaph, and Lincoln.
15 The writ bears date, Feb. 24, 2 and 3 Philip and Mary, anno 1556. Rym. Fæd. vol. xv. p. 431.
16 Anno 5 Elizabeth, an act passed for the restitution of the children of Thomas Cranmer.
17 See Biog. Brit. vol. i. p. 216; vol. v. p. 3385.
18 This lady shared the same fate with her brother Edward, earl of Warwick, who was behended, unmarried, in 1499, on account of Perkin Warbeck's conspiracy, being likewise beheaded in 1541, upon an act of attainder passed against her without being heard, for corresponding with her son Reginald the cardinal. Her eldest son was Henry Pole, lord Montague.
19 See the several names of them in Wood's Ath. vol. i. p. 113, where is a long account of the cardinal's life.
20 See the letter he wrote to the king, excusing his return, among the Harleian MSS. No. 283.49.
21 He had at times three several titles of this dignity; first, of S.S. Nerei & Achillei; secondly, of S. Marie-in Cosmedin; and lastly, of Priscæ.
22 The writ for restoring his temporallties is dated March 21, 1556, anno 2 and 3 Philip and Mary. Rymer's Fæd. vol. xv. P. 432.
23 Whilst cardinal Peto was upon his journey hither with his bulls and faculties, he received the queen's injunctions, forbidding him to enter her dominions at his peril; so he stopped in France, not daring to venture further.
24 See Collins's Eccl. Hist. pt. ii. p. 399, 403. Godwin.—Wood's Ath. and Collect. Anglo minorit.
25 He built the front gate-way at Lambeth palace, which for the time in which it was erected is a handsome structure; and there are against a part of the palace, two fig-trees, said to have been planted there by him, which are still beautiful and flourishing, and spread to a very unusual extent, both in breadth and height, covering a surface of fifty feet in height, and forty in breadth, they are of the white fort and bear very fine fruit; the gallery was built about the same time.
26 On the wall is painted a coat of arms under a cardinal's hat, supported by two angels, viz. of eight coats; 1. Clarence; 2, Pole; 3, Nevil, carl of Warwick; 4, Beauchamp; 5, Warwick; 6, Montague; 7, Monthermer; 8, Clare and Le Despencer, quarterly.
27 Among the Harleian MSS. are two letters from cardinal Pole to archbishop Cranmer, concerning the belief of the latter, of the sacrament; and several letters to and from him.
28 Vol. i. p. 122.
29 He was born on August 6, 1504, being the son of Wm. Parker, by Alice Monins his wife. The archbishop married in 1549, Margaret, daughter of Robert Harleston, of Norfolk; by whom he had John Parker, who married Joan, daughter of Dr. Richard Coxe, bishop of Ely; Matthew, who died young; and another Matthew, who married Frances, daughter of William Barlow, bishop of Bath and Wells, afterwards of Chichester. She afterwards remarried Dr. Tobias Matthews, dean of Durham, and afterwards archbishop of York. In the north isle of Lambeth church is an inscription for Margaret, wife of archbishop Parker, obt. 1570, and her son Mathew, who died 1521. See an account of archbishop Parker, in Wood's Ath. vol. i. p. 687. Biog. Brit. vol. iv. p. 2459; vol. v. p. 3295.
30 See Peck's Desid. Curios. B. vi. p. 50. Though on this and other accounts, he hoped as he expressed himself in his will, to be spared from dilapidations, yet his executors paid on that head 450l. Battely, pt. ii. p. 36.
31 It was printed in London, 1572-3. Most of the copies of this impression that were commonly sold, conclude with the life of archbishop cardinal Pole, who died in 1558. The other copies that remained, and were to be bestowed on public libraries, and to be given to special friends, had in the year 1574, added to them, the life of the author, Matthew Parker, containing twenty-nine pages. In 1729, Dr. Drake published a handsome edition of this book, with the author's last corrections and emendations.
32 Mr. Somner, p. 138, says, Curacius having occasion to make mention of this book, gave it this commendation, that there were many excellent things in this author, whose name was not known, and that this book was to be had only in England, where it was sold at a dear rate. See the account of the archbishop's presenting his book to a nobleman, among the Harleian MSS. No. 6990-49.
33 See a list of them in Wood's Ath. vol. i. p. 688.
34 On this account archbishop Parker purchased a house over against his palace in Beaksborne, for his wife and family to reside in, during his and their abode there; and a house likewise for the same purpose, called the Duke's place, during his and their stay at Lambeth. Battely, pt. ii. p. 80.
35 Wood's Athenæ Oxon. vol. i. col. 688.
36 The inventory of his goods, as appraised, amounted to only 2703l. 5s. 1d. of which the cost of his funeral amounted to near one half. Battely, appendix, No. xiva, xivb.
37 The archbishop's bowels were deposited near the remains of his wife in the Howard chapel, (the inheritance of the house to which it belonged having been purchased).
38 In the time of the usurpation, in the middle of the last century, when the Hierarchy of the church was put down, Lambeth palace was inhabited by several lay persons, of whom, Thomas Scott, one of the regicides, and one Hardyn, were two; which former having the chapel allotted to him as his share, he divided it into two rooms, making the upper part towards the east a dining room. At length, hearing that the corpse of archbishop Parker had been there interred, he took up a floor he had made there, and the pavement under it, and dug up the corpse, which had been put into sear cloth of many doubles, in a coffin of lead; the coffin he sold to a plumber, and after he had caused the sear-cloth to be cut open to the flesh, (which was found fresh as if newly dead) he conveyed the corpse to an out-house, where it was tumbled into an hole. About the time of the restoration, this fellow was forced to discover where he had laid it; upon which, it was again brought jrt) the chapel, and buried just above the litany desk, near the steps ascending to the altar. Wood's Ath. vol. i. p. 689, the spot being marked by a marble slab and inscription; and archbishop Sancroft placed the old monument at the corner of the vestibula of the chapel, with an inscription said to have been written by himself. But Sirype says, the body lay buried in obscurity till Sir Wm. Dugdale acquainted archbishop Sancrost with it, who ordered it to be taken up and deposited again in its proper place, and a new memorial to be put over him.
39 The particulars and place of his burial, were appointed by a paper in his own hand-writing, which is printed in Battely, pt. ii. app. No. xiv.b. The expences of his funeral, as certified by his son John Parker, were, including the alms distributed to the poor, 1148l. At the archbishop's funeral, on June 6, 1575, there was used about the hearse, pall, &c. seventy four yards of velvet, eighty-three yards of broad cloth, twelve yards of taffeta, thirty-four yards of buckram. fifteen yards of caffoy, forty-five ounces of gold fringe, and three pound weight of black silk fringe; all which, together with the timbers of the rails and hearse, cost 136l. 18. 8d. and were taken by the heralds, as dreits belonging to them, exclusive of their other sees, liveries, and allowances. At the funeral of archbishop Grindal, afterwards in the year 1583, his executors found it expedient for them to compound with garter king at arms, for no less a sum than one hundred pound in lieu of the hearse, with its furniture and all liveries and fees to which the officers of arms were entitled on the day of interment. See Edmonson's Heraldry, vol. i.
40 His executors were, Master Peter Osborne, of the exchequer, esquire to the queen; his son, John Parker, esq. of Lambeth, Richard Wendesly, esq. his steward; Andrew Peerson, cl. commissary of the faculties; and John Baker his brother, of Cambridge, gent. His will, which is dated April 5, 1575, is printed at length in Battely, pt. ii. app. No. xiva.
41 See Biog. Brit. vol. iv. p. 2428, 2440 [F].
42 See some account of the archbishop from Parker's Skeletos Cantab. and bishop Wren's account of the masters of Pembroke-hall, inserted in Leland's Collect. vol. v. p. 205 and 392.
43 Stow speaks very slightingly of him; for he says, that whilst bishop of London, he collected money for the building of St. Paul's church, which he afterwards appropriated to his own use. Survey, B. III. p. 150; but he should have quoted good authority before he told this tale.
44 He at first refused the mastership with a great many excuses, but at last he accepted it; and on August 3, 1559, the 14th day after he was chosen, being then B. D. and bishop of London elect, he was admitted master by proxy, and his leave of absence was renewed from time to time by the college; so that he was never there afterwards, but resigned his office about May, 1562, two years after he had been chosen.
45 The queen's licence to elect, was dated Dec. 29, 1575; her confirmation February 14th following; and the temporalities were restored April 23. Rym. Fæd. vol. xv. p. 751, 752, 755. He did not commence S. T. P. till 1564.
46 Hence the other party brought up the expression of Grindalizing, that is, to act like archbishop Grindal, as an opprobious term of his complying with the factious and schismatical party. See the speech of the lord-keeper concerning him, among the Harleian MSS. No. 393 5.
47 Camden says, he lost the queen's favour, on account of his having condemned the unlawful marriage of Julio, an Italian physician, with another man's wife, in the proceedings of which the archbishop was opposed, though in vain, by the earl of Leicester. Sir John Harrington relates the story of the Italian physician, with other circumstances; and says, that the archbishop's blindness was only pretended, upon the queen's commanding him to keep his house; but others, more charitably inclined, impute this misfortune, which seems to have been real, to his intense studying.
48 In this college he founded the Greek lecturership, and gave a stipend for it, out of the manor of Westbury, in Ashwell, in 1568.
49 The letters of mortmain obtained of the queen, were for 40l. per annum; but his estare is only 24l. for the maintenance of one fellow and two scholars, from his school of St. Bees.
50 Godwin. Battely, pt. ii. p. 80. Parker's Skeletos Cant. and bishop Wren's account of the masters of Pembroke-hall, in Lel. Coll. as above. The latter says, the poet Spencer, who was of that college too, laments him in one of his pastorals. under the name of Algrind.
51 It has been observed, that the English have not been so grateful as the Romans, to celebrate those who have first imported lasting ornaments, as well as useful thing;, to their country; yet we have some authors not altogether silent in these vegetable acquisitions, from whom we learn, that Dr. Linacre first brought into this land, that prince of flowers, the damask rose. That the perdrigon plum, with two kinds more, were first made natives of this soil by Thomas, lord Cromwell, when he returned from his travels; and the apricot, by a priest named Wolf, who was gardener to king Henry VIII. In this reign also, were first propagated among us hops and artichokes; and then were cherry-orchards first planted here, about Sittingborne, with a more improved kind of that fruit, brought from Flanders by one Hayns, another of that king's gardeners. What effect Carden's recommendation of olive trees had with king Edward VI. I do not know; but in queen Elizabeth's reign, besides the tamarisk, as above-mentioned, after our opening a trade with Zant, the shrub which bears that excellent fruit the currant, was first transported hither, as was the tulip flower in 1578.