Parishes
Netteswell

Sponsor

Victoria County History

Publication

Author

W. R. Powell (editor), Beryl A. Board, Nancy Briggs, J. L. Fisher, Vanessa A. Harding, Joan Hasler, Norma Knight, Margaret Parsons,

Year published

1983

Supporting documents

Pages

206-213

Annotate

Comment on this article
Double click anywhere on the text to add an annotation in-line

Citation Show another format:

'Parishes: Netteswell', A History of the County of Essex: Volume 8 (1983), pp. 206-213. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=63854&strquery=netteswell Date accessed: 24 July 2014.


Highlight

(Min 3 characters)

NETTESWELL

Netteswell ancient parish, comprising 1,552 a. (628 ha.), was bounded east by Latton and west by Great and Little Parndon. Like Latton it was a long, narrow parish extending south from the river Stort. (fn. 1) When Little Parndon parish was abolished in 1946 that area was transferred to Netteswell, but in 1949 the southern part of the enlarged parish was transferred to North Weald Bassett. (fn. 2) The remainder of Netteswell, which lay within Harlow town, was in 1955 merged in the new parish and urban district of Harlow. (fn. 3)

The terrain rises from the Stort valley, 40 m.

above sea level, to 110 m. in the south. Boulder clay and London clay form the upper slopes, and glacial gravel the lower. (fn. 4) The southern end of the parish, originally wooded, was cleared in the Middle Ages, and Netteswell and Copshall commons survived in that area until 1851. (fn. 5)


NETTESWELL c. 1875

NETTESWELL c. 1875

Until the later 19th century Netteswell was thinly populated and entirely rural. There were 35 tenants of the manor in 1230. (fn. 6) Eleven men were assessed to the lay subsidy in 1327 and 32 in 1525. (fn. 7) There were 47 houses in 1670. (fn. 8) The population was 288 in 1801. After rising to 365 in 1851 it fell to 332 in 1881. In the 1880s Kirkaldy's engineering works was opened near the railway station at Burnt Mill, in the north-west corner of the parish, and by 1891 the population had leapt to 555. It continued to rise, with fluctuations, to 672 in 1931. (fn. 9)

The ancient pattern of roads and settlement appears to have changed little until the later 19th century. (fn. 10) A spinal road from Netteswell common ran northwards past Tye Green, continuing as Netteswell (formerly Hole) (fn. 11) Street to Netteswell Cross on the Roydon road, and as Mill Street (later Station Road, and afterwards Spring Street) to Burnt Mill, where a bridge over the Stort was recorded from 1607. (fn. 12) In the Middle Ages the manor house and the church lay on Netteswell Street, and there were hamlets at Netteswell Cross, at Tye Green, and on the northern edge of Netteswell common. There seems to have been no settlement between Netteswell Cross and the mill until Redmells (later Marshgate) Farm was built, probably in the later 17th century. (fn. 13)

In the later 18th century there were only 'a few mean scattered houses' in the parish, apart from the manor house and the rectory. (fn. 14) Spurriers, west of Marshgate Farm, was built c. 1870 by William Cox, a London solicitor, who transferred to it the name of an earlier house at Netteswell Cross, probably derived from the family of Richard Spurrier (fl. 1409). (fn. 15) In the earlier 19th century the only buildings at Burnt Mill were the mill house, the railway station, and a lock-keeper's cottage, but after the opening of Kirkaldy's works a number of houses were built in Station Road, and by 1897 Burnt Mill had become a large village. (fn. 16) Between the two world wars three small council estates were built at Netteswell Cross. (fn. 17)

Netteswell'sold settlements have been engulfed by Harlow town. The village at Burnt Mill has been almost entirely demolished, Netteswell Cross is preserved in the New Town park, and Tye Green is surrounded by new building. Old buildings preserved at Netteswell Cross include Hoppits, a timber-framed house of two storeys, largely of the 17th century but incorporating part of an earlier house of one storey with attics. Hill House Farm is a tall timber-framed house of the late 17th century, partly encased in red brick. Marshgate Farm, timber-framed and weatherboarded, probably dates from the late 17th century. At Tye Green are Oak End, a 17thcentury cottage, originally of two-roomed plan, and Jean's Yardling, formerly Tye Green Farm, a timber-framed house possibly of medieval origin but remodelled in the 17th century. Orchard Cottage, one of the houses along the edge of the common, appears to have been originally a small cottage of one storey with attics, but was heightened to two storeys in the 19th century.

There were two inns at Netteswell in the 18th century. The Chequers, Commonside Road, was built c. 1745. It has continued to trade under that name, but c. 1965 the business was transferred to a new building next door, and the old building, dating from the 18th century, became a private house. (fn. 18) The White Horse, Netteswell Cross, was recorded from 1755. (fn. 19) It seems to have become the Hare and Hounds c. 1802 and the Greyhound by 1819. (fn. 20) It is a small brick building of c. 1800, with substantial later additions.

In 1741 coaches from Harlow to Hoddesdon (Herts.) were passing Netteswell Cross. (fn. 21) The Northern and Eastern railway line from London via Broxbourne (Herts.), reached Harlow in 1841, with a station at Burnt Mill, and was extended to Cambridge in 1845. (fn. 22) A post office, opened by 1878, had been transferred by 1902 from Netteswell Cross to Spring Street. (fn. 23) The parish had piped water from c. 1894. Main drainage was apparently installed at Burnt Mill c. 1905, to prevent pollution of the Stort, but Tye Green and Netteswell Common were not sewered until Harlow town was built. Electric street lighting was provided in 1937. (fn. 24)

Manor.

The manor of NETTESWELL or NETTESWELLBURY, conterminous with the parish of Netteswell, was one of the manors given by Earl Harold in 1060 to his college of secular canons at Waltham Holy Cross, a grant confirmed by the king in 1062. (fn. 25) The manor was not listed among the college's possessions in Domesday Book, and it is possible that it was included in the large manor of Waltham then held by the bishop of Durham. (fn. 26) The bishop's manor was seized by William II, but between 1096 and 1189 Waltham college, later priory and then abbey, gradually acquired the whole manor by a series of royal grants. Netteswell came into the hands of Henry II, who in 1177 granted it, along with some lands in Waltham Holy Cross, to Waltham priory, on its refoundation. (fn. 27)

Waltham abbey retained Netteswell until the Dissolution. Roger and Margaret of Bray were tenants of the abbey at Netteswell in 1196. Shortly afterwards their son Miles of Bray sold all his land there to the abbey for 25 marks. (fn. 28) The family name survived in Brays mead, recorded in 1270, and Brays grove (1544). (fn. 29) Netteswell was farmed directly by the abbey in the 13th century, but from c. 1400 was let to a tenant. (fn. 30) In 1540, when the abbey was dissolved, Netteswellbury was on lease to Andrew Finch. (fn. 31)

Netteswellbury was one of the manors granted at the Dissolution to the last abbot of Waltham, Robert Fuller, for life. On his death c. 1542 it came into the hands of the king, who in 1544 granted it with the advowson of the rectory to Richard Heigham of Roydon. (fn. 32) Richard (d. 1546) was succeeded by his brother William Heigham (d. 1558), and he by his son John. (fn. 33) John Heigham conveyed the manor and advowson in 1561 to (Sir) Richard Weston, justice of the Queen's Bench. (fn. 34) Sir Richard was succeeded in 1572 by his son (Sir) Jerome (d. 1603). Sir Jerome's son Sir Richard, later earl of Portland, minister to James I and Charles I, sold Netteswell in 1618 to Sir William Martin of Woodford. (fn. 35)

Sir William Martin was succeeded in 1679 by his son Cuthbert (d. 1697) whose son, another William Martin, died childless in 1717. Netteswell had been settled on William's wife Mary (d. 1764). She was succeeded by the Revd. Matthew Blucke of Hunsdon (Herts.), a descendant of Cuthbert Martin's sister. Blucke, who took the surname Martin, died in 1766 leaving Netteswell to his son, also Matthew Martin. (fn. 36) Matthew Martin sold Netteswell c. 1772 to Thomas Blackmore of Briggens, in Hunsdon. (fn. 37) In 1778 the estate comprised 797 a. (fn. 38)

Thomas Blackmore was succeeded in 1789 by his son Thomas who was or became a lunatic, in the care of his sister Mary (d. 1818) and her husband the Revd. Charles Phelips (d. 1834). (fn. 39) On Thomas Blackmore's death in 1824 Netteswell passed to Charles (d. 1869), son of Charles and Mary Phelips, (fn. 40) who sold Old House and Marshgate farms in 1867 to L. W. Arkwright, owner of Mark Hall, Latton. His son Charles J. Phelips died in 1903, and the remainder of Netteswell was then sold to L. J. W. Arkwright of Mark Hall. In 1947 Netteswell was sold with most of the Mark Hall estate to Harlow development corporation. (fn. 41)

Netteswellbury manor house adjoined the church to the west. It was let to tenants until c. 1640, when Sir William Martin moved there. It seems to have remained the family seat until the death of William Martin in 1717. (fn. 42) He is said to have rebuilt it during Queen Anne's reign. (fn. 43) In 1771, however, it was described as 'a large, ancient, venerable edifice', which suggests that Martin had only extended or improved the previous building. (fn. 44) The house was partly demolished by Thomas Blackmore (d. 1789), who intended to rebuild it for his younger son, but did not complete the work. The remainder of the house was pulled down c. 1820, and a new farm house was built on an adjoining site. (fn. 45)

The farm buildings include a large aisled barn, probably late medieval, north-east of the house. Another aisled barn, east of the house, may be of 16th-century origin, but has later extensions to the south. (fn. 46)

Economic History.

The ancient pattern of land use was similar to that in Latton, with woods on the southern uplands, arable fields in the centre, and marshland pasture to the north. (fn. 47) Henry II in 1178 granted Waltham Abbey licence to assart in Netteswell, and 40 a. had been assarted by 1189. (fn. 48) That clearing is probably to be identified with the Riddens or Riddings, lying south of Netteswell common, and recorded from 1400. Other early inclosures were Stock Ridden (1400), north of Netteswell common, and Brays Grove, which lay south-east of the church on the Latton boundary. (fn. 49) In the earlier 13th century there was intercommoning by the men of Netteswell and those of Little Parndon in the woods of the two manors. (fn. 50) With the other Harlow hundred parishes Netteswell was included under Henry III in the royal forest of Essex, but was excluded in 1301. (fn. 51) In 1638, during Charles I's attempt to extend the forest boundaries, Sir William Martin was forced to compound for the disafforestation, since 1301, of 1,000 a. in Netteswell. (fn. 52) It is unlikely that much woodland still survived in 1638. The manorial demesne had contained only 60 a. of woodland in 1546, (fn. 53) and there were no more than 27 a. in the parish in 1778. (fn. 54)

Two areas which had probably been woodland in the Middle Ages survived as common pastures, regulated by the manor court, until the 19th century. (fn. 55) They were Netteswell common and the smaller Copshall common adjoining it to the north-west. Small inclosures were recorded there down to the 18th century, but in 1840 the commons still comprised about 173 a. (fn. 56) They were finally inclosed in 1851. (fn. 57)

The ancient common woodlands at the southern end of the parish were matched by common meadow at the northern end. Three common meadows, lying beside the Stort on the Latton boundary and totalling 9 a., survived until their inclosure in 1851. (fn. 58) They may have been part of the medieval common meadow called Tunmanmead, (fn. 59) with strips visible in 1840 suggesting former common use. (fn. 60)

In the centre of the parish, in the 13th and 14th centuries, were arable open fields. There was one large open field, Tunmanbrodfield, and several smaller ones, including Muckmore in the north-west, Bossells in the north-east, and Hides in the west. (fn. 61) Most of the smaller fields seem to have been inclosed by the early 17th century, and none remained in 1840. (fn. 62) The large open field, which lay south-east of Netteswell Cross, survived in part until 1851, when the remnant of 33 a. was inclosed. (fn. 63)

About 1230 Netteswell manor contained 1 tenant holding a virgate of land, 9 with ½ virgate, and 26 with smallholdings between ¾ a. and 10 a. The virgater, Thomas of Netteswell, paid annually 6s. rent, 2 ward pence, a cock, 2 hens, and 30 eggs. He did no week work, but performed certain boon works. Those with ½ virgates did regular week work on the demesne, as well as boon works. (fn. 64) Later some of the tenants' homesteads lay at Netteswell Cross and some at Tye Green. (fn. 65)

By the 17th century the manorial demesne had been consolidated in a large belt across the centre of the parish. Apart from the rectory and the mill there were at least 28 other tenements, all copyhold, many of which can be traced from the 15th century or earlier. (fn. 66) In 1778 the lord of the manor, Thomas Blackmore, owned 797 a., all on lease; the larger farms were Netteswellbury (297 a.), Hill House (180 a.), and Old House or Mangers (160 a.). The only copyhold farm of more than 50 a. was Goldsmiths, formerly Yorks or Scotts, and later Goldings. By 1916 Goldings had been enlarged to 155 a., but Netteswellbury, Hill House, and Old House were still the largest farms, and Old House was being managed jointly with Riddings farm (140 a.) (fn. 67)

In 1546 the manorial demesne contained 200 a. of arable and 240 a. of meadow and pasture. (fn. 68) In 1840 the whole parish contained 828 a. of arable and 485 a. of pasture. (fn. 69) The area of arable returned fell from 657 a. in 1866 to 586 a. in 1906 and 302 a. in 1926. The area under grass fell from 622 a. in 1866 to 563 a. in 1906, and 556 a. in 1926. There were 409 sheep in the parish in 1824 and 1,095 in 1866, but none were recorded in 1906, and only 52 in 1926. Cattle numbered 88 in 1866, 59 in 1906, and 150 in 1926. Pigs increased from 67 in 1866 to 104 in 1906 and 105 in 1926. (fn. 70)

In 1866 a total of 478 a. of cereals was returned for the parish, including 291 a. of wheat and 112 a. of barley. Vegetable crops totalled 179 a., including 56 a. of mangolds and 50 a. of peas. Though probably incomplete the returns may indicate the relative proportions of cereals and vegetables. The 1906 returns give 419 a. of cereals, including 221 a. of wheat and 109 a. of oats, and 166 a. of vegetables, including 55 a. of beans and 36 a. of turnips and swedes. Those for 1926 list 261 a. of cereals, including 170 a. of wheat, and 41 a. of vegetables, mainly beans and mangolds. (fn. 71)

In 1203 Ralph son of Walter conveyed a mill at Netteswell to Waltham Abbey. It was almost certainly the water-mill on the Stort recorded between 1203 and c. 1211, and it may have been the predecessor of Burnt Mill, recorded from 1580. Burnt Mill belonged to the lord of the manor, from whom it was leased by the miller. (fn. 72) The Death family, who were the millers from c. 1824 until 1870 or later, acquired the freehold, but the mill was closed c. 1880. (fn. 73)

Tradesmen recorded in the parish included a weaver (1558), a ploughwright (1583), a clothier (1623), and a tanner (1700). (fn. 74) In the 18th century there was a tanyard at Tanyard or Tannery (later Netteswell) House, west of Netteswell Cross. It seems to have closed by 1840. (fn. 75) A malt house, opposite Spurriers at Netteswell Cross, was mentioned in 1782. (fn. 76)

John Kirkaldy Ltd., marine engineers of Limehouse (Lond.), bought Burnt Mill in 1885 and built a factory on the site. During the First World War there were about 300 workers, but the firm became too dependent on Admiralty orders: after the war business declined, and the works were closed c. 1930. (fn. 77) Most of the factory buildings were demolished, though a surviving part of the premises was occupied during the Second World War by a food-distributing firm. In 1957 part of the site was occupied by a small factory making projectors. (fn. 78)

Local Government.

In 1275 Waltham abbey claimed the right of gallows, the assize of bread and of ale, and all other royal liberties except warren. (fn. 79) Court rolls of Netteswell manor survive for 1270, 1271, nine years between 1400 and 1468, 1512, and 1522. (fn. 80) There are court books, rolls, and other records for the period 1672–1905. (fn. 81) The court leet, with jurisdiction over the whole parish, continued to be held up to 1822, but met rarely after the 17th century. It recorded the appointment of a constable in 1512, 1522, and 1822, and two constables in 1677 and 1686. Two overseers of the commons were also appointed in 1677, and two headboroughs in 1822. Two aletasters were mentioned in 1271. The last two meetings of the leet, in 1785 and 1822, were concerned mainly with manorial customs, including the regulation of the commons.

Parish overseers' accounts survive for the periods 1719–53 and 1817–36. (fn. 82) Between 1719 and 1753 one overseer presented accounts. In most years from 1740 to 1753 two overseers were nominated. Several overseers served for two years or more, not always consecutively. A widow served in 1729 and another in 1730. Between 1818 and 1824 one overseer accounted. Thomas Rickett, overseer from 1822, was in 1825 appointed salaried assistant overseer, and continued to present the accounts until 1830, when John Rickett succeeded him. One churchwarden and one constable were nominated annually between 1818 and 1836.

The annual poor rate averaged £38 between 1719 and 1735, and £64 between 1736 and 1753. There was a sharp increase in the 1740s, to a peak of £97 in 1751. The cost of poor relief was £93 in 1776, and averaged £112 in the three years 1783–5. (fn. 83) It reached £422 in 1801, but during the remainder of the decade averaged £260. (fn. 84) Between 1817 and 1836 the overseers' annual expenditure, including the county rate, averaged £283.

The parish had two poorhouses, both at Tye Green. One had been built on waste land granted in 1599 by Sir Jerome Weston, lord of the manor. (fn. 85) The other, lying farther west, by Copshall common, was given in 1746 by Mary Martin, lady of the manor. (fn. 86) Each house apparently contained two dwellings. In 1825 they accommodated a total of 10 adults and 7 children. (fn. 87) Mrs. Martin's house was later an infant school. (fn. 88)

Between 1719 and 1753 the number of paupers receiving weekly doles rarely exceeded 6, though it reached 11 in 1750. In the period 1813–15 the number was usually between 17 and 20, while some 20–25 received occasional relief. (fn. 89) In 1830 there were only 10 weekly pensioners, with doles ranging from 2s. 6d. to 7s. At all recorded periods the vestry also provided relief in clothing, fuel, rent subsidies, boarding allowances, sick pay, and medical care. Throughout the period 1817–36 the vestry employed a part-time doctor. In 1819 it resolved that paupers should be employed by the larger ratepayers on the roundsman system. Only one parish apprenticeship was recorded. (fn. 90)

In 1836 Netteswell joined Epping poor law union.

Church.

A church existed at Netteswell by 1177, when it was granted along with the manor to Waltham priory. (fn. 91) Pope Lucius II (1181–5) licensed the canons of Waltham to appropriate the church. That was confirmed in 1195 by Celestine III, who stipulated that the churches of Epping, Loughton, Netteswell, and Woodford should be assigned to the use of the sacristy of the abbey. (fn. 92) Only at Epping was a permanent appropriation made. (fn. 93) In 1254 the abbey was retaining all the tithes from the demesne at Netteswell, but it had apparently ceased to do so by 1291, and in 1840 all the tithes belonged to the rector. (fn. 94) There is no record of a vicar. In the earlier 13th century the cure was apparently served by a chaplain appointed by the abbey, but rectors, known to have existed in the later 12th century, were again recorded from 1286. (fn. 95) The advowson of the rectory descended with the manor. (fn. 96) William Smith, who presented in 1522 for one term, may have been a benefactor to the church. (fn. 97) Matthew Martin, who sold the manor c. 1772 to Thomas Blackmore, retained the next presentation, which he made in 1802. The Crown presented in 1805 because Thomas Blackmore the younger was a lunatic, but in 1821 Blackmore's nephew Charles Phelips presented. (fn. 98) The Arkwright family retained the advowson when they sold the estate in 1947.

The rectory was valued at £3 6s. 8d. in 1254 and 1291, and £13 6s. 8d. in 1535. (fn. 99) In 1650 the income was £60, including £5 from the glebe, then about 4 a. (fn. 100) It was no more than £100 in the later 18th century, but in 1840 the tithes were commuted for £231 and there were 7 a. of glebe. (fn. 101) The Rectory house was recorded in the 17th century, partly tiled and partly thatched. (fn. 102) Between 1766 and 1771 it was replaced by an 'elegant' brick house. (fn. 103) In 1956 a new Rectory was built at Tye Green. (fn. 104)

John Saxton, rector in 1418, was licensed to hold up to four additional livings. (fn. 105) Edward Hales, rector 1560–72, was also vicar of Witham. His four successors, 1572–1634, were all Welshmen. Thomas Denne, rector 1634–40, had previously been vicar of Latton. (fn. 106) Thomas Cramphorne, rector 1640–80, retained the living throughout the Civil War and Interregnum and conformed in 1662. Abraham Kent, 1716–33, was also vicar of Amwell (Herts.), but lived at Netteswell, which in his time became a fashionable place for the weddings of people from the Amwell and Hertford area. Between 1738 and 1835 there was rarely a resident rector, and curates were employed. Even Anthony Natt, rector 1766–1801, who built the new Rectory, spent his later years in London. Philip Johnson, 1835–73, though he served the cure himself, usually came to Netteswell only at weekends. Heathcote A. Wake, 1873–90, restored the church. Wilson Carlile (1847–1942), founder of the Church Army, was rector 1890–92. (fn. 107) Canon John L. Fisher, rector 1918–54, was a notable Essex antiquary. (fn. 108)

The church of ST. ANDREW, formerly isolated in the centre of Netteswell, beside the manor house, is now surrounded by the houses of Tye Green neighbourhood in Harlow town. (fn. 109) It is a simple rectangular building of flint rubble with ashlar quoins and dressings, comprising nave and chancel in one, north vestry, south porch, and western bell turret. The nave and chancel were built early in the 13th century, as shown by the lancet windows and the roundheaded door arches in the north and south walls. The original east window, of which traces remain, and the piscina in the chancel, are of the same period. The wooden bell turret, supported on chamfered posts and a tie-beam, may have been built c. 1400 to house the two bells of that period which survive. Other 15th-century alterations included a new east and a new west window, each of three lights, a matching pair of two-light windows on the north and south walls of the nave, and the building of the south porch. A panel of brickwork, possibly commemorating that work, is set on the outside of the south wall of the nave. It depicts a double rose with supporters, perhaps for Gervase Rose, abbot of Waltham 1497–1500.

In 1618 a three-tier pulpit, bearing the date, was placed on the south side of the church. At the same period box pews were installed, and a west gallery was erected. A rough lean-to vestry, on the north side of the nave, probably dated from the 18th century. The church was thoroughly restored in 1875 to the designs of Frederic Chancellor. The porch and vestry were rebuilt, and the bell turret was given a broach spire in place of a low pyramidal cap. Most of the roof timbers were replaced, the gallery was removed, new pews were installed, and the pulpit, much altered, was moved to the north side of the church.

There are three bells, two of which were cast by a founder active in the period 1385–1418. (fn. 110) The plate included a cup and paten of 1641 and an alms dish of 1656, all of silver. (fn. 111) The font dates from the 13th century. Fragments of 15thcentury glass survive, reset, in the heads of the larger nave windows. They include the figures of the evangelists and of St. Mary Cleophas and St. Mary Salome with their children.

There are brasses to Thomas Laurence (d. 1522), and John Bannister (d. 1607), and a marble monument to William Martin (d. 1717). Another marble monument, erected by William Martin's widow Mary (d. 1764) to her brother Robert Crosse and nephew Thomas Crosse, was removed in 1969 to the Victoria and Albert Museum. (fn. 112) A large altar tomb covers the family vault of Anthony Natt (d. 1801), rector.

Burnt Mill mission originated in 1890, when the rector, Wilson Carlile, started services in a barn at Netteswell Cross. The mission hall was opened in Spring Street in 1891. (fn. 113)

In 1957 the ecclesiastical parish of Netteswell was reduced in size and designated the parish of Tye Green with St. Andrew, Netteswell. (fn. 114) St. Andrew's remained the parish church until 1964, when it became a chapel of ease to the new church of St. Stephen, Tye Green. In 1978 St. Andrew's was closed and declared redundant. (fn. 115)

Nonconformity.

There were a few Baptists at Netteswell in the later 18th and the earlier 19th century, but no regular meeting. (fn. 116) Burnt Mill Methodist church, seating 150, was built in 1887 by the North West Essex Wesleyan mission. (fn. 117) It was closed in 1962 and demolished in 1963: by that time the Methodist church of St. Andrew, the Stow, had been opened. (fn. 118) Brethren started cottage meetings at Burnt Mill in 1892, but soon moved to Great Parndon. (fn. 119)

Education.

William Martin Church of England junior and infant school, Tawney Road, Harlow, was founded by William Martin (d. 1717) of Netteswellbury, who in his will gave a cottage, ½a. of land, and £1,000 to build and maintain a school and to employ a master and mistress to teach 20 poor children of Netteswell, vacancies being filled by children from Latton and Great and Little Parndon. Any residue was to be used for the children's clothing. (fn. 120) The legacy fell due on his wife's death in 1764, and following a Chancery order a school was built in School Lane in 1777. In the 18th century children were occasionally given shoes, and in the period 1777–82 Great Parndon was granted up to four places. (fn. 121) The school seems to have been closed for a short time in the early 1820s, but was reopened in 1825 and was attended by 20 children, chiefly girls, aged 5–12. (fn. 122) By 1835 the master could admit paying pupils. At that time Netteswell children filled all the free places, and from 1836 Fawbert and Barnard's free school at Harlow was also open to them. (fn. 123) An infant school, opened in 1848 in a former poorhouse at Tye Green, was still listed in 1863. (fn. 124) By a Scheme of 1876 Martin's school was opened to the poor of all the beneficiary parishes. (fn. 125) It was enlarged in 1872, 1889, 1891, and 1898. Attendance rose from 50 in 1886 to 89 in 1894. (fn. 126) The school received annual government grants from 1878. (fn. 127) It was reorganized in 1944 for juniors and infants, and in 1954 for infants only. In 1958 it was moved to new buildings farther north, and was again opened to juniors. (fn. 128)

Charities for the Poor.

Thomas Laurence (d. 1522) gave a 5s. rent charge to the parish poor, probably from land given to him by John Waylett for an obit. (fn. 129) The charity had been lost by 1741. (fn. 130) The foundation of Emanuel Wolley's gift in 1617 to poor Netteswell tradesmen, and its history to 1680, are treated under Harlow. Payments to Netteswell poor are recorded for the years 1635–42, 1680–99, 1704–10, 1716–33, and 1743. (fn. 131) In the 19th century the poor received money or clothing every 3 or 4 years. (fn. 132) In the 1970s the annual income of 50p provided occasional gifts to poor people in Tye Green parish. (fn. 133)

Netteswell allotments, Commonside Road, were founded in 1851 by the inclosure award, which granted 3 a. from Netteswell common for the use of the labouring poor. (fn. 134) They were still in use in 1979, under the management of Harlow district council. (fn. 135)

Footnotes

1 Above, Harlow town, Educ.
2 O.S. Map 1/25,000, TL 40, 41; O.S. Map 6", Essex, XL1, L(1881 edn.). This article, completed in 1979, describes the history of ancient parish to 1955. For later history see Herlow Town.
3 Co. of Essex (Alteration of Rural Parishes) Order, 1946; Essex (Alteration of Rural Parishes) Order no. 2, 1949.
4 V.C.H. Essex, i, map facing p. 1; cf. Bateman, Harlow, 13–15.
5 Below, Econ. Hist.
6 E.A.T. N.S. xix 111–15.
7 P.R.O., E 179/107/13; E 179/108/214.
8 E.R.O., Q/RTh 5.
9 V.C.H. Essex, ii. 348; Census, 1911, 1921, 1931; below, Econ. Hist.
10 Para. based mainly on P.N. Essex, 47–8; E.R. xxxv. 37–45, 75–83; Map of Essex (1777); E.R.O., D/DAr P11; E.R.O., D/P 33/25.
11 P.R.O., SC 2/173/30.
12 E.R.O., Q/CP 1.
13 E.R.O., T/A 445/5 (Tho. Redmell, d. 1676).
14 Hist. Essex by Gent. iv. 85.
15 Inf. from W. Cox's relatives; Kelly's Dir. Essex (1870); P.R.O., SC 2/174/42b.
16 E.R.O., D/P 33/25; O.S. Map 6″, Essex, XLI (1881 edn.); O.S. Map 1/2,500, Essex, XLI.5 (1897 edn.).
17 E.R.O., T/A 524/16; local inf.
18 E.R.O., D/DB T46; E.R.O., Q/RLv 24–82; White's Dir. Essex (1848), 296; Kelly's Dir. Essex (1859 and later edns.); local inf.
19 E.R.O., Q/SBb 201.
20 E.R.O., Q/RLv 24/82; E.R.O., D/DAr P11; White's Dir. Essex (1848), 296; Kelly's Dir. Essex (1859 and later edns.).
21 E.R.O., T/M 132.
22 E.R.O., Q/RUm 1/50, 1/69; Gordon, Regional Hist. Railways, v. 102–11.
23 Kelly's Dir. Essex (1878 and later edns.).
24 E.R.O., T/A 468; T/A 524/16, 19.
25 V.C.H. Essex, ii. 166; Cart. Ant. (P.R.S. N.s. xxxiii), no. 356.
26 V.C.H. Essex. i. 446–8; v. 155.
27 Cart. Ant. (P.R.S. n.s. xxxiii), nos. 357, 359; Cur. Reg. R. xv. 167; cf. V.C.H. Essex, v. 155–6; Rot. Hund. (Rec. Com.), i. 150.
28 B.L. Cott. MS. Tib. C. ix, ff. 132v.–133; Feet of F. Essex, i. 17; Pipe R. 1195 (P.R.S. N.S. vi), 227.
29 P.N. Essex, 47.
30 E.A.T. N.S. xix. 111–16; E.R.O., T/P 145/3; P.R.O., SC 2/173/30–1.
31 P.R.O., SC 6/Hen. VIII/964, m. 113d.; cf. E.R.O., D/P 33/1/1, f.3.
32 L. & P. Hen. VIII, xvi, p. 715; xix (1), p. 280.
33 P.R.O., C 142/84, no. 45; C 142/122, no. 59.
34 Cal. Pat. 1558–60, 261; P.R.O., CP 25(2)/126/1616.
35 P.R.O., C 142/160, no. 35; CP 25(2)/295/15 Jas. I. Hil.; D.N.B.
36 Account of Martin fam. based on E.R. xxxvi. 74–6; E.R.O., T/A 445/1–7; Guildhall MS. 9556; mon. in Netteswell ch.
37 Gent. Mag. 1xvi(1), 382; E.R.O., T/A 445/7.
38 E.R.O., D/DAr P11.
39 Guildhall MS. 9560; E.R. xxxvi. 76; Burke, Land. Gent. (1879), ii. 1267; Alum. Oxon. 1715–1886, iii. 1104; E.R.O., T/A 445/7–9.
40 E.R. xxxvi. 76; Burke, Land. Gent. (1913), 1499.
41 E.R.O., Sale Cat. B2143; E.R.O., D/DAr P4, P5; Burke, Land, Gent. (1913), 1499; inf. from L. J. W. Arkwright; above, Latton, Manors.
42 P.R.O., SC 2/173/31–8; C 142/84, no. 45; E.R. xxxvi. 74.
43 Gent. Mag. lxvi (1), 382.
44 Hist. Essex by Gent. iv. 85.
45 Inf. from L. J. W. Arkwright; E.R. xxxvi. 77.
46 Partly based on R.C.H.M. Essex, ii. 196; E.R. xxxvi. 77.
47 Above, Latton, Econ. Hist.
48 Cart. Ant. (P.R.S. n.s. xxiii), no. 357; Fisher, Forest, 321.
49 E.R. xxxv. 77; P.N. Essex, 47–8; E.R.O., D/DAr P11.
50 B.L. Harl. MS. 4809, f. 135.
51 Fisher, Forest, 25–6, 29, map facing p. 137.
52 P.R.O., E 403/3042, pp. 95–6: reference kindly supplied by Mr. W. H. Liddell.
53 P.R.O., C 142/84, no. 45.
54 E.R.O., D/DAr P11.
55 E.R.O., T/A 445/1, 4, 8, 9.
56 E.R. xxxv. 81; E.R.O., D/CT 250.
57 E.R.O., Q/RDc 40.
58 Ibid.
59 P.R.O., SC 2/173/31 (dated 1400).
60 E.R.O., D/CT 250.
61 Ibid.; B.L. Harl. MS. 4809, f. 133 (dated c. 1220); E.R. xxxv. 39–40.
62 J. L. Fisher, 'Enclosures at Netteswell', E.R. xxxv. 79; E.R.O., D/CT 250.
63 E.R.O., Q/RDc 40.
64 B.L. Cott. MS. Tib. C. ix, ff. 207v.–210v.; J. L. Fisher, 'Customs and Services on an Essex manor', E.A.T. N.S. xix. 111–16.
65 J. L. Fisher, 'Netteswell Farms', E.R. xxxv. 37–45.
66 Ibid.
67 E.R.O., D/DAr P11; E.R. xxxv. 41; E.R.O., D/Z 45/6.
68 P.R.O., C 142/84, no. 45.
69 E.R.O., D/CT 250.
70 P.R.O., MAF 68/23–4; 68/2178; 68/3294; E.R.O., D/P 33/3/1 (tithe accounts, 1824).
71 P.R.O., MAF 68/23, 2178, 3294.
72 Feet of F. Essex, i. 31; B.L. Cott. MS. Tib. C. ix, f. 133; J. L. Fisher, 'Burnt Mill', E.R. xxxiii. 173–9; E.R.O., D/DAr P11.
73 E.R.O., D/P 33/25; E.R.O., D/CT 250; Kelly's Dir. Essex (1866, 1870); E.R.O., Sale Cat. B2145; local inf.
74 Chelmsford Wills, i. 468, 230; ii. 238, 248; E.R.O., Q/SBb 201/24.
75 E.R.O., T/A 445/6; E.R.O., D/CT 250; O.S. Map 6", Essex, XLI (1881 edn.).
76 E.R.O., T/A 445/8.
77 E.R.O., Sale Cat. B2145; Kelly's Dir. Essex (1890 and later edns.); E.R. xxxiii. 179; local inf.
78 Local inf.
79 Rot. Hund. (Rec. Com.), i. 160.
80 P.R.O., SC 2/173/19, 30–8; SC 2/174/42b; E.R.O., D/DP M1154; E.R.O., T/A 195.
81 E.R.O., T/A 445.
82 E.R.O., D/P 33/12/1–2.
83 E.R.O., Q/CR 1/1.
84 E.R.O., Q/CR 1/9/13.
85 E.R.O., D/P 33/1/1.
86 E.R.O., T/A 445/6; 29th Rep. Com. Char. H.C. 216, p. 199(1835), xxi (1).
87 Guildhall MS. 9557; E.R.O., D/P 33/25.
88 White's Dir. Essex (1848), 296; below, Educ.
89 E.R.O., Q/CR 1/10.
90 E.R.O., D/P 33/12/2.
91 Cart. Ant. (P.R.S. N.S. xxxiii), nos. 357, 359.
92 B.L. Harl. MS. 391, ff. 103v., 132v.; Cal. Papal Reg. i. 7.
93 V.C.H. Essex, v. 132.
94 E.A.T. N.S. xviii. 132; Tax. Eccl. (Rec. Com.), 20; E.R.O., D/CT 250.
95 Fisher, Harlow, 54, 128–9; Reaney, Early Essex Clergy, 120; Guildhall MSS. 9550, 9557–8, 9560.
96 Fisher, Harlow, 54, 129–42; L. & P. Hen. VIII, xvi, p. 715; xix (1), p. 280; Guildhall MSS. 9551, 9556–8, 9560; E.R.O., D/AEF 7.
97 Fisher, Harlow, 131.
98 Guildhall MSS. 9557–8.
99 E.A.T. N.S. xviii. 132; Tax. Eccl. (Rec. Com.), 20; Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), i. 436.
100 Smith, Eccl. Hist. Essex, 274; Newcourt, Repertorium, ii. 434.
101 Guildhall MS. 9557; E.R.O., D/CT 250.
102 Newcourt, Repertorium, ii. 434.
103 Hist. Essex by Gent. iv. 85; Gent. Mag. 1xvi (1), 382.
104 Inf. from the rector and Church Commissioners.
105 Cal. Papal Reg. vii. 49. For rectors: Fisher, Harlow, 129–42.
106 Above, Latton, Church.
107 D.N.B.
108 Author of The Deanery of Harlow (1922), A Medeival Farming Glossary (1968), and many papers: see Essex Bibliography, 338.
109 Architectural history based on R.C.H.M. Essex, ii. 195–6; Fisher, Harlow, 117–27; drawings and plans (1875) penes the rector; E.R.O., Pictorial Colln. See above, plate 29.
110 Ch. Bells Essex, 22, 26, 346.
111 Ch. Plate Essex, 122.
112 Inf. from V. & A. Mus.
113 Strat. Expr. 23 May, 1891; plaque on bldg.
114 E.R.O., D/CPc 349.
115 Inf. from the rector and Harlow dev. corp.; above, Harlow Town, Churches.
116 Guildhall MSS. 9557–8; E.R.O., D/P 33/25.
117 Extension of Village Methodism 1885–7 (E.R.O., pamph.); Wesleyan Chapel Cttee. Rep. (1888).
118 Kelly's Dir. Essex (1894 and later edns.); Harlow Handbk. (1962); Bateman, Harlow, 111, 144; inf. from the Revd. J. D. Buxton; below, Harlow Town, Prot. Nonconf.
119 J. Jamieson, Hist. of the Lord's Work at Gospel Hall, Parndon, 4–5.
120 V.C.H. Essex, ii. 562; 29th Rep. Com. Char. H.C. 216, pp. 197–9 (1835), xxi (1); E.R. xxxvi. 76.
121 E.R.O., D/P 184/1/2; D/P 33/25.
122 E.R.O., T/Z 38/160; E.R.O., D/P 33/25.
123 29th Rep. Com. Char. pp. 197–9; above, Harlow Ancient Parish, Educ.
124 White's Dir. Essex (1848), 296; (1863), 334.
125 E.R.O., D/DAr C11.
126 Kelly's Dir. Essex (1886 and later edns.); P.R.O., ED 21/2178.
127 Rep. Educ. Cttee. of Council, 1878–9 [C. 2342–1], p. 889, H.C. (1878–9), xxiii.
128 E.R.O., C/ME 39A, pp. 266–7; C/ME 48, p. 39; C/ME 51, pp. 820–1.
129 29th Rep. Com. Char. H.C. 216, p. 199 (1835), xxi (1); E.R.O., T/P 195/16; P.R.O., E 301/30/135.
130 Guildhall MS. 9550.
131 E.R.O., D/P 33/1/1,2.
132 Rep. Com. Char., p. 199.
133 Inf. from the rector.
134 E.R.O., Q/RDc 40.
135 E.R.O., T/A 524/16–17; inf. from Harlow district council.