152.* Letter of Pope Leo IX, granting to King Edward that, to obviate
political dangers, he may commute his vow of making a pilgrimage to
Rome, and instead found a monastery dedicated to St Peter. 
Recited in full within the (spurious) Great Charter of King Edward:
WAD, f. 44r–v; F, ff. 115–116v; BL Additional Roll 15895, no. 4
Incipit: Quoniam voluntatem tuam.
Pd: PUE I, no. 2.
Recited, in abridged version . . . tibi indulgentia: WAD, f. 39; and
similarly abridged but with an additional variant ending: F, ff. 26v–27, in the (spurious) First Charter of King Edward.
Pd: Wilkins, Concilia I, 317; PL 143, col. 674; PL 195, col. 752, from F.
Date: Cf. PUE I, 217–18.
Note: Cf. PUE I, no. 2, note; Scholz, 'Sulcard of Westminster', 70.
153.* Letter of Pope Nicholas II, in response to a petition of King
Edward, confirming and extending the privileges of the abbey, the
repository of the royal regalia, and exempting it from episcopal jurisdiction. 
Recited in the Third Charter of King Edward (Sawyer, Anglo-Saxon
Charters, no. 1041), itself a spurious document; WAD, ff. 41v–42; F,
f. 42r–v; BL Additional Roll 15895, no. 7 (excerpts).
Incipit: Omnipotenti Deo referimus.
Pd: Wilkins, Concilia I, 319–20; Kemble IV, 183–5, no. DCCCXXV; PL
143, col. 1358–9, no. xxxvi; Mansi, 1054–58, no. xix.
Note: King Edward's letter to Pope Nicholas is pd. Wilkins, Concilia I,
319; Kemble IV, 182–3, no. DCCCXXV; see also Scholz, 'Sulcard of
Westminster', 70. On Edward's embassy to Rome in 1061, see
Osbert de Clare, Vita Edwardi, Analecta Bollandiana, xli (1923), 87–8; Frank Barlow, The English Church 1000–1066, 2nd edn., 1974,
297, no. 4. On the strange greeting of this letter, see Chaplais,
'Original Charters', 93.
154.* Letter of Pope Paschal II, informing H I that the abbey is under the
special protection of St Peter; that it is exempt from the jurisdiction of the
bp. of London, and that he confirms its status as the coronation church,
and its possession of all its lands and churches. Lateran, 28 June
[1101 × 1114]
F, ff. 157–158; C, f. 27v, extracts; BL Additional roll 15895, nos. 10 and
Incipit: Sollicitudinem filii karissimi.
Pd: PUE I, no. 9; Flete, 14, 17, 48 (extracts); Gilbert Crispin, 36
Date: Cf. PUE I, 229.
Note: Identified as a forgery by Chaplais, 'Original Charters', 92. See
also Scholz, 'Two Forged Charters from Westminster', 468.
155. Pope Innocent II, authorizing H I to take the abbey under his
protection, and excluding it from the jurisdiction of the bp. of London.
Pisa, 30 Sept. 
WAD, f. 1v; F, f. 156v; T, ff. 53v–54; C, ff. 27v–28; PRO, C81/193,
no. 5768 (14C); BL Additional Roll 15895, no. 13.
Incipit: Presenti nostre fili.
Pd: PUE I, no. 17; Flete, 48–9.
Date: Before the d. of Gilbert the Universal, bp. of London (Fasti I, 1);
cf. PUE I, no. 17n.
Note: Prob. the first genuine document of title concerned with the
jurisdictional conflict between the abbey and the bp. of London.
156. Solemn privilege of Innocent II addressed to Abbot Gervase and his
successors; takes the abbey under his protection as his predecessors,
Nicholas II and Leo IX had done, and confirms the abbey's privileges and
possessions. Lateran, 22 April 1139.
WAD, f. 1r–v; F, ff. 158–159 (subscriptions omitted); BL Additional Roll
15895, no. 12.
Incipit: Licet omnibus ecclesiis.
Pd: PUE I, no. 21.
Note: Accepted by Holtzmann as the first undoubted, specific papal
privilege for Westminster (PUE I, no. 21).
157. Pope Innocent II, notifying Abbot Gervase and the convent that, at
the request of Bp. H[enry (of Blois) of Winchester], he confirms and
takes under his protection the lands which Gilbert of Hendon (Mddx.)
and his predecessors held of the abbey. Lateran, 22 April 
WAD, f. 124.
Incipit: Justis desideriis assensum.
Pd: PUE I, no. 20.
Date: Issued on the same occasion as 156.
Note: Cf. Harvey, 'Fee Farms', 136. The pope had placed Bp. Henry in
charge of the vacant bishopric of London in 1138 (Diceto I, 252) and
the vacant see was filled only in July 1141 (Fasti I, 2).
158. Pope Innocent II, to Abbot Gervase and the monks, following the
mission to the Curia of Prior Osbert de Clare. The canonization of King
Edward would require more evidence than has been offered. Further
evidence, and the petition for canonization, should be presented by the
whole realm (of England). However, he has written to the legate, Henry
(of Blois), bp. of Winchester, ordering the restitution to the abbey of
those lands which have been misappropriated. Lateran, 9 Dec. 
BL Cotton Vitellius A XVII, ff. 22v–23.
Incipit: Quum religiosum virum.
Pd: Monasticon I, 308, no. LIV (citing BL Donat. 4573, no. 2, which
cannot be identified); Letters of Osbert de Clare, 87–8, no. 19;
Wilkins, Concilia I, 419; Epistolae Herberti de Losinga; Osberti de
Clara et Elmeri, ed. R. Anstruther (New York, 1846, rpt. 1969),
122–4, no. VII; Foedera I, i, f. 17; PL 179, col. 568, no. DII.
Cal: Jaffé, RPR I, 899, no. 8182.
Date: Osbert's mission is believed to have taken place in 1139 (Harvey,
'Fee Farms', 128).
Note: See Scholtz, 'Canonization', 38–49; Chaplais, 'Original
Charters', 91. See also Harvey, 'Fee Farms', 128.
159. Pope Innocent II to Henry [of Blois], bp. of Winchester and papal
legate. The pope has learned from [Prior] Osbert [de Clare] of the
complaint of the monks of St Peter of Westminster that the possessions
and goods of that church have been wrongfully seized and violently
detained by many people. The pope orders Henry to hear the complaint
of the monks; to render them justice, and not to permit anyone to do
them further injury or harm. Lateran, 9 December 
BL Cotton MS Vitellius A XVII, f. 17v.
Incipit: Ex parte filiorum.
Pd: Letters of Osbert de Clare, 88, no. 20; Wilkins, Concilia, I, 418;
Anstruther, Epistolae Herberti de Losinga, 109–10, no. 1; PL, 179,
cols. 567–8, no. DI.
Cal: Jaffé, RPR, 8181.
Date: See Harvey, 'Fee Farms', 128.
160. Pope Innocent II, requesting David I, king of the Scots, to confirm
to the abbey the land which provides his annual donation of £1. 10s.
supporting the anniversary of his late sister, Queen Matilda. Lateran, 9
WAD, f. 158; F, f. 160 (date omitted); T, f. 53 (date omitted).
Incipit: Dilectus filius noster.
Pd: PUE I, no. 25; Acts of Malcolm IV, 290–1, no. 319.
Date: This is one of four letters, all dated 9 Dec., which Prior Osbert de
Clare allegedly brought back from his mission to Rome in 1139
(Harvey, 'Fee Farms', 128). Holtzmann, PUE, and Barrow, Acts of
Malcolm IV, date 1139 × 1142.
Note: This bull was perhaps requested by Westminster after the land had
been granted to Eustace Fitz John by Henry, son of King David (Acts
of Malcolm IV, no. 12, dated 1139 × 1141).
161.* Letter of Pope Innocent II, addressed to Abbot Gervase and the
monks, ordering Abbot Gervase to get back lands alienated without the
consent of the convent, and to keep safely the regalia of Edward the
Confessor. Lateran, 9 Dec. 
WAD, f. 1 (in part); F, ff. 159–60; C, f. 28 (extracts).
Incipit: Sicut disponente Domino.
Pd: Flete, 90–91, also 49 (extract); PUE I, no. 24; Harvey, 'Fee Farms',
128n. 1 (extract).
Note: Dated to 1139 on the grounds that it was one of four letters
supposedly brought back from Rome by Prior Osbert de Clare, but
prob. a forgery composed by him (Harvey, 'Fee Farms', 128–9).
Chaplais, 'Original Charters', 91, accepts as genuine. See also
Richardson & Sayles, 416–17. On the regalia, see Barlow, Edward
the Confessor, 269.
162. Pope Eugenius III to Abbot Gervase and his successors, confirming
papal, royal and other privileges granted to the abbey. Trastevere, 8
BL Cotton Augustus II n. 50 (notarial copy); WAD, f. 2r–v; F, ff. 197v–199v; WA Mun. Bk. 12, f. 6 (précis).
Incipit: Cum universis sancte.
Pd: Foedera I, i, f. 14 (from BL Cotton Aug. II), PL 180, cols. 1115–17,
no. XC (from F).
Cal: Jaffé, RPR II, 31, no. 8878.
Date: Indictione ixna Incarnationis Dominice anno m° c° xlv° pontificatus
vero domini Eugenii iij pape anno secundo. The pope's second regnal
year, and the subscription of Imar, cardinal bp. of Tusculum
(Frascati) (for his travels in 1144–1145 see Councils & Synods I, 810–11). A. Morey and C. N. L. Brooke, 'The Cerne Letters of Gilbert
Foliot and the Legation of Imar of Tusculum', EHR 63 (1948),
163. Pope Eugenius III to Abbot Gervase and his successors, confirming
the privileges earlier granted by popes, kings, Abp. Dunstan and other
magnates. Ferentino, 27 March 1151.
WAD, ff. 2v–3; F, ff. 160v–161 (subscriptions omitted); T, ff. 49v–50
(subscriptions omitted but dating clause given).
Incipit: Commisse nobis apostolice.
Pd: PUE I, 286–88, no. 47, from cartularies; Foedera I, i, f. 14 (from
Date: 'vj Kal. Aprilis Indictione xiiij. Incarnationis Dominice anno
m° c° l° j°. Pontificatus vero domini Eugenii iij° pape vij°'. Indiction
and year of grace, with subscriptions of Nicholas, bp. of Albano (cf.
Jaffé, RPR II, 20), confirm a date of 1151, in contrast to the regnal
year, which is incorrect. Most papal letters dated March 1151 were
issued at Ferentino (Jaffe, RPR II, 71–72).
164. Pope Adrian IV to Abbot Gervase and the convent, confirming the
abbey's jurisdiction over the priory of Great Malvern [Worcs.]. Lateran,
25 May 
WAM 32627 (copy of 13C or later); WAD, f. 306; F, ff. 199v–200.
Incipit: Quociens a viris.
Pd: PUE I, no. 68.
Date: Adrian IV issued letters exclusively from the Lateran in May 1157
(Jaffé, RPR II, 121–127), but none were issued from there in May
1155, or 1156. See also Letters of John of Salisbury I, no. 45.
Note: Great Malvern was founded by the monk Aldwin, on land granted
by Earl AEthelwine (or Odda), d. 1056 (cf. De Gestis Pontificum,
285–6; Monasticon III, 440), whose estates were later given by King
Edward to Westminster (Vita Wulfstani, ed. R. R. Darlington,
Camden Soc. third series, 40 (1928), xli-xlii; Harvey, WA, 30). By
1117, Great Malvern was a dependency of Westminster (Gilbert
Crispin, 33–4; Monasticon III, 447–8). On the jurisdictional dispute
which preceded the issue of this bull, see Letters of John of Salisbury
I, no. 45; Saltman, Theobald, 88–9.
165. Pope Adrian IV to Abbot Gervase and the convent, confirming to
the abbey its privileges, exemptions and lands. Lateran, 1 June 1157.
WAD, ff. 3v–4v; F, ff. 161v–164v; T, ff. 48v–49v (subscriptions omitted
in both the latter).
Incipit: Licet omnibus ecclesiis.
Pd: PUE I, no. 69.
166. Pope Adrian IV to Abbot Gervase and the convent, confirming the
cells of Great Malvern (Worcs.), Hurley (Berks.) and Sudbury (Suffolk),
together with the abbey's churches and chapels (enumerated). Lateran, 1
WAM 12755 (a copy, early 13C, omitting church of Staines, chapels of
Holwell (Herts., formerly Beds.) and Morton (Worcs.), and all
attestations; abridged dating clause); WAD, ff. 4v–5v; F, ff. 164–167; T, ff. 47v–48v (both the latter abridge conclusion, and omit
subscriptions and date); BL Additional Roll 15895, no. 18 (short
Incipit: Religiosis desideriis dignum.
Pd: PUE I, no. 70.
Note: On Great Malvern cf. the pope's bull issued a week earlier (164).
Hurley was founded, as a dependency of Westminster, by Geoffrey
de Mandeville I in 1085–6 (462); Sudbury, given by the moneyer
Wulfric, was confirmed by H I 1114 × 1116 (72).
167. Pope Alexander III to Abbot Laurence and the convent, proclaiming that King Edward is to be enumerated as a confessor. Anagni, 7 Feb.
WAD, f. 387v; F, ff. 169v–170v; C, ff. 48v–49; Vatican Library, MS Latin
6024, f. 151v.
Incipit: Illius devotionis constanciam.
Pd: Flete, 93, from WAD; Barlow, Edward the Confessor, 323–4,
no. 14; J. v. Pflugk-Hartung, Acta Pontificum Inedita III (Stuttgart,
1886), 206, no. 196, from Vatican MS.
Cal: Jaffé, RPR II, 153, no. 10654.
Date: Barlow, Edward the Confessor, 309–10; Jaffe, RPR II, 153,
Note: See Scholz, 'Canonization', 38–59; Barlow, Edward the Confessor, 256–85; 309–27, an appendix of correspondence concerning
168. Pope Alexander III notifying the English clergy of the canonization
of Edward the Confessor. Anagni, 7 Feb. 
WAD, ff. 387v–388.
Incipit: Illius devotionis constanciam.
Pd: Mansi, XXI, col. 871, no. III, and col. 1047, no. XVII (identical
texts, with different headings); Richard of Cirencester, Speculum
Historiale, ed. J. E. B. Major, II, RS (London, 1869), 322–3; Migne,
PL, 200, cols. 106–107, no. xxxiv; Monasticon I, 308b–309, no. LV;
AASS, January 1, 302b–303, no. II; Wilkins, Concilia, I, 434;
Magnum Bullarium Romanum, ed. E. Laertes Cherubini (new edn.,
Luxemburg, 1727), I, 40a–b; Widmore, 183–4, no. V.
Cal: Jaffé RPR II, 152, no. 10653 (7160).
Note: All pd. edns. belong to the same MS. tradition, and are prob. pd.
from one another, except Richard of Cirencester, whose text contains variants, although these are not significant for the content.
169. Pope Alexander III to Roger the infirmarer, confirming to the
infirmary the churches of Battersea and Wandsworth (Surr.), granted by
Abbot Laurence, at the request of Abbot Laurence and Roger. Anagni, 7
WAD, f. 507v; F, f. 200r–v; WA Mun. Bk. 3, f. 19, omitting the abbot's
Incipit: Justis petentium desideriis.
Pd: PUE I, no. 85.
Cal: Taylor, Our Lady of Batersey, 21.
Date: Prob. issued with 167–8 and 170.
Note: Cf. Harvey, WA, 411–12.
170. Pope Alexander III to Walter the sacrist, confirming the church of
Sawbridgeworth (Herts.) to provide lights for the sacristy altar, at the
petition both of Walter and of Abbot Laurence. Anagni, 7 Feb. 
WAD, f. 382; F, f. 169v.
Incipit: Justis petentium desideriis.
Pd: PUE I, no. 86.
Date: Prob. issued on the same occasion as 167–9.
Note: Cf. Harvey, WA, 409.
171. Pope Alexander III to Abbot Laurence and the convent, confirming the privileges and possessions of the abbey, and especially the cells of
Great Malvern (Worcs.), Hurley (Berks.) and Sudbury (Suffolk). Sens, 6
WAD, ff. 6v–7; F, ff. 192–193v (omitting most of the subscriptions).
Incipit: Commisse nobis apostolice.
Pd: PUE I, no. 101.
Note: Cf. the bull of Pope Adrian IV confirming these cells (166).
172. Pope Alexander III to Abbot Laurence and the convent, confirming the privileges and possessions of the abbey, and particularly its
exemption from the jurisdiction of the bp. of London. Tusculanum, 3
WAD, f. 7r–v; F, ff. 168v–169v, omitting all subscriptions, but giving the
dating clause; T, f. 47r–v, omitting subscriptions, dating clause
incomplete; WA Mun. Bk. 12, f. 1 (précis).
Incipit: Quotiens illud a.
Pd: PUE I, no. 113.
Note: This papal confirmation was evidently sought, in part, to reinforce
the exemption from episcopal jurisdiction earlier granted by Pope
Innocent II (155). The personal relationship between the abbot and
the bp. of London had been good in preceding years: cf. Laurence's
letter to Pope Alexander in support of Gilbert Foliot, during the
Becket dispute (Materials for the History of Thomas Becket, archbishop of Canterbury, ed. J. C. Robertson and J. B. Sheppard (7
vols., RS, 1875–83), VI, 621–2, no. DXIX, dated by the editor to
173. Pope Alexander III, granting to Abbot Laurence and his successors
the right to wear mitre and ring on Sundays and other solemn festivals,
during mass and in processions within the abbey, and during papal and
episcopal synods. Anagni, 18 April [1160 × 1173]
WAD, f. 7v; F, f. 200.
Incipit: Cum monasterium tibi.
Pd: PUE I, no. 118.
Date: Outer limits election of Pope Alexander (Sept. 1159) and d. of
Abbot Laurence 9/10 April 1173. The pope was at Anagni in April
1160; possibly in April 1161, and again in April 1173 (Jaffe, RPR II,
174. Pope Alexander III to Abbot Walter and the convent, granting to
Walter and his successors that, since they already have papal permission
to wear mitre and ring, they may also wear the dalmatic tunicle and
sandals on solemn days within the monastery and its dependencies, in
processions, in papal, legatine and episcopal synods. Anagni, 13 Sept.
[1175 × 1180]
WAD, f. 8; F, ff. 170v–171; T, ff. 51v–52.
Incipit: Largitione nostri muneris.
Pd: Monasticon I, 311, no. LXX.
Cal: Jaffé, RPR II, 299, no. 12734, sub an. 1176.
Date: Outside limits the election of Abbot Walter and d. of Pope
175. Pope Alexander III to Abbot [Walter] granting the right to wear
gloves during solemn mass on festivals. Venice, Rialto, 2 April 
WAD, f. 7v; F, f. 170v.
Incipit: Hortatur nos et.
Pd: PUE I, no. 143.
176. Pope Alexander III to Abbot Walter and the convent, confirming
the possessions of the abbey, its exemption from the jurisdiction of the
bp. of London, and prohibiting the alienation of the churches of Oakham
(Rutl.), Ashwell (Herts.), Staines (Mddx.), Aldenham and Wheathampstead (Herts.), with their chapels. Ferrara, 18 April 1178 [recte 1177]
WAM 12732 (notarial copy of 15 Feb. 1302); WAD, f. 8r–v; F, ff. 167–168; T, ff. 46v–47 (subscriptions omitted in the two latter); WA
Mun. Bk. 12, f. 1v (précis); BL Additional Roll 15895, no. 9
Incipit: In eo loco.
Pd: PUE I, no. 144.
Date: Holtzmann, PUE dates 1177. The 'eighteenth year' of Pope
Alexander ended 19 Sept. 1177, and whereas he was at Ferrara 2
April 1177, he was at the Lateran in April 1178 (Jaffe, RPR II, 304,
Note: On the churches, see Harvey, WA, 403–5.
177. Pope Lucius III to the abbot and convent, confirming to the
infirmary the churches of Battersea and Wandsworth (Surr.), as the late
Abbot Laurence gave them. Verona, 17 March [(1182 ×) 1185]
WAD, f. 578v; F, f. 171; T, f. 51; C, f. 50; WA Mun Bk 3, f. 29, ending at
omnino hominum, but giving dating clause.
Incipit: Justis petencium desideriis.
Pd: PUE I, no.232; Flete, 95.
Cal: Taylor, Our Lady of Batersey, 21.
Date: Pope Lucius' only known visit to Verona in March, in 1185 (Jaffé,
RPR, II, 486).
178. Pope Clement III to the abbot and convent, permitting them to
appropriate the tithes of the churches of which they were the patrons,
when vacancies occurred, for the support of the brethren, their guests,
and the poor, provided that vicarages were ordained and synodals paid.
Lateran, 5 July 1189.
F, f. 173v.
Incipit: Fervor religionis et.
Pd: PUE I, no. 261.
Note: See Harvey, WA, 48, 52, on the difficulties subsequently
experienced by the abbey in securing extensive tithe income.
179. Bull of Pope Clement III, addressed to Abbot Walter and the
convent, confirming the abbey's possessions, and any which it might
subsequently acquire, and especially the churches of Oakham (Rutl.),
Ashwell (Herts.), Staines (Mddx.), Aldenham and Wheathampstead
(Herts.), with their appurtenances; prohibiting any bp. or abp. from
saying mass in St Margaret's, Westminster, or holding a synod there;
exempting the abbey from the bp. of London, and confirming all pensions
from churches which the abbey held before the [Third] Lateran Council.
Lateran, 20 July 1189.
WAM 1508; WAM 12754 (notarial copy of 15 Feb. 1302; only subscription that of the pope, but date given); WAM 12755 (copy of early
14C); WAD, ff. 9v–10; F, ff. 171v–173 (omitting subscriptions, apart
from that of the pope); T, f. 45r–v; LN, f. cxxviij verso; WA Mun.
Bk. 12, f. 6, and f. 6r–v (both précis); BL Additional Roll 15895,
Incipit: Quotiens illud a.
Pd: PUE I, no. 262.
Note: Prob. the knowledge that the chapter of St Paul's was lodging a
complaint prompted a rival Westminster delegation to the curia to
counter-petition for exemption from episcopal control, and
simultaneously request confirmation of various properties.
180. Pope Celestine III to Abbot William and the convent, confirming to
the abbot and his successors the right to wear mitre and ring; gloves,
dalmatic tunicle and sandals, together with priestly vestments of benediction, to be worn on all solemn days within the abbey and its dependencies;
in processions in the abbey; in papal and legatine councils, and in
episcopal synods. Rome, St Peter's, 13 Jan. 1192.
WAD, f. 12r–v; F, f. 175r–v; T, f. 52 (both the latter end at paginum, but
give dating clause).
Incipit: Largitione nostris muneris.
Pd: PUE I, no. 301.
181. Pope Celestine III to the abbot, exempting the abbey from any
ecclesiastical jurisdiction other than his own; prohibiting anyone from
violently entering the church or despoiling its goods, and ordering the
restitution of goods wrongfully taken. Rome, St Peter's, 13 Jan. 1192.
WAD, f. 12v; F, ff. 175v–176.
Incipit: Ea que sunt.
Pd: PUE I, no. 302 (abridged common form in final clauses).
Note: A second exemption obtained in the aftermath of the vacancy in
the abbacy, and the attempted intrusion of Henry Longchamps (Ric.
of Devizes, 39; Diceto II, 100), but worded so as to emphasize the
abbey's exempt status, rather than those shortcomings which had
been a pretext for the exercise of the diocesan's authority.
182. Pope Celestine III to the abbot and convent, excommunicating
those who have stolen the goods of the abbey, or otherwise harmed it;
granting leave to appeal against bps., but ordering the chapter to
maintain good discipline, in order to avoid giving pretext for intrusion.
Rome, St Peter's, 13 Jan. 1192.
WAD, f. 12; F, ff. 174v–175.
Incipit: Licet ex iniuncto.
Pd: PUE I, no. 300.
Note: Following the d. of Abbot Walter in Sept. 1190, the monks of
Westminster came under heavy pressure from the justiciar, William
Longchamps, to allow his brother Henry, a monk of Caen, to take up
residence in the abbey, and to give a written and sealed undertaking
that in due course they would elect him abbot. In Oct. 1191, the
political movement against Longchamps permitted the monks to
disregard their enforced promise, and instead to elect their prior,
William Postard, as abbot (Ric. of Devizes, 25, 39,54; Diceto I, 100–1). It is likely that this recent vacancy had both occasioned material
loss to the abbey, and also prompted renewed jurisdictional claims
on behalf of the bp. of London. Once again, episcopal petition was
evidently countered by successful monastic counter-petition.
183. Pope Innocent III to the abbot and convent, confirming the liberties
and immunities, and the ancient and reasonable customs of their church.
Lateran, 23 April 1199.
WAD, f. 13; F, f. 176.
Incipit: Cum a nobis.
Pd: Cal. Letters Innocent III, 203, no. 104 (excluding common form),
from WAD, with variants from F.
Cal: Cal. Letters Innocent III, 19, no. 104.
Note: Another bull of Innocent III, confirming to the abbot and convent
all the privileges of the church and customs hitherto observed, is now
known only from a memorandum dated 8 Jan., pontifical year
unspecified (WA Mun. Bk. 12, ff. 7v, 15v, 19; cal. Cal. Letters
Innocent III, 188–9, no. 1151).
184. Pope Innocent III to all English prelates, ordering that the privileges and indulgences granted to the abbey, by reason of its special
relationship with the apostolic see, are to be observed. Lateran, 23 April
WAD, f. 13; F, ff. 200v–201.
Incipit: Benignitas sedis apostolice.
Pd: Cal. Letters Innocent III, 203, no. 105 (omitting common form of
Cal: Cal. Letters Innocent III, 19, no. 105.
Note: There survives a memorandum of a similar bull, dated 8 Jan.,
pontifical year unspecified, (WA Mun. Bk. 12, f. 15v; cal. Cal.
Letters Innocent III, 189, no. 1153, as prob. identical with bull here
above, but different dates show it must be distinct).
185. Pope Innocent III to the abbot and convent of Westminster. The
pope has heard that benefices intended for the use of the chapter, and for
the poor, have occasionally been assigned, at the instance of certain
magnates, to their clerks. The pope orders that the chapter is not to divert
to other uses the church of Sawbridgeworth (Herts.), assigned to the
sacristy, or any other churches, assigned to hospitality or other pious
uses. Lateran, 24 April 1199.
WAD, f. 380; F, f. 286; WA Mun. Bk. 12, f. 15v (memorandum only).
Incipit: Ad audienciam apostolatus.
Pd: Monasticon I, 312a, no. LXXIII.
Cal: Cal. Letters Innocent III, 19, no. 106; A. Potthast, Regesta Pontificum Romanorum inde ab a. post Christum Natum MCXCVIII ad a.
MCCCIV (2 vols., Berlin, 1874–5), I, 64, no. 670.
Note: Cf. Harvey, WA, 388, 409; the confirmation by Pope Alexander
III of the church to the sacristy (170); Abbot Laurence's charter to
his clerk Maurice (284), and the assignment on the abbey's pension
from this church for the anniversary of his parents (283). The bull
was prob. issued, however, not in response to Laurence's earlier
transactions, but to an appeal by the sacrist, and poss. others, against
the methods used by Abbot William Postard to clear the obligations,
perhaps personal as well as financial, arising from the crisis of 1190–
1191 (cf. 186). There also survive memoranda of another bull, issued
to the abbot and convent on 8 Jan., pontifical year unspecified,
ordering them not to divert to other uses churches assigned to
hospitality or to the infirmary (WA Mun. Bk. 12, ff. 9v, 14, 15, 15v:
cal. Cal. Letters Innocent III, 189, no. 1152).
186. Pope Innocent III to the abbot, prohibiting the abbot from alienating the churches or other possessions pertaining to the whole community,
without the consent of the chapter, or the greater and wiser part. Lateran,
30 April 1199.
WAD, f. 13; F, f. 176r–v; T, f. 50; C, f. 28 (extracts only); WA Mun. Bk.
12, ff. 1, 15v (memoranda).
Incipit: Tua potissimum ad.
Pd: Cal. Letters Innocent III, 203, no. 113 (from WAD, with selected
variants from F and T): full text from Tua potissimum; omitting
common form of initial protocol. Flete, 49–50 (extracts only, as in
Cal: Cal. Letters Innocent III, 20, no. 113.
Note: The unnamed abbot was William Postard, who, within a period of
seven years, succeeded in discharging the abbey of a debt of 1,500
marks of silver, previously due for his 'confirmation' (Flete, 98),
prob. a payment to the crown for free choice of abbot (Harvey, WA,
64n.). Financial solvency was perhaps achieved by an arbitrary
rationalization of Westminster's assets but there was already a longupheld papal view that monastic property was inalienable (H. G.
Richardson, 'The Coronation in Medieval England', Traditio 16
(1960), 151–3). On the growing crisis in the abbey's finances at this
period, see Harvey, WA, 84–6.
187.* The papal legate, Peter [Pierleoni], to Abbot Herbert and the
convent: in commemoration of King Edward and Queen Matilda, who
are buried in the abbey, he has granted an indulgence of forty days to
those who visit the abbey on the feast of Saints Peter and Paul [29 June] or
within the octave; and also on the feast of St Peter in Chains [1 Aug.].
[post 12 June × ante 2 Oct. 1121]
WAD, f. 387r–v.
Pd: PUE I, no. 13.
Date: Limits of the legate's visit to England (Hist. Novorum, 294–7).
Note: Authenticity questioned (PUE I, 237, no. 13; Councils and
Synods I, pt. ii, 724; Brett, English Church 41, n. 4). If not an
outright fabrication, interpolation may be strongly suspected in the
clause relating to King Edward and Queen Matilda. The cult of St
Peter was fostered at Westminster from the late 11C, perhaps as a
counter-move against the growing cult of Edward the Confessor
(Scholz, 'Sulcard of Westminster', 72; idem, 'Canonization', 40),
and St Peter's Chains remained one of the principal feasts at the
abbey throughout the Middle Ages (Scholz, 'Sulcard of Westminster', 73 and n. 58, 74). The cathedral of London had been dedicated
to St Paul since the episcopate of Bp. Mellitus, early in the 7C
(Brooke & Keir, 16), and the forged legatine documents associating
his cult with Westminster were perhaps intended to attract devotees
from the episcopal seat. Westminster's energetic promotion of
successive cults was perhaps the stimulus which prompted that of St
Erconwald at St Paul's (Scholz, 'Canonization', 40–1).
188.* The papal legate, Peter [Pierleoni], to Abbot Herbert and his
successors, and to the convent, confirming the abbey in all its possessions,
present and to come; granting an indulgence of forty days to those who
come to render their devotions to Saints Peter and Paul; and permitting
the participation of five, or three, deacons, and the same number of
subdeacons, at mass, or in processions, on seven especially solemn
festivals. Anathema on anyone disturbing the abbey or its possessions.
London [post 12 June × ante 2 Oct.] 1121.
WAD, f. 387.
Pd: PUE I, no. 12.
Date: The legate was forbidden to travel during his visit (Eadmer,
Historia Novorum, 294–7).
Note: Authenticity queried (PUE I, 234–5; Councils and Synods I, pt. ii,
724; Brett, English Church, 41, n. 4).
189. The papal legate, John [of Crema]: at the request of Abbot Herbert
and the convent for some benefaction, and since King Edward and Queen
Matilda are buried in the abbey, he grants to all the faithful visiting the
abbey on the feast of Saints Peter and Paul, or within the octave, an
indulgence of forty days. [? Westminster (March × ? 8 Sept.) 1125]
WAD, f. 389v.
Date: John of Crema arrived in England by 29 March 1125, travelled
throughout England and into Scotland, then on 8 Sept. held a
legatine council at Westminster, shortly after which he left England
(Councils and Synods I, pt. ii, 731–3).
190. The papal legate, Henry [of Pisa], to Hilary, bp. of Chichester,
Robert [de Chesney], bp. of Lincoln, and Nigel, bp. of Ely: at the request
of Abbot Laurence, he urges them to attend the celebrations at Westminster, following on the pope's decree that 'the holy father blessed
Edward' is to be numbered among the saints. [1 Feb. 1161 × ante 13 Oct.
WAD, f. 388r–v.
Cal: Noted by Scholz, 'Canonization', 54 and n. 75.
Date: Issued between the publication of Pope Alexander III's bulls
concerning the canonization of King Edward (167–8) and the
Translation. Henry of Pisa was legate in France, 1160–1162, and
Abbot Laurence visited him in Paris with evidence in support of the
canonization (Barlow, Edward the Confessor, 311 and n. 1). The
bps. of Chichester and Lincoln visited Normandy in the spring of
1162, when the cardinal was there (Eyton, Itinerary, 56).
Note: Cardinal Henry, and his associate, Cardinal Otto, had written
urging the pope to accept the evidence in support of the canonization
which Abbot Laurence had brought to them in Paris (Barlow,
Edward the Confessor, 311–2). The onset of the Becket dispute at
the Council of Westminster, a few days before the Translation,
perhaps curtailed attendance at the ceremony, despite its 'official'
character, more than later Westminster writers implied (Scholz,
'Canonization', 53–4, and n. 74).
191. The papal legate, John [of Salerno], to the abbot and convent,
granting, in view of the abbey's special relationship with the Roman see,
an indulgence for the solemn chanting of the angelic hymn Gloria in
Excelsis Deo on the feast of the Purification of the Blessed Virgin (2
Feb.), if it falls after Septuagesima; on the feast of the Annunciation (25
March), and on the feast of St Benedict (21 March). [(London, Aug.)
WAM 12733; WAD, f. 11.
Date: Cardinal John [of Salerno] was in England in 1201, and in London
in Aug. of that year (Councils and Synods I, ii, 1074–5).
Note: While all three feasts were major ones, the Purification might fall
within Septuagesima (the pre-Lenten period) and the other two
would (almost) invariably fall within Lent. The Gloria was not sung
between Septuagesima Sunday and the night of Holy Saturday (The
Monastic Constitutions of Lanfranc, transl. and ed. D. Knowles
(1951), 17, but see also 30). On the angelic origin of this hymn, see
192. Proclamation by the papal legate, John [of Salerno] of an
indulgence of forty days to those visiting the abbey on the feast of St Peter
[in Chains] (1 Aug.). [(London, Aug.), 1201]
WAD, f. 390.
Date: As for 191.
Note: The feast is prob. that of St Peter in Chains as in an earlier
indulgence of doubtful authenticity ascribed to the legate Peter
193. Grant by the papal legate, Nicholas [de Romanis], of an indulgence
of twenty days to all those visiting the abbey on the feasts of St Peter; of
Blessed King Edward, and of the Holy Relics. No abbot of Westminster,
or anyone else of that church, may presume to claim a customary right in
the offerings made on the feast of Saints Peter and Paul, or of St Peter in
Chains, nor divert these offerings to any use other than that of the sacrist,
who must faithfully administer these funds. Anyone infringing this
ordinance will be excommunicated. Westminster, 11 Oct. 1213.
WAD, f. 390r–v.
Date: Nicholas de Romanis, cardinal bp. of Tusculum, was in England
from c. Michaelmas (29 Sept.) 1213, and visited both Westminster
and London (Roger of Wendover, Flores Historiarum, ed. H. G.
Hewlett (RS 1887), II, 93–4). He was in London 30 Sept.-2 Oct., and
at Wallingford about the beginning of Nov. 1213 (Councils and
Synods, II, i, 21). See also Angelo Mercati, 'La prima Relazione de
Cardinale Nicolò de Romanis sulla sua Legazione in Inghilterra
(1213)', in Essays presented to R. L. Poole, ed. H. W. C. Davis
Note: Neither the feast of the Translation of St Edward (13 Oct.) nor
that of his Deposition (5 Jan.), attracted popular support. The feast
of the Relics (16 July) and that of St Peter in Chains (1 Aug.) were
rather more successful, but not that of Saints Peter and Paul (29
June). Accounts of offerings at the major feasts, drawn up by the
sacrist, are known only from the 14C (Harvey, WA, 43–5 and notes).
In 1213, the legate investigated Abbot Ralph Arundel's alienation of
the abbey's resources, and consequently deposed him in Jan. 1214
(Harvey, WA, 83–4).
194. Report by the papal judges-delegate, the prior of St Saviour,
Bermondsey, and Nicholas, archdeacon of London, of the settlement
between Geoffrey of Bedford, priest, and Geoffrey de Turre, clerk, over
St Margaret's, Eastcheap (London). Geoffrey of Bedford resigned his
right in the church, and the judges, on the presentation of the abbot and
convent of Westminster, instituted Geoffrey de Turre as perpetual vicar.
For the next three years, all offerings would be administered by Geoffrey
de Turre, who would pay an annual pension of 5s. to the monks of
Westminster, rendering it to the chamberlain in quarterly instalments,
and 2s. annually to Geoffrey of Bedford. Within three years, the abbot
and convent would provide Geoffrey of Bedford with a vicarage of
equivalent value, but if none fell vacant, they would supply him with
suitable food and clothing until they could assign one to him. [c. 11
WAD, ff. 477v–478.
Date: The pensions were calculated from mid-Lent, i.e. the fourth
Sunday in Lent, following the consecration of Walter of Coutances
as bp. of Lincoln. This occurred 3 July 1183 (Fasti III. 2).
Note: The prior of Bermondsey is prob. Bertram, 1178–1184, but
possibly Constantine, ? 1184–? 1186 (Heads, 115). The abbot of
Westminster, at the time of the agreement, was Walter (Heads, 77).