Parishes
Marske

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Victoria County History

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William Page (editor)

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1923

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399-405

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'Parishes: Marske', A History of the County of York North Riding: Volume 2 (1923), pp. 399-405. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=64680 Date accessed: 29 August 2014.


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MARSKE

Mersc, Mersche (xi cent.).

This parish, including Saltburn, has an area of about 4,272 acres, of which 429 acres are foreshore, and of the remainder more than a third is arable land, more than half is pasture and there are 25 acres of woods. (fn. 1) The soil is strong loam on a subsoil of lias, and wheat, barley and beans are grown. Mining is carried on in the south of the parish, and the working of the iron-stone (fn. 2) has brought a largely increased population since 1851.

The ground, which attains a height of 350 ft. to 400 ft. on the south, slopes down towards the west and north-west, where it is flat and low. The village of Marske is situated along the road running from Skelton to the sea, and lies almost due north and south. The old church of St. Germain is on the cliff somewhat removed from the main road, from which it is approached by a lane leading east past the vicarage. On the west side of the village, about half a mile from the sea and facing south, is the manor-house.

Marske Hall is a picturesque stone house of two stories built in 1625 by Sir William Pennyman. The symmetrical front, which is about 115 ft. in length, is well broken up by three boldly projecting turrets, that in the middle forming the porch, and by large bay windows between. Externally the building is very little altered except that the original leaded lights of the mullioned windows have been replaced by sashes, and the turrets, which are three stories in height with stone dome-shaped roofs, have been deprived of their finials. The roof is now covered with modern red tiles, and two stone dormer windows in the roof behind the bays, which are shown in a drawing of the hall dated 1718, (fn. 3) have disappeared. This drawing also shows what appears to be a later wing, then probably only recently erected, at the west end with square-headed sash-windows, and the stone roof of the westernmost turret is missing. The elevation is divided horizontally by moulded stringcourses at the level of the window heads, the upper portion of the wall consisting of a high parapet of plain stone, the finials of which have disappeared. All the windows have mullions and transoms and in the recesses formed by the bay are large stone spoutheads or gargoyles supported by cherubs' heads, almost the only indication of Renaissance feeling on the exterior of the building. Over one of the bay windows is a square panel containing a shield of the arms of Pennyman with helm, crest, and mantling, and a second shield on the middle turret has the arms of Pennyman impaling Atherton. Over the entrance doorway is a sundial. The westernmost turret is wider than the others and contains an old oak staircase, and a good deal of the original oak panelling remains in the house, though some of the rooms were remodelled in the early part of the 18th century. The entrance hall is divided by a stone arcade of two flat elliptical arches supported by a central circular pier with carved capital and moulded base, forming a kind of screen. A moulded stone cornice runs at ceiling-level along the top, breaking round the keystones of the arches. The arch stones are carved on the face with a flowing vine pattern, and are moulded on the edge, the soffits being plain. The spandrels and keystones are also carved, the former containing the Pennyman arms. The house has been a good deal altered at the back and many internal alterations have been made. The drawing of 1718 shows a plain fence wall along the south side, but this has been replaced by a modern balustraded wall to the highway, which, together with the lawn in front of the house, forms an effective foreground.

In 1304 the Fauconbergs had at Marske a messuage with a dovecot. (fn. 4) It was called in 1349 a capital messuage, (fn. 5) and this in 1366 was assigned in dower with its dovecot, orchards and gardens to Isabel, the widow of Walter de Fauconberg, no doubt for her residence. (fn. 6)

In the middle of the village where the road widens there stood at one time part of an old stone cross, said to have been set up in Marske when the market was removed to this place from Guisborough in the 17th century after an outbreak of plague, (fn. 7) but this has long since disappeared. (fn. 8) From this point a lane branches eastwards to Windy Hill; at the beginning of Back Lane which runs north and south is the new church of St. Mark, built in 1867, and opposite to it one of the two church schools, the other lying further south on the east of High Street, near the post office. The village ends on the north at Cliff House, the residence of Mr. Claud E. Pease, J.P., and on the south at the station of the Stockton and Darlington branch of the North Eastern railway, which after 1859–60 was extended from Redcar to Marske. (fn. 9)

Before 1849 the Wesleyans had a chapel here (fn. 10) and before 1857 the Primitive Methodists had one also.

About a mile south-west of Old Marske is the hamlet of New Marske occupied by the men employed by Messrs. Pease in the Upleatham mine. The greater part of the village and the Miners' Institute are on the south of the road leading to the mine, but the church of St. Thomas, opened in 1875, and the school are on the north side. The Wesleyans and Primitive Methodists both have chapels here.

Saltburn by the Sea has since 1873 been an ecclesiastical parish, (fn. 11) and under the Local Government Act of 1894 was created a civil parish. (fn. 12) It is situated in the south-east of the parish of Marske between Skelton Beck on the east and Pit Hill Stell which reaches the sea at Hazel Grove Foot on the west.

The town seems to owe its existence to the extension of the Stockton and Darlington railway here in 1860–1 from Marske, (fn. 13) and since that time its rise has been rapid; in fact before July 1863 it had practically taken its present form along the sea and the west side of the 'Glen' through which runs Skelton Beck. (fn. 14) From the top of the high cliffs an inclined tramway constructed in 1884 leads to the sands close to the pier towards the north-east of the town. 'The Pleasure Grounds' extend along the west of the 'Glen,' a bridge over which connects the modern town with the hamlet of Old Saltburn. Further to the west near Rifts Wood the railway from Whitby crosses the same ravine by a lofty bridge, (fn. 15) and curves round the west of the town to Saltburn terminus. South-west of the station in Upleatham Street is Emmanuel Church, opened in 1869, but since enlarged more than once, and at the south end of the road is the school. The Primitive Methodists and the Wesleyans both had chapels here in 1872, and the Congregationalists built one in 1889, when both the Society of Friends and the Plymouth Brethren had meeting-rooms. The convalescent home, completed in 1872, is situated on the extreme west, not far from the sea. The brine and swimming baths close to the station were opened in 1890–1, and in 1900 the town laid out a cemetery of 2 acres.

The hermitage of Saltburn on the banks of 'Holebec' which Roger de Argentein granted to Whitby Abbey in the early part of the 13th century seems to have been in the modern parish of Saltburn. (fn. 16) The ferry of the 'Melhoddes,' which belonged to the manor of Marske (fn. 17) in 1366 and 1560, was in all probability also somewhere along Skelton Beck.

Among place-names in the 13th century or earlier are 'Bites,' (fn. 18) evidently 'The Bits' north of the church of St. Germain, 'Chatteflat,' (fn. 19) the present Cat Flats south-west of Mickle Dales, 'Heselgrive,' (fn. 20) now Hazel Grove, north of the town of Saltburn, 'Rebec,' 'Stainchalehil,' 'Stainbec,' (fn. 21) probably near Scanbeck Howe on the coast north of Marske, 'Felebreg,' the Fell Briggs west of New Marske, 'Marflat,' probably Mordales east of New Marske, 'Fulsik,' (fn. 22) 'Nettelthwayte,' assarts called 'Pyleflat,' 'Wudeflat' and 'Cornegreve,' (fn. 23) which obviously survives in Corngrave Farm, now in the parish of Upleatham. In 1366 the manor of Marske had demesne land in 'Rounclifflat,' 'Langflat,' (fn. 24) south-west of Old Marske, 'Gildhousflatt,' 'Grenwalflat,' apparently Grundales in the north-west of Marske township, and meadows in an inclosure called 'Bradenge,' 'Le Legh,' which must have been near the Leigh Dams in the east of the parish of Redcar, and 'Langbek,' (fn. 25) west of Old Marske. In 1608 there is mention of 'Wycar Close.' (fn. 26)

Under the Inclosure Act of 1756 the vicar received a rent of £35 in lieu of all land and tithes in the parish. (fn. 27) The common fields then inclosed were Kirk Field, the Moor Field, the Hall Field, Redcar East and Redcar Gar-end Fields, and the meadows Hall Ings, Horse and Wendall Ings, the Deep Ings and the Sweaths. Robert Agar, yeoman, owned at that time the tithe of corn and hay of 50 acres in Redcar Gar-end Field which he had evidently inherited from Isabel Agar, widow, and John Agar, who a century earlier had bought certain tithes with land and common pasture in Marske and the neighbourhood. (fn. 28) Probably Agar's Gap in the south of the parish is called after this family.

Redcar, since 1828 a chapelry of Marske, (fn. 29) and created in 1867 an ecclesiastical parish out of Marske and Upleatham, (fn. 30) covers 881 acres, of which 176 acres are foreshore.

Redcar occurs by name in a charter of William de Argentein granting land there to Albert de Craster (Craucestria) as the marriage portion of his sister Cristiana. (fn. 31) Albert's sons William and Ivo were grown up before 1192, (fn. 32) so that William's grant cannot be much later than 1170. Little is known of the place in early times. At the beginning of the 13th century three religious houses at least had land there, Fountains, (fn. 33) Rievaulx (fn. 34) and Guisborough, (fn. 35) the last being given 43 acres more in 1231 by Ivo de Redcar. (fn. 36) Rievaulx Abbey received permission from the third Peter de Brus to buy fish at Redcar (fn. 37) apparently free of the toll which was one of the profits of both Brus and Fauconberg. (fn. 38) The dues from the boats of Redcar, known in the 15th century as 'Colybferne' (fn. 39) or 'Colysferme,' (fn. 40) were another source of income to the lords of Marske in the Middle Ages, (fn. 41) and the market which in 1366 existed at Redcar (fn. 42) had arisen, no doubt, mainly through the fishing. In the 16th century the fishermen are described as venturing out to sea through the openings in the dangerous reef of rocks in 'cobbles' and selling a boatload of fish for 4s. or 5s. It was their custom then to change their fellows every year for luck, and to give a feast on St. Peter's Day, (fn. 43) and in Ord's time the fishermen still held a fair or festival every year, but on the two days following Trinity Sunday. (fn. 44)

The place was beginning to be known in 1810 as a health resort (fn. 45) —it had then, indeed, twelve bathingmachines (fn. 46) —but it was still mainly a fishing village of about 160 houses built down both sides of one street which was always covered with heaps of drift sand. (fn. 47) Owing to the extension here in 1846 of the Stockton and Darlington branch of the North Eastern railway (fn. 48) it developed rapidly as a fashionable watering-place of a quiet kind. (fn. 49)

Nathaniel Hawthorne lived at Redcar from July to October 1859 after his return to England from Italy, and here re-wrote and elaborated The Marble Faun. (fn. 50)

The main streets of the town, like those of East Coatham, of which they form the eastern half, run east and west: the esplanade along the sea-front is thus the continuation of Newcomen Terrace in Coatham and High Street of Queen Street West, while Coatham Road has the same name in both places. From this last Redcar Lane leads south to the road running from Marske to Kirkleatham. St. Peter's Church, the vicarage and the British schools, which were built in 1857 principally at the expense of the Earl of Zetland, (fn. 51) are all situated at the northern end of Redcar Lane, the cemetery made in 1872 being further to the south.

The Roman Catholic chapel of the Sacred Heart, erected in 1877, lies a little north-west of the cemetery. Still further to the west and close to the parish boundary is the race-course. The pier, constructed in 1871–3, is at the east end of the town near the Redcar Rocks, which here extend from the sands eastward into the sea. The Presbyterians have a chapel in High Street which formerly belonged to the Wesleyans and dates from 1872, while the Congregationalists in 1855 and the Primitive Methodists in 1860 built chapels in Lord Street.

There was land in the demesne of Marske Manor in 1366 at 'Southbuttes,' 'Northbuttes,' 'Swart moldflatt,' 'Wyndestreflatt' and 'Turfhowe' in Redcar, and it must have been somewhere near the western boundary of the present parish of Redcar near Coatham that the manorial 'saltcotes' (fn. 52) or salt-pits were situated.

Manors

The vill of MARSKE, its church and 10½ carucates of land, according to Simeon of Durham, (fn. 53) were given to the church of Durham by Copsi Earl of Northumberland. (fn. 54) If, however, Durham ever actually had these possessions, they were lost to that church before 1086. (fn. 55)

The persons recorded in Domesday Book as owning land in Marske were Earl Hugh, who held 2 carucates in the soke of his 'manor' of Loftus, (fn. 56) William de Percy, who had 8 carucates before held by Norman, (fn. 57) and the Count of Mortain, who had 10 carucates, the soke of which pertained to Brotton. (fn. 58)

Nothing more is heard of Earl Hugh or the Count of Mortain in connexion with Marske, but the latter's holding before 1119–24 appears to have become part of the Brus fee, for the manor then certainly belonged to Robert de Brus. (fn. 59) On the division of the Brus inheritance among the sisters and co-heirs of the third Peter de Brus (fn. 60) in 1272, Marske fell to Agnes and her husband Walter de Fauconberg. (fn. 61) It remained in the Fauconberg family (fn. 62) until the 15th century, passing then by the marriage of the Fauconberg heir Joan to Sir William Nevill, (fn. 63) afterwards Earl of Kent, and subsequently through their daughter Alice to William Conyers of Hornby (q.v.). The manor in 1560 belonged to the three daughters of John Lord Conyers, Anne, Katharine and Elizabeth. (fn. 64) Anne's share was sold in January 1572–3, after her death, by her husband Anthony Kempe to John Jackson and Harsculph Cleasby, (fn. 65) who disposed of it in 1575 to William Walker. (fn. 66) From him it passed in 1578 to Robert Trotter and Isabel his wife, (fn. 67) and from them in January 1580–1 to Katharine Conyers. (fn. 68) Elizabeth Conyers before 1566 married Thomas Darcy, (fn. 69) and their son Conyers in 1605 inherited the third part of Marske Manor from his father. (fn. 70) This part was bought in 1613 from Sir Conyers Darcy, kt., by John Hedworth and John Ditchant, (fn. 71) and sold by them in August 1616 to William Pennyman, one of the six clerks in Chancery, (fn. 72) at whose death in 1628 it passed to his son and heir Sir William Pennyman, bart. (fn. 73)


Pennyman of Ormesby, baronet. Gules a cheveron ermine between three broken spears or with heads argent.

Pennyman of Ormesby, baronet. Gules a cheveron ermine between three broken spears or with heads argent.

Katharine Conyers, the owner of two-thirds of the manor, married John Atherton, (fn. 74) and died in March 1625–6, leaving as heir Anne Atherton, (fn. 75) apparently her granddaughter, (fn. 76) who became the wife of Sir William Pennyman, bart., so that the various parts of the manor were again united.

Sir William Pennyman, in the Civil War, maintained his own company in the king's service. (fn. 77) His uncle James Pennyman (fn. 78) of Ormesby who succeeded him (fn. 79) at Marske, apparently through a settlement in 1632, (fn. 80) was also a Royalist, and in 1643 took part in opposing the landing at Marske of sailors from the Parliament's ships, and, although he afterwards submitted to the Parliament, in 1646 he was fined £1,200. (fn. 81) Possibly financial difficulties, due to his adherence to the Royalist cause, may be the reason for the sale in 1650 of the manor of Marske to Eleanora Lowther, widow, and others. (fn. 82) These persons seem to have been acting for Robert Lowther, for in January 1666–7 the manor belonged to Robert's son Anthony, (fn. 83) from whom it was inherited in January 1691–2 by his son William, (fn. 84) in 1697 created a baronet. (fn. 85) From Sir William the manor descended in 1705 to his only son Thomas, (fn. 86) and in 1745 to Thomas's only son William, (fn. 87) the third baronet, who died unmarried. (fn. 88) In accordance with his will proved 22 April 1756 (fn. 89) the manor of Marske went to Edward Wilson of Dalham Tower and George, Thomas and Daniel Wilson his brothers in equal shares. Edward, Thomas and Daniel sold their shares in 1762 to Lawrence Dundas, (fn. 90) probably already the owner of the other quarter. From this date Marske has descended in the Dundas family, (fn. 91) the Marquess of Zetland being at present lord of the manor.

Some land in Marske of the BRUS FEE formed part of the ten and a quarter knights' fees inherited by Lucy de Thweng from her grandmother Lucy de Brus, and granted by her and her husband Bartholomew de Fanacourt in 1346 to John Darcy, his wife Elizabeth and their heirs. (fn. 92) In 1412 it was styled a manor, (fn. 93) but on that occasion only. By the marriage of the heir Margery Darcy it came into the possession of Sir John Conyers of Hornby, whose son became in right of his wife Alice the owner of the manor of Marske.

The PERCY FEE in Marske was held in 1086 (fn. 94) by William de Percy, and though smaller than the Count of Mortain's was apparently more important. It was called a 'manor,' and there were sixteen villeins there with five ploughs; it had besides risen in value since the reign of Edward the Confessor from 10s. to 20s. There is reference to the Percy overlordship in Marske in 1272, (fn. 95) 1363, (fn. 96) 1368 (fn. 97) and 1442, (fn. 98) but apparently not later. The extent of the fee was given as 8 carucates in 1303 (fn. 99) as in 1086, but in 1428 it was said to be 5 carucates and 6 oxgangs. (fn. 100) The land of this fee seems to have belonged in 1368 to Walter de Fauconberg, who doubtless inherited what the Brus lords had held, and the Prior of Guisborough. (fn. 101) As what the Fauconbergs held here of the Percys in 1363 amounted to 2 carucates, the prior may have had 6. (fn. 102) After the Dissolution the conventual holding here, then Crown property, was spoken of as a manor, (fn. 103) and in 1611 mention is made of the court of the manor of Marske and Upleatham, the profits of which were valued at 2s. 6d. a year. (fn. 104) The capital messuage evidently occupied the site of a grange (fn. 105) in Marske that the canons had possessed in the 13th century. (fn. 106) After being leased by Queen Elizabeth and James I several times, (fn. 107) the manor was sold in April 1611 to John Eldred and George Whitmore, (fn. 108) who disposed of it in May 1613 for £664 17s. to John Hedworth and Roger Tocketts, (fn. 109) and from them it was purchased in December 1614 by William Pennyman. (fn. 110) After 1628, when it passed to Pennyman's son, it was merged in the larger manor.

In 1280 Walter de Fauconberg received a grant of free warren in his demesne land of Marske, (fn. 111) and in 1293 claimed this right. (fn. 112) Toll and fishery at Marske and Redcar are reckoned in 1366 among the profits of the manor. (fn. 113) The windmill of the Fauconbergs in Marske is first mentioned in 1349, (fn. 114) and in 1560 still formed part of the manor of their descendants. (fn. 115)

There was, however, a mill within the parish in the 13th century, tithes of which were given to Guisborough Priory by the owner, William de Tocketts. (fn. 116) The convent at the Dissolution had in the West Field of Marske township a windmill which in 1609 had just been re-erected. (fn. 117)

REDCAR (Redker, xiii cent.; Readkar, Rydcare, xv cent.; Redcarre, xvi cent.) was called by Graves (fn. 118) 'a small dependent manor,' but there is no reference to it as a manor until 1407, (fn. 119) and it is doubtful whether it ever had a manorial existence separate from that of Marske, (fn. 120) with which it has descended since 1272.

Churches

The old church of ST. GERMAIN was rebuilt in 1820–1. Graves, writing about 1808, states that the former church was then ruinous. (fn. 121) It consisted of chancel, nave with north and south aisles, and embattled west tower surmounted by a short stone spire. The nave arcades consisted of circular piers supporting round arches and were apparently of 12th-century date, while the chancel is said to have been an addition of the 13th century. The chancel arch was pointed, but the windows had been altered probably in the 18th century. The new church, erected in 1821, is of no architectural interest, but owing to its isolated position is a very noticeable landmark. It consists of chancel, aisleless nave and west tower and spire, but is now only used for mortuary purposes. It is built of stone, with slated roofs, and is in the pseudo-Gothic style of the day with windows of two pointed lights. The entrance is at the west end under the tower, and there is a west gallery. Internally the old highback pews and 'three-decker' pulpit have been preserved, with the royal arms of George IV on the wall above the latter. The walls are plastered, and there is a pointed chancel arch. In the churchyard, which extends to the very edge of the cliff, is buried the father of Captain Cook.

The new church of ST. MARK was erected in the town in 1867, mainly at the expense of the second Earl of Zetland, and is a handsome stone Gothic building consisting of chancel, clearstoried nave of five bays with north and south aisles, south porch and south-east tower. The tower originally terminated in a saddle-backed roof, but the upper part was destroyed by fire on Easter Day, 1902, and has since been rebuilt with an embattled parapet. It contains six bells presented by Joseph Pease and a clock with four dials given by the Marquess of Zetland in 1902. The interior of the building is lined with brick, and there is an iron chancel screen. The font is a relic of the ancient church, re-dedicated in 1901, and restored to use after many years of desecration, having been turned out of the church in 1820 and used as a trough in a neighbouring farm, and later as a flowerpot in the vicarage garden. It is of 12th-century date, cut from a single block of stone, 2 ft. 6 in. square by 19 in. in height, and has a shaft with cushion capital and moulded base at each corner. Each of the four sides is ornamented with carving, in two cases of plain herring-bone type, the others having more elaborate scroll and star-shaped ornament.


Redcar Church from the North

There is also preserved in the church the base, upper part of the shaft and head of a cross which formerly stood near the shore close to the coastguard station. The base had stood there till about 1900, when it was displaced and hurled on to the shore below. The head was found near the same place in 1901. The pieces, which date from about 1230, are now put together, and made out with a new shaft. (fn. 122)

The plate consists of two cups of late 16th or early 17th-century date, each, however, with a single mark —the initials G.H. with three molets above and one below in a plain shield pointed at the bottom; two cups of 1868, Sheffield make, inscribed, 'Gift of Thomas Earl of Zetland to S. Mark's Church, Marske 1868'; a paten without marks, but apparently of the same date as the older cups and perhaps belonging to one of them; two patens of 1698, made by Thomas Parr of London, each inscribed, 'The Gift of Margaret Lowther Relicq of Anthony Lowther Esq. of Mask 1709'; and a plated flagon given by the Earl of Zetland in 1868, with inscription as above. (fn. 123)

The registers were kept in Latin down to 1685, and have been printed to 1812. (fn. 124) The burials begin in 1569 and the baptisms and marriages in 1570.

The church of ST. PETER at Redcar was built in 1829, at the east end of the town, in the Gothic style of the day, (fn. 125) in plan a plain rectangle with west tower, with recess at the east end for the altar. A chancel was added in 1848. The living is a perpetual curacy in the gift of the lord of the manor. (fn. 126)

EMMANUEL CHURCH, Saltburn by the Sea, was begun in 1869. It is of stone in 14th-century style, and consists of chancel, nave, aisles, north porch and a tower which was added in 1901. The living is a vicarage in the gift of the Marquess of Zetland.

Advowson

The church is said by Simeon of Durham to have been consecrated by Bishop Æthelric (fn. 127) (Bishop of Durham 1042–56) (fn. 128) and to have been given by Copsi, while holding Yorkshire under Earl Tosti, to the monastery of Durham. The connexion with Durham must have been of short duration, and in the 12th century the church belonged to Robert de Brus, who gave it in about 1119–24 to Guisborough Priory, which he had just founded. (fn. 129) It was appropriated by the canons, and in or about 1270 there is mention of the vicar of Marske. (fn. 130)

The church remained the property of the canons (fn. 131) until the dissolution of the priory, when it fell to the Crown. (fn. 132) The advowson of the vicarage was granted by James I on 8 April 1610 to Francis Philips and Richard More, the fishing grantees, (fn. 133) who sold it the next day to Thomas Salvin, (fn. 134) and in 1619 it was alienated by John Salvin to William Pennyman. (fn. 135) From the time of Sir William Pennyman, to whom it passed in 1628, (fn. 136) it has belonged to the lord of the manor. The tithes, which were leased by Queen Elizabeth, as they had been in 1540–1, for £26 13s. 4d., (fn. 137) were granted with the advowson in 1610, and have since gone with the patronage.

Albert de Craster (Craucestria) and his wife Cristiana in the 12th century gave land in Redcar to Guisborough Priory for the site of a chapel, (fn. 138) but there is no record that their intentions were carried out by the canons. (fn. 139)

Charities

By a scheme of the Charity Commissioners of 10 November 1899 the following charities were consolidated under the title of the United Charities, namely: The Hon. Katharine Atherton, by deed 1624, being a rent-charge of £2 13s. 4d. issuing out of a farm in Upleatham now belonging to the Marquess of Zetland; Marshall's Gift, trust fund, consisting of £59 6s. 8d. India 3 per cent. stock; and the charity of Susanna Dudley, will proved at York 1846, £52 12s. 9d. consols.

The sums of stock are held by the official trustees, and by the scheme the yearly income of the charities is made applicable in the supply of articles in kind and in medical or other aid in sickness. The income of Marshall's gift is also applicable in the township of Saltburn.

In 1852 Miss Mary Mewburn, by will proved at York, bequeathed £198 0s. 4d. consols, the dividends to be applied at Christmas every year amongst poor and necessitous widows of the Church of England. The distribution is made in gifts of 5s.

In 1864 Miss Hannah Harrison, by will, left £107 0s. 6d. consols, the income, subject to the repair of a tomb, to be applied by the vicar for behoof of the poor. Gifts of 5s. are made to sick and aged poor.

In 1864 Thomas Earl of Zetland gave £1,600 consols for the parish school and £500 for the infants' school.

There is in this parish a hospital for miners supported by Messrs. Pease & Partners and by the Marquess of Zetland.

Township of Redcar.—The poor of Redcar are entitled to participate in Atherton's charity (see above).

In 1864 Thomas Earl of Zetland gave £1,833 6s. 8d. consols for the benefit of the parish school and £333 6s. 8d. consols for the infants' school.

In 1879 John Farmer, by will, left £80 12s. 7d. India 3 per cent. stock, the dividends to be applied for the benefit of widows and orphans of fishermen.

In 1891 Hannah Pickard, by will, left £1,030 18s. 7d. consols (with the official trustees), the dividends, amounting to £25 15s. 4d., to be given in the relief of poor members of the Congregational church. The distribution is made in money to poor persons varying from twelve to eighteen in number.

In 1899 Martha Carter, by will, left £507 12s. 3d. consols (with the official trustees) for pensions for poor old persons residing at Redcar. By a scheme of the Charity Commissioners of 2 September 1902 the dividends, amounting to £12 13s. 9d., are directed to be applied in the payment of a pension to be awarded to a deserving and necessitous aged person being bona fide resident in the urban district of Redcar.

Footnotes

1 Statistics from Bd. of Agric. (1905).
2 In 1366 in an assignment of dower to Isabel de Fauconberg (Chan. Inq. p.m. 40 Edw. III [1st nos.], no. 52) the profits of quarries and iron-mines are mentioned but only in general terms.
3 In the Lansdowne Coll. B.M.
4 Chan. Inq. p.m. 32 Edw. I, no. 40.
5 Ibid. 23 Edw. III, pt. i, no. 57.
6 Ibid. 40 Edw. III (1st nos.), no. 52.
7 Graves, Cleveland, 383. Ord, however, doubted the accuracy of the tradition (Cleveland, 354) and Atkinson (Cleveland, ii, 74) says that the monument was of earlier date than the 17th century.
8 Tweddell (Visitor's Hand-bk. to Redcar, 115) says it had gone before the second edition of his book in 1863.
9 Ibid. 57.
10 Lewis, Topog. Dict. iii, 264.
11 Pop. Ret. 1881, i, 470.
12 Ibid. 1901, Yorks. 135.
13 Tweddell, op. cit. 119.
14 Ibid. 120.
15 The bridge was there in 1872, but the railway from Whitby had not yet been finished.
16 Whitby Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), i, 177, n. 5.
17 Chan. Inq. p.m. 40 Edw. III (1st nos.), no. 52; (Ser. 2), cxxv, 52.
18 Guisbro' Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), ii, 249.
19 Guisbro' Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), ii, 247.
20 Ibid.
21 Ibid. 247–8.
22 Ibid. 244.
23 Cal. Inq. p.m. Hen. III, 266.
24 Chan. Inq. p.m. 40 Edw. III (1st nos.), no. 52.
25 Ibid.
26 Quart. Sess. Rec. (N. R. Rec. Soc.), i, 122.
27 Priv. Act, 27 & 28 Geo. II, cap. 30.
28 Feet of F. Yorks. Trin. 1655.
29 Lewis, Topog. Dict. iii, 150.
30 Census Rep. (1881), i, 470, 472.
31 Guisbro' Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), ii, 231.
32 Ralph, who was Prior of Guisborough before Roald (1192–9), witnessed a grant of land by William to Ivo (ibid. 233).
33 Guisbro' Chartul. (Surt. Soc.) ii, 241.
34 Ibid. 236–7.
35 Ibid. 233.
36 Ibid. 238.
37 Dugdale, Mon. v, 276.
38 Cal. Inq. p.m. Hen. III, 266; Chan. Inq. p.m. 40 Edw. III (1st nos.), no. 52.
39 Chan. Inq. p.m. 9 Hen. IV, no. 19.
40 Ibid. 10 Hen. V, no. 22a.
41 The Brus lords received 12s. from every boat on the shore of Redcar (Cal. Inq. p.m. Hen. III, 266), but in 1422 the profits of the boats appear to have amounted only to 6s. 8d. (Chan. Inq. p.m. 10 Hen. V, no. 22a).
42 Ibid. 40 Edw. III (1st nos.), no. 52.
43 Letter of 'H. Tr.' to Sir Thomas Chaloner (Nichols, Topog. and Gen. ii, 413–14).
44 Ord, op. cit. 299.
45 Graves (Cleveland, 385) said that it was then, in 1800, a place of fashionable resort for sea-bathing and that lodginghouses were increasing.
46 Hutton's description in Ord, op. cit. 358.
47 Ibid. The twenty-eight cobbles then at Redcar were chiefly used for fishing. For a description of Redcar in 1827 see Yorks. Arch. Journ. xiii, 21.
48 Tweddell, op. cit. 56.
49 It has been called (Baddeley, Yorks. i, 107) 'the Rhyl of Yorkshire.'
50 Julian Hawthorne, Nathaniel Hawthorne and his Wife, ii, 199, 227. In the preface to The Marble Faun Hawthorne speaks of the 'broad and dreary sands of Redcar, with the grey German Ocean tumbling in upon me and the northern blast always howling in my ears.'
51 Tweddell, op. cit. 55.
52 Chan. Inq. p.m. 40 Edw. III (1st nos.), no. 52.
53 Simeon of Dur., Opera (Rolls Ser.), i, 97.
54 Ibid. ii, 198.
55 Guisbro' Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), i, pp. iii–iv, n. 2.
56 V.C.H. Yorks. ii, 218.
57 Ibid. 263.
58 Ibid. 220.
59 He then gave away the church (Guisbro' Chartul. [Surt. Soc.], i, pp. 4, vi–x).
60 See above, p. 336.
61 Cal. Inq. p.m. Hen. III, 266.
62 See below, p. 407; Chan. Inq. p.m. 32 Edw. I, no. 40; 12 Edw. II, no. 51; 23 Edw. III, pt. i, no. 57; 36 Edw. III, pt. i, no. 77; 9 Hen. IV, no. 19; De Banco R. Hil. 8 Hen. IV, m. 530; Feet of F. Yorks. 8 Hen. IV, no. 49.
63 In 1428 he held in Marske 9½ carucates 12 oxgangs of that fee which John Fauconberg formerly held there (Lay Subs R. bdle. 211, no. 72).
64 They had in Marske just what the Fauconbergs had had in 1366 (cf. Chan. Inq. p.m. 40 Edw. III [1st nos.], no. 52; [Ser. 2], cxxv, 52).
65 Feet of F. Div. Co. Hil. 15 Eliz. Harsculph Cleasby enjoyed the confidence of the Conyers sisters, and in 1570 Lord Hunsdon hoped through him to secure Katharine Conyers's hand for his son (Cal. S. P. Dom. Add. 1566–79, p. 261).
66 Feet of F. Div. Co. Mich. 17 & 18 Eliz.
67 Licence to alienate granted in May (Pat. 20 Eliz. pt. iii, m. 16).
68 Yorks. Fines, Tudors (Yorks. Arch. Soc.), ii, 177.
69 Ibid. 322.
70 Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), ccxci, 137.
71 Feet of F. Yorks. Trin. 11 Jas. I.
72 Close, 14 Jas. I, pt. xv, m. 11.
73 Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), ccccxliv, 84.
74 Yorks. Fines, Tudors (Yorks. Arch. Soc.), iii, 89.
75 Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), ccccxcv, 90.
76 Anne was the daughter of John Atherton and was two years old at her father's death in 1613 (ibid. cccxlvii, 25).
77 G.E.C. Baronetage, ii, 36. He and his regiment were in the North opposing the Covenanters in 1639 and 1640 (Cal. S. P. Dom. 1639, pp. 40, 268; 1640–1, pp. 102, 111, 112, &c.).
78 James was brother of William Pennyman who died in 1628 (Chan. Inq. p.m. [Ser. 2], ccccxliv, 84).
79 Sir William died childless in August 1643 (G.E.C. Baronetage, ii, 36).
80 Feet of F. Yorks. Trin. 8 Chas. I; Royalist Comp. P. (Yorks. Arch. Soc.), xv, 187–90.
81 Royalist Comp. P. (Yorks. Arch. Soc.), 187–91.
82 Feet of F. Yorks. Trin. 1650.
83 Recov. R. Hil. 18 Chas. II, m. 51.
84 G.E.C. Baronetage, iv, 171. He is called Sir William Lowther of Marske in 1698 (Yorks. Diaries of 17th and 18th Centuries [Surt. Soc.], ii, 77).
85 G.E.C. loc. cit.
86 Ibid. Sir Thomas Lowther, bart., held the manor in 1720 (Recov. R. Hil. 7 Geo. I, m. 19).
87 G.E.C. loc. cit. In April 1748 he appointed a gamekeeper for his manor of 'Mask' (Quart. Sess. Rec. [N. R. Rec. Soc.], viii, 267).
88 G.E.C. loc. cit.
89 P.C.C. Glazier, 10. The will is dated 7 April 1755, and left the manor to the Wilsons in tail-male in default of his own male issue.
90 Edward is called Edmund in the fine (Feet of F. Yorks. Mich. 3 Geo. III). George Wilson had a quarter of the manor of Marske in 1756 (Recov. R. Trin. 29 & 30 Geo. II, m. 126, 226).
91 See V.C.H. Yorks. N. R. i, 61; Recov. R. Trin. 29 Geo. III, m. 126; East. 30 Geo. III, m. 226; Mich. 1 Geo. IV, m. 251.
92 For Lucy de Thweng and the Darcys see above, p. 322; Cal. Pat. 1345–8, p. 43; Chan. Inq. p.m. 22 Ric. II, no. 17; 13 Hen. IV, no. 36; 7 Hen. V, no. 78.
93 Chan. Inq. p.m. 13 Hen. IV, no. 36.
94 V.C.H. Yorks. ii, 263.
95 Brus Partition in Atkinson, op. cit. ii, 70–1 n.
96 Chan. Inq. p.m. 36 Edw. III, pt. i, no. 77.
97 Ibid. 42 Edw. III (1st nos.), no. 48.
98 Guisbro' Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), ii, 222.
99 Kirkby's Inq. (Surt. Soc.), 234.
100 Lay Subs. R. bdle. 211, no. 72.
101 Chan. Inq. p.m. 42 Edw. III (1st nos.), no. 48.
102 It is impossible, however, to estimate what the priory really had. From the Lay Subs. R. of 9 Hen. VI the prior appears to have had only 2 carucates and those in the fee of Fauconberg. According to this document the Capons, who are mentioned in connexion with Marske in 1293 (Plac. de Quo Warr. [Rec. Com.], 209–10), must at one time have held a great deal here.
103 Pat. 4 Jas. I, pt. xii, m. 30.
104 Ibid. 9 Jas. I, pt. viii, m. 21.
105 'Site of the grange or capital messuage of Marske' (ibid.).
106 Peter de Brus gave the canons in exchange 2 acres of land next the court of their grange in Marske for inclosing and enlarging that court (Guisbro' Chartul. [Surt. Soc.], ii, 244–5).
107 Pat. 4 Jas. I, pt. xii, m. 30.
108 Ibid. 9 Jas. I, pt. viii, m. 19–21.
109 Close, 11 Jas. I, pt. ii, m. 15.
110 Ibid. 12 Jas. I, pt. xviii, m. 10.
111 Cal. Chart. R. 1257–1300, p. 223.
112 Plac. de Quo Warr. (Rec. Com.), 209–10.
113 Chan. Inq. p.m. 40 Edw. III (1st nos.), no. 52.
114 Ibid. 23 Edw. III, pt. i, no. 57.
115 Ibid. (Ser. 2), cxxv, 52.
116 Guisbro' Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), ii, 250.
117 Pat. 7 Jas. I, pt. xvi, m. 10–11.
118 Op. cit. 386.
119 De Banco R. Hil. 8 Hen. IV, m. 530; Feet of F. Yorks. 9 Hen. IV, no. 1.
120 The twenty-four cottars at Redcar who in 1304 paid 24s. a year to the Fauconbergs (Chan. Inq. p.m. 32 Edw. I, no. 40) seem to be included in the extent of Marske.
121 Op. cit. 383.
122 Proc. Cleveland Nat. Field Club, i, 175. The head measures 25 in. across each way, and the length of the remaining portion of the shaft is 19 in. For the font see Trans. Dur. and Northumb. Arch. Soc. vi, 242.
123 Fallow and McCall, Yorks. Ch. Plate, i, 136–7. The older paten is 'an interesting little plate of silver with a plain narrow rim.' It is 4¼ in. in diameter.
124 Published by the Yorks. Par. Reg. Soc. no. 16 (1903). Transcribed by Herbert Maxwell Wood, B.A.
125 The architect was Ignatius Bonomi of Durham.
126 Lawton, Coll. Rerum Eccl. 494.
127 Simeon of Dur., Opera (Rolls Ser.), i, 97.
128 Stubbs, Reg. Sacrum Anglic. 244.
129 Guisbro' Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), i, pp. 4, vi, 10.
130 Among the witnesses to an undated charter are 'Sir William Vicar of Marske,' Sir Roger de Tocketts, who occurs in 1262, and Sir Ambrose de Camera, who occurs 1269 (ibid. ii, 249, 201, 223).
131 Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), v, 90.
132 Mins. Accts. 32 Hen. VIII (Dugdale, Mon. vi, 275). The queen presented in 1568 and 1575 (Graves, op. cit. 385).
133 Pat. 6 Jas. I, pt. vii, m. 9.
134 Close, 6 Jas. I, pt. xxxi, m. 23.
135 Feet of F. Yorks. Mich. 17 Jas. I. Pennyman presented in 1623 (Inst. Bks. [P.R.O.]).
136 Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), ccccxliv, 84.
137 Pat. 27 Eliz. pt. v, m. 29; 29 Eliz. pt. xvi, m. 8.
138 Guisbro' Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), ii, 231–3.
139 Atkinson (op. cit. ii, 82) points out that the absence of records by no means proves that the chapel did not exist.


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