Parishes
Pickhill with Roxby

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Victoria County History

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William Page (editor)

Year published

1914

Pages

377-383

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'Parishes: Pickhill with Roxby', A History of the County of York North Riding: Volume 1 (1914), pp. 377-383. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=64771 Date accessed: 28 November 2014.


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PICKHILL WITH ROXBY

Picala, Picale (xi cent.) ; Pykhale, Pikall Rokesby (xiii cent.).

The parish of Pickhill with Roxby comprised in 1831 the townships of Ainderby Quernhow, Holme, Howe, Pickhill with Roxby, Sinderby and Swainby with Allerthorpe. Holme, Howe, Sinderby and Swainby with Allerthorpe are now separate civil parishes. It was bounded on the east and north-east by the River Swale, and by Leeming Lane on the south-west. The subsoil of the parish is Keuper Marl, except in the valley of the river, where it is alluvium. The top soil is clay and gravel. The area, including all the hamlets, is nearly 5,109 acres, of which 2,236 are arable land and 2,757 permanent grass. (fn. 1) The chief crops grown are turnips, wheat, barley and oats, and the population, numbering 431, (fn. 2) is mainly engaged in agriculture. The parish is generally flat, lying about 100 ft. above ordnance datum, but rising towards the south-west to 125 ft.; it has little woodland, Pickhill Wood to the north of that township and Holme Wood being the only plantations of any consequence.

The North Eastern railway has stations at Pickhill and Sinderby.

The village of Pickhill lies about the middle of the parish on a loop of Street Lane which connects it with Leeming Lane. The houses, which are of brick and tiled, are grouped around the irregular sides of a large hollow which forms the green, though some extend south along the road and west across the railway by a level crossing. The church stands prominently upon the north-east side of the hollow and near it is a moated inclosure. The vicarage is at the south end of the village.

Pickhill Beck runs southwards through the town close to the church and through the green. The Wesleyan chapel was erected in 1864. North-west of the town the rising ground from the beck is called Roman Hills, and here there is a building called Roman Castle. There was a mill in Pickhill in 1619. (fn. 3)

The site of the village of Swainby, where there are now only one or two scattered cottages, is north of Pickhill. The Premonstratensian abbey of Coverham was first founded at Swainby by Helewise the daughter of Ranulf de Glanvill, but was removed to Coverham by her son Ralph. (fn. 4)


Allerthorpe Hall, Pickhill: Entrance Front

Sinderby lies south of Pickhill and is built on Sinderby Lane, which connects it with Leeming Lane on the west and Holme on the east, crossing Holme and Ainderby Beck by Holme Bridge. The Wesleyan chapel was rebuilt in 1835.

Howe hamlet is 3½ miles south of Pickhill. Howe Hall, the seat of Lt.-Col. John I'Anson, J.P., is a modern mansion, but built into one of the garden walls are some fragments of Gothic tracery. A fishery at Howe is mentioned in 1557. (fn. 5)

Ainderby Quernhow consists of three fair-sized houses, now farms. The southernmost is a three-storied Georgian building with rusticated angles and entrance. To the north is a pedimented house of somewhat earlier date. Ainderby House stands on Leeming Lane, and is a stone building of no great age. Holme Lodge, lying between Ainderby Quernhow and Sinderby, is a late 18th-century house, two stories high, standing in a small park.

Allerthorpe Hall, standing about 1½ miles to the north-east of the main road, is an interesting early 17th-century brick building. The house, which faces south, is rectangular on plan and two stories in height. The entrance front has a gabled central porch extending the whole height of the house, and is flanked by circular angle turrets on the east and west. The walls are crowned by a hipped eaves roof covered with tiles, while the turrets have pyramidal roofs. Two fine chimney stacks, surmounted by groups of four and six diagonal shafts respectively, rise behind the ridge of the main roof. The window openings have in most cases been fitted with sashes. The entrance doorway beneath the porch has a continuously moulded cambered external head and jambs, the square-headed door frame itself being placed some distance back from the face of the wall with a second frame in front of it having baluster shafts supporting an elliptical head with carved spandrels and the date 1608 upon the 'keystone.' The door is divided into nine panels and has a Y-shaped knocker, the whole being contemporary with the house. The lower part of the porch is plastered and has a moulded stringcourse. Above this are a window and sundial and a gabled roof with moulded kneelers. Below the eaves to the west of the porch a portion of an ornamented beam or wall-plate remains in position. The east side of the house, excluding the turret, measures 38 ft.; there are various modern additions at the back. On the west side of the house, close to the turret, traces can be seen of a mullioned window, now blocked, which corresponds to a cupboard in the interior. The chief room on the ground floor and the bedroom above are panelled.

Among the place-names found in connexion with the parish are The Gripes, Myreclose, Wellgarth, Keld Carr, Mires Bank, Chapel Fields and Eller Bottoms.

Quernhow Tumulus is near Leeming Lane. At Swainby the River Swale is crossed by Maunby Ferry.

Manors

PICKHILL and ROXBY (Rokesbi, xiii cent.; Rokeby Pykhale, xiv cent.), now forming one township, have generally been associated together. The latter never seems to have been a manor. No mention of it occurs in the Domesday Survey, but it may have been included under Pickhill, where two 'manors' and 12 carucates, previously held by Tor and Sprot, belonged in 1086 to Count Alan, (fn. 6) who held them in demesne. Pickhill afterwards formed part of the honour of Richmond (fn. 7) (q.v.). The constables of Richmond Castle held the mesne lordship. (fn. 8)

Before 1190 Alan the Constable gave Pickhill, as part of the dowry of his daughter Amphyllis, to Jollan de Nevill, (fn. 9) and this family of Nevill, who were also of Rolleston in Nottinghamshire, (fn. 10) retained Pickhill until the middle of the 16th century. This Jollan was succeeded first by his son John, (fn. 11) and then by his younger son Jollan. The latter was a justice in eyre in the reign of Henry III, and the returns known as the Testa de Nevill have been ascribed to him. (fn. 12) His first son and heir Jollan made an agreement in 1250 with his father's widow with regard to her dower here and elsewhere. (fn. 13) In 1255 John, brother of the last Jollan de Nevill, confirmed to the monks of Fountains Abbey 4½ carucates of land in Roxby and Pickhill, some, if not all, of which they had acquired in or before the reign of Richard I. (fn. 14) The abbey of Fountains held land here with perquisites of court at the Dissolution, and this manor was granted in 1568 to Percival Bowes and John Moyser and their heirs, (fn. 15) but there is no later history of it.


Nevill of Pickhill. Gules a saltire ermine.

Nevill of Pickhill. Gules a saltire ermine.

In 1286–7 Pickhill and Roxby together contained 14 carucates of land held by Andrew de Nevill, a third son of Jollan and brother of John. (fn. 16) Jollan de Nevill, the son of Andrew, (fn. 17) in 1307 had a grant of a market on Saturday and a fair every year on the eve and day of the Nativity of St. Mary and eight days following. (fn. 18) He also obtained a grant of free warren in his demesne lands there at the same date. (fn. 19) Jollan was returned as lord of Pickhill in 1316, (fn. 20) and seems to have been in possession in 1331. (fn. 21) He was succeeded by a son Thomas, (fn. 22) who was the father of that William Nevill described as of Pickhill in 1391. (fn. 23) The latter had a son Robert, who had a son Thomas living in 1438. (fn. 24) Thomas was succeeded by his son William de Nevill, whose son Thomas (fn. 25) was seised of the manor of Pickhill at his death in 1503. He left a son and heir William, (fn. 26) who died seised of it in 1510, and was succeeded by his son Thomas, (fn. 27) known as Thomas Nevill of Holt. (fn. 28)


Byerley. Or a crosslet gules.

Byerley. Or a crosslet gules.

In 1559 the manor was sold by Sir Thomas Nevill, kt., to Anthony Meynell of North Kilvington, and Robert. Byerley. (fn. 29) Anthony Meynell died in 1576 seised of half the manor, (fn. 30) and Robert Byerley was seised of the other half at his death in 1579. (fn. 31) Robert Byerley left a son Anthony, who died seised of the latter holding, called the manor, in 1618, and was succeeded by his son Christopher, (fn. 32) who held it in 1635. (fn. 33) In 1650 it was dealt with by Christopher Byerley, Robert Byerley, sen., Robert Byerley, jun., and others, (fn. 34) and in 1692 Robert Byerley was in possession. (fn. 35) He seems to have parted with some of his lands, and his half of Pickhill was conveyed by him in 1704 to Richard Staines. (fn. 36) Various members of the Staines family conveyed it in 1740 to Thomas Cockerill. (fn. 37) Thirteen years later it was in the possession of Charles Gore and his wife Mary in her right. (fn. 38) It was probably this estate in which James and William Lister sold all the manorial rights to Sir Bellingham Graham in 1771. (fn. 39) They subsequently remained in the Graham family. The other half, which had been in the possession of Anthony Meynell, followed for some time the descent of North Kilvington (q.v.), but had passed from that family before 1717. (fn. 40) It must have been acquired by Colonel Metcalfe Graham, who is noted for having been adjutant-general to the Duke of Marlborough at the battle of Blenheim. In 1727 the property came into the hands of Sir Reginald Graham of Norton Conyers, fourth baronet, through his marriage with Jacoba daughter of Colonel Metcalfe Graham. (fn. 41) Sir Bellingham Graham, fifth baronet, was in possession of the manor in 1765. (fn. 42) From him it descended to Sir Bellingham Reginald Graham, seventh baronet, (fn. 43) who sold the whole in 1820. (fn. 44) The present lord of the manor is Mr. Henry Rutson of Newby Wiske.


Fountains Abbey. Azure three horseshoes or.

Fountains Abbey. Azure three horseshoes or.

Floteman had a 'manor' and 6 carucates in AINDERBY QUERNHOW (Aiendrebi, xi cent.; Anderby Vesconte, xiii cent.) before 1086, and at the time of the Domesday Survey it was in the hands of Count Alan. (fn. 45) The overlordship followed the descent of the honour of Richmond (fn. 46) (q.v.). In or before the reign of Richard I land in Ainderby Quernhow was granted to the abbey of Fountains, (fn. 47) and in 1286–7 the abbot was returned as lord of the whole of it except 3 oxgangs, which were held by the master of the hospital of St. John. (fn. 48) Ainderby Quernhow remained with the abbey until the Dissolution. (fn. 49) After this time there is no descent of it as a manor, but in 1583 various lands in Ainderby Quernhow, which had formerly belonged to this abbey, were granted to John Browne for twenty-one years. (fn. 50) In 1619 Thomas Dunn and in 1622 his son John Dunn were seised of a messuage and land in Ainderby Quernhow. (fn. 51) George Power also held land there at his death in 1624 and Henry Raper in 1632. (fn. 52) It seems probable, therefore, that the vill was split into several small holdings.

The principal landowners are now Mr. Robert Durham and Lieutenant-Colonel John I'Anson, J.P.

Archil held 2 carucates at ALLERTHORPE (Erlevestorp, Herlevestorp, xi cent.; Arlathorp, xiii cent.) before the Conquest, and these belonged to Count Alan in 1086, (fn. 53) when the under-tenant was Ribald. The overlordship remained with the honour of Richmond. From Ribald the mesne lordship followed the descent of Middleham (q.v.) to Ralph son of Ranulf, and in 1270 was assigned, as a fee belonging to Well Manor, to his daughter Joan, (fn. 54) whose lands afterwards reverted to the Nevills. (fn. 55) The mesne lordship henceforth followed the descent of that of Swainby (q.v.)

In 1270 the tenant of Allerthorpe was William de Lascelles, (fn. 56) and his descendant (fn. 57) John held it in 1316. (fn. 58) A John de Lascelles of Allerthorpe, kt., was living in 1331, and had a son William who was living in 1354 and a grandson William living in 1376. (fn. 59) A William Lascelles, probably this last William, held Allerthorpe in 1389, (fn. 60) and it evidently continued with this family, as in 1551 Sir Roger Lascelles, kt., was seised at his death of Allerthorpe Grange, (fn. 61) and in 1590 his great-grandson (fn. 62) Sir Thomas Lascelles, kt., conveyed the manor to William Robinson, alderman of the city of York, (fn. 63) who was seised of it at his death in 1616. (fn. 64) After the death of William Robinson's son Thomas in 1626 it passed either by inheritance or agreement to his sister Frances Harrison and her son Thomas, (fn. 65) and from this date followed the descent of Swainby (q.v.).

In 1086 the soke of HOLME (Hulme, xi cent.) belonged to the Bishop of Durham's manor of Hutton Conyers and Howgrave, and was held under him by Robert. (fn. 66) The successors of the bishop retained the overlordship, and Holme was associated with Hutton Conyers or Howgrave until at least the 17th century, (fn. 67) and seems never to have been a separate manor. In 1284–5 the 6 carucates in the vill were held of Robert Conyers, (fn. 68) and a Robert Conyers was returned as lord in 1316. (fn. 69) In the 19th century the land, which was divided among several owners, was bought up at various times between 1859 and 1863 by Mr. John Walker and Mr. Edmund Walker, who did not, however, exercise any manorial rights.

The property is now in the hands of Mr. A. J. Walker (fn. 70) and Mr. F. E. Walker.

Before the Conquest Sprot held in HOWE (Hou, xi cent.) a manor and 3 carucates; these in 1086 were among the lands of Count Alan. (fn. 71) The overlordship appears to have followed the descent of the honour of Richmond (fn. 72) (q.v.). The tenant under Count Alan was Robert, probably Robert de Musters, whose descendant Robert de Musters (fn. 73) held the mesne lordship in the latter part of the 13th century. Before 1286–7 it was held under him by Ralph de Trehampton, and again under him by Geoffrey de Howe. (fn. 74) Geoffrey son of Robert de Howe gave 10 oxgangs of land with a toft and a croft here to the hospital of St. Leonard of York, and John son of Geoffrey ratified his father's grant and released to the hospital all right in the manor, town and territory of Howe, as well in demesne as in services. (fn. 75) The master of the hospital was the tenant in 1286–7 and in 1294 had a grant of free warren in his demesne lands there. (fn. 76) Howe remained with the hospital until the 16th century, (fn. 77) but after the Dissolution it was probably split into several small holdings. In 1557 land and tenements and a free fishery in Howe, which had belonged to the hospital, were granted in fee to Thomas Wood and John Browne, (fn. 78) and in 1632 Henry Raper of Howe was seised of 6½ oxgangs of land and a tenement there. (fn. 79) Lieutenant-Colonel John I'Anson, J.P., of Howe Hall, is now the sole landowner.

Six carucates in SINDERBY (Senerebi, xi cent.; Surdeby, xiv cent.) were in the possession of Count Alan in 1086, having been held before the Conquest by Sudan. (fn. 80) The overlordship continued with the honour of Richmond. (fn. 81) By 1231 Robert de Musters owned land in Sinderby, (fn. 82) and in 1286–7 he was holding 3 carucates in the vill, while Avis Marmion held the remaining 3. (fn. 83) In 1316 John Marmion, grandson of Avis, (fn. 84) and Robert de Musters were returned as lords of Sinderby. (fn. 85) The Musters' holding followed the descent of the neighbouring manor of Kirklington (q.v.), which belonged to Robert de Musters and his descendants till 1556, when Francis Wandesford sold it to John Jackson of Bedale. (fn. 86) Its further history has not been traced.

The Marmions, lords of West Tanfield (q.v.), evidently retained their interest in the vill. William Lord Fitz Hugh, the son of Elizabeth, heir of the Marmions, was seised of land and rent in Sinderby at his death in 1452. (fn. 87) His daughter Joan married Sir John Scrope of Bolton, kt., (fn. 88) and as the latter was seised of the reputed manor of Sinderby at his death in 1498 (fn. 89) it is probable that, like Thornbrough (q.v.), it formed part of her dowry. From this time it followed the descent of the Scropes of Bolton (fn. 90) (q.v.) to Thomas Lord Scrope, who was holding it in 1600, (fn. 91) after which the descent of this part of Sinderby is not clear. Henry Best was seised of the manor at his death in 1630, (fn. 92) and may have acquired it with Middleton Quernhow from the Scropes, but in 1661, when his great-grandson Henry Best was dealing with the manor of Middleton Quernhow, appurtenances in Sinderby only are mentioned with it, (fn. 93) and during this time another holding which went with West Tanfield was called the manor. In 1598 William Cecil Lord Burghley, who held West Tanfield, was seised at his death of tenements in Sinderby by grant of Queen Elizabeth, (fn. 94) and these may have represented what was afterwards known as the manor, or it may have been bought by one of his heirs from the Scropes. In 1623 William Earl of Exeter, the grandson of Lord Burghley, was dealing with the manor, (fn. 95) which after this time followed the descent of West Tanfield (q.v.).

In or before the reign of Richard I the abbey of Fountains had acquired land in Sinderby (fn. 96) which it retained until the Dissolution. (fn. 97)

The principal landowners are now Mr. Charles White, Mrs. Hammond and Miss M. Kendrew.

At the time of the Domesday Survey SWAINBY (Suanebi, xi cent.; Swaynle, xiv cent.) consisted of a manor and 6 carucates once held by Archil, but then by Count Alan (fn. 98) ; the overlordship remained with the honour of Richmond. (fn. 99) In 1086 Ribald, lord of Middleham (q.v.), was the tenant. Although Swainby is not mentioned among the lands of Ribald's descendant Ralph son of Ranulf when they were divided after his death in 1270, the mesne lordship evidently followed the descent of Middleham until the 15th century. (fn. 100) Unlike Middleham, however, it continued in the direct line of the family after the death of Ralph Nevill, first Earl of Westmorland, in 1425, and was held by his grandson the second earl in 1474. (fn. 101)

The tenants under the elder branch of Ribald's family were the Fitz Randalls of Spennithorne (q.v.). Swainby followed the descent of Spennithorne (fn. 102) until it was divided among the five daughters of Ralph Fitz Randall in the early 16th century. (fn. 103) This division was not permanent, as in 1534 Ralph Dransfield, the son of one of the coheirs, who should have inherited one-fifth of Swainby, seems to have been in possession of one-quarter of the 'manor,' as it was then called, (fn. 104) which he may have sold to Sir Roger Lascelles, kt., whose daughter Mary he married. (fn. 105) Sir Roger Lascelles was seised of a quarter at his death in 1551. (fn. 106) His son Christopher Lascelles purchased other lands in Swainby, probably amounting to another quarter, as in 1555 he sold half the manor to Christopher Wray, who conveyed it to Robert Bowes in 1560. (fn. 107) In 1570 William and Ralph Segrave and John Jackson were parties to a fine as to the moiety of the manor of Swainby, (fn. 108) and in 1581 this moiety appears to have been bought from Ralph Segrave by William Robinson, alderman of the city of York, (fn. 109) who was seised of the manor at his death in 1616. (fn. 110) His son Thomas Robinson held the manor among others, which, except the possession of Swainby for eighty years, he left by his will to his brother William Robinson, with remainder to his nephew William and his heirs, and failing them to his cousins Christopher and William in tail. The term of eighty years in Swainby he bequeathed to his sister Frances Harrison (who at his death in 1626 was found to be his heir) and her son Thomas, (fn. 111) whose descendants held the manor until the end of the century. In 1688 Thomas Harrison, the grandson of the last Thomas, tried to break the entail, (fn. 112) but was evidently unsuccessful, as it eventually reverted to the Robinsons, and in 1743 was in the hands of Edward Montagu, who had married Elizabeth Robinson in 1742. (fn. 113) Elizabeth's nephew and heir, Matthew Robinson, took the name of Montagu in 1776, and afterwards succeeded as fourth Lord Rokeby of Armagh. (fn. 114) He held the manor in or before 1830, (fn. 115) and was succeeded first by his eldest son Edward, who died unmarried, and afterwards by his second son Henry, whose only son died unmarried. (fn. 116) Harriet Lydia, second daughter of Henry Lord Rokeby, married the fourth Earl of Portarlington. She died in 1904, and the estate is now in the possession of the only daughter of her second son Mr. Dawson Damer, who died in 1898. (fn. 117)


Montagu, Lord Rokeby. Argent a fesse indented of three points and a border sable, for MONTAGU, quartered with Or an eagle vert, for MONTHERMER.

Montagu, Lord Rokeby. Argent a fesse indented of three points and a border sable, for MONTAGU, quartered with Or an eagle vert, for MONTHERMER.

Church

The church of ALL SAINTS consists of a chancel 24 ft. 7 in. by 17 ft. 7 in., north vestry, north chapel 16 ft. 3 in. by 12 ft. 5 in., nave 37 ft. 4 in. by 18 ft. 9 in., north aisle 8 ft. 5 in., south porch, and west tower 14 ft. 3 in. square. These measurements are all internal.

The church was built about 1150, and consisted of a chancel and nave only. Of this building the richly carved chancel arch and south doorway remain with some of the walling in the south and east walls of the nave. The north aisle and chapel were added about 1200, and the chancel appears to have been enlarged early in the 14th century, its south wall having been brought out to the line of the south wall of the nave. The tower was added late in the 15th century. A restoration and enlargement took place in 1877. The north aisle was then rebuilt and the vestry added, and the restoration has left but two or three of the windows with their original stonework.

The east window has three plain lights under a pointed head with intersecting tracery; the jambs outside are richly moulded with hollows and rounds and inside are two hollows cut in a chamfer. In the south wall is a small piscina with a half-round basin and a round arch. The two south windows are modern and are each of two cinquefoiled lights with a quatrefoiled spandrel above in a pointed arch. There are signs outside of a blocked doorway west of the second window. Further west is a small square-headed low-side window of old stonework. The north-east window has been blocked for the vestry; it has splayed inner jambs and a moulded rear arch, and is probably contemporary with the east window. A modern doorway opens to the vestry, which also has a doorway into the chapel and another in the north wall, and is lighted by an east window of two lights and a single light to the north.

A pointed arch opens to the chapel. It is of two chamfered orders, the inner of which springs from small shafts supported on corbels, much renewed, but having an early 13th-century bell capital on the east. Between it and the vestry doorway is a plain squint from the chapel towards the altar, with a piscina drain in its sill. The chapel is lighted by a modern three-light window on the north and a two-light window on the west over the arch to the aisle, which is of a single order without any detail but a chamfer on the east side.

The chancel arch is a good piece of 12th-century work, its height giving a very dignified effect. It has jambs of two orders, the inner with a pair of detached angle shafts, the outer square; the shafts have moulded bases and scalloped capitals with cabled neckings and the abaci are carved with sunk star ornament carried along the west face of the wall on both sides to meet the side walls. The arch, which is a flattened segment of a circle, has its inner order enriched with cheveron ornament; the outer one is square and there is no label.

The north arcade of the nave is early 13th-century work a good deal repaired; it is of three bays with quatrefoil shafts and pointed arches of two chamfered orders, of very graceful proportions. The aisle is lighted by three lancets in its north wall and a twolight window to the west, all modern. The two south windows of the nave are both modern, of three trefoiled lights with tracery. The south-west doorway is original, with jambs of three square orders with pairs of shafts in the angles, having moulded bases and scalloped capitals with cabled neck moulds like those of the chancel arch. The three orders of the semicircular arch are all enriched with cheveron ornament and the label is carved with two rows of engrailed ornament. The stonework is all original except the abaci and one or two jamb stones.

The tower arch is pointed and of two chamfered orders dying into the slightly chamfered jambs. The stair-turret rises in the south-east angle, being entered from the ground floor of the tower and lighted by narrow loops. The lower of the two stages of the tower is lighted by a west window of three plain round-headed lights under a pointed segmental arch of two chamfered orders having a double-chamfered label. Higher up, on the south side, is a small rectangular light, above which is a clock face. The bell-chamber is lighted by square-headed windows, each with two plain elliptical-headed lights. All the heads and mullions, except those to the south, are modern. The two western angles of the tower are strengthened by diagonal buttresses of eight stages reaching to the parapet string. The parapet is embattled and has corner pinnacles, all of modern stonework. There are in the tower several carved stones of earlier date, which were discovered at the restoration of the building. One has an animal with a knotted tail, of Scandinavian type, another has a small human figure, almost complete, and another a knot device. There are also some pieces of gravestones with floreated crosses.

All the roofs are modern, that of the chancel being panelled below, while the nave roof is open-timbered. The aisle has a flat lean-to roof.

The font in use is a modern octagonal one of stone on a stem of clustered shafts. The former font is still preserved in the church. The upper half of the stem and the bowl are octagonal and are dated 1686; the lower half of the stem is round with a moulded base which appears to be of 13th-century date.

In the tower is an old chest with three locks, but no ornamental detail.

The only old tomb is a slab in the chancel, on which is the recumbent effigy of a knight in mail with a long surcoat and a cap of mail. The date is c. 1270, and on the shield is a cheveron, over which is a fesse indented.

The church is fitted with a good modern oak screen and quire seats.

In the churchyard is the shaft of a churchyard cross with a stepped base; the shaft is octagonal stopped out to square below.

There are three bells: the first inscribed 'Jesus bee our speed 1656'; the second, 'This bell at Pickall Anno Domini 1781'; the third was recast in 1888 by Warner.

The plate includes a communion cup of 1631, by Sem Casson, with the York marks, another cup by H. R., inscribed 'Datum in usum Ecclesiæ de Pickhill 1683,' a large paten or salver, with London marks of 1717, given by Mrs. Sarah Eaden, 1733, and a modern paten; also two pewter flagons and an almsdish of 18th-century work.

The original registers begin in 1654, but there exists a copy of the older registers from 1567.

Advowson

There was a church at Pickhill before the end of the 12th century, (fn. 118) and in 1307 the advowson was granted by Jollan de Nevill, lord of the manor of Pickhill, to the hospital of St. Leonard, (fn. 119) which still held it at the Dissolution. Before this time a vicarage had been ordained. (fn. 120) In 1546 the rectory and advowson were granted by Henry VIII to Trinity College, Cambridge, (fn. 121) to which they still belong.

At the Dissolution 2 acres in the West Field of Pickhill were 'gyven to the findyng of a lyght.' (fn. 122)

In 1572 Queen Elizabeth granted to Perceval Gunslott and his heirs the free chapel of St. Bartholomew in Sinderby and all gardens, lands, &c., in Pickhill formerly in the tenure of the inhabitants of the vill of Sinderby for the sustenance of one priest in the chapel. (fn. 123)

There was a chapel at Allerthorpe dedicated to St. Botolph in 1507–8, when Robert Lascelles, lord of the manor, granted it an 'old chales.' (fn. 124)

Charities

Church Estate.—This parish has since 1590 been in possession of 22 a. of land in the township of Sinderby now let, with the shooting, at £30 15s. a year; also a house and garden let at £6 a year. There are also two customary payments of 2s. 4d. and 4s. 4d. each. The property is managed by the select vestry of 'Twenty-four' originally constituted in 1754. The rents and profits are applied as required in the repairs of the church. In 1903–4 there was £232 2s. 8d. in the Post Office Savings Bank arising from accumulations to the credit of the trust as well as a balance in hand of £144.

Jane Allinson, by her will proved in 1904, left £100 to be invested and the income applied towards the expenses incurred in the management of the church. This is represented by £102 0s. 9d. local loans 3 per cent. stock with the official trustees.

Poor's Land and other charities for the poor consist of 5 a. 2 r. 11 p. at Leeming in the parish of Burneston let at £11 a year, which is understood to have been purchased with £80 bequeathed about 1694 by John Bickers; also a sum of £160 13s. 4d. consols with the official trustees, arising from the sale of timber, and compensation for an annual charge of £1 6s. formerly paid out of an estate in Ainderby Quernhow; also an annual payment of £3 under the will of Sarah Eaden (1743) out of Lumley Garth applicable in the distribution of bread. The sum of £3 18s. is applied under the head of 'The Sunday dole of bread,' and the balance in coal tickets to about twenty-seven recipients.

Charity of Sarah Eaden for Education.—Sarah Eaden, by her will proved in the P.C.C. 6 June 1743, after reciting that she had built a schoolhouse at Pickhill, bequeathed £10 a year for its endowment. The annuity, however, ceased to be paid after some years. In 1864 the schoolhouse was sold for £100 and the proceeds invested in £110 16s. consols with the official trustees, the dividends of which are applied for educational purposes in the parish.

Township of Ainderby Quernhow.—By will, proved at York in 1865, Thomas Durham left £200 invested in £228 12s. 3d. consols, the dividends of which are applied in accordance with the trusts as to one-half annually in January in money or clothes to the poor residing in the township and the other half for educational purposes.

By an order made under the Board of Education Act, 1899, the stock, which is held by the official trustees, is held by them as to £114 6s. 1d. consols under the title of the Durham Educational Foundation and as to £114 6s. 2d. consols as the eleemosynary branch.

Footnotes

1 Statistics from Bd. of Agric. (1905).
2 Pop. Ret. 1901.
3 Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), ccclxxiii, 10.
4 Dugdale, Mon. Angl. vii, 920.
5 Pat. 3 & 4 Phil. and Mary, pt. vii, m. 8.
6 V.C.H. Yorks. ii, 240.
7 Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), xviii, 41; Kirkby's Inq. (Surt. Soc.), 182.
8 Kirkby's Inq. (Surt. Soc.), 182. At this date Robert de Musters was returned as the mesne lord of Roxby, and his descendants still held rights in the 16th century (Chan. Inq. p.m. [Ser. 2], clxxxix, 62).
9 Gale, Reg. Honor. de Richmond, App. 111; Ralph de Glanvill, who died in 1190 (Dict. Nat. Biog.), was one of the witnesses to the charter.
10 Gale, op. cit. App. 146; Thoroton, Nottinghamshire, iii, 103.
11 Rot. de Oblatis et Fin. (Rec. Com.), 428.
12 Dict. Nat. Biog.
13 Feet of F. Div. Co. 34 Hen. III, no. 42.
14 Exch. Plea R. 78, m. 44; Dugdale, Mon. Angl. v, 311; Excerpta e Rot. Fin. (Rec. Com.), ii, 73. John leased his capital messuage and land here to Richard Gruxy, a citizen of York, in about 1254 for six years (Cal. Pat. 1247–58, p. 486). He made a further lease to Nicholas son of Stephen de Meynell for twenty years (ibid. 578). John is printed in the last entry as his father's name in mistake for Jollan.
15 Dugdale, Mon. Angl. v, 313; Pat. 10 Eliz. pt. ix, m. 25.
16 Kirkby's Inq. (Surt. Soc.), 182. 'Six of these carucates, which included 4½ held by Fountains Abbey under Andrew de Nevill, were allotted to Roxby in this return' De Banco R. Hil. 4 Edw. I, m. 75 d.; East. 17 Edw. I, m. 68 d.; cf. Lincs. N. and Q. ix, 114, 220.
17 Cal. Gen. 496.
18 Cal. Chart. R. 1300–26, p. 106.
19 Ibid.
20 Kirkby's Inq. (Surt. Soc.), 339.
21 Feet of F. Yorks. 5 Edw. III, no. 4; De Banco R. Mich. 2 Edw. III, m. 319 d.
22 De Banco R. Mich. 24 Edw. III, m. 200.
23 Cal. Pat. 1388–92, p. 519; 1422–9, p. 220; Goulding, Blanchminster Charity, 11a, 18a; Wrottesley, op. cit. 364.
24 Wrottesley, loc. cit.
25 De Banco R. 1079, m. 425.
26 Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), xviii, 41.
27 Ibid. xxv, 120. It appears that at some time not ascertained, but probably in the 15th century, a certain Ralph Fitz Ranulf or Fitz Randall, one of the lords of Spennithorne, was acquiring land in Pickhill (Early Chan. Proc. bdle. 11, no. 103). This property was, like Spennithorne (q.v.), ultimately divided into fifths which were described as fifths of the manor (De Banco R. Hil. 17 Hen. VIII, m. 275; Chan. Inq. p.m. [Ser. 2], lv, 89; Feet of F. Div. Co. East. 31 Hen. VIII).
28 De Banco R. 1079, m. 425.
29 Yorks. Fines, Tudors (Yorks. Arch. Soc.), ii, 223.
30 Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), clxxiii, 48.
31 Ibid. clxxxix, 62. This half was said in the inquisition to be held of Henry Lord Scrope.
32 Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), ccclxxiii, 10.
33 Ibid. dxxviii, 80.
34 Feet of F. Yorks. Trin. 1650.
35 Recov. R. Hil. 3 Will. and Mary, rot. 95.
36 See Theakston ; Feet of F. Yorks. Mich. 3 Anne.
37 Ibid. Trin. 13 & 14 Geo. II.
38 Ibid. East. 26 Geo. II.
39 Com. Pleas D. Enr. Hil. 13 Geo. III, m. 74.
40 Quart. Sess. Rec. (N. R. Rec. Soc.), vii, 268–9.
41 Inform. kindly supplied by Sir Reginald H. Graham, bart., D.L., J.P.
42 Recov. R. Trin. 5 Geo. III, rot. 171; Trin. 7 Geo. III, rot. 211.
43 Ibid. Mich. 51 Geo. III, rot. 241; for pedigree see Norton Conyers Manor, Wath parish.
44 Inform. from Sir R. H. Graham, bart.
45 V.C.H. Yorks. ii, 240.
46 Kirkby's Inq. (Surt. Soc.), 183, 339; Rentals and Surv. R. 754.
47 Cal. Pat. 1385–9, p. 121; Dugdale, Mon. Angl. v, 311.
48 Kirkby's Inq. (Surt. Soc.), 183. The abbot and the master of the hospital had been enfeoffed in the reign of Henry III by Thomas Craune (Yorks. Inq. [Yorks. Arch. Soc.], i, 268).
49 Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), v, 253; Dugdale, Mon. Angl. v, 313; L. and P. Hen. VIII, xiv (2), 587.
50 Pat. 25 Eliz. pt. i, m. 23.
51 Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), dclxx, 96; dccviii, 134.
52 Ibid. dclxxiv, 86; dccxxvii, 105.
53 V.C.H. Yorks. ii, 240.
54 Cal. Inq. p.m. Hen. III, 238.
55 See Well.
56 Cal. Inq. p.m. Hen. III, 238.
57 See Sowerby.
58 Kirkby's Inq. (Surt. Soc.), 339.
59 Wrottesley, op. cit. 125.
60 Chan. Inq. p.m. 12 Ric. II, no. 40.
61 Ibid. (Ser. 2), xciii, 83. See Sowerby for pedigree.
62 Foster, Visit. of Yorks. 61.
63 Yorks. Fines, Tudors (Yorks. Arch. Soc.), vii, 142.
64 Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), cccxcvii, 75.
65 See Swainby; Recov. R. Mich. 2 Chas. I, rot. 13; Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), ccccxxvi, 110.
66 V.C.H. Yorks. ii, 217. See Norton Conyers Manor, Wath parish.
67 Lay Subs. R. bdle. 211, no. 74; Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), cclxxxi, 17.
68 Kirkby's Inq. (Surt. Soc.), 100. Among his tenants was probably the family of Rougemond (see Sutton Howgrave. Eshelby, Family of Exelby, 16). Lecia widow of Ralph de Rougemond claimed an estate here, including a capital messuage, 15 oxgangs and a mill, against John de Thornton and another, who conveyed it to John de Harcla in 1322 (Cal. Close, 1327–30, p. 56; Cal. Inq. p.m. Edw. II [2], nos. 378, 683).
69 Kirkby's Inq. (Surt. Soc.), 340.
70 Who has kindly supplied the later information.
71 V.C.H. Yorks. 11, 240.
72 Kirkby's Inq. (Surt. Soc.), 184.
73 See Burneston.
74 Kirkby's Inq. (Surt. Soc.), 184.
75 Drake, Eboracum, 335.
76 Cal. Chart. R. 1257–1300, p. 435.
77 Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), v, 17. In an extent of the honour of Richmond in the time of Henry VII the abbey of Fountains was said to hold 3 carucates in Howe (Rentals and Surv. R. 754).
78 Pat. 3 & 4 Phil. and Mary, pt. vii, m. 8.
79 Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), dccxxvii, 105.
80 V.C.H. Yorks. ii, 240.
81 Kirkby's Inq. (Surt. Soc.), 182; Rentals and Surv. R. 754.
82 Feet of F. Yorks. 15 Hen. III, no. 18; Trin. 53 Hen. III, no. 33; Cal. Chart. R. 1226–57, p. 382.
83 Kirkby's Inq. (Surt. Soc.), 182.
84 See West Tanfield.
85 Kirkby's Inq. (Surt. Soc.), 339.
86 McCall, op. cit. 215.
87 Chan. Inq. p.m. 31 Hen. VI, no. 43.
88 G.E.C. Complete Peerage, vii, 86.
89 Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), xiii, 116.
90 For pedigree see G.E.C. loc. cit.
91 Recov. R. Mich. 42 Eliz. rot. 31.
92 Chan. Inq. p.m. dccxiii, 201.
93 Feet of F. Yorks. Hil. 12 & 13 Chas. II.
94 Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), cclvii, 91. This looks as though part of Sinderby had descended throughout with West Tanfield (q.v.).
95 Feet of F. Div. Co. East. 21 Jas. I.
96 Dugdale, Mon. Angl. v, 288, 311.
97 Ibid. 313; Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), v, 253. In an extent of the honour of Richmond in the time of Henry VII 6 carucates in Sinderby are said to be held of Lord Fitz Hugh by the Abbot of Fountains (Rentals and Surv. R. 754).
98 V.C.H. Yorks. ii, 240.
99 Kirkby's Inq. (Surt. Soc.), 182; Rentals and Surv. R. 754, no. 24.
100 Kirkby's Inq. (Surt. Soc.), 182; Chan. Inq. p.m. 12 Ric. II, no. 40.
101 Rentals and Surv. R. 754, m. 24; G.E.C. Complete Peerage, viii, 111.
102 Chan. Inq. p.m. 12 Ric. II, no. 40; Rentals and Surv. R. 754, m. 24.
103 Yorks. Fines, Tudors (Yorks. Arch. Soc.), i, 38, 45, 68; Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), lv, 89; Feet of F. Div. Co. Mich. 26 Hen. VIII.
104 Yorks. Fines, Tudors (Yorks. Arch. Soc.), i, 69.
105 Foster, op. cit. 61.
106 Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), xciii, 83.
107 Close, 2 Eliz. pt. i, no. 12; Yorks. Fines, Tudors (Yorks. Arch. Soc.), i, 182.
108 Yorks. Fines, Tudors (Yorks. Arch. Soc.), i, 376.
109 Ibid. ii, 169.
110 Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), cccxcvii, no. 75.
111 Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), ccccxxvi, 110.
112 Recov. R. Mich. 2 Chas. I, rot. 13; Hil. 30 & 31 Chas. II, rot. 45; Mich. 4 Jas. II, rot. 2; East. 3 Will. and Mary, rot. 77; Gen. (New Ser.), xxviii, 230–1.
113 Recov. R. Trin. 16 & 17 Geo. II, rot. 161; G.E.C. Complete Peerage, vi, 391 n.
114 G.E.C. loc. cit.
115 Recov. R. Trin. 11 Geo. IV, rot. 177.
116 G.E.C. Complete Peerage, vi, 392.
117 Burke, Peerage.
118 See above.
119 Cal. Pat. 1301–7, p. 506; Add. Chart. 7466.
120 Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), v, 17, 246.
121 Pat. 38 Hen. VIII, pt. vi, m. 19.
122 Yorks. Chant. Surv. (Surt. Soc.), ii, 502.
123 Pat. 14 Eliz. pt. i, m. 13.
124 Test. Ebor. (Surt. Soc.), iv, 271.