Parishes
Uppingham

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Victoria County History

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William Page (editor)

Year published

1935

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95-103

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'Parishes: Uppingham', A History of the County of Rutland: Volume 2 (1935), pp. 95-103. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=66213 Date accessed: 02 August 2014.


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UPPINGHAM

Oppingeham (xii cent.); Uppyngham (xiv, xv cent.).

The parish of Uppingham contains 1,463 acres of land, lying for the most part on a tableland. The greater part of the parish was inclosed under an Act of Parliament of 1770, (fn. 1) but further inclosures were made under an Act of 1799, when Beaumont Chase, formerly extra-parochial, was formed into a parish and part of its land was annexed to Uppingham. (fn. 2) The common, called Uppingham Brand, where horse-races were held till 1783, (fn. 3) was inclosed at the same time. In 1885 a detached portion of Uppingham, called Preston Leys, was joined to Beaumont Chase. The parish is almost entirely pastoral, only a small part being arable land. Formerly there were brickworks to the south-east of the town, and the Uppingham trencher manufacture is said to have been carried on in the town, (fn. 4) but more probably the utensils were made in the neighbouring woodlands and sold in Uppingham market.

The High Street of Uppingham, which is the main street, runs east and west from the north side of the Market Place, which is in the centre of the town. Roughly parallel to the High Street are North Street and South Street. On the south side of the Market Place is the church, on the north side the 'Falcon,' once an inn, now rebuilt as an hotel. In early times there was a town hall in the Market Place, which in 1587 was 'in very greate Ruyn and decaie.' (fn. 5)

Uppingham School buildings occupy the greater part of the south-west portion of the town. The modern school buildings were designed by G. E. Street, R.A., Sir Thomas Jackson, and Messrs. Newton. The chapel is in the Geometrical Decorated Style; adjoining it to the west is the schoolroom, both built in the time of Edward Thring. This schoolroom is now used as a museum. To the east of the chapel is the old school-house, of which the south portion is now the school library. The northwest bay, which was built about 1590, formed part of the Hospital of Christ in Uppingham. North of the old school-house is the memorial hall built in memory of those who died in the Great War; adjoining the hall to the west is a block of new classrooms. These buildings together form an irregular quadrangle with a grass plot in the centre. On the west side of the museum the school-house, built some forty years ago, with another block of classrooms forms a second and smaller quadrangle. The school gymnasium is on the north side of the road to Stockerston: beyond it are the school bath and the sanatorium. The school numbers a little short of 500 boys, and there are thirteen school boarding houses.

Of the old schoolroom, which stands to the southeast of the church, something has already been said, (fn. 6) and its general resemblance to that at Oakham pointed out. The two buildings, however, are not identical in character, the doorway at Uppingham being still at the west end with a large fanlight window over it, and above the window, in bold lettering, inscriptions in Hebrew, Greek and Latin, the Latin being memento creatoris tvi in diebvs ivventvtis tvæ. Other inscriptions, on the tablet over the doorway and on a panel above the eaves on the south side of the building, are now illegible or removed. There are additions on the north side, but the south elevation remains unaltered, with four square-headed transomed windows, and there is a bell-cote over the west gable. The stone (fn. 7) inscribed 'ao 1584' is in the east gable. The building is now used as a studio.

The Hall, now leased to Uppingham School and used as a school boarding house, is situated near the east end of the town and stands well back from the south side of the High Street. It is a large two-story stone building erected early in the 17th century, with projecting gabled end wings facing north, on one of which is the date 1612. The house, however, was extensively remodelled in the 18th century, the long unbroken south front being entirely of that period, as well as most of the windows elsewhere. On the north side an addition was made between the wings and a porch built, but the east end of the house is little altered and retains several mullioned windows and a tall stone dormer. Several of the rooms have good 17th and 18th century panelling.

The so-called 'Tudor House,' on the north side of the western portion of the High Street, is a building of wrought ironstone, perhaps dating from the end of the 16th or early years of the 17th century, consisting of two principal stories and attics, with stoneslated roof. It has a four-centred moulded doorway, mullioned windows of three lights, and three gabled stone dormer windows, but has been much restored and modernised. Near to it and approximately of the same age, but standing well back from the street, is the Manor House, a long, low two-story building of ironstone rubble, with wind-break chimneys, stone-slated roof and porch with four-centred doorway; the windows are all modern and of wood. At the end of the garden, fronting North Street, is a large 17thcentury barn of wrought stone, now used as a garage. On another house, behind the south side of High Street, is a panel inscribed 'w.w.1729.'

A few other old stone houses remain in the town, but none with any outstanding architectural features. On the north side of the High Street are several undated 17th-century buildings, one a two-story house with mullioned bay windows and a good round-headed moulded doorway under a square label opening to a side passage. A two-story gabled house with mullioned windows at the east end of the south side of the same street is dated 1616, and on the same side is a well-designed house, now converted into a shop, with a rain-water head dated 1734.

The cattle market was held on Beast Hill, on the east side of the churchyard. Opposite Beast Hill is Hog Hill, where the pig market was held. The beasts were driven to their market by Horn Lane, now known as Queen Street or Station Road. The last house on the east at the south end of Horn Lane, rebuilt in 1895, is called 'Cromwell House'; in the house which formerly stood on the site tradition has it that Cromwell lay for a night. On the other side of Horn Lane is Thimble Row, and a yard near by was once known as Bodkin Square. (fn. 8)

The old town Pound, or Pinfold, still exists between the churchyard and Beast Hill, inclosed by walls of local building stone. Twenty years ago one or two old inhabitants could remember the stocks near the Pinfold. (fn. 9)

There is a station to the south-east of the town which is the terminus of a branch line from Seaton Junction on the London Midland and Scottish and the London North Eastern Joint Railway, opened in 1894. The Manton and Uppingham station on the London Midland and Scottish Railway is 3 miles from Uppingham. Castle Hill, on the borders of Beaumont Chase parish, is an artificial mount, with remains of fortifications, commanding the surrounding neighbourhood. (fn. 10) There is a tumulus 1½ miles to the northwest of Uppingham, (fn. 11) and various coins of the RomanoBritish period have been dug up in the parish. (fn. 12)

Manors

The manor of UPPINGHAM is not mentioned in Domesday Book (1086), but it may be identified with one of the 7 berewicks dependent at that date on the manor of Ridlington, which was in the king's hands. (fn. 13) Subsequently the manors of Preston and Uppingham were held by the same tenants, (fn. 14) and Uppingham was presumably granted at the same time as Preston by William the Conqueror to Henry de Newburgh, (fn. 15) Earl of Warwick. The two manors were held as 1½ knight's fees of the Honour of Warwick until 1367, when they reverted to the overlord, Thomas Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, (fn. 16) whose successors held them in demesne.


Montfort. Bendy of ten pieces or and azure.

Montfort. Bendy of ten pieces or and azure.


Beauchamp. Gules a fesse between six crosslets or.

Beauchamp. Gules a fesse between six crosslets or.

Henry de Newburgh, Earl of Warwick, is said to have enfeoffed the Montforts of some of his Rutland manors at an early date. Hugh, son of Hugh de Montfort the companion of the Conqueror, had two sons, Robert and Hugh, who both died without issue, and a daughter, Alice or Emma, who married Gilbert de Gant. Hugh, a younger son of Gilbert and Alice, took his mother's name of Montfort and apparently inherited her lands in Rutland. He fell into disgrace by joining Amaury de Montfort in his rising against Henry I in Normandy in 1124, (fn. 17) but in 1130 his son Robert de Montfort redeemed his father's lands in Preston in Rutland, (fn. 18) which probably then included Uppingham. Robert died about 1165, and in 1166 his brother and successor Thurstan owed the Crown 50 marks under Rutland, probably for relief, by the pledge of Geoffrey de Newburgh, possibly a relative of his overlord, which debt was pardoned in 1169. (fn. 19) Thurstan seems to have held Uppingham and Ridlington in 1167, (fn. 20) and was apparently dead before 1177, when Robert his son was holding Uppingham. (fn. 21) Robert was succeeded by his brother Henry (fn. 22) before 1190. Henry's son Thurstan (living in 1208 (fn. 23) ) was father of Peter de Montfort, a minor in 1216 and in the custody of William de Cantilupe. (fn. 24) He was of age in 1228, and was then and in 1251 engaged in litigation as to his lands in Uppingham and elsewhere. (fn. 25) In 1255 inquiry was ordered to be made whether Thurstan de Montfort,great-grandfather of Peter, was seised of certain woods—namely, the park of Ridlington and woodland in Uppingham under Beaumont. (fn. 26) Peter was eventually granted £55 a year in lieu of the woods of which his ancestors had been dis seised. (fn. 27) He took an active part in the Barons' wars and was killed at the battle of Evesham in 1265 (fn. 28) and his lands were forfeited. His son Peter de Montfort was, however, pardoned, and in 1286 he granted Uppingham to his son and heir John on his marriage with Alice, daughter of William de la Planche. (fn. 29) Peter died in 1287, and his son John was summoned to parliament as a baron in 1295 and died in 1296. (fn. 30) John, second Baron Montfort, was implicated in the murder of Piers Gaveston in 1312, but was pardoned in 1313. (fn. 31) He was killed at the battle of Stryvelin in 1314, and was succeeded by his brother Peter. This Peter was a priest, but on succeeding to the barony he repudiated his orders and married. His son Guy de Montfort married Margaret Beauchamp, the daughter of his overlord, the Earl of Warwick. In 1349, with the consent of Peter de Montfort, who became the tenant for life, the reversion of the manor of Uppingham was settled on Guy and Margaret and the heirs of their bodies, with remainder to Thomas, Earl of Warwick. Peter lived till 1367, but Guy predeceased him, leaving no children to succeed, and the manor passed to the Earl, who held it in demesne. (fn. 32) His successor, another Thomas de Beauchamp, forfeited his lands in 1397, and Richard II granted Uppingham to Thomas, the Earl Marshal and Earl of Nottingham. (fn. 33) Beauchamp was restored on the accession of Henry IV and died seised of Uppingham in 1401. (fn. 34) The manor followed the vicissitudes of the Earldom of Warwick, until it was finally surrendered in 1488 by Anne, Countess of Warwick, to Henry VII. (fn. 35) It remained in the Crown, (fn. 36) although at times let on lease, (fn. 37) until 1550, when Edward VI granted it to Princess Elizabeth. (fn. 38) In 1588 she granted it to Richard Branthwaite and Roger Bromley to hold as a twentieth part of a knight's fee of the manor of East Greenwich, and in the same year these grantees obtained licence to alienate it to William Cecil, Lord Burghley. (fn. 39) It passed in 1598 to his eldest son Thomas, Earl of Exeter, (fn. 40) and in 1622 to William, the second Earl. (fn. 41) The latter gave it to his daughter Anne on her marriage to Henry, Earl of Stamford. (fn. 42) They sold it, probably in 1658, to Edward Fawkener, (fn. 43) who had inherited the manor of Scarlies in Uppingham (q.v.) a few years previously. He appears to have vested his property in feoffees and died in 1691, (fn. 44) leaving a wife Dorcas. (fn. 45) He was succeeded by his son, Edward Fawkener (fn. 46) of the Middle Temple, barrister, who lived in London and was buried at St. Dunstan's-inthe-West, Fleet Street, on 4 Dec. 1694. His wife Susanna and his only son Henry, born in 1689, survived him. Probate of his will was granted to his widow. (fn. 47) In 1695 she held a court of his manor, but from 1696 to 1708 her son Henry Fawkener appears as lord of the manor. (fn. 48) He apparently died unmarried, or at any rate without children, for he was succeeded by his father's four sisters—Mary, wife of William Standish, Rector of Uppingham; Sarah Merriman, widow; Dorcas, wife of William Fancourt; and Susanna Wych, widow. (fn. 49) They or their heirs held the manor jointly until 1722, when John Merriman, the son of the eldest sister Sarah, and James Humberston, probably a feoffee or mortgagee, held a court, (fn. 50) as in the same year Merriman's name appears alone. John Merriman died in 1727. (fn. 51) From 1729 to 1737 Thomas Ridlington held the manor, again probably as feoffee. (fn. 52) In 1747 a court was held by Thomas Bradgate, (fn. 53) son of William Bradgate and Dorcas his wife, which Dorcas was heir of John Merriman. (fn. 54) Thomas Bradgate sold the manor in 1747 to the Earl of Gainsborough, (fn. 55) and the trustees of the present Earl are the present owners.

Courts with view of frankpledge were held by succeeding lords of the manor during the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries. (fn. 56)

The manor of SCARLIES, SKARLEYS or CHESILDENE in Uppingham was held of the manor of Preston by fealty, suit of court and a yearly rent of 3s. 4d. (fn. 57) This so-called manor probably took its name from the family of Scarle, and was acquired by the family of Chesilden of Alexton (co. Leic.) by the marriage of John Chesilden with Elizabeth, daughter and co-heir of — Scarle, about the middle of the 15th century. John, great-grandson of this John, left a son and heir, Edward Chesilden, who married Bridget, daughter and heir of William Montgomery and Elizabeth (Aynesworth). (fn. 58) The manor was settled in 1515 on Edward and Bridget with remainders to Eusebius, William and Elizabeth, brothers and sister of Edward. (fn. 59) In 1540 Edward granted the manor to his son George, who was seised of it at the time of his father's death in 1549. (fn. 60) Kenelm (d. 1596), son of George, left a son Edward (d. 1642), who married Bridget, daughter of Anthony Fawkener (Falkoner, ffawkener) of Uppingham. (fn. 61) The manor was sold in 1623 by Edward Chesilden and Bridget to Bridget's kinsman Everard Fawkener, (fn. 62) who was son of Kenelm Fawkener of Stoke Dry by his second wife, and halfbrother of Bridget's father. (fn. 63) Everard served as sheriff of Rutland in 1628. (fn. 64) In 1650 he settled the manor on himself for life, with reversion to his great-nephew, Edward Fawkener. (fn. 65) Everard died in 1653. (fn. 66) His successor had obtained the chief manor of Uppingham (q.v.) before 1658, and from that time Scarlies Manor followed the descent of Uppingham. (fn. 67) It is mentioned in a fine relating to the manors in 1817, (fn. 68) but seems in practice to have disappeared as a separate estate before 1770, since it is not mentioned among the Uppingham manors at the time of the inclosure of the common fields. (fn. 69)

The RECTORY MANOR appears early in the 14th century, when the rector held manorial rights including view of frankpledge over his tenants. (fn. 70) The earliest record of the manor is the Roll of the Court held at Uppingham on 6 May 1574. At that time John Barton of Stockerston (co. Leics.) was 'farmer.' (fn. 71) In 1634 the property of his manor consisted of the parsonage house, 67½ acres of land in the fields and precincts of Uppingham, some twenty houses and cottages, a wind-mill, a horse-mill, a close of 1 acre at Wing, (fn. 72) and some land called Wilkershaw near Beaumont Chase. (fn. 73) Wilkershaw is, no doubt, identical with Walgareshagh, which in 1282 was held by Sir Peter de Montfort, who was then lord of the manor of Preston cum Uppingham. (fn. 74) The rector was presented in 1628 for dealing wrongly with the lands of the manor. (fn. 75) The manor is mentioned at the time of the inclosure of the common fields of Uppingham in 1770, (fn. 76) and it still belongs to the rector for the time being.

Before 1200 William de Clopton granted a virgate of land to the Brothers of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem, (fn. 77) and in 1510 the Preceptor of Dingley held a view of frankpledge for the tenants in Uppingham. (fn. 78) William also granted in frankalmoign to the abbey of Pipewell the land which Henry de Montfort, lord of Uppingham (q.v.), gave him. (fn. 79) Thurstan de Montfort, son of Henry, also gave to the abbey 6 virgates in Uppingham and Ridlington, which grant was confirmed by Peter de Montfort in 1225. (fn. 80) At the time of its dissolution no lands in Uppingham appear amongst the abbey's possessions. (fn. 81)

The Bishop of Lincoln was the overlord of land in Uppingham in 1255. (fn. 82)

A windmill in Uppingham is mentioned in 1212, when it was held by the abbey of Pipewell. (fn. 83) In 1517 John Symes left his mill at Uppingham to his three sons, on the condition that none of them became priests. (fn. 84) A mill in a ruinous condition was attached to the manor of Uppingham in 1526. (fn. 85) In 1610 a windmill in Scarlies Manor (q.v.) is mentioned, and was left by Everard Fawkener by will, dated 1650, to his great-nephew Edward. (fn. 86) In 1654 Lyon Fawkener bequeathed a malt-mill, which he had bought from his uncle, to his grandson Lyon. It was apparently one of the mills leased for 99 years by the Earl and Countess of Stamford to Everard, Lyon and Anthony Fawkener in 1634. (fn. 87)

In 1281 Edward I granted a weekly MARKET on Wednesday to Peter de Montfort, (fn. 88) the lord of Uppingham Manor (q.v.). It was held by his successors, and with the manor came into the hands of Edward IV, who in 1478 granted an annuity of 6 marks to John Walle, the toll-keeper, to be paid out of the profits of the market. (fn. 89) The market followed the history of the manor, (fn. 90) but the tolls were regularly let on lease from 1527. (fn. 91) Elizabeth granted a lease for 21 years to Anthony Digby in 1588, (fn. 92) and in 1633 the Earl and Countess of Stamford granted a lease for 99 years to Everard and Lyon Fawkener and Anthony the son of Lyon. (fn. 93) Everard died in 1653, (fn. 94) and Lyon, in his will dated 1654, left the profits of the fair of Uppingham to his grandson Lyon. (fn. 95) This suggests that a new lease had been obtained from the Earl of Stamford. The market is still held on Wednesdays.

A FAIR for 3 days at the feast of St. Margaret the Virgin was granted to Peter de Montfort at the same time as the market, (fn. 96) and followed the same descent. In 1531 Henry VIII granted to Richard Chesilden and other inhabitants of Uppingham, two fairs yearly for two days at the feast of the Translation of St. Thomas the Martyr and at the feast of St. Matthew. (fn. 97) In 1792 and 1888 fairs were held on 7 March and 7 July. (fn. 98) At the present time cattle fairs are held on the second Wednesday in March and July. In 1495–6 the standard of weights for the county of Rutland was appointed by Statute to be kept at Uppingham. (fn. 99)

Church

The church of ST. PETER AND ST. PAUL stands on the south side of the market place, and consists of chancel 27 ft. 6 in. by 18 ft. 6 in., with north chapel and south organ-chamber and vestry, clearstoried nave of four bays 54 ft. 4 in. by 21 ft., north aisle 20 ft. wide, south aisle 12 ft. wide, north and south porches, and west tower 11 ft. square, all these measurements being internal. The tower is surmounted by a spire. The chapel and organ-chamber cover the chancel its full length, and are under separate gabled roofs; the vestry forms an outer aisle to the organ-chamber. The width across nave and aisles is 57 ft.

The building is faced throughout with dressed local ironstone in wide courses, and internally, save in the chancel, the walls are plastered. All the roofs are modern, and except that of the south aisle, which is leaded, are covered with blue slates. There are plain parapets to the chancel and aisles, but the nave is battlemented. The wider north aisle is under a separate gabled roof.

Except where modern, the building is of 14thcentury date, but during an extensive restoration and enlargement in 1860–1 four sculptured fragments of the 12th century were found, two of which are now built into the wall on either side of the north doorway, and two in the north chapel. (fn. 100) A coped coffin lid of the 13th century, with floriated cross, was also found. (fn. 101)

Before the reconstruction of 1861 the building consisted of chancel 37 ft. by 16 ft., nave of three bays about 41 ft. by 21 ft., with north and south aisles extending eastward and covering the chancel about half its length, and west tower and spire; there were also 'miserable porches' north and south. The aisles and the west bay of the nave were filled with galleries (fn. 102) which laterally projected in front of the arcades, and the ceiling of the nave was below the apex of the chancel arch. The chancel and other parts of the church were in a dilapidated state. There was a rood-loft doorway on the north side of the chancel arch. (fn. 103)

The restoration and enlargement (fn. 104) comprised the demolition of the chancel and the rebuilding of the east end of the church on its present plan, the extension of the nave a bay eastward, the widening of the north aisle 8 ft., the erection of new porches, and the new roofing of the church throughout. In extending the nave the old chancel arch was rebuilt about 15 ft. further east, and the eastern responds of the arcades were also reused. The north wall of the north aisle was rebuilt 'stone for stone,' and the east windows of both aisles were reused in the new east end.

The chancel has a modern east window of five lights, and is open to the chapel and organ-chamber by arcades of two trefoiled arches on marble shafts and responds with carved stone capitals. The arches are filled with traceried oak screens. The reredos is of marble and Caen stone. The walls of the chancel are lined with rubbed Clipsham stone. The old arch to the nave is of two chamfered orders dying into the wall. The east window of the chapel (fn. 105) is a re-used 15th-century window of three cinquefoiled lights, and that of the organ-chamber a pointed 14th-century window of three lights with curvilinear tracery. (fn. 106)

The arches of the 14th-century nave arcades are of two chamfered orders without hood-moulds, on piers composed of four engaged columns with moulded capitals and bases and responds of similar character. The easternmost pier and arch on each side are modern. The capitals of the piers differ in detail, and those on the north side have octagonal abaci; all the bases are much restored. (fn. 107) The arches at the east end of the aisles are modern. Both aisles have scroll strings at sill level, and on the north aisle the hollow moulding below the parapet is enriched with ball-flower and large tooth ornament. The ball-flower enrichment also occurs in the hood-mould of the north doorway, which is the old one re-used, and of the square-headed windows (fn. 108) of the north wall. The pointed west window of the north aisle is of early 14th-century date, of three sharply pointed lights, the middle one trefoiled, and hood-mould with head-stops.

The south aisle has three square-headed windows east of the porch, the westernmost of three and the others of four lights, but the middle one only is original; the four-centred west window is modern. The 14th-century south doorway is of a single chamfered order with moulded imposts and hood with notch-stops. The modern south porch is of open timber on a stone base, and is covered with stone slates.

The piscina of the south aisle altar remains in the south wall, now at some distance from the east end; it has a plain chamfered recess and fluted bowl. Another piscina, with trefoiled head and octofoil bowl, probably that of the old south chapel, is now inserted in the modern wall at the east end of the aisle on the north side, south of the chancel arch. At the east end of the north aisle, in the modern wall forming the extension of the nave arcade and north of the chancel arch, is a small pointed recess with a fragment of scroll moulding as sill, which probably was part of the piscina of the north aisle altar.


Plan of Uppingham Church

The clearstory has four square-headed windows of three trefoiled lights on each side, much restored on the north (fn. 109) and wholly new on the south side.

The late 14th-century tower is of three stages, with boldly moulded plinth and pairs of buttresses at the angles to about half the height of the top stage, the middle part of which is slightly recessed and the angles carried up as clasping buttresses. There is a vice in the south-west angle. The much restored (fn. 110) west doorway has a continuous moulding enriched with four-leaved flowers and hood-mould with headstops, above which the upper member of the plinth is carried as a square frame, with plain spandrels. Over the doorway is a window of two trefoiled lights, the mullion and tracery of which are new. The pointed bell-chamber windows are of two cinquefoiled lights, with transom and quatrefoil in the head, and the tower terminates in a battlemented parapet with gargoyles at the angles. The spire has plain angles and three tiers of gabled lights on the cardinal faces. The tower opens into the nave by a pointed arch of four (fn. 111) continuous chamfered orders, without hoodmould.

The font now in use is of serpentine marble and dates from 1861. The bowl of the old font, (fn. 112) described by Sir Stephen Glynne in 1829 as 'a large plain octagon,' is under the tower; it has a moulded lower edge, and may be older than the 14th-century rebuilding.

The Jacobean oak pulpit has been somewhat spoilt by alteration, and now stands on a circular serpentine marble base. In plan it forms six sides of an octagon, the other two being open, and has two tiers of round arched panels.

There are some remains of coloured decoration on the two middle arches of the south arcade.

The only monument earlier than the 18th century is that of Everard Fawkener (d. 1653), which is now in the vestry. (fn. 113) There is an oak War Memorial tablet (1914–19) at the west end of the nave, and in 1925 a brass tablet in memory of Jeremy Taylor, rector 1637–42, was placed under the chancel arch 'near the pulpit from which he preached.'

There is a ring of eight bells, the third, sixth, seventh and tenor by Pack and Chapman of London, 1772; the treble and second by the same founders, 1773; the fourth by Robert Taylor of St. Neots, 1804; and the fifth a recasting in 1895 by Taylor and Co. of Loughborough. (fn. 114) The clock dates from 1898.

The plate consists of a paten (fn. 115) of 1627–8; two (fn. 116) patens of 1632–3, inscribed 'Deo et Sacris Ecclesiae Parochialis de Uppingham'; and two cups, a paten, and a flagon of 1870–1, all inscribed 'Church of SS. Peter and Paul, Uppingham.' There is also a brass almsdish given in 1859. (fn. 117)

The registers before 1812 are as follows: (i) baptisms 1571–1654, marriages 1571–1656, burials 1572– 1654; (ii) baptisms 1653–80, marriages and burials 1653–83; (iii) burials 1678–1729; (iv) burials 1729–44; (v) baptisms 1684–1748, marriages 1684–1746 (and a few burials); (vi) baptisms 1748–61, marriages 1748– 1754; (vii) baptisms and burials 1762–77; (viii) marriages 1754–1812; (ix) baptisms and burials 1778– 1812. There are churchwardens' accounts from 1634 onwards. (fn. 118)

On the south side the churchyard falls rapidly to the road in a series of stepped terraces, (fn. 119) but on the north the floor of the nave is approximately level with the Market Place, on to which the porch opens.

There is a War Memorial cross facing the road in the south-west corner of the churchyard; a head stone near the south doorway commemorates John Beaver (d. 1682), 'that honest man who stood up for the Common of Uppingham.'

Advowson

The church of Uppingham may probably be identified with one of the three churches attached to the manor of Ridlington with its berewicks in 1086. (fn. 120) With the manor of Uppingham (q.v.) it had presumably been granted by Edward the Confessor to Queen Edith, and passed on her death in 1075 into the hands of William the Conqueror. (fn. 121) He or his son William Rufus granted it to the abbey of Westminster in part satisfaction of the reversionary grant of Queen Edith's possessions made by the Confessor to the abbey. (fn. 122) In the early 12th century, however, the advowson was claimed by Simon de Den, though there is no indication of the grounds of his claim, and in 1210 he recognised the right of the abbey to the advowson on condition that he and his heirs should be commemorated at Westminster for ever. (fn. 123) The advowson was held by Westminster Abbey till its dissolution. (fn. 124) In 1541 Henry VIII granted it to the newly established bishopric of Westminster, (fn. 125) but the see was abolished under Edward VI, who granted the advowson of Uppingham to Nicholas Ridley, Bishop of London. (fn. 126) His successors held it until 1852, when it was transferred, on the next voidance of the see of London, to the Bishop of Peterborough, (fn. 127) who is the present patron.

A pension of 40s. a year was paid by the rector of Uppingham to the abbey of Westminster in the 13th century. (fn. 128) In the 16th century it was assigned to the chamberlain of the abbey. (fn. 129) After the Dissolution Henry VIII granted the pension, in 1542, to the Dean and Chapter of Westminster. (fn. 130)

The chapel of the Holy Trinity in Uppingham church is mentioned in 1516. (fn. 131) In 1650 the chapel on the south side of the church appears to have belonged to the lords of Scarlies Manor (q.v.). (fn. 132) Lands in Uppingham and elsewhere of the annual value of 4s. 4d. were returned at the dissolution of the chantries for the upkeep of lamps and lights, and other lands of the yearly value of 3s. 4d. had been given to provide drinks on Rogation Monday. (fn. 133) In 1629 three of the parishioners were presented for meeting in private houses, holding conventicles of prayers and expounding the Scriptures, (fn. 134) and in 1672 a licence was granted for John Richardson to hold Presbyterian services in his house at Uppingham. (fn. 135)

The parish seems to have been in a bad condition in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. The rectors were strongly puritanical and are said to have preached false doctrines; one of them was absent for two years. The church was in a bad state, many of the windows were boarded up or 'daubed' with mortar and stone, and the paving and roof were out of repair. (fn. 136) In 1632 work upon the restoration was commenced. This work, which took six years to complete, cost no less than six hundred pounds, the money being provided by levies made upon the customary tenants of the Rectory manor. (fn. 137) During the whole of this time Anthony Fawkener, joiner, was churchwarden. He does not appear to have belonged to the Fawkeners of Uppingham, but probably was distantly related to them. This heavy tax was strongly resented by the customary tenants, some of whom, it would appear, refused to pay their assessments. In 1638 Everard and Lyon Fawkener of Uppingham on behalf of themselves and others by petition complained to the Archbishop of Canterbury against the 'insupportable taxes and charges imposed and occasioned' by Anthony Fawkener, but with what success is not known. (fn. 138)

Among the rectors of Uppingham mention may be made of Hervey de Borham, c. 1269, Dean of St. Paul's, London, and a justice of the Court of King's Bench; Edmund Bonner, 1528–41, elected Bishop of London in 1539; (fn. 139) Edmund Martin, D.D., 1631–37, President of Queens' College, Cambridge, royalist and theological writer; Jeremy Taylor, 1637–8 to 1642; John Jones, 1743–1752, editor of Horace; (fn. 140) and Dr. Reginald P. Lightfoot, 1890–1906.

The Congregational chapel was founded in 1770. The present plain red-brick building in Adderley Street has an inscription in front: EBENEZER, HÆC DOMUS AD CULTUM DEI EDIFICATA AN. DOM. 1814 OBSECRO JEHOVA PROSPERA NUNC. The Bethesda chapel is dated 1845, and the Wesleyan chapel 1819, date of original building, and 1872, date of rebuilding.

Charities

Endimion Canning, by his will in 1681, gave 1s. per week to buy bread to be distributed in church every Sunday among such poor as frequented divine service.

Mary Standish gave £50 in 1721 to buy land, the yearly rent to be laid out in bread and given away every Sunday in the church to six poor widows.

Henry Cossington, rector of Dean, about 1665 gave £20 to the poor.

These benefactions are stated in an inscription on a tablet in the parish church to have been laid out in the purchase of an estate at Ayston (Ashton) containing about 10 acres. The charities are now known as the Poor's Land and the endowment consists of a house and land at Ashton. The property is let to Mr. John Cooke of Stamford at an annual rent of £16, which is distributed in bread by trustees appointed by the Parish Council.

Pakeman's Charity, otherwise known as Horninghold Poor's Lands.—From a tablet in the church it appears that Richard Pakeman by will in 1701 gave £100 to buy lands and directed that 20s., part of the rents, should be paid yearly to the poor of Thorpe Satchville and the remainder to the poor of Uppingham on St. Thomas's Day. The endowment consists of land containing 14 acres 1 rood 23 poles, let to Mr. A. Wild at an annual rent of £18 2s. 6d. After payment of the sum of 20s. to the churchwardens of Thorpe Satchville the balance is distributed by the churchwardens of Uppingham among about 90 people.

William Allebon, as appears from the above tablet, in 1720 gave by his will 20s. per annum to the poor on St. Thomas's Day, and charged a copyhold estate in Uppingham with the payment. The charge issues out of the White Swan Hotel, and is distributed in bread by the trustees appointed by the Parish Council.

Ralph Hotchkin, by his will proved at Canterbury 6 May 1818, gave £100 consolidated 3 per cent. annuities, the income to be applied to poor people of Uppingham, preference being given to widows and poor persons with large families. The endowment now consists of £100 2½ per cent. Consols, producing in dividends £2 10s. per annum. The income is distributed in bread by trustees appointed by the Parish Council and the churchwardens.

The Langley Charity was founded by a declaration of trust dated 25 Nov. 1863, whereby it was directed that the income should be distributed among 10 of the most deserving poor inhabitants of Uppingham. The original endowment consisted of £400 East India 5 per cent. Stock, now represented by £400 India 3½ per cent. Stock, producing in dividends £14 per annum. The income is distributed in bread by the rector, churchwardens, and trustees appointed by the Parish Council.

Parish Lands and Stock Charity.—The origin of this charity is not known, but it has existed from time immemorial. It is regulated by a scheme of the Charity Commissioners dated 13 October 1905, which appoints the churchwardens trustees. The endowment consists of a sum of £455 8s. 6d. 2½ per cent. Consols, producing in dividends £11 7s. 8d. per annum. The income is applied in order of priority towards maintenance and repair of the fabric of the church, maintenance of services and of furniture of the church, and maintenance of churchyards attached thereto.

Church Lands.—The origin of this charity is not known, but from time immemorial the income has been applied to church purposes. The endowment now consists of a piece of land containing 15 acres and 30 poles, let to the rector at an annual rent of £16 17s., and the following sums of stock: £230 4s. 2½ per cent. Consols, £500 0s. 1d. 3½ per cent. Conversion Stock, £406 Bengal Nagpur Railway 4 per cent. Debenture Stock, and £2,191 0s. 4d. 5 per cent. War Stock. These stocks produce in dividends £149 0s. 10d. per annum. The income is placed by the churchwardens to the church alms account, and is applied towards the maintenance of the parish church.

Julia Pretty, by her will proved in the P.C.C. on 11 March 1930, bequeathed to the rector and churchwardens the sum of £500 to be invested upon trust to apply the annual income for the general purposes of the parish church. The endowment of the charity now consists of a sum of £637 6s. 6d. 3½ per cent. Conversion Stock, producing in dividends £22 6s. per annum.

Congregational Chapel and Trust Property is comprised in an indenture dated 21 June 1819, and a deed of enfranchisement 20 June 1918. The endowment consists of the chapel, minister's house, vestry and schoolroom, and a sum of £683 8s. 8d. 5 per cent. War Stock, producing in dividends £34 3s. 6d. per annum.

Elizabeth Palmer's Charity, founded by will dated 3 December 1744, is for the benefit of the minister of the chapel. The endowment consists of a sum of £398 13s. 5d. 5 per cent. War Stock, producing in dividends £19 18s. 8d. per annum.

Thomas Lewin's Charity, founded by will dated 30 April 1777, is for the poor of the congregation of the chapel. The endowment consists of a sum of £26 6s. 4d. 5 per cent. War Stock, producing in dividends £1 6s. 4d. per annum.

These three charities are regulated by a scheme of the Charity Commissioners dated 12 September 1919, which appoints the Leicestershire and Rutland Con gregational Union (Incorporated) as trustees, who pay the income to the treasurer of the church.

The charity consisting of the trust property in connection with the Bethesda Chapel is comprised in the will of John Wade proved on 26 May 1854, and is held subject to trusts to pay £1 per annum to the British and Foreign Bible Society, £1 per annum to the London Missionary Society, and the balance, after deducting for repairs of the chapel and minister's house, is applied for the benefit of the minister of the chapel. The endowment consists of land and hereditaments let at an annual rent of £21 16s. 3d., and a sum of £256 10s. 2½ per cent. Consols, producing in dividends £6 8s. per annum. The total income is applied in accordance with existing trusts by a body of trustees appointed by an order of the Charity Commissioners dated 12 January 1926. The several sums of stock are held by the Official Trustees.

Footnotes

1 Priv. Act of Parl. 10 Geo. III, cap. 24.
2 Ibid. 39 Geo. III, cap. 89.
3 Ibid.; Will. White, Gazetteer of Leics. and Rutl. 1846.
4 V.C.H. Rutl. i, 233.
5 Exch. Dep. by Comm. 27 & 28 Eliz. Mich. no. 19.
6 The history of the school is given in V.C.H. Rutland i, 261–9, 281–97.
7 V.C.H. op. cit. 281.
8 Ibid.
9 Alice M. Bell in Rutl. Mag. v, 47, published in 1912.
10 Ibid. 49.
11 V.C.H. op. cit. 112.
12 Ibid. 119.
13 Ibid. 93.
14 V.C.H. Rutl. i, 140.
15 Cal. Inq. Misc. i, no. 856; Cal. Inq. v, no. 615; Feet of F. Div. Cos. Mich. 6 Edw. IV, no. 41. After the manors were surrendered to Henry VII in 1488, they seem to have been treated as one manor, generally called Preston-cum-Uppingham (Min. Accts. (Gen. Ser.), ptf. 14, no. 14).
16 Rot. Hund. (Rec. Com.), ii, 49; Dugdale, Warwickshire, ii, 798.
17 Rot. Hund. loc. cit.; Pipe R. Soc. xxvi, 106; Bk. of Fees, i, 506; Cal. Inq. iii, no. 364; v, no. 615; Feud. Aids, vi, 386; Feet of F. Div. Cos. East. 23 Edw. III, no. 435; G.E.C. Complete Peerage, v, 349; viii, 57.
18 The above account of the Montforts is taken from Dugdale, Baronage, i, 407.
19 Pipe R. 1130 (Rec. Com.), p. 134.
20 Pipe R. Soc. ix, 65; xi, 124; xiii, 67.
21 Ibid. xi, 124, 125.
22 Ibid. xxvi, 104; xxvii, 81; xxviii, 113.
23 Dugdale, loc. cit.
24 Curia Reg. R. v, 305.
25 Close R. 18 John, m. 6.
26 Cal. Close R. 1227–31, p. 109; 1247–51, p. 526; 1253–5, p. 307; Cal. Pat. R. 1247–58, p. 242.
27 Ibid. p. 401.
28 Close R. 52 Hen. III, m. 8.
29 Cal. Inq. Misc. i, no. 856.
30 Feet of F. Div. Cos. Hil. 14 Edw. I, no. 163.
31 G.E.C. Complete Peerage, v. 349; Cal. Inq. iii, no. 364.
32 Cal. Pat. R. 1313–17, p. 23.
33 G.E.C. loc. cit.; Chan. Misc. bdle. 2, file 39, m. 11; Feet of F. Div. Cos. case 287, file 43; case 288, file 46.
34 Cal. Close R. 1396–99, p. 123; Cal. Pat. R. 1396–99, p. 220.
35 Close R. 1 Hen. IV, pt. i, m. 18; Chan. Inq. p.m. 2 Hen. IV, no. 58, m. 10.
36 Chan. Inq. p.m. 8 Hen. IV, no. 68; 17 Hen. VI, no. 54; 24 Hen. VI, no. 43; Feud. Aids, iv, 212; Cal. Pat. R. 1446–52, p. 37; Feet of F. Div. Cos. case 294, file 74, no. 41; case 294, file 79.
37 Cal. Inq. Hen. VII, ii, no. 206; L. and P. Hen. VIII, i, no. 132 (49).
38 Rent. & Surv. (P.R.O.), ptf. 14, no. 14; L. and P. Hen. VIII, ii, no. 3552.
39 Cal. Pat. R. 1549–51, pp. 240–41; 1550–53, pp. 90, 92.
40 Pat. R. 30 Eliz. pts. 6, 16.
41 Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. ii), cclvii, no. 91.
42 Complete Peerage (new ed.), v, 217, 218; Feet of F. Rutl. Trin. 2 Chas. I.
43 Wright, Hist. and Antiq. Rutl. (1684– 1687), p. 131; Feet of F. Rutl. Trin. 2 Chas. I; Hil. 1656.
44 Recov. R. Trin. 1657, ro. 21; Feet of F. Rutl. Trin. 1658; East. 4 Jas. II; Wright, loc. cit.; Blore's Notes to Wright (B.M. c. 59, h. 14). At the visitation of Rutland in 1638 William Fawkener of Uppingham claimed, but failed to prove, descent from Sir Thomas Falconer, mayor of London in 1414, who bore arms paly argent and sable a bend vert with three trefoils or thereon (Coll. Arm. MS. c. 29).
45 Blore's Notes, loc. cit.
46 Court R. of Rectory Manor.
47 Ibid.; Feet of F. Rutl. East. 4 Jas. II.
48 P.C.C. 85 Irby.
49 Blore's Notes, loc. cit.
50 Ct. R. Rectory Manor of Uppingham, 2 Oct. 1713.
51 Blore's Notes, loc. cit.
52 Ibid.; cf. Feet of F. Rutl. East. 4 Jas. II; Hil. 8 Anne; Mich. 12 Anne; Mich. 8 Geo. I.
53 Blore's Notes, loc. cit.; Add. Ch. (B.M.) 25984.
54 Blore's Notes, loc. cit.
55 Court R. Rectory Manor, 14 Nov. 1738.
56 Feet of F. Rutl. Hil. 21 Geo. II; Recov. R. Hil. 57 Geo. III, ro. 161.
57 Ct. R. (P.R.O.), ptf. 197, nos. 88, 89; Feet of F. Rutl. Hil. 8 Anne; Rutl. Mich. 12 Anne; Add. Ch. (B.M.) 25984; Rent. & Surv. (P.R.O.), ptf. 14, no. 14.
58 Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. ii), lxxxix, 122. The manor probably extended into Beaumont Chace.
59 Visit. Rutl. 1618–19 (Harl. Soc.), 21–2.
60 Ibid.; Exch. Inq. p.m. dclxxx, 8.
61 Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. ii), lxxxix, 122.
62 Visit. Rutl. 1681–2 (Harl. Soc.), 27.
63 Feet of F. Rutl. Mich. 8 Jas. I; East. 21 Jas. I; Mich. 21 Jas. I; P.C.C. 79 Brent.
64 Visit. Rutl. op. cit. 33–34; Uppingham Par. Reg.
65 Blore's Notes, loc. cit.
66 P.C.C. 79 Brent.
67 Ibid.; Mon. in Uppingham Ch.
68 Feet of F. Rutl. East. 4 Jas. II; Hil. 8 Anne; Mich. 12 Anne.
69 Ibid. Trin. 57 Geo. III.
70 Priv. Act of Parl. 10 Geo. III, cap. 24.
71 Chan. Misc. bdle. 8, no. 3.
72 Ct. R. penes Rector.
73 Terrier of Rectory lands, etc., 1634, penes Rector.
74 Churchwardens' Bk. (1634–1727).
75 Knights of Edw. I (Harl. Soc.), iii, p. 185.
76 Irons notes, Archd. Rec. (Visit.).
77 Priv. Act of Parl. 10 Geo. III, cap. 24.
78 Cal. Curia Reg. R. i, 148; Feet of F. Rutl. Mich. 2 John, no. 3.
79 Ct. R. (P.R.O.), Gen. Ser. ptf. 197, no. 90.
80 Cal. Chart. R. i, 205.
81 Feet of F. Rutl. Trin. 9 Hen. III.
82 Valor Eccles. (Rec. Com.), iv, 294.
83 Cal. Close R. 1254–56, p. 52; Cal. Inq. Misc. i, no. 576.
84 Feet of F. Rutl. Trin. 14 John.
85 Alfred Gibbons, Early Lincoln Wills, 200.
86 Rent. & Surv. (P.R.O.), ptf. 14, no. 14.
87 Feet of F. Rutl. Mich. 8 Jas. I; East. 21 Jas. I; P.C.C. 79 Brent.
88 P.C.C. 226 Aylett; Feet of F. Rutl. Hil. 9 Chas. I.
89 Chart. R. 9 Edw. I, m. 7.
90 Chan. Inq. p.m. 24 Edw. I, no. 59; Cal. Pat. R. 1476–85, p. 76.
91 Rent. & Surv. (P.R.O.), ptf. 14, no. 14; Pat. R. 30 Eliz. pt. 16; Feet of F. Rutl. bdle. 475, Hil. 9 Chas. I.
92 Rent. & Surv. (P.R.O.), ptf. 14, no. 14; Pat. R. 19 Eliz. pt. 11, m. 31.
93 Ibid. 30 Eliz. pt. 18.
94 Feet of F. Rutl. bdle. 475, Hil. 9 Chas. I.
95 P.C.C. 79 Brent.
96 P.C.C. 226 Aylett.
97 Chart. R. 9 Edw. I, m. 7.
98 L. and P. Hen. VIII, v, g. 318 (11).
99 Royal Com. on Market Rights and Tolls, App. 196.
100 Wright, op. cit. 132.
101 All four fragments are of the same type, and represent the upper part of a male figure with the right hand upraised, and the left hand grasping a staff or cross.
102 Rutl. Mag. ii, 33. It was found at the west end of the south aisle, and is now, in two pieces, built into the walls of the steps of the south-west entrance to the churchyard, along with other fragments.
103 The galleries extended the full length of the aisles eastward, north and south of the chancel. A drawing preserved in the church shows the gallery filling the pointed arch on the south side of the chancel. The nave was filled with box pews and the pulpit was in front of the chancel. The galleries seated 233 adults and 64 children.
104 This was noted by Sir Stephen Glynne, who visited the church in 1829 (Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 37256, f. 96).
105 The faculty is dated 20 August 1860. The architect was Mr. Henry Parsons of London. The contract provided for 'taking down the whole of the fabric except the arches and clearstory walls of the nave, and tower and spire, and part of the south aisle.' The tower was to be restored and the old stonework scraped.
106 Apparently the chapel of the Holy Trinity.
107 The Chesilden Chapel.
108 The piers had been much damaged by the erection of the galleries.
109 One only of these windows is original.
110 The three old clearstory windows on the north side were blocked before the restoration (Rutl. Mag. ii, 65).
111 Before the restoration the lower part of the doorway was below the soil. The jambs on either side, to a height of 4 ft. 6 in., are modern.
112 On the west side there are three orders, the two outer dying into the wall.
113 Though locally this is said to have been dug up in the churchyard at the time of the restoration, it is obviously the font seen by Glynne (Add. MS. (B.M.) 37256). It now supports a 'table,' said to be the canopy of the pulpit. A beautiful 14th-century font with trefoiled ogee niches, standing on eight legs, now in the Roman Catholic church at Deeping St. James, Lincs, is said to have been formerly at Uppingham, but the claim is disputed by Ridlington. Both churches were restored at the same time and by the same architect. Mr. CrowtherBeynon has investigated both claims, but the evidence is contradictory and inconclusive. It is clear, however, that the Deeping font was not in Uppingham church in 1829.
114 It is a small mural monument with long Latin inscription, which is given in Wright, Hist. Rutl. 132. The inscriptions on other monuments, mostly of 19th-century date, are in Rutl. Mag. ii, 69–71.
115 North, Ch. Bells of Rutl. 155, where the inscriptions are given. The old fifth bell was by Pack and Chapman, 1772.
116 It has a modern inscription similar to that on the cups, etc.
117 One of the patens, long lost to the church, was recovered by purchase in 1932. It bears the maker's mark I.G. In 1661 the plate consisted of 'one Communion Cupp of silver gilt with a cover to it, two patens silver and gilt,' and a 'gilt chalice weighing 20 ounces bate [less] a pennyweight, with this inscription upon ye foot "Deus Dedit in usum ecclesiae parochialis de Uppingham Comitatus Rutlandie."' There were also two large pewter flagons. Two cups or chalices and three patens or plates are mentioned in inventories until 1825. The last mention of the flagons is in 1711.
118 Hope, Ch. Plate in Rutl. 29; Rutl. Mag. ii, 66.
119 The first volume comprises the years 1634–1727.
120 There are thirty-four steps, in five flights.
121 V.C.H. Rutl. i, 140.
122 Ibid. 167.
123 Ibid.; Dugdale, Mon. Angl. i, 301.
124 Feet of F. Rutl. case 192, file 2, no. 21.
125 Rot. Ric. Gravesend (Cant. & York Soc.), pp. 116, 124; Cal. Pat. R. 1313–17, p. 203; Feud. Aids, iv, 210.
126 L. and P. Hen. VIII, xvi, g. 503 (33).
127 Cal. Pat. R. 1549–51, 263.
128 Instit. Bks. (P.R.O.), 1631, 1637, 1660, 1682, 1684, 1743, 1752, 1755, 1786, 1815; Bacon, Liber Regis, 847; London Gazette, 4 June 1852.
129 Rot. Ric. Gravesend (Cant. & York Soc.), p. 116; Pope Nich. Tax. (Rec. Com.), 66; cf. Feud. Aids, iv, 210.
130 Valor Eccles. (Rec. Com.), iv, 414.
131 L. and P. Hen. VIII, xvii, g. 714 (5).
132 Alfred Gibbons, Early Lincoln Wills, 199.
133 P.C.C. 79 Brent.
134 Chant. Cert. (P.R.O.), no. 39.
135 Irons' Notes, Archd. Rec. (Visit.).
136 Cal. S.P. Dom. 1672, pp. 78, 196.
137 Irons' Notes, loc. cit.
138 Uppingham Churchwardens' Bk. I.
139 Cal. S.P. Dom. Chas. I, 1638–9, p. 211.
140 Trans. of Rutl. and Nat. Hist. Soc. Rep. xi, 42.
141 Dict. Nat. Biog.


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