Analysis of hearth tax assessments

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Victoria County History

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A. P. M. Wright (editor), Adrienne B. Rosen, Susan M. Keeling, C. A. F. Meekings

Year published

1978

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277-282

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'Analysis of hearth tax assessments', A History of the County of Cambridge and the Isle of Ely: Volume 6 (1978), pp. 277-282. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=66729 Date accessed: 27 August 2014.


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ANALYIS OF CAMBRIDGESHIRE HEARTH TAX ASSESSMENTS, CHILFORD, RADFIELD, AND WHITTLESFORD HUNDREDS, 1661, 1666, AND 1674

Introductory Note

The following analyses have been prepared from the Cambridgeshire Hearth Tax Assessments preserved in the Public Record Office for 1662 Michaelmas [E 179/84/436], 1666 Lady Day [E 179/244/22], and 1674 Lady Day [E 179/244/23]. In addition, the 1664 Michaelmas Assessment [E 179/84/437], which was a revision of that of 1662 Michaelmas, has been used for recovering the details of hearths in some defective entries. The assessments have been fully described, and the nature of the tax and value of its records have been briefly discussed, in V.C.H. Cambs. iii. 500 and iv. 272. The 1662 lists were prepared by petty constables in June and early July 1662 and were designed to be simply lists of taxpayers, though during the next eighteen months many persons in the lists secured exemption. The 1666 lists were made out in the summer of 1666, after collection had taken place, by the officers of George Wilmot, the sub-farmer, and are drawn up under the headings of 'Paid' and 'Unpaid'; many of the persons with one or two hearths included under the latter heading may have been entitled to exemption, but the lists do not indicate them since they were included as taxpayers in default. The lists for 1674 were made out by the sub-collectors of Edward Miller, the receiver, with the assistance of parish officials, during the spring and summer of 1674, after collection had been made. They are divided into taxpayers and those legally exempt by certificate. The exemption certificates themselves, made out during the winter of 1673–4, survive incomplete and heavily damaged [E 179/326/10]. Among the taxpayers the owners of empty or recently destroyed houses or hearths and the occupiers of houses recently built or with new hearths in them are distinguished. The exempt may include paupers, even though they did not need to be certified.

The three documents have been analysed on the same principle. Against each place is given, in separate columns, the total of entries recording persons as occupiers of from one to ten hearths and a further column gives the occupiers of houses with eleven or more hearths: final columns give the total number of entries and hearths in each place. For 1662 only one line is needed for each place. For 1666 three lines are needed: for those recorded as 'Paid'; for the 'Unpaid'; and for the combined total of the two categories. For 1674 up to four lines may be needed: for the taxpayers; for those among the taxpayers with empty houses, etc.; for the exempt; and for the combined total of those categories. No exempt are recorded for seven out of the twenty-five places in the three hundreds. Certificates also survive which were made out in 1672 or early in 1673 and apparently served for the three collections from Lady Day 1672 to Lady Day 1673 [E 179/84/440]. They include certificates for all the seven places without exempt in 1674, all save one of which were in Chilford hundred. The probable reason why no exempt were recorded for those places in 1674 was that the certificates did not reach the clerk of the peace in time for enrolment. It has therefore been thought useful to give the number of persons in the certificates of 1672 in footnotes to each hundred in the table for 1674. The number is in some cases less than the number of names originally entered in the certificate because in a few certificates some names were cancelled before, or when, the justices of the peace countersigned them. In general, attention is also drawn in footnotes to a few special entries, chiefly of alms-houses or town houses; and to differences, through faulty addition and chiefly in 1674, between the total number of hearths in the recorded entries and the total given in the documents.

In conclusion, a word may be said about the relative comprehensiveness of the assessments. It may be understood that in all lists a person may occur more than once when as a landlord he or she is entered for the hearths in a tenant's house, but in general the number of entries represents the number of households. There is little difference between the totals of entries for 1666 and 1674, which are slightly higher for 1666. The difference is one of five or less, either way, for all but one place in Chilford, two in Radfield, and three in Whittlesford hundreds. In the remaining six places the total is higher for 1666 in four—Ickleton (6), Stetchworth (6), Great Abington (8), and Whittlesford (10)—and for 1674 in two—Burrough Green (7) and Hinxton (8). In Chilford hundred the 1666 lists have the most entries for eight places, the 1674 lists for two places, and in the other they are equal; six of the eight places, however, for which the 1674 lists have fewer entries have no exempt, and if the exempt in those places were about the same as those certified in 1672 the balance would be much more even. In Radfield hundred the 1666 lists have the most entries for six places, the 1674 lists for one, and in the other two they are equal. In Whittlesford hundred the 1666 lists have the most entries for three places and the 1674 lists the most for the other two. The 1662 lists were intended to include only taxpayers. In most other districts in the county they have, however, generally supplied a list for one place which has solely, or jointly with one of the other assessments, the highest number of entries. In these three hundreds they do not do so; their number of entries is the lowest for all places and, in total, the lowest for each hundred. Their totals are also substantially lower than the totals of those chargeable in 1674, but since far more details of the 1662 assessments survive for the country as a whole than from any other date, those lists are the most useful for comparative studies of England and Wales generally.

ANALYSIS OF CAMBRIDGESHIRE HEARTH TAX: CHILFORD, RADFIELD, AND WHITTLESFORD HUNDREDS

1662 Michaelmas

Totals of entries, with hearthsTotals
12345678910over 10EntriesHearths
Chilford Hundred
Great Abington167311 of 242867
Little Abington464111641
Babraham3542111 of 431795
Bartlow33111934
Castle Camps1811821111 of 2044128
1 of 15
Shudy Camps106344223193
Hildersham264411762
Horseheath128332133286
Linton65422412452111 of 19158392
1 of 14
Pampisford98421112665
West Wickham6753311 of 112679
Total1451096529177144527 (with 146)4041,142
Radfield Hundred
Balsham172762111 of 1255127
Brinkley95333212675
Burrough Green254211 of 263372
Carlton cum Willingham1782213056
Dullingham2688511150104
Stetchworth151051113365
Westley Waterless732111433
Weston Colville20102213565
West Wratting18216511153118
Total1549636188623312 (with 38)329715
Whittlesford Hundred
Duxford31223611 of 1264127
Hinxton (fn. 1) 8107841 of 1138112
Ickleton (fn. 2) 331749265125
Sawston1612841111 of 1744117
Whittlesford1616124311154148
Total1047734317141213 (with 40)265629

1666 Lady Day

Totals of entries, with hearthsTotals
12345678910over 10EntriesHearths
Chilford Hundred
Great Abington, paid2110311 of 143668
unpaid522919
total26105314587
Little Abington, paid46151639
unpaid22159
total68252148
Babraham, paid7351111 of 401986
unpaid51610
total123512112596
Bartlow, paid6113111334
unpaid1123
total7213111537
Castle Camps, paid321133121 of 2053120
unpaid1031111629
total421444112169149
Shudy Camps, paid14107323677
unpaid2121614
total16119424291
Hildersham, paid7442122055
unpaid22410
total9444122465
Horseheath, paid19943111 of 163888
unpaid42221022
total23116511148110
Linton, paid7241211421221 of 18156337 (fn. 3)
unpaid15236212968
total8743242042221185405
Pampisford, paid15105213364
unpaid21149
total17106313773
West Wickham, paid247232114082
unpaid7211015
total319242115097
Total, paid221112564010642135 (with 108)4601,050
unpaid5513121632101208
combined2761256856138421355611,258
Radfield Hundred
Balsham, paid31248411170140
unpaid19 (fn. 4) 9213147
total5033105111101187
Brinkley, paid155522113172
unpaid2211614
total177623113786
Burrough Green, paid2771111 of 203875
unpaid54111120
total321122114995
Carlton cum Willingham, paid3223214060
unpaid53111018
total3754315078
Dullingham, paid5211731276124
unpaid11311523
total6314731391147
Stetchworth, paid20862213979
unpaid11411622
total3112722155101
Westley Waterless, paid113111628
unpaid1124
total1231111832
Weston Colville, paid19113211 of 123777
unpaid3211714
total221343114491
West Wratting, paid3014344 (fn. 5) 55107
unpaid82311425
total381665469132
Total, paid237853621685112 (with 32)402762
unpaid652911511112187
combined3021144726795112514949
Whittlesford Hundred
Duxford, paid2519126111166151
unpaid92131528
total3421139111181179
Hinxton, paid1666421 of 113583
unpaid612916
total22766214499
Ickleton, paid52266488138
unpaid412211025
total562786198163
Sawston, paid2519117121 of 1266153
unpaid43 (fn. 6) 2211229
total292213922178182
Whittlesford, paid441384111173143
unpaid231111926
total4616951211182169
Total, paid1628343254411122 (with 23)328668
unpaid25106103155124
combined1879349357511122383792

1674 Lady Day

Totals of entries, with hearthsTotals
12345678910EntriesHearths
Chilford Hundred (fn. 7)
Great Abington, charged1812331 of 243787
Little Abington, charged272411647
Babraham, charged817221 of 402199
Bartlow, charged32211111137
Castle Camps, charged1615741111 of 2047139
1 of 15
exempt262626
total421574111273165
Shudy Camps, charged13776223794
exempt888
total217762245102
Hildersham, charged46411312067
Horseheath, charged178633121 of 2641124
exempt666
total23863312147130
Linton, charged474223161035121 of 19150414 (fn. 8)
exempt2923133
total764423161035121181447
Pampisford, charged121442113474
West Wickham, charged8963311 of 113188 (fn. 9)
exempt191919
total2796331150107
Total, charged14812371432310102537 (with 155)4451,270
exempt8829092
combined235125714323101025375351,362
Radfield Hundred (fn. 10)
Balsham, charged27261263111 of 1377181
empty111
newly erected111
exempt222222
total51261263111101205
Brinkley, charged76342412786
exempt777
total146342413493
Burrough Green, charged196211 of 222965
newly erected (fn. 11) 22
exempt252525
total4662115492
Carlton cum Willingham, charged274331 of 113867
exempt777
total3443314574
Dullingham, charged321410321153125
empty112
exempt343434
total661510321188161
Stetchworth, charged17128331 of 1344105 (fn. 12)
exempt555
total2212833149120
Westley Waterless, charged941111637
Weston Colville, charged141171111 of 113684
exempt888
total2211711114492
West Wratting, charged22216413158130
exempt999
total31216413167139
Total, charged174104512413103315 (with 70)388880
empty1123
newly erected313
exempt117117117
combined2951055124131033155081,003
Whittlesford Hundred (fn. 13)
Duxford, charged1623109221 of 1365165
exempt151515
total312310922178180
Hinxton, charged910 (fn. 14) 8751 of 1140117
exempt121212
total2110875152129
Ickleton, charged3227511378160
exempt141414
total3627511392174
Sawston, charged2217 (fn. 15) 127131 of 1763160
empty114
exempt171717
total391712813181181
Whittlesford, charged1719116111157146
empty119
exempt141414
total3119116112172169
Total, charged9696464011331113 (with 41)301746
empty11213
exempt727272
combined16896464111331213375831

Footnotes

1 Two details of hearths recovered from the 1662 copy in the 1664 Michaelmas assessment.
2 Eight details of hearths similarly recovered.
3 The total in the book is given wrongly as 336, owing to the entries on p. 13 of the book being wrongly totted as 58 hearths instead of 59.
4 One of the entries is for Two Townehouses.
5 One of the entries is noted as for two houses.
6 One of the entries has two names against it.
7 The numbers of persons in the 1672 exemption certificates for Chilford hundred were: Great Abington 7; Little Abington 2; Babraham 6; Bartlow 3; Castle Camps 26; Shudy Camps 7; Hildersham 2; Horseheath 10; Linton 28; Pampisford 3; West Wickham 16. Fragmentary 1674 certificates survive for Castle Camps, Horseheath, Linton, and West Wickham.
8 Wrongly given as 411 in the roll.
9 Wrongly given as 81 in the roll.
10 The numbers of persons in the 1672 exemption certificates for Radfield hundred were: Balsham 15, 5 of whom were receiving alms; Burrough Green 24; Dullingham 35, 5 of whom were living in town houses; Stetchworth 17; Westley 6; Weston Colville 7. Damaged 1674 certificates survive for Balsham, Brinkley, Burrough Green, Carlton cum Willingham, Dullingham, Stetchworth, Weston Colville, and West Wratting.
11 Both the newly erected hearths were in existing houses and are therefore not reckoned in the totals of entries.
12 Wrongly given as 96 in the roll.
13 The numbers of persons in the 1672 exemption certificates for Whittlesford hundred were: Duxford 23, of whom 4 were marked paid; Hinxton 9; Ickleton 16; Sawston 15, of whom 8 were marked paid; Whittlesford 9.
14 One of these entries—Tho Clarke for the vicarage—is marginated Arrear 1 yeare, but is not said to be empty.
15 One of these is marked Arrear 1 yeare, but is not said to be empty.


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