EDUCATION (fn. 1)
The Town Grammar School
A grammar school apparently existed in Hull
early in its development as a chartered borough,
no doubt to maintain a supply of Latin-trained
clerks. From references to School Street and School
Lane in 1347, the school seems to have stood on the
south side of Holy Trinity churchyard, a little to
the west of the present Vicar Lane. (fn. 2) Entries in the
chamberlains' accounts after 1431 show that the
town appointed the master, provided him with a
schoolroom, granted him a monopoly of grammarteaching, regulated the fees which supplied his
livelihood, and at times allowed him a house,
clothing, and a salary. (fn. 3)
In 1479 the school was endowed together with
a chantry founded in Holy Trinity by the Bishop of
Worcester, John Alcock, a native of Hull. The
chaplain had not only to celebrate daily, but also
to teach the town grammar school without taking
fees; from the annual yield of the endowment he
was to receive a stipend of £10, pay the parish
clerk £2 to teach singing, and allow each of his
ten best pupils 6s. 8d. After the bishop's death the
patronage passed to the corporation, and the school
evidently continued to use the building previously
provided by the town. (fn. 4) At the dissolution of the
chantry in 1548 the school was one of those continued
by royal warrant, the Crown paying the master an
annual stipend of £13 2s. 2½d., representing the net
value of the chantry at its suppression. When this
was stopped in Mary's reign a number of burgesses
successfully sued in the Exchequer for its restoration, and the stipend continued to be the school's
principal endowment. (fn. 5)
Gradually after 1548 the corporation came to
accept full responsibility for the school. It negotiated
with the vicar for the enlargement of the school
garden in 1564, bought it reference books in 1575,
imposed fees to pay for an usher in 1579, erected
a gallery for the pupils in Holy Trinity in 1580,
and finally, in 1583, built a new and bigger schoolroom to the west of the old one, (fn. 6) which then became
the master's dwelling. It also came to appoint the
master, and this right was formally reserved to it
by the charter of 1611, subject only to the archbishop's approval. (fn. 7)
During the late 16th and much of the 17th centuries the school flourished. Ordinarily the master
was assisted by one usher, but from 1601 to 1606
there were two and the school was perhaps larger
then than at any time until the late 19th century.
About 1630, when Andrew Marvell was one of them,
there were about 100 pupils. (fn. 8) For much of the century a small but steady stream went to Cambridge,
aided by two exhibitions which the corporation
administered as trustee, one founded in 1631 by
Alderman Thomas Ferries, the other in 1638 by
Thomas Bury, a scrivener. A third exhibition tenable
at Clare College, Cambridge, was established in 1680
by Alexander Metcalf, ejected nonconformist
minister of Settrington and a former pupil; but this
was not awarded until 1725. (fn. 9) Other 'poor scholars' of
the town often received generous financial help from
the corporation during their Cambridge careers. (fn. 10)
For four or five centuries the Grammar School
stood pre-eminent. When any other teacher of
grammar appeared, as in 1691 and 1731, the corporation was quick to defend the monopoly of its
schoolmaster. (fn. 11) Other schools, more popular and
elementary, or more specialized and vocational,
were provided by private enterprise; but they are
scantily documented and have left little trace.
When the corporation in 1454 granted the master
of the grammar scholars his monopoly it excepted
the parvuli in alphabetis et graciis, (fn. 12) which suggests
these had other teachers. Bishop Alcock's foundation
in 1479 clearly points to a song school taught by the
parish clerk of Holy Trinity. In later Tudor and
Stuart times schoolmasters are mentioned in the
registers of both parishes, and these would be mainly
keepers of petty or 'A.B.C.' schools. Among the
corporation's anti-plague measures in 1637 was an
order closing 'the Grammar School and other petty
schools'; and in 1638 a plea for its repeal was submitted by the Grammar School master 'and other
schoolmasters and schoolmistresses in the town'. (fn. 13)
Instruction in writing was provided by scriveners.
The corporation in 1634 contracted to pay one of
them £5 a year for teaching burgesses' children,
under the age of sixteen, to write, at 6d. a week,
half his ordinary rate. (fn. 14) After 1678 the Grammar
School boys were taught penmanship by a visiting
scrivener instead of attending writing schools in
their spare time as previously. Other vocational
instruction would be obtainable from the mathematicians who occasionally appear in the parish
registers; they would teach accounts, gauging,
surveying, and navigation.
Philanthropy and the Education of the Poor, 1700–1800
The Grammar School apart, Hull's only publiclyprovided school was in Charity Hall, the town's
poorhouse. Here, intermittently at least, pauper
children were taught a useful trade and sometimes
reading and writing. Later in the 17th century they
were fitted out with a blue-coat uniform, the boys
having shoes, stockings, and caps like those at
Christ's Hospital in London; and a master was appointed to teach them reading and writing. In 1690,
when the hall was reopened as a poorhouse following its closure some time before, training in spinning
and knitting was restored because the children had
become 'desolate and employed their time in begging from door to door and take evil courses'. (fn. 15) One
of the corporation's reasons for building the enlarged
Charity Hall after 1699 was to teach more poor
children a trade and so reduce begging and
vagrancy. (fn. 16) At first, because of weekly out-relief,
the new workhouse was little more than an industrial
charity school, financed by voluntary subscriptions
and conducted like the charity schools sponsored by
the Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge. The leading spirit behind it was Robert
Banks, Vicar of Holy Trinity, a zealous corresponding member of the Society. Some 40 or more boys and
girls were boarded and clothed, catechized, taught
reading, writing, and spinning, and then apprenticed. (fn. 17) When indoor was substituted for outdoor
relief in 1728 the children had to share the workhouse with the adult paupers, and their unrestricted
association with beggars, debauchees, and harlots
was an acknowledged evil. At the end of the 18th
century there were seldom fewer than 80 children in
the house, and in 1799 their only teacher was a
drunken pauper. The boys were usually sent to sea,
but the girls were more difficult to place—in 1800
as many as 40 were apprenticed to linen-mills in
Otley (W.R. Yorks.). (fn. 18)
The education of the poor, from whatever
motives, was a cause dear to 18th-century philanthropy in Hull as elsewhere. William Mason, another
Vicar of Holy Trinity and like Banks an earnest
S.P.C.K. correspondent, promoted about 1729 a
society of tradesmen 'eminent for its religious zeal,
and especially its well-ordered charity in respect of
poor people's children'. In 1730 this body established the Vicar's School, Hull's first public elementary school, (fn. 19) in Vicar Lane, next to the vicar's
stables, to teach poor children reading, writing, and
practical Christianity in the manner of the S.P.C.K.
At first there were 20 children, but the number soon
increased. In 1792 the Revd. Thomas Clarke,
Wilberforce's brother-in-law, rebuilt the school on
its original site and 60 boys were then admitted,
each for three years, on the vicar's nomination. (fn. 20)
Supported originally by subscriptions and the collection at an annual sermon in Holy Trinity, the
school later received endowments which the corporation administered on the vicar's behalf; but
to make good the deficit quarterly fees of 1s. were
charged after 1813. (fn. 21)
Another charity school, for 20 poor girls, was
founded in 1753 by Alderman William Cogan. For
this purpose he gave a house in Salthouse Lane and
£2,000 stock to three trustees. The girls, nominated
by the trustees, were to be the daughters of orderly
people 'who would not sell ale or spirituous liquors
or receive weekly allowances or ask alms, or let their
children beg'. They were to be admitted at 10 for
three years, supplied with a uniform, and 'taught to
knit, sew, wash and get up linen, to wash rooms,
and other housework to fit them for useful servants'.
Their mistress was to receive £14 a year and her
lodging. The school opened in 1755, and in 1760
the charity was extended to provide marriage dowries
for former pupils. As the income grew the number of
girls was increased; in 1889 the school had to move
to a larger building, but its essential purpose changed
little up to its end in 1950. (fn. 22)
As Cogan's School supplied trained domestic
servants, so Trinity House Navigation School, later
in the 18th century, was intended to provide Hull
shipowners with trained apprentices. In 1729 and
perhaps at other times the House had paid a private
teacher of navigation to instruct the sons of poor
members, but with the growth of the port it became
necessary to ensure a greater supply of qualified
masters and mates. Influenced by the work of the
London Marine Society, and particularly by its
secretary Jonas Hanway's Proposal for County Naval
Schools, the House resolved in 1785 to establish and
maintain their own marine school. A building adjoining their chapel in Trinity House Lane was
designed by Charles Mountain and erected a year
later for this purpose. (fn. 23) The school opened in 1787
with T. O. Rogers, Curate of Sculcoates, as master. (fn. 24)
It consisted of 36 boys nominated by the Elder
Brethren and admitted for three years at 10 (11
after 1790); they received a uniform, and were
taught navigation, arithmetic, writing, accounts, and
practical religion in a loft in Holy Trinity specially
erected for them. On the completion of their schooling they were apprenticed to a shipmaster—
usually a member of the House. The school suffered
at first from ill discipline and low standards, and the
first two masters had to be removed, but conditions
steadily improved after 1795. (fn. 25)
Education and Social Change, 1780–1830
The 1780s saw the beginning of a period of rapid
expansion which in the next half century transformed the educational scene in Hull. The increase in population provided the incentive; the
growth of trade in the port provided the means, in
the form of middle-class subscriptions; and the
leadership came from a group of public-spirited
men moved by a new social conscience, awakened
perhaps by the evangelical ministry of Joseph
Milner and his disciples. Among those energetic in
educational good works were Dr. John Alderson,
Hull's foremost physician, the solicitors Charles
Frost and John Broadley, Charles Lutwidge,
collector of customs, and George Lee, a Unitarian
pastor and later editor of the Rockingham.
The education of the poor by middle-class charity
advanced considerably. In 1786 four Sunday
schools for boys were opened and three spinning
schools, at which girls were trained for domestic
service: in 1798 there were 34 girls at each spinning
school. (fn. 26) In 1787 a subscription day-school and a
Sunday school for boys and girls were established
in Sculcoates in Carr Street. (fn. 27) On the initiative of
Mrs. Lutwidge, and after renewed subscriptions,
it was resolved in 1806 to replace the Hull spinning
schools by a day-school for boys and another for
girls, both on the new Lancasterian plan, and to
provide for older girls a servants' school where
they would be boarded and clothed and taught
housework and reading. (fn. 28) The Servants' School
started in 1806 in High Street but moved later to
Gibson Street in Sculcoates. The boys' school was
transferred to a new building in Salthouse Lane in
1809 when it was visited by Joseph Lancaster during
one of his lecture tours; and a girls' school next to it
was opened in 1811. (fn. 29)
The National Society, represented locally by the
East Riding District Society, founded at Beverley in
1812, at first made slow progress in Hull. But the
Sculcoates Subscription School was reorganized on
the National system in 1818; (fn. 30) in 1825 the Salthouse
Lane Subscription School became affiliated to the
society, eventually in close association with St.
Mary's parish; (fn. 31) and in Drypool the Revd. Henry
Venn promoted a National school near St. Peter's
Church in 1828. (fn. 32) The corporation contributed
towards the last two. (fn. 33) Infants' schools attracted the
attention of educational philanthropists in the 1820s,
and the movement reached Hull in 1826. A meeting
called by Daniel Sykes, M.P., and attended by many
of the Hull clergy, led to a subscription fund and
the opening of two infants' schools, one in Eastcheap in 1826, the other in High Street in 1828. (fn. 34)
Both later became church schools, the former belonging to St. Stephen's, the latter to St. Mary's,
Lowgate. These efforts to educate working-class
children were supplemented by the Sunday schools,
stimulated by the formation of rival Anglican and
nonconformist associations in 1819. In 1835 the
nonconformist Sunday School Union claimed 2,620
pupils taught by some 500 voluntary teachers in
sixteen schools. (fn. 35)
During this period middle-class education was
characterized by the multiplication of private
academies. Private schools for boys had appeared
earlier in the 18th century when the idea of the
Grammar School's local monopoly broke down.
Later on newspapers and directories reveal many as
already well established, mainly in the Old Town;
but the number steadily increased in and after the
1790s, mostly in the new middle-class suburb to the
north and west. They were taught by the proprietor,
usually in his own house, with the aid of one or
two visiting teachers, and their curricula covered
commercial and technical as well as academic
subjects. The longest-lived of these schools played
a significant part in the educational system in Hull.
Benjamin Snowden's Mercantile Academy in Blanket
Row was thriving in 1790 and lasted for at least
another 46 years. (fn. 36) The minister of Bowlalley Lane
chapel, the Revd. George Lee, opened a classical
academy in 1800 which functioned for a quarter
of a century. (fn. 37) In Charles Street was the Revd.
Joseph Thompson's academy from c. 1806 to c. 1842,
and in Mason Street the Revd. John Blezard's
from at least 1814 until after 1848. (fn. 38) These schools
forced the Grammar School to meet their challenge
by broadening its own curriculum until it became
scarcely different from them. Under the Revd.
G. J. Davies (1811–24) the school flourished
moderately for a time—there were 60 boys in 1818;
but under the Revd. William Wilson (1824–36) its
numbers fell to 20 or 30. The Hull and East Riding
Schoolmasters' Association, formed in 1823 under
Davies's leadership, was the earliest local attempt
at a teachers' professional organization. It lasted
until c. 1838. (fn. 39)
Along with academies for boys there developed
seminaries for girls, offering such subjects as English
grammar, writing, geography, French, dancing,
music, needlework, and drawing, usually with help
from 'the most approved masters'. In the 1790s
there were Miss Benison's seminary in Bond Street,
transferred in 1797 to Story Street, Miss Thompson's
in Blanket Row, Miss Massey's in Mytongate, Miss
Frenche's in Bond Street; (fn. 40) and in 1810 a 'Catholic
boarding- and day-school for young ladies' was
opened by Miss Perkins in Prospect Street. (fn. 41) Some
of the boys' academies also offered teaching for
girls—for instance, Snowden's 'from three to six
in the afternoon in a separate apartment'. (fn. 42)
Facilities for instruction in certain branches of
commercial and technical education were also available from private teachers. Several of the academies
classified themselves as 'mercantile' or 'commercial'
and, like Snowden's, offered courses for boys
'intended for the accounting-house or counter' as
well as 'practical mathematics, particularly navigation and surveying'. (fn. 43) Former clerks in merchant
houses and retired sea captains kept schools preparing
boys 'for the counting-house, trade or the sea,
surveying &c.', and there were teachers offering
instruction and translation services in French,
German, Italian, and Portuguese. Two attempts
to provide more systematic technical education
achieved no permanent success. In 1795 regular
winter classes for sailor boys were started by subscription, mainly of ship-owners, to teach apprentices
while their ships were laid up. Some 170 were admitted in the winter of 1796–7 making three schools
necessary; these continued until 1808, when there
were 89 boys registered, and thereafter ceased. (fn. 44) A
scheme for the foundation of a commercial college,
propounded by Dr. Alderson in 1802, was abortive. (fn. 45)
The Hull Subscription Library, founded in 1775,
was the first and the focus of several later attempts
made during this time to advance adult education
through literary and scientific activities. (fn. 46) These
included the 'society for literary information',
established in 1792, and the scientific and literary
meetings which continued its work from 1803 to
1809. (fn. 47) In 1804, at Dr. Alderson's suggestion, the
Subscription Library voted £50 annually for lecture
courses on scientific and commercial subjects, and
George Birkbeck gave two courses on natural and
mechanical philosophy in 1805. (fn. 48) In 1822 the
Literary and Philosophical Society was established
with Dr. Alderson as its first president. (fn. 49)
The Lyceum Library and circulating libraries
met the reading needs of the lower class of clerks and
tradesmen, (fn. 50) but with elementary education so
thinly spread the educational aspirations of working
men went largely unsatisfied. During the depression
that followed the Napoleonic War a Political
Protestants' Union was formed in Hull in 1818,
the first of several radical political reform societies
in Yorkshire, and its members met weekly in classes
of 20 to read the writings of men like Cobbett,
Sherwin, and Wooler. (fn. 51) To meet the needs of these
men, and perhaps to divert their attention from
political agitation, the Mechanics' Institute was
founded in 1825. Dr. Alderson, Daniel Sykes, the
Revd. George Lee, and J. H. Bromby, Vicar of
Holy Trinity, were among its chief promoters;
'the instruction of the members, at a cheap rate,
in the principles of their respective arts, and in the
various branches of science and useful knowledge'
was its aim. (fn. 52) Soon after its objects included reading,
writing, and grammar. Writing to Lord Brougham
in 1826, George Lee noted that the 'upper and lower
classes connected with the Institute are upon the
best terms with each other', and found 'a great
improvement in the domestic and moral conduct of
some young men in consequence of the acquired
taste for reading'. (fn. 53) Brougham himself addressed the
Institute in 1830 and 'answered many objections
to the communication of instruction to the lower
classes of society'. (fn. 54)
Education as a Private and Denominational Enterprise, 1830–70
Between 1830 and 1870 the population of Hull
more than doubled, producing new working- and
middle-class residential districts to be provided with
schools. Private speculation and denominational zeal
tried to meet these needs. Dame- and common
day-schools, often kept part-time, provided much of
the popular education, mostly for 2d. or 3d. a week;
but their share diminished as the parliamentary
grant for school building, first voted in 1833,
created more government-aided and inspected
public elementary schools. In 1851 some 217
private schools taught 5,119 children (an average of
23 to a school) while 5,090 pupils attended publiclyprovided schools. (fn. 55) Most of these private-venture
schools were short-lived and were held in backstreet parlours; in 1861 they were said to be
'wretchedly inefficient . . . miserable roomfuls of
children, the best of which are little better than
dame-schools and the worst mere nurseries'. (fn. 56) By
contrast an early and unique contribution to elementary education was the Hull Savings Bank School—
the only savings bank school anywhere recorded. (fn. 57) It
existed from 1831 to 1851, and by 1848, when the
bank sought government aid for it, 2,969 children
had attended there. (fn. 58)
Most of the new elementary schools were promoted
by parish clergy and free-church ministers. Funds
raised locally by subscription and otherwise were
supplemented by a government grant which carried
with it after 1840 the right of government inspection.
Apart from the Savings Bank School, the only nonsectarian schools were the two British schools,
Dock Green (1833) and Holderness Ward (1838). (fn. 59)
When the former closed in 1866 the trustees replaced it with another in Day Street, an unusually
late example of the establishment of a British
school. (fn. 60)
Before 1870 the Church of England, operating
through the National Society, added nine church
schools to the three already existing, mostly connected with the new ecclesiastical districts or parishes
formed in the growing suburbs, and often housed
at first in temporary premises. As a result of the
efforts of the first incumbent, John King, Christ
Church National School was opened in 1832 and
later moved to a larger building. (fn. 61) St. Stephen's
National School (1840) and the separate girls'
school (1856) were both the work of the Revd.
John Deck. (fn. 62) East of the river St. Mark's had a
school from 1840, rehoused next to the new church
in 1857. (fn. 63) St. James's had a day-school from c. 1842
and a new building was provided for it soon after.
With 474 pupils enrolled in 1846, this was for long
the largest school in Hull, and the boys' department
under the mastership of G. H. Lovell had a high
reputation. (fn. 64) In Sculcoates the old National school
in Carr Street, and a later one for girls in Oxford
Street (1834) passed into the new parish of St.
Paul's in 1844; consequently another parish school
near St. Mary's was opened in Bank Side in 1852,
through the exertions of T. S. Bonnin, curate-incharge. Samuel Wilderspin, the pioneer of infant
education, lectured in the Mechanics' Institute in
aid of its building fund. (fn. 65) The first of the new
churches, St. John's, had only an infants' school
until it took over the Savings Bank School. (fn. 66) Meanwhile the old Vicar's School had applied for government grant, but its accommodation being found
unacceptable by the inspector, J. Bromby, the vicar,
appealed for a new Trinity National School in
Humber Street in 1857. (fn. 67) The same year saw St.
Paul's National School established. (fn. 68) This strenuous
effort slackened temporarily after 1859 when an
industrial school in Trippett, later St. Philip's, was
founded by Bromby. (fn. 69) The Church's main contribution in the next decade was the rebuilding of
Drypool National School. (fn. 70)
Other denominations contributed, if on a smaller
scale, to the multiplication of school places during
this period. The Jews had kept a small school in
their synagogue in Robinson Row since 1826. (fn. 71) The
first Roman Catholic school was started under the
new St. Charles's Church in 1829. It was moved
twice and by the 1860s its novel features included
school dinners, a gymnasium, and a magic lantern. (fn. 72)
A second Roman Catholic school, St. Mary's,
was opened in 1856 to serve east Hull, and a third
for girls and infants at the recently-established Convent of Mercy in Anlaby Road in 1859. (fn. 73) Most
active among the protestant nonconformist bodies
were the Wesleyans. Their first day-school grew out
of an earlier Sunday school in Mason Street in 1837,
which was replaced by the large South Myton
school, becoming one of the biggest schools in Hull
with accommodation for over 600 by 1870. (fn. 74)
Smaller Wesleyan day-schools were attached to the
Scott Street chapel and the George Yard chapel,
but both had brief existences, (fn. 75) as did the school
opened by the Congregationalists next to Albion
Street chapel in 1867. (fn. 76)
Two schools were established in the 1860s in
connexion with sailors' orphanages, which had
previously sent their children to ordinary dayschools. The non-sectarian Port of Hull Society in
1863 set up a school in its orphanage, which moved
to Park Street in 1866; and the Seamen's and General
Orphanage Society, a Church of England body,
built a school in 1870. (fn. 77)
The new schools completely eclipsed the pioneer
charity schools of the 18th century, though these
continued to play their part. Cogan's School increased its numbers to 60 girls, (fn. 78) and Trinity House
School was moved, enlarged, and reorganized until
in 1856 it had 98 boys. (fn. 79) The two workhouses,
Sculcoates in Beverley Road after 1844 and Hull in
Anlaby Road after 1852, continued to maintain
schools giving a mainly industrial training to their
pauper children, 98 at Sculcoates and 107 at Hull
in 1856. (fn. 80)
For destitute children outside the workhouse
public subscription in 1849 established the Ragged
and Industrial School in Mill Street, one of the
town's roughest neighbourhoods. (fn. 81) The committee
extended its work in 1868 by providing the industrial
school ship Southampton, which lay in the Hull
Roads until 1912, training the more difficult boys
(most of them drawn from outside Hull), mainly
for the sea. (fn. 82)
Despite the conspicuous increase in school places
during this period they remained insufficient for
the school-age population. Fewer than half the
children of school age ever attended, however, and
the average length of attendance of those who did
was calculated to be under 2½ years; the average
leaving age, moreover, was only 10½ years. Parental
poverty together with opportunities for child employment made any notable improvement unlikely
until attendance became compulsory. (fn. 83) For early
leavers the Sunday schools still offered a basic
education. More effective in this context were nightschools, which appeared in the 1850s, (fn. 84) sponsored by
the clergy in their National schoolrooms: the first
and most active of several in Hull was connected
with St. Stephen's under the vicar, John Deck.
Excluding Sculcoates there were ten night-schools
with 685 students in 1859. (fn. 85)
As elsewhere secondary or middle-class education
made much less progress during these decades
than it had done before. Until the middle 1830s the
academies provided most of the 'superior' instruction
and their numbers increased. After William Wilson's
death in 1836 the Grammar School was without a
master and for 20 months remained closed until
it was decided whether, following the Municipal
Corporations Act, the patronage belonged to the
new town council or the Municipal Charity Trustees.
The decision of the Solicitor General that the
patronage passed to the former but the school
property to the latter helped to paralyse the school
for the next 60 years. (fn. 86)
To provide the middle class of Hull with a more
systematic education than was then available, a
group of merchants and businessmen in 1836
launched a scheme for a Hull and East Riding
Proprietary School, following the recent example of
other towns. But because this was intended to be
conducted on non-sectarian principles, a rival body
promoted a second school to be based on strictly
Anglican teaching. Thus two companies were floated,
each aiming at a capital of £5,000 in 200 equal shares,
and two schools were established, each providing
for 200 boys: Kingston College, Anglican and Tory,
in Beverley Road, and Hull College, nonconformist
and Whig, in Spring Bank. At first both prospered.
They had highly qualified teachers; educated the
sons of professional and merchant families and sent
several to Cambridge; and were regarded as ornaments to the town. But in the economic depression
of the 1840s they had financial difficulties and came
to untimely ends—Hull College in 1845, Kingston
College in 1847, though each was continued for
several years by its last principal as a private venture,
the latter at Hessle until c. 1860. (fn. 87)
The failure of these colleges left the Grammar
School and several small private schools to cater for
the middle classes, and it seems likely that not
more than 250 boys were receiving a secondary
education in Hull in the 1860s. Under the mastership of J. D. Sollitt (1838–68) the Grammar School
became an English and commercial school of some
50 to 60 boys, scholastically and materially decrepit
and without university connexions; and neither the
town council nor the Charity Trustees showed any
desire to reform it. (fn. 88) Consequently Robert Jameson
and other prominent businessmen sought to establish another proprietary college as a limited liability
company. They planned to amalgamate the Grammar
School with it, but this scheme was defeated by the
Charity Trustees' insistence on the ratepayers' right
to have their sons entered at the new college as they
had at the Grammar School. Despite this setback
and the fact that the shares were not fully subscribed, the Hull and East Riding College was opened
in 1867 with the Revd. William Lucas as principal,
Jameson himself accepting much of the financial
responsibility. For several years numbers were low
—94 in 1868, only 70 in 1870—and the school
ran at a loss until 1873. Thereafter conditions improved, though the directors were never free from
financial anxiety. During its life this was accepted
as Hull's leading school: it introduced the Cambridge
'Local' examinations into Hull, and established new
academic standards; it restored local links with the
universities; and it educated many of Hull's foremost professional and businessmen. (fn. 89)
The School Board Era, 1870–1902
The thirty years following the Education Act of
1870 saw an unprecedented expansion of public
elementary education. Hull's population in 1870
was about 120,000 and the children of school age
were about 20,000; disregarding private provision,
publicly-provided school places totalled some 12,000,
only 8,512 children were enrolled, and average
attendance was 5,920. (fn. 90) But during the next three
decades the population doubled, and the school
population was further enlarged by the introduction
of compulsory attendance in 1880 and free schooling
in 1891. The overriding task was to keep pace with
To safeguard denominational instruction the
voluntary bodies redoubled their efforts. By 1872
the Church of England had opened schools connected with the new churches of St. Luke, St. Silas,
and All Saints; the Roman Catholics St. Patrick's;
the Congregationalists a school in Fish Street;
and the Wesleyans one in Beverley Road. (fn. 91) Earlier
voluntary schools were enlarged, and by 1900 St.
Stephen's provided 923 places, South Myton 913,
St. Paul's 878, St. Mark's 836, and two new Roman
Catholic schools, St. Gregory's and St. Wilfrid's,
added another 900. (fn. 92) Trinity House School rose to
180 places, and Cogan's expanded its accommodation to 128. (fn. 93)
The main contribution, however, came from the
rate-aided School Board, constituted under the Act
in 1871. This consisted of fifteen members elected
triennially by the ratepayers. During its existence the
most energetic members were J. M. Lambert, Vicar
of Newland, and two businessmen, T. B. Holmes
and Thomas Stratten; its secretary throughout was
D. J. O'Donoghue, and the architect responsible for
its school buildings from 1874 to 1898, William
Botterill, later in partnership with John Bilson.
At first, in order to meet the most urgent needs,
the Board hired temporary accommodation, mostly
in church and chapel rooms. (fn. 94) In 1874 its first three
buildings were ready, providing altogether 2,580
places: Daltry Street, Courtney Street, and Lincoln
Street. Between 1875 and 1878 six new schools
were opened. (fn. 95) Some voluntary-school managers
now closed their schools or sold out to the Board, (fn. 96)
while three schools passed to the Board in 1883
when the borough boundaries were extended. (fn. 97) By
1886 the Board was providing 21,369 places in 21
schools. Even so, accommodation never caught up
with the growing population; temporary premises
and overcrowding were normal, and merely to keep
pace with the increase one new school with 800
places was needed every year. (fn. 98) In 1897 the Board
had 37 schools with over 31,000 places. (fn. 99)
Successive Boards aimed to provide an educational minimum at the lowest cost, and Hull
standards notoriously fell below the national average.
The educational rate was lower than in any comparable city, curricula were restricted to grantearning subjects, and salaries were low. Untrained
teachers were also employed excessively; in each
department of 250 children there was one certificated
teacher, one ex-pupil-teacher, and three or four
pupil-teachers. (fn. 100) Perhaps for these reasons dameschools, often held in ordinary houses, still continued to attract pupils. (fn. 101)
Nevertheless the Board gradually laid the foundations of an organized educational service. Before the
first cookery centres were opened in 1878, a cart
with stove and utensils went round the schools; a
peripatetic drill-sergeant was engaged in 1879;
the first school inspector was appointed in 1887, and
an itinerant manual instructor in 1893; and in 1899,
very belatedly, a pupil-teacher centre was opened
in the Young People's Institute. (fn. 102) The Board's first
special school was the Ragged School, taken over in
1884 as a truant school for boys, a new one for girls
being built in Park Avenue in 1888. (fn. 103) Another special
service, taken over in 1894 from the Deaf and Dumb
Institution, was the day centre for deaf children,
eventually established in Osborne Street School. (fn. 104)
Voluntary effort supplemented these advances in
two respects, both anticipating later developments.
An 'artisan scholarship' system linking, however
tenuously, the elementary schools with the Grammar
School and Hull and East Riding College, was
founded by subscription in 1874 to mark the educational good works of Robert Jameson; (fn. 105) and in 1885,
at a time of much unemployment and poverty, the
School Children's Help Society began to supply
penny dinners—the first local school-meals service. (fn. 106)
These years also saw the consolidation of the Hull
Teachers' Association founded in 1871: the Board's
autocratic attitude must have been a potent stimulus
to professional organization. (fn. 107)
As the age of compulsory attendance was raised
in the 1890s, the Board became increasingly concerned with the needs of older children. By what
Malet Lambert later confessed to be 'a manipulation
of the regulations' three higher-grade schools were
built, each giving a quasi-secondary education
mainly on practical and scientific lines: the Central
Higher Grade School in Brunswick Avenue in 1891,
Craven Street in 1893, and the Boulevard in 1895.
All were large and equipped with laboratories and
workshops according to the highest standards of the
time, and in each one the upper classes formed an
Organized Science School under the Science and
Art Department. (fn. 108) These were the crown of the
Board's system. Until 1894 the Board's standard
school comprised three departments—boys', girls',
infants'; but from that year separate junior mixed
departments were added to fourteen earlier schools,
which then consisted of senior boys, senior girls,
mixed juniors, and infants. (fn. 109) The Board's last
contribution was the opening in 1902 of four large,
'two-decker', schools in which both senior and
junior departments were co-educational and the
infants separate: Mersey Street, Estcourt Street,
Thoresby Street, and Wheeler Street. These all had
the same central-hall plan and exemplified the best
school architecture of the time. (fn. 110) When the Board
expired in 1903 it had 41 schools containing 39,180
places, as against 22 voluntary schools with 12,639
places. (fn. 111)
Compared with this massive expansion of voluntary and state-aided elementary education, secondary
or middle-class education languished. The commercial and business class of Hull, perhaps through
long educational starvation, remained indifferent,
the only advocates of improvement being a few
clergy, doctors, and lawyers. Prominent among
these were Albert K. Rollit; James Thomas Woodhouse, like Rollit a solicitor and alderman; and
Francis Bond, principal of the Hull and East Riding
College after 1881; but they made little headway in
the face of public apathy.
The Grammar School came near to extinction
as its Tudor schoolroom decayed. A Scheme
arranged by the Charity Commissioners, which
would have restored its efficiency in a new building,
was defeated in 1878 by public opposition to the
diversion of funds from other charities on which the
Scheme depended. Compelled to abandon its
ruinous building in 1878, the school moved temporarily into the Albion Congregational Chapel
school-room in Baker Street where numbers fell
as low as 40 at one time in 1887. The town council,
the Charity Trustees, and the general public seemed
careless of its plight, and in 1885 there was talk of
handing it over to the School Board. (fn. 112) Academically
the Hull and East Riding College prospered under
Francis Bond; numbers rose but never exceeded
190, and with an all-graduate staff advanced work
developed, notably in science: the school had an
impressive record in public examinations, and in nine
years claimed 30 university scholarships and exhibitions. Corporate activities flourished, and after 1887
three, later six, entrance scholarships were awarded to
boys from elementary schools. Debt and dependence
on fees, however, made for constant insecurity. (fn. 113)
Much of the middle-class demand for secondary
education continued to be met by private schools,
though these were much fewer than earlier in the
century. Collegiate House School in Pryme Street,
taught by T. D. Ball, a former master of Holderness
Ward British School, was successful in the 1870s and
early 1880s, as was Eton House School, kept for
many years by R. G. Heys. For girls, private enterprise provided the only secondary education available, and numerous girls' schools existed in the
middle-class districts. Some of them offered mainly
social accomplishments, a few taught for the Cambridge 'Locals': one of these, in Anlaby Road, was
kept by two sisters, the Misses J. and C. S. Bremner,
the latter a determined feminist who later wrote
about the education of girls. (fn. 114)
The prospect in secondary education brightened
in 1887 when Dr. John Hymers, Rector of Brandesburton, bequeathed to Hull Corporation a residue
of nearly £170,000 'to found and endow' a grammar
school. The will, however, was contested, and the
fortune passed to an octogenarian brother who
nevertheless agreed to give £50,000 to carry out the
testator's wishes. At first it was assumed that the
money would be used to rehabilitate the Grammar
School; but, mainly through the efforts of J. T.
Woodhouse, Hymers College was founded instead as
a new endowed school. The people of Hull owed it,
said Woodhouse, 'to a stranger's penetrating observation of our intellectual torpor'. When Hymers
College opened in 1893 the Hull and East Riding
College went into voluntary liquidation lest competition should harm both schools. (fn. 115)
After 1893 the Grammar School was gradually
restored following several decades of academic impotence. In 1892 it moved into a new building in
Leicester Street; the long and energetic reign of
J. E. Forty began in 1893; and in 1896 a new scheme
of government restored full control to the corporation and reorganized the curriculum and finances.
Although numbers rose from 98 in 1893 to an
average of 250 by 1900, poverty and frequent staff
changes delayed its complete rehabilitation until the
present century. (fn. 116) Meanwhile Hull had acquired its
first public secondary school for girls. Miss C. S.
Bremner had made strenuous but unsuccessful
efforts to secure part of the Hymers bequest for
girls' education, and the publicity she obtained for
this led to the promotion of Hull High School for
Girls by the Church Schools Company, the shipowner Arthur Wilson, of Tranby Croft, being the
largest local shareholder. With Miss E. H. Cochrane
as headmistress the school opened in 1890. (fn. 117)
Compared with 1870 notable progress had been
made in secondary education by 1900, mainly in the
1890s. Excluding, however, the three higher-grade
schools and the junior technical school opened in
1894 by the Technical Instruction Committee,
none of which was properly a secondary school, it is
unlikely that as many as 600 boys and girls out of a
population of 240,000 were receiving a secondary
education in 1900.
Adult and Technical Education, 1830–1900
For two decades or more after its foundation the
Mechanics' Institute was an important educational
influence in Hull. It provided in the winter months
'courses of lectures in natural and experimental
philosophy, practical mechanics, astronomy, chemistry, literature, and the arts', and for some time at any
rate classes in more elementary subjects; it was a
forum of discussion and debate, and a meetingplace of different social groups. At first its meetings
were held in the Vicar's School and Salthouse Lane
National School, but in 1830 the institute erected
its own building in Charlotte Street, designed by
Charles Mountain, the younger. It moved in 1842
to no. 2 George Street, formerly the house of John
Staniforth, M.P., where the facilities eventually
included a library, reading room and news-room,
lecture hall, museum, and model room. (fn. 118) In 1857
there were 115 honorary members, 520 proprietary
members, 185 apprentice members, and—a recent
innovation—six women members. (fn. 119) By this time less
serious educational motives had been introduced
and, an attempt to convert the institute into a social
and recreational club having failed, a splinter group
had formed the Hull Athenaeum in 1848. (fn. 120) Complaints were also made that the working man was
kept out; in 1857 therefore 'operative mechanics
and labourers' were admitted to lectures, but not to
the reading room. (fn. 121) One of its stalwarts during this
period was J. D. Sollitt, a local pioneer of adult
education and popular science. (fn. 122) Educationally the
contribution of the Mechanics' Institute in and after
the 1860s was comparatively small; it was converted
into a limited liability company in 1895 but wound
up in 1898, some of its funds being devoted to art
and technical scholarships. (fn. 123)
Outside the Mechanics' Institute other voluntary
bodies offered education to artisans, shop assistants,
and clerks. Dedicated to the socialist and cooperative principles of Robert Owen, a 'Social
Institution' or Hall of Science existed on North
Church Side in 1839, but its duration is unknown. (fn. 124)
The Hull branch of the Y.M.C.A. started in 1847,
and in 1853 a mutual improvement society met in
Bowlalley Lane. (fn. 125) The Church Institute, founded
in 1845, aimed 'to promote the study of literature
and science . . . in subordination to religion', and
after various temporary abodes it was established
in 1865 in the former house of Dr. James Alderson
in Albion Street, when it had some 650 members.
With similar aims but without denominational
attachments, the Young People's Christian and
Literary Institute was founded in 1860, moving to
Charlotte Street in 1864. (fn. 126) As a focus of popular
adult education through evening classes this replaced the Mechanics' Institute and after 1869
became a vigorous centre of science-teaching under
the Science and Art Department, as also on a smaller
scale did the Church Institute after 1872. Working
men who had received little or no elementary schooling were taught in the 1850s and 1860s in night
classes organized by some parish clergy in National
schools. After 1870 the Friends' Adult School in
Mason Street became important, with one of the
largest attendances of any in Yorkshire. (fn. 127)
Middle-class adult education remained the
province of the Literary and Philosophical Society
and the Subscription Library, and these two bodies
joined forces to build the Royal Institution in Albion
Street as a common centre in 1853. (fn. 128) In the middle
years of the century the 'Lit and Phil', like the
Mechanics' Institute, became more recreational than
educational in purpose. It was during the 1870s,
under the presidency of Dr. Kelburne King, a
surgeon interested in science and education, that
the 'Lit and Phil' assumed a new role as a focus of
Meanwhile, considering the size of the town and
its importance as a port, technical education
scarcely existed. For many years vocational instruction for the sea was provided by private teachers
and two religious bodies, each primarily concerned
with seamen's welfare. Both the Mariners' Church
Society in Prince's Dock Street and the Sailors'
Institute in Waterhouse Lane organized winter
night classes in which voluntary teachers instructed
seamen and ships' apprentices in reading, writing,
arithmetic, and the elements of navigation. From
1872, however, Trinity House School, which had
received Science and Art Department grants for
teaching navigation since 1854, provided instruction
in a senior department for the certificate examinations of the Board of Trade. (fn. 129)
Two other institutions of vocational education
started during this period. As in other provincial
towns after the Apothecaries Act of 1815, a medical
school, the Hull and East Riding School of Anatomy
and Medicine, was established in 1831 and after 1833
was housed in Kingston Square. The promoters were
Dr. James Alderson and three surgeons, R. Craven,
R. Hardey, and E. Wallis. It was no more than a
proprietary institution maintained by local practitioners for the instruction of their pupils for the
examinations of the College of Surgeons and the
Society of Apothecaries, supplementing the clinical
training given in the Hull General Infirmary and in
the Hull and Sculcoates Dispensary. (fn. 130) The school's
effective life was short, local teaching resources no
doubt proving unequal to the rising standards in
Encouraged by the Science and Art Department's
grants, the School of Art was opened in 1861 to
teach applied art and industrial design in aid of
local manufactures. The motive force was G. H.
Lovell, master of St. James's boys' school, backed by
Alderman W. H. Moss, and a committee was formed
with Bethel Jacobs, a jeweller and silversmith, as
chairman. The school started in the Public Rooms
with William Pozzi as its first master, but it was the
second, Edwin Chandler, who saw it securely established on the grants earned by both day and evening
students at the Science and Art Department's
annual examinations. Soon after John Menzies
became master in 1875 the school was affiliated to
the Royal Institution, which transferred it to Albion
Street. (fn. 131)
After 1873, under the leadership particularly of
King and Rollit, the Royal Institution became a
vigorous centre of adult education in Hull. Science
classes were held there under the auspices of the
Science and Art Department, popular Saturdayafternoon lectures were given in its museum, and
the lectures of the 'Lit and Phil' took on a new and
more serious character. Already in 1873 the institution was seen potentially 'doing for Hull what Owens
College had done for Manchester', (fn. 132) and it was to
develop the institution further that in 1876, when
King was mayor and Rollit sheriff, the university
extension movement was introduced from Cambridge. (fn. 133) Two lecture-courses were given in the
winter of 1876–7. (fn. 134) In 1877, in addition to sessional
lectures, the first systematic three-year course was
launched with J. E. Symes as resident tutor; and,
with the co-operation of the School Board, courses
for pupil-teachers were started. (fn. 135) Rollit now had a
vision of a permanent college in Hull, like those
recently established in Leeds, Sheffield, and Nottingham; and in 1878 he persuaded the town council
to join these and other northern towns in memorializing the Privy Council against the grant of a university charter to Owens College, requesting instead a
federal university to which other provincial colleges
might be admitted. (fn. 136) With the active encouragement
of R. G. Moulton, then the resident Cambridge
tutor, a committee was formed in 1880 to raise a
capital fund to establish such a college; (fn. 137) but a year
later only £424 had been subscribed and the project
was shelved. (fn. 138) Hereafter, the movement for higher
education lost something of its impetus, though
the Extension Society with a small but devoted
following had a continuous record of activity for
over 40 years more, during which time it never
ceased to regard itself as the harbinger of a University of Hull. (fn. 139)
This stimulation of intellectual interest had other
consequences than an unsuccessful attempt to
found a college. In 1881 a campaign for a free
public library began, resulting in the foundation of
the James Reckitt Library in 1892 and the opening
of the Central Library in 1894. Further evidence of
varied interests aroused by the university extension
movement was the proliferation of cultural organizations. (fn. 140)
Technical education in the 1880s still consisted
mainly of Science and Art Department classes conducted in the Church Institute, the Young People's
Institute, and, on a higher level, in the School of
Art and the Royal Institution. After 1883 the latter
had a chemistry laboratory in Bond Street, with a
permanent salaried lecturer. (fn. 141) The university college
project having failed, an endeavour was next made
to found a technical school, its principal advocate
being T. B. Holmes, and a prominent supporter
Francis Bond. The need was sharpened by the report
of the Royal Commission on Technical Instruction
in 1884, which emphasized Hull's backwardness
by showing the progress made elsewhere. In 1887,
however, an appeal for the proposed technical
school attracted only £266. (fn. 142) Following the Technical Instruction Act of 1889 and the allotment in
1890 of 'whisky money' to enable the new county
and county borough councils to promote technical
education, the corporation appointed a Technical
Instruction Committee, its first members including
J. T. Woodhouse, Malet Lambert, Francis Bond,
and T. R. Ferens. (fn. 143) At first it used the money to
subsidize science-teaching in the Church Institute,
the Extension Society, and the Grammar School;
but in 1893 it resolved to establish a school of its
own instead, and in that year teaching started in
rented rooms. The following year Dr. J. T. Riley
was appointed to co-ordinate the committee's
activities, and the Municipal Technical School
officially began with Riley as principal. (fn. 144) Its several
departments, which included the School of Art
after 1895, were scattered until a permanent building
could be provided, a junior department for boys
being housed with the general office in Albion
Street. (fn. 145) Plans to erect a combined central library,
public hall, and technical school failed, and in 1898
the school settled in the adapted premises of the
Sailors' Orphans Homes in Park Street, where it
remained with mounting inconvenience for the
next 60 years. (fn. 146)
The Growth of a Local Educational System after 1902
Under the Education Act of 1902 the City and
County Borough of Hull became a local education
authority to provide elementary and higher education in consultation with the new Board of Education. From 30 September 1903 the Education
Committee of the city council took over from the
defunct School Board all the schools it had controlled; from the Technical Instruction Committee
it acquired the Technical School with its junior
department and the School of Art; and in addition it
became responsible for the teaching but not the
buildings of all the voluntary schools. Its secretary
was J. T. Riley and for many years its leading members included W. R. Locking and Malet Lambert,
previously of the School Board, now respectively
chairmen of the Elementary Education and Higher
Education Sub-Committees. (fn. 147)
The Authority's principal task was to develop
from the piecemeal institutions it had inherited a
co-ordinated system of elementary, secondary,
and technical education for a population which rose
from some 240,000 in 1901 to a peak of 321,500 in
1936. To some extent the early committee inherited
the outlook as well as the institutions of the School
Board: in higher education especially it was slow to
rise to its new responsibilities and opportunities, and
sometimes did so only after remonstrance from the
Board of Education.
After the School Board's desperate building
programme the chief need in elementary education
was less to provide new council schools than replace
the oldest and most defective of the voluntary
schools. Many of these were in obsolete and insanitary premises. St. Stephen's boys' school, with
an average attendance of 270, had no cloak-room,
no water-supply and only pail sanitation; the main
room had no heating but a central stove, and the
classrooms measured only 17 feet by 15 feet. (fn. 148)
Unable to meet the cost of improving such buildings
many of the Anglican managers were obliged to
merge or close departments. (fn. 149) The Roman Catholics
on the other hand not only retained all their schools
but added St. Vincent's in 1904. By 1913 the nonprovided school accommodation had fallen by some
6,000 places; by 1924 a total of 12 voluntary school
departments had closed and 11 others had been
transferred to the Authority. (fn. 150) To compensate for
this loss, and also to provide for the growing urban
fringe, four new council schools were built—Villa
Place, Selby Street, Sidmouth Street, and Southcoates Lane, all with boys', girls', junior, and infants'
departments; and to permit development of the
former higher-grade schools in Craven Street and
Boulevard, new primary schools were opened in
Craven Street and Saner Street in 1913. (fn. 151) A major
reorganization was planned after the Education
Act of 1918, including the eventual formation of 17
central or senior schools for boys and 19 for girls;
but for some years the only ones actually constituted
were Thoresby Street and Estcourt Street for girls
and Brunswick Avenue for boys. (fn. 152) Expansion on any
scale did not begin until the later 1920s.
In providing special education the Authority
lagged during its early period. To the day centre for
deaf children established by the School Board the
committee added in 1908 a centre for mentallyhandicapped children in Blenkin Street School,
renamed Malton Street School in 1913. (fn. 153) The
Truant School for boys in Marlborough Terrace
was closed in 1909, but that for girls continued in
Park Avenue until 1920, when the building was converted into a special school for physically-handicapped children. (fn. 154) An important innovation in 1908
was the school medical service. This was organized
by Dr. J. W. Fraser, and in 1914 a clinic was provided.
As elsewhere, the school-meals service developed
less rapidly; in 1923 some 2,200 children out of
about 49,000 were receiving dinners at ten canteens,
mostly in church halls. (fn. 155)
Secondary education also progressed slowly,
partly because of its earlier backwardness, partly
because of the committee's inexperience and narrowness. From 1905 the three higher-grade schools were
conducted as co-educational secondary schools, but
the Board complained that they more resembled
senior elementary schools, with their over-large
classes, early leaving age, and inadequately qualified
staffs. (fn. 156) The junior technical school remained a
trade school and a department of the Municipal
Technical School. Although not provided by the
Authority, Hymers College was rate-aided after 1906,
and so was the Grammar School after 1909, though
this continued to be managed by its own council
committee until 1945. (fn. 157) Hull High School remained
independent, and was recognized by the Board in
1918. To these the Convent of Mercy in Anlaby
Road added in 1905 St. Mary's Secondary School,
partly as a Roman Catholic pupil-teacher centre,
partly as an extension of a small private middleclass school earlier kept by the Sisters. (fn. 158) Academically the leading school in Hull during the next
twenty years was Hymers College under C. H. Gore.
The Grammar School gradually recovered from its
long decline, and the three municipal secondary
schools more slowly built up approved standards. (fn. 159)
After some pressure from the Board Brunswick
Avenue was converted into the Central Secondary
School for Girls in 1907, its first head mistress being
Miss G. H. Rowland. A new building for it in Cottingham Road was completed in 1914 but, because
of the war, not occupied until 1920, when the school
became Newland High School. (fn. 160) In 1924 these
seven secondary schools together had some 3,500
pupils, or 7.2 per cent. of the total school population
of just under 49,000. The Authority then awarded
175 scholarships each year to the secondary schools,
and only 4 university scholarships, though these
last were increased, after some criticism from the
Board of Education, to 12 in 1925 and 17 in 1928. (fn. 161)
Because of the war and the consequent economic
depression no school building was possible between
1914 and 1924, but in the late 1920s a period of
expansion and reorganization began. A development
plan, prepared in 1925, was put into effect by R. C.
Moore, the new Director of Education, in 1926.
It aimed to reduce the size of classes, to improve and
increase secondary school accommodation, to provide
for new housing estates rising on the city perimeter
as a result of increasing population and central slum
clearance, and to begin the reorganization of all-age
schools along lines recently advocated by the Hadow
Report. These tasks were undertaken with energy,
and before war came again in 1939 the Authority
had built in the main new residential districts
fourteen primary schools or schools having separate
infant, junior, and senior departments, the latter
type based on a standard triple-quadrangle plan.
To these the Roman Catholics added two junior
and infants' schools—Endsleigh Holy Child and the
Sacred Heart. Progress was also made in the reorganization of existing schools, but only those
provided by the Authority, and by 1938 as many
as 129 departments out of a total of 181 had been
reorganized. (fn. 162) The Roman Catholics planned to
reconstitute St. Mary's, St. Charles's, and St.
Wilfrid's in order to provide senior departments;
they also proposed a new 'special agreement' school
under the Education Act of 1936, as did the Church
of England. The Anglicans, however, were now
dropping behind: St. Paul's and St. Mark's had
already been transferred to the Authority, and, much
diminished, Trinity and Salthouse Lane closed in
1939, leaving the Old Town without a single school.
Only four Church of England schools then survived
—St. James's, Newland, Drypool, and Sutton—
compared with nine Roman Catholic schools. (fn. 163)
Meanwhile, special educational provision steadily
improved. Classes for partially-sighted children were
started in Osborne Street and Lambert Street
schools in 1928 and 1929, the open-air school in
Cottingham Road was built in 1931, the deaf
school was transferred in 1937 to a more rural
setting at Sutton, nursery classes increased from
five in 1931 to thirteen in 1938, and in 1939 the
McMillan Nursery School was built. (fn. 164)
Secondary education also saw progress after the
mid-1920s. To the existing schools the Roman
Catholics added another when the Marist Brothers
opened their college for boys in Cottingham Road
in 1925, though it was not put on the Board's grant
list until 1936. (fn. 165) Under pressure from the Board
the junior technical school was placed under its
own head master in 1926 and thereafter named
Riley High School, but plans to develop it as a
recognized secondary school on a separate site in
Cottingham Road were unsuccessful. (fn. 166) Because of
congestion Craven Street Municipal Secondary and
Boulevard were rehoused and became Malet
Lambert High School and Kingston High School
respectively. (fn. 167) Meanwhile the Grammar School,
much overcrowded despite the addition of another
block in 1928, was deprived of a new building in
Bricknell Avenue by the outbreak of war in 1939. (fn. 168)
As the basis of a local system of higher education
the council inherited from the Technical Instruction
Committee in 1903 the Art School and the Technical
School. The Art School with 128 day and 94
evening students, urgently needed improvement, and
a new building for it was opened in Anlaby Road
in 1905. The building is a striking one, the design
being by Lanchester, Stewart, and Rickards,
mainly from Italian sources. (fn. 169) In 1911 there were
189 full-time and 251 part-time students, but the
varied work of the school was covered by a staff
of only six. (fn. 170) The Technical School had barely
established itself at Park Street when the L.E.A.
took it over. Apart from the junior department,
eventually to become Riley High School, the school's
full-time courses were organized in three departments of engineering, chemical industries, and
commerce; and there was a detached School for
Fishermen, teaching seamanship, in Hessle Road.
Much of the work in all departments was done by
occasional teachers in evening classes, mainly at Park
Street but also at a branch school held in the Young
People's Institute and at others in council schools.
In both day and evening classes the courses were
mainly short and narrowly vocational; work of
degree standard was rare, and it was only in 1909
that the institution was dignified by the change of
name from school to college. During the session
1911–12 there were, including the junior department, 278 day and 1,564 evening students, taught
by a full-time staff of 20, of whom 8 had graduate
qualifications, and 42 occasional teachers. (fn. 171)
Two other institutions of higher education came
into being during this period. In 1905 Endsleigh
Training College was established by the Sisters of
Mercy of Anlaby Road Convent in a house acquired
by them in Beverley Road in 1900. The first
principal was Mother Mary Stanislaus Dawson, who
had started a pupil-teacher centre in the Convent
in 1900 to increase the supply of Roman Catholic
women teachers in the diocese at the Bishop of
Middlesbrough's request, and the college was opened
with 16 students and 2 student Sisters. When the
building was finished in 1907 numbers rose to 90,
where they remained until 1928 when a new extension permitted an increase to 180. (fn. 172) Spurred by this
example, and by renewed proposals for a university
college, the city council resolved in 1907 to establish
a municipal training college for men and women.
A semi-rural site was chosen in Cottingham Road
and plans made for a college of 150 students—100
men lodged in Wilberforce Hall, 50 women in
Marvell Hall. Because of the dearth of candidates
for the teaching profession at that time, the college
opened in September 1913 with only 126 students
and a staff of 9, the principal being Ivor B. John and
the vice-principal Miss C. T. Cumberbirch. (fn. 173) In
1916 Miss Cumberbirch was made acting and then
permanent principal of what during the war became
practically a women's college. In 1919–20 there were
153 women students and 14 men day students. For
a time during the difficult post-war period the
Authority contemplated closing the college for a
term of five years, but resolved to keep it in being
as a college for women. (fn. 174)
Hull's gravest educational deficiency lay in
technical and commercial training, and this deficiency was a frequent complaint of the Board of
Education. Compared with cities of similar size Hull
remained conspicuously backward. The Technical
College premises in Park Street were ill-equipped
and overcrowded: more staff was needed, more
advanced courses, more co-operation with local
industry; furthermore, the Board considered that
the junior technical school and the central school
of commerce should be completely detached from
the college. (fn. 175) A report in 1918 recommended a
technical college providing full-time and part-time
courses to degree standard in pure and applied
science, and in engineering, commercial, and professional studies, biased towards local industry. (fn. 176)
The idea of a university college had been kept alive
by the Extension Society, which the Education
Committee assisted by grant, and it was hoped that
the higher departments of the reorganized Technical
College might eventually develop into an institution
of university rank. Already in 1906 a scheme for a
university college had been submitted to the city
council by a local barrister, W. H. Owen; its components were to be the Technical College, transferred to another site, together with a teachers'
training college, and this last was established in
1913. (fn. 177) In 1921 plans were made for a technical
college building to cost £150,000; a site was chosen
in Cottingham Road, near the Training College and
Newland High School; but because of the prevailing
depression the Board refused to sanction its purchase. Thereupon, in March 1922, the Rt. Hon.
T. R. Ferens, chairman of Reckitt & Sons, bought
the 18½-acre site and presented it to the city so that
the council's intentions for the Technical College
could be realized. (fn. 178) Nothing, however, had been
done to further those intentions by 1925, when the
college produced only eight successful B.Sc. candidates out of a total of 663 day and evening students;
and that year Ferens presented the city with
£250,000 in Reckitts' shares in order to found a
university college. (fn. 179)
Preparations for the establishment of the university college were immediately begun by a planning
committee called by Ferens, the leading members
being Malet Lambert, J. T. Riley, and Alderman
Askew, chairman of the Education Committee. Soon
afterwards detailed arrangements were committed
to an organizing board representing the city council
and local industry. The city offered to transfer to
the board the site in Cottingham Road given by
Ferens, to erect and equip a building there to the
cost of £150,000, and to make an annual maintenance grant of £2,500; and this was to be on the
assumption that the more advanced teaching of
science and engineering in the projected technical
college would devolve upon the new university
college, which the council clearly expected to be an
extension of its own institution. (fn. 180) This, however,
was not the view of A. E. Morgan, appointed principal in 1926. He intended a university college of two
faculties, arts and pure science, the only concessions
to local needs being the inclusion of commerce and
marine biology. The Board of Education was less
interested in the college than it was concerned about
the future of technical education in Hull. Though
prepared to sanction the building grant of £150,000
the Board made it clear that any further corporation
expenditure on the college, either in capital or
current grants, might not be sanctioned until there
had been improvement in technical provisions; and
this, it suggested, might not be best combined
with the university college. (fn. 181) When the Board later
refused to approve for grant purposes the L.E.A.'s
annual contribution of £2,500, the Authority paid
it entirely out of the rates. (fn. 182)
The University College was incorporated on 7
October 1927, and a court and council subsequently
constituted; the first chairman of the council was
Malet Lambert, who thus crowned over forty years
voluntary service to education in Hull. Shortly
before the College was officially opened a course in
law for articled clerks was started and in December
of that year a professor of adult education was
appointed. The original site having been enlarged
by other purchases of land and the first building
being sufficiently advanced, the college was opened
to students on 11 October 1928. It was organized in
15 departments, grouped in two faculties, and
staffed by 16 teachers. There were 35 full-time
students of whom 12 were resident: 7 women in
Thwaite Hall and 5 men in Needler Hall. The
absorption of the Training College, which was an
early possibility, did not find acceptance because
that college was confined to women students taking
a two-year course. (fn. 183)
Poverty gravely handicapped the University
College from the beginning. An appeal for £250,000
launched in 1927 had produced only £78,000 before
it was suspended because of the national economic
situation. (fn. 184) Under the will of G. F. Grant, a friend
of Ferens, the college received £100,000 in 1930,
and this was used to endow chairs in English,
history, mathematics, and chemistry. (fn. 185) Other bequests under Ferens's will in 1930 were insufficient
to prevent the college from mortgaging its property
and accumulating a mounting overdraft. (fn. 186) Without a
Treasury grant, and with little prospect of receiving
one, growth was slow. In 1930 a department of
education was established, oceanography was introduced, and a diploma course in aeronautics
started in collaboration with the Technical College.
The applied science or engineering work of the
Technical College was not taken over as the corporation had originally expected, however, and this
caused ill feeling. The largest number of full-time
students was 205 in 1935–6 and the average throughout the 1930s 177. (fn. 187) In one sphere the college did
pioneering work: its adult education department
with a professorial head represented a new form of
organization, and its short courses, designed to make
the college known in its region, broke new ground—
not without causing some acrimony among the
various interested bodies. When Morgan resigned
in 1935 to be succeeded by Dr. J. H. Nicholson, the
college was still small and obscure, but its future
advance had already been determined.
Meanwhile, the Technical College remained in
Park Street, although plans for a new building went
ahead. To ease pressure some of its departments
were detached and made autonomous; already in
1920 the School for Fishermen had become the
Boulevard Nautical School, in 1926 Riley High
School was separated, and so in 1930 was the College
of Commerce, and the latter developed full-time
day courses after 1936 when it took over the Boys'
Central School building in Brunswick Avenue. (fn. 188)
Responsibility for evening classes was also taken
over by the Authority, which played an energetic
part in adult education during the 1930s. Not only
did it assist the Workers' Educational Association,
the Young People's Institute, and the extension
work of the University College; it also eventually
provided 19 evening institutes for technical and
commercial subjects or for practical and recreational
study, a literary institute for men and women,
three junior instruction centres for unemployed
young persons, and a community centre on the North
Hull Estate. (fn. 189)
The work of the Art School was also expanded.
Under a new principal it became the College of
Art and Crafts in 1930, when a junior department
was opened offering a two-year course for pupils
from 13 to 15. After 1935 the main work of the
college was organized in three schools of architecture
(including a full-time five-year course), industrial
design, and crafts, drawing, and painting. By 1937
it had outgrown its accommodation and overflowed
into the first of several annexes. (fn. 190)
Educational Development since 1945
Nearly 11,000 places were lost during the war
through bombing; many school buildings were
damaged and some wholly or partially destroyed. (fn. 191)
The war over, some 2,000 children returned from
evacuation, and when the leaving age was raised in
1947 another 4,000 were added to the school
population. That population leapt from 36,102 in
1945 to 41,544 in 1947 and 50,553 in 1953—an
increase further aggravated by the redistribution of
population in new housing estates. The number of
children receiving school dinners also rose from
4,500 in 1939 to 15,500 in 1951. As emergency
measures huts were used, primary schools occupied
vacant places in senior departments, and accommodation was hired in church halls. (fn. 192)
A development plan, as required of the Authority
by the Education Act, was approved by the Ministry
of Education in 1948. None of the existing senior
schools was then considered adaptable as a secondary modern school and all were eventually to
become primary schools. Ten primary schools,
those most extensively war-damaged, were to be
closed and fourteen new ones erected on growing
housing estates, including two voluntary schools,
one Roman Catholic, one Anglican. A striking
feature of the plan was the scheme for 111 nursery
schools providing for at least half the two-to-five
age group. In secondary education the tripartite
system was accepted. Twenty-seven modern schools,
only two of them co-educational, were to be built
on the city perimeter; two technical schools for
girls were planned; Riley High School was to have a
new building; and the junior technical schools were
to be rehoused as technical high schools—of
engineering, building, commerce, art and crafts,
and nautical training. Little expansion of grammar-
school provision was proposed, but there was to be
a new building for Hull Grammar School, which
had passed under the Authority's control in 1945.
One innovation was the proposal for two giant comprehensive schools, each of 2,430 pupils, to serve
north and east Hull. The total estimated cost of
the plan was £10,000,000 spread over fifteen years. (fn. 193)
Initially the execution of the plan was hindered
amongst other things by local deep-drainage
problems which prevented the use of many sites.
Nevertheless every year from 1950 to 1963 saw an
average of four new schools completed. During this
period 35 primary schools were opened, three of
them voluntary: Archbishop William Temple (1954)
and Newland St. John (1962), both Anglican, and
St. Bede's Roman Catholic (1962). (fn. 194) To the
secondary schools created by the reorganization or
the conversion of former senior departments ten
new ones were added. Two of them were coeducational 'special agreement' schools: Alderman
Cogan's (1957), which replaced Cogan's Charity
School, and was the first Church of England
secondary modern school in Hull; and St. Richard's
(1962), which was Hull's first Roman Catholic
modern school. (fn. 195)
At the secondary stage technical education at last
received proper attention. Riley High School was
rehoused and two other technical schools, Newton
Hall and Kelvin Hall, were established in combination with modern schools, each group sharing a
common campus. The four high schools attached to
the Technical College, the College of Commerce,
the Regional College of Art, and the Nautical
College were further developed, but still awaited
separation and buildings of their own in 1963.
Continuing independent and in its original surroundings, Trinity House Navigation School was
another secondary technical school.
By comparison grammar-school accommodation
was much less expanded. Hull Grammar School and
St. Mary's Grammar School moved to new sites.
To cope with increased numbers all the other grammar schools added to their buildings, extensively
so in the case of Hymers College and Marist
College. The L.E.A.'s secondary school policy thus
followed the tripartite pattern; the two campus
schools achieved nothing new in the way of organization and were not repeated. In 1963, however,
the first of several comprehensive schools, the David
Lister, was under construction, foreshadowing new
developments. (fn. 196)
Special educational provision improved slowly
during this period. In 1953 a school for the partiallysighted was opened in huts in Wold Road, and in
1954 a residential school for educationally subnormal boys at Aldwark Manor, near York. The
school for physically-handicapped children, renamed the Frederick Holmes School, moved to a
new site adjacent to the open-air school in 1963,
later to be joined by the school for educationally
sub-normal pupils, housed since 1945 in the old
Northumberland Avenue Board School building.
Notwithstanding the development plan nursery
education stood still during these years; apart from
12 nursery classes there were only two nursery
schools: the McMillan, established in a speciallydesigned building in 1945, and Northumberland
Avenue, opened in 1948 in the same building as
the educationally sub-normal school.
Further education developed considerably after
the war. The Authority's Scheme of Further Education issued in 1948 proposed an improved Nautical
College in Boulevard, and the development of an
educational centre around Queen's Gardens containing central colleges of technology, commerce,
and art and crafts, together with a new adult
college of liberal studies, the whole to form 'a
responsible single academic institution . . . that . . .
shall develop so that it will be in a position to
achieve university status or a status comparable
with that of a university'. (fn. 197) Between 1945 and 1953
attendance at all four vocational colleges nearly
doubled and they were in desperate need of new
accommodation, using altogether, in addition to
their central premises, seventeen different annexes
scattered about the city. In 1956, when there were
530 full-time and 3,800 part-time students, the
College of Technology moved into the new workshop block in Queen's Gardens, and the opening
in 1962 of the impressive nine-story main building, (fn. 198)
designed by the consultant city architect Frederick
Gibberd, marked the first stage towards the realization of the Authority's grand project.
In 1962 the Authority maintained 138 primary
schools with 35,320 pupils, and 44 secondary schools
with 20,003 pupils. Of 13-year-olds, 10 per cent.
were still in all-age schools, 64.2 per cent. were in
modern schools, 10.1 per cent. in grammar schools,
11.2 per cent. in technical schools, and 3.8 per cent.
in 'other secondary schools'. Notwithstanding the
active building programme the percentage of oversize classes remained much above the national
average, partly because of a chronic shortage of
teachers, and many obsolete premises continued in
use. (fn. 199) To eliminate these, a three-year building plan
was proposed in 1963, providing for 8 new schools,
a college of art and crafts, the replacement of 9 old
schools, and the modernization of 19 others. (fn. 200)
Both training colleges quitted Hull temporarily
during the war, and the municipal college closed
for a year. The war over, both recovered their former
numbers but they saw little important change,
apart from their association with the University
College Institute of Education after 1948, until the
national expansion of teacher training which started
in 1959. Thereafter, with government encouragement, they rapidly increased their students and
buildings, adopting a three-year course in 1962.
By 1963 Kingston upon Hull Training College,
admitting men again, had grown to 480 mixed
students, Endsleigh to 440 women students, both
colleges adding considerably to their buildings. (fn. 201)
The war brought the University College very near
to closure. Although it escaped material damage
and only one department, that of education, was
evacuated (to Cambridge), full-time students fell
to 91, the number of staff was reduced, and the
financial situation became critical. For this reason
nothing came of the city council's offer to transfer
to the University College the council's own training
college in 1940 and the architectural teaching of its
College of Art and Crafts in 1942. In 1945, however,
the college was visited and approved by the University Grants Committee and consequently placed on
the Treasury grant list. In the next five years the
college shared in the general post-war expansion,
growing from 174 to 917 full-time students. (fn. 202)
Fortunately at this stage the 62-acre estate accumulated before the war provided ample space for
growth; temporary huts were used for both teaching
and laboratory work, and a former army camp
at Cottingham was used as a men's hall. The
Institute of Education was formed in 1948 to coordinate teacher training and provide professional
services for teachers in the area; additional departments of geology, music, and psychology were
created; new subjects, including Swedish and Finnish, were added to existing departments; and
courses were introduced for Sister Tutors and
Health Visitors. In the early 1950s the first permanent buildings to cater for the expansion were
erected—a students' union and a chemistry block,
and Ferens Hall for men and Cleminson Hall for
women, both in Cottingham. Encouraged by these
developments and by a 'special relationship' with
the University of London in the conduct of degree
examinations, the college petitioned for a university
charter, and this was granted in 1954, only nine years
after the college had received Treasury assistance. (fn. 203)
It was as first vice-chancellor that Dr. J. H. Nicholson resigned in 1956.
Between 1956 and 1961, with Dr. Brynmor
Jones as vice-chancellor, the university mainly
consolidated its existing departments, the only major
new building being the library. Nevertheless fulltime students increased from 1,066 in 1956 to 1,942
in 1962, with a steadily rising proportion of research
students and 'distant' as opposed to local students,
an increase which brought acute problems of residential accommodation. (fn. 204) In 1962 a period of rapid
expansion began, inaugurated by a development
appeal for £250,000. Applied physics, American,
South-East Asian, and Commonwealth studies,
biochemistry, drama, and sociology were among the
first of several new departments created to enlarge
and diversify teaching and research. (fn. 205) A master plan
for the whole site, designed by Sir Leslie Martin,
was put into operation with the intention of providing academic and residential buildings for a
university likely to grow rapidly in numbers. (fn. 206) Of
the many notable post-war educational developments
in Hull the growth of the university in size and
standing must be accounted among the most remarkable.
Schools in Existence before 1945
This list includes charity, voluntary, proprietary,
board, and council schools, and also secondary
modern schools formed in or after 1945 out of
senior departments of pre-1945 elementary schools,
and still in their original premises in 1963. It does
not include private schools or institutions of adult
or higher education. The high schools for art and
crafts, building, commerce, and nautical training,
which in 1963 were still integral parts of the parent
colleges, are also excluded.
The principal sources used are: Reports of the
Committee of Council; Reports of the Science and
Art Department; Minutes of the Hull School Board;
Minutes of Hull Education Committee; Board of
Education List 21, 1906, 1919, 1927, 1936, and
1938; Hull directories and newspapers; The
Education Authorities Directory, 1932, 1938, and 1963.
Abbreviations used: accn., accommodation; av.
att., average attendance; bd., board; Brit., British;
C.E., Church of England; dept., department;
infs., infants; L.E.A., local education authority;
Nat., National; R.C., Roman Catholic; sch., school.
Ainthorpe Grove: a combined junior and infs.'
sch. opened with accn. for 400 in 1932, a separate
junior block for 400 being added in 1935. In 1936
a senior mixed sch. was opened and after 1945 this
became Ainthorpe High Sch.
Ainthorpe High: formed after 1945 as a secondary
modern sch. from the senior sch. at Ainthorpe
Grove. It had 660 pupils in 1963.
Albion Congregational: opened in Baker St. in
1867 but conducted by the trustees only until
1873 when it was leased to the Sch. Bd. Condemned
by Her Majesty's Inspector for this purpose, the
building housed the Grammar Sch. from 1878 to
Alderman Cogan's: founded in 1753 (see p. 349)
to train 20 poor girls for domestic service and housed
in Salthouse Lane until 1889 when it moved to
the former Lister's Hospital in Park St. After 1836
it was controlled by the Hull Charity Trustees and
from 1890 to 1903 received government grant.
Numbers rose slowly to 130 by 1897, and then
declined. Having outlived its original usefulness the
sch. closed in 1950. The endowments went to form
Ald. Cogan High Sch., opened in 1957.
Beverley Rd.: established by the Sch. Bd. in
1887 for 320 boys, 320 girls, and 255 infs. and enlarged to 1,211 places by a new junior block in 1908.
Av. att. was 1,043 in 1911 and 681 in 1938. The boys
were withdrawn in 1953 to form Wilberforce High
Sch., leaving senior girls', mixed junior, and infs.'
Beverley Rd. Wesleyan: grew out of a Sunday sch.
in Grosvenor St. in 1871 and had places for 242 boys
and 111 infs. It was closed in 1892.
Blenkin St.: opened by the Sch. Bd. in 1889 with
places for 286 boys, 297 girls, and 273 infs. The
infs.' dept. closed in 1907, the girls' in 1908, leaving
a boys' sch. of 550, later reduced to 210, which
closed in 1937. Northumberland Ave. Special Sch.
shared the building from 1908 to 1939.
Blundell St.: a bd. sch. opened in 1878 for 750
pupils, later 797 (278 boys, 273 girls, and 246 infs.).
Av. att. was 701 in 1904 and 522 in 1938. In 1944,
after war damage, it became a junior mixed sch.
Boulevard Higher Grade (later Secondary): see
Bricknell Avenue: opened in 1933 as a combined
junior and infs.' sch. with 400 places and reorganized in 1949 when a new junior block for 480
Brunswick Avenue Senior: opened in 1920 in the
building vacated by Newland High Sch. with places
for 720 boys. Av. att. in 1927 was 563. It was closed
in 1936 to allow the development of the College of
Commerce, which shared the building.
Buckingham St.: established by the Sch. Bd. in
1883 with 790 places in 3 depts. A junior block
added in 1894 increased accn. to 996 (260 boys,
260 girls, 237 juniors, and 239 infs.). Av. att. was
1,057 in 1911 and 773 in 1938. From 1922 to 1935
there were two separate junior depts. and no senior
girls. The junior dept. closed in 1946 leaving allage boys' and girls' depts. and infs.
Cavendish Rd.: a combined junior and infs.' sch.
with 400 places opened in 1938 and reorganized as
two schs. in 1951, when a separate junior block for
480 was built. In 1963 there were 478 infs. and 360
juniors on roll.
Central Higher Grade (later Secondary): the Sch.
Bd.'s first higher-grade sch., opened in Brunswick
Avenue in 1891 with accn. for 600 boys and 520
girls, developed in 1905 into the Central Municipal
Secondary Sch. This was restricted to girls in 1907,
and moved in 1920 to new premises as Newland
High Sch. From 1920 to 1936 the building housed
Brunswick Avenue Senior Sch. for boys, and after
1936 the College and High Sch. of Commerce.
Chapman St.: opened in 1885 by the Sch. Bd. to
accommodate 866 pupils. A junior block added in
1902 increased accn. to 1,163 (310 boys, 310 girls,
300 juniors, and 243 infs.). Av. att. fell from 951 in
1904 to 552 in 1938. The junior dept. closed after
war damage in 1941 leaving all-age boys' and girls'
depts. and infs.
Charterhouse High: see Charterhouse Lane.
Charterhouse Lane: opened in 1882 by the Sch.
Bd. for 251 boys, 251 girls, and 243 infs. This accn.
remained unchanged but av. att. fell from 676 in
1904 to 392 in 1938. In 1950 it became a secondary
modern sch. named Charterhouse High Sch. and had
150 boys in 1963.
Chiltern St.: a bd. sch. opened in 1889 for 283
boys, 283 girls, and 293 infs. but enlarged to 1,159
places when a junior sch. was added in 1901. It
was reorganized by the L.E.A. to take 300 boys,
300 girls, 300 mixed juniors, and 259 infs., and av.
att. was 1,108 in 1904 and 784 in 1938. The boys
were transferred in 1957 to Boulevard High Sch.,
leaving senior girls', junior, and infs.' depts.
Christ Church Nat.: established in King St. in
1832 with places for 240 boys and an av. att. of 170
in 1848. A larger two-story building providing for
520 boys and girls was erected in John St. next to the
church in 1849. Av. att. was 388 in 1852 and 235 in
1866. An infs.' dept. was opened in King St. c. 1875
and total accn. rose to 684. This was reduced after
1903 to 519—181 boys, 174 girls, and 164 infs. The
infs.' dept. closed in 1912, the remaining two in
Clifton St.: a bd. sch. opened in 1889 accommodating 250 boys, 252 girls, and 276 (later 245)
infs. Av. att. was 761 in 1904, 601 in 1938. In 1950
the senior boys went to form Charterhouse High
Sch., leaving all-age girls' and infs.' depts.
Constable St.: built by the Sch. Bd. in 1879 for
788 pupils but enlarged by a new junior block in
1895 and later alterations to 1,213 places. Av. att.
was 1,077 in 1904 and 1,062 in 1936. The senior boys
were withdrawn to Boulevard High Sch. in 1957,
leaving senior girls, juniors, and infs.
Convent: an independent R.C. day and boarding
sch. established in Park Grove in 1907 by the
Canonesses of St. Augustine, who had come to
Hull from Versailles after the French anti-clerical
laws of 1904. After 1939 the boarders were detached,
first at Boynton, later at Rise. The day sch. in Hull
had 31 junior boys and 221 girls in 1962.
Courtney St.: the Sch. Bd.'s second sch., opened
in 1874 at a cost of £6,546 for 816 pupils. A junior
dept. added in 1895 and other alterations enlarged
accn. to 1,071 (296 boys, 296 girls, 206 juniors, and
273 infs.). Av. att. was 962 in 1904 and 758 in 1938.
The junior dept. closed after war damage in 1941
and all-age boys' and girls' depts. and infs. remained.
Craven High: formed in 1945 from the senior
dept. of Craven St. Sch., absorbing the senior
pupils of Crowle St. It had 630 attending in 1963.
Craven St.: was originally the junior and infs.'
depts. of Craven St. Higher Grade Sch.; when this
became a secondary sch. these depts. were detached
and in 1913 occupied a new building with places for
360 mixed juniors and 300 infs. Av. att. was 602
in 1919, 513 in 1936. In 1932 a senior mixed dept.
with 600 places was established in the premises
vacated by Malet Lambert High Sch., and this
became Craven High Sch. in 1945.
Craven St. Higher Grade (later Secondary): see
Malet Lambert High.
Crowle St.: erected by the Sch. Bd. in 1884 for 796
pupils; a new junior block in 1897 increased accn.
to 1,072, later reduced to 1,036 (266 boys, 266 girls,
261 mixed juniors, and 243 infs.). Av. att. was 1,001
in 1911 and 768 in 1938. Senior boys and girls
were transferred to Craven High Sch. in 1945
leaving a combined junior and inf. sch.
Daltry St.: the Sch. Bd.'s first sch., opened in
1874 and costing £6,634. It accommodated 250
boys, 250 girls, and 250 infs., and this became the
Bd.'s standard plan. A junior dept. was added in
1896 and after reconstruction in 1901 accn. was
1,019. Av. att. was 1,023 in 1904 and 986 in 1927.
The boys' dept. closed in 1927, the girls' in 1936,
leaving infs.' and separate junior depts. which were
amalgamated after war damage in 1942.
Day St. Brit.: provided by the trustees of the
closed Dock Green Sch. in 1868 and conducted on
non-sectarian principles but with government grant,
voluntaryism having failed at the earlier sch. Accn.
rose to 765 in 1882, av. att. then being 588 and 633
in 1904. In 1906 it was transferred to the L.E.A.
which closed the infs.' dept. in 1907, the boys' in
1916, and the girls' in 1922.
Dock Green Brit.: the first Hull sch. to be assisted
by a government building grant. Opened in Edward's
Place in 1833. In 1841 pupils numbered 437 and
av. att. was 330. Its later trustees were voluntaryists,
who refused all government aid; it nearly closed
in 1848 and closed finally in 1865.
Drypool C.E.: opened in Church St. in a twostory building erected in 1828–9, boys on the ground
floor, girls above. Some 420 children were enrolled
in 1833, av. att. in 1849 being 180. This building
was replaced by a larger one in Prospect Place in
1864, planned for 250 boys, 150 girls, and 180 infs.;
but total accn. reached 750 by 1895. In 1914 boys and
girls combined as one dept. of 333, inf. accn. being
140. Av. att. in 1936 was 351. The building was
wrecked by bombs in 1941 and the sch. discontinued.
Archbp. William Temple, opened in 1954, was a
substitute sch. (see p. 370).
Eastfield High: formed in 1945 from the senior
dept. of Eastfield Rd. Sch. It had 510 pupils in 1963.
Eastfield Rd.: a combined junior and infs.' sch.
with 400 places, opened in 1930 and reorganized as
two schs. when a separate junior block was added in
1936. Also in 1936 a senior mixed dept. of 400 places
was built and this became Eastfield High Sch. in
Endike High: formed after 1945 from the senior
dept. of Endike Lane Sch. It had 320 pupils in 1963.
Endike Lane: a combined junior and infs.' sch. for
400 was opened in 1932 and formed two separate
depts. in 1938 when a junior block was erected. A
senior dept. for 520 boys was added in 1937 and
this became Endike High Sch. after 1945.
Endsleigh R.C. (formerly Holy Child): opened in
Inglemire Lane in 1927 for 200 junior mixed and
infs. and intended as a demonstration sch. for
Endsleigh Training College. Its accn. was later
increased and in 1963 there were 440 pupils, all
Estcourt High: see Estcourt St.
Estcourt St.: one of the Sch. Bd.'s last buildings,
opened in 1902 for 520 mixed seniors and 520
juniors, and with a separate infs.' dept. for 290,
later increased to 390. With 1,430 places it was then
Hull's largest sch. After 1923 the senior dept. was
developed as a central sch. for girls. The building
was destroyed by bombing in 1941; juniors and infs.
were transferred and the central sch. occupied
temporary premises until a new building was ready
in Hopewell Rd. in 1945. Renamed Estcourt High
Sch. it has since become a secondary sch. with
a technical bias, having 610 pupils in 1963.
Fifth Avenue: known as Endike Lane West until
1937, this began in 1932 as a permanent infs.' sch.
for 400 and a temporary junior mixed sch. for 600.
In 1936 permanent depts. for 400 junior girls and
520 senior girls were opened, and in 1937 the junior
boys, still occupying the temporary huts, became
Twenty-first Avenue Sch. In 1938 there were 407
infs., 362 junior girls, and 351 senior girls. This last
dept. became Fifth Avenue High Sch. in 1945.
Fifth Avenue High: formed in 1945 from the Fifth
Avenue Sch. senior girls' dept. In 1963 it had 490
Fish St. Congregational: opened in 1872 with 594
places, the church having kept a Sunday sch. since
1813 and a week-day night class since the 1850s.
The managers transferred it in 1877 to the Sch. Bd.
which closed it in 1901.
Flinton Grove: started in 1928 with hutted accn.
for mixed seniors, juniors, and infs. Permanent
buildings were opened in 1931 for 400 infs., 400
juniors, and 520 senior girls, but the temporary
premises continued in use for juniors and infs.
Thus in 1936 1,920 places altogether were provided,
a figure reduced to 1,840 by 1938. The huts were
destroyed during the war. After 1945 there were three
schs.: Flinton High and separate juniors and infs.
Flinton High: formed after 1945 from the senior
dept. of Flinton Grove Sch. It had 480 girls in 1963.
Fountain Rd.: a bd. sch. opened in 1877 with 795
(later 788) places in boys', girls', and infs.' depts.
Av. att. was 907 in 1889, 709 in 1919, and 651 in
1938. The sch. had never been reorganized and the
three departments remained in 1963.
Francis Askew: began in 1925 as a temporary
sch. for 400 juniors and infs., named after the chairman of the Educ. Cttee. To this was added a separate
infs.' sch. in 1927, and depts. for 400 senior girls
and 400 senior boys in 1930. After 1945 these last
two became Francis Askew High Sch. The infs.'
and junior depts. were rehoused in 1953 after war
Francis Askew High: formed after 1945 from the
senior depts. of Francis Askew Sch. It had 340
boys and 310 girls, in separate depts., in 1963.
Frederick Holmes Sch. for Physically Handicapped: established in 1920 in the building of the
former Industrial Sch. for Girls in Park Avenue.
It was transferred in 1963 to a site adjacent to the
Open-Air Sch. in Inglemire Lane and named after
Ald. Frederick Holmes.
George Yard Wesleyan: opened in 1868 by the
George Yard chapel, accommodating 204 boys and
105 infs. in 1872. It lasted only until 1875.
Hall Rd.: a combined junior and infs.' sch. of
400 was opened in 1930, a senior mixed sch. of 520
in 1934, and a separate junior sch. in 1937. Total
accn. was 1,320 and av. att. 1,099 in 1938. After 1945
the seniors formed Welton High Sch.
Hebrew: started in the Robinson Row synagogue
in 1826. The appointment of a Jew to teach Jewish
boys in Osborne St. Bd. Sch. was approved
by the Sch. Bd. in 1886; the Hebrew sch. then
became one for 160 girls and 36 infs., established
after 1887 in the former St. John's Infs.' Sch. in
Osborne St. Av. att. was 164 in 1904, 63 in 1938.
It was formally closed in 1945.
Holderness Ward Brit.: established in Dansom
Lane in 1838 by public subscription, mainly of
nonconformists, and early regarded as one of Hull's
best schs. Av. att. rose from 140 in 1844 to 302 in
1856. It was transferred to the Sch. Bd. in 1872 and
closed, but the building housed a temporary bd. sch.
from 1881 to 1885 before being sold in 1894.
Hull and East Riding College: the third proprietary
sch. promoted in Hull to improve 'middle-class'
education, this started in Osborne St. in 1866 but
moved to a new building in Park St. in 1867. Its
infancy was sickly, but it grew strong scholastically
if not financially under Francis Bond (1881–93),
numbers reaching 190. It closed in 1893 when
Hymers College opened. From beginning to end
its chief supporter was Robert Jameson.
Hull College: opened in 1837 as a middle-class
proprietary sch. on undenominational principles and
in a neo-Corinthian building in Spring Bank
designed by J. W. Johns of London. The method of
education followed that of University College Sch.,
London, and the preparatory dept. copied David
Stow's 'training system'. There were some 200
pupils in 1840. After the dissolution of the company
in 1845 the sch. continued as a private venture until
1850, when it closed.
Hull Grammar: provided by the town from
c. 1340 and endowed in connexion with Bp.
Alcock's chantry in 1479, the corporation gradually
resuming responsibility after the chantry's dissolution in 1548. Until 1878 it was housed in South
Church Side, from 1878 to 1892 in Baker St., from
1892 to 1953 in Leicester St., and thereafter in
Bricknell Avenue. The L.E.A. took over control
from the corporation in 1945. There were 98 boys
in 1892, and 836 in 1963.
Hull High: a girls' independent sch. established
by the Church Schools Company in 1890 at no. 7
Albion St. and transferred to the former Hull and
East Riding College building in Park St. in 1894
where it remained until 1939. It was recognized by
the Board of Education in 1918 and had 238 girls
in 1919, but only 163 in 1936. After war-time evacuation it settled at Tranby Croft, Anlaby, and had
350 pupils, including the preparatory dept., in 1963.
Hymers College: founded in 1889 by gift of Robert
Hymers, of Stokesley, in pursuance of the will of
his brother, John Hymers, Rector of Brandesburton,
and opened in 1893 in a building designed by John
Bilson in the former Botanic Gardens. Later additions included a science wing (1908), memorial
hall (1924), junior sch. wing (1932), and workshop
and art room block (1958). An appeal for £90,000
was made in 1962 for a new junior sch. and dining
block. Including the junior dept. there were 269
boys in 1913, 450 in 1923, and 600 in 1963. The
sch. was first represented on the Headmasters'
Conference in 1901 and has received a direct grant
Industrial Sch. for Girls: opened in 1884 in
Elmfield House, Beverley Rd., by the Sch. Bd.
when it took over the Ragged Sch. for Boys. It
was transferred in 1888 to Park Ave. and remained
there until discontinued in 1919, providing residential accn. for 70 girls. From 1920 to 1963 the building housed the Frederick Holmes Sch. for PhysicallyHandicapped Children, and also from 1932 the
Junior High Sch. for Art and Crafts.
Kingston College: a proprietary sch. with Anglican
connexions, opened in 1837, in a Tudor Gothic
building on Beverley Rd. designed by H. F. Lockwood, in competition with Hull College. Debt and
the committee's interference handicapped development and the company was dissolved in 1847; the
principal then continued the sch. as a private
concern, transferring it to Hessle in 1851.
Kingston High: originally the Sch. Bd.'s third
higher-grade sch., opened in Boulevard in 1895 for
290 boys and 290 girls, with infs.' and junior depts.
After 1905 it was developed as a mixed secondary
sch., infs. and juniors being withdrawn in 1907.
There were 453 pupils in 1911 and 676 in 1939. It
occupied a new building in Pickering Park as Kingston High Sch. in 1940 and had 730 pupils in 1963.
Lambert St.: opened in 1879 by Cottingham Sch.
Bd. for 376 girls and infs. It was annexed in 1883
by Hull Sch. Bd. which enlarged accn. in 1885 to
570 (186 boys, 183 girls, and 201 infs.). Av. att. was
539 in 1904. In 1913 accn. was reduced to 444 juniors
and infs., av. att. falling to 189 in 1936. The infs.
were withdrawn in 1937 leaving a junior sch. which
had 100 pupils in 1963.
Lime St.: opened by the Sch. Bd. in 1879 for 240
boys, 240 girls, and 270 (later 242) infs. Av. att. was
630 in 1904 but only 397 in 1938, when it was reorganized as a combined junior girls' and infs.' sch.
The building was bomb-damaged in 1941 and the
Lincoln St.: the Sch. Bd.'s 3rd sch., opened in
1874 for 816 pupils in 3 depts. After reconstruction
in 1901, accn. consisted of 274 boys, 274 girls, and
254 infs. Av. att. was 784 in 1904, 501 in 1936. It
was reorganized as all-age girls' and combined
junior and infs.' depts. in 1950, the senior boys being
drafted to Charterhouse High Sch.
Malet Lambert High: began in Craven St. in
1893 as the Sch. Bd.'s second higher-grade sch.,
having places for 336 boys and 336 girls, with infs.'
and junior depts. After 1905 it became a mixed
secondary sch., expanding after 1912 when juniors
and infs. were accommodated separately. 'Packed
to capacity' with 564 pupils in 1926, it moved to
East Park in 1932 as Malet Lambert High Sch.
It had 661 pupils in 1939, 760 in 1963.
Malton St. Special: see Northumberland Avenue
Marfleet: opened by the Sch. Bd. in 1892 for
134 juniors and infs., enlarged to 292 in 1913, and
reduced to 234 in 1931. Av. att. was 147 in 1919, 96
in 1938, and 90 in 1963.
Marist College: a R.C. grammar sch. established in
1925 in Cottingham Rd. by the Marist Brothers
and recognized by the Board of Education in 1936,
when there were 161 boys. It became voluntary
aided after 1945 and building extensions in 1961
raised accn. to 380.
Mason St. Wesleyan: started in 1837, developing
from a Sunday school established in 1817. Organized
on the Glasgow System, it had 100 pupils enrolled
when it closed in 1849 on the opening of South
Maybury High: formed in 1945 as a secondary
modern sch. from the senior dept. of Maybury
Rd. Sch. It had 520 boys in 1963.
Maybury Rd.: started for juniors and infs. in
1934, a senior mixed dept. being added in 1935,
and a separate junior dept. in 1937. The senior dept.
became one for boys only in 1937, and a secondary
modern sch. named Maybury High Sch. in 1945.
McMillan Nursery: built in 1939 and partly occupied by Fifth Ave. Infs. until 1945, when it became
entirely a nursery sch. Av. att. was 80 in 1963.
Mersey High: formed in 1945 from the senior
dept. of Mersey St. Sch. It had 440 pupils in 1963.
Mersey St.: built by the last Sch. Bd. on a common
plan with Estcourt St., Thoresby St., and Wheeler
St. Accn. was for 508 mixed seniors, 508 mixed
juniors, and 300 infs., and total av. att. was 1,288
in 1919, 1,308 in 1936. The senior dept. became
Mersey High Sch. in 1945. Separate junior and infs.'
Middleton St.: a bd. sch. opened in 1890 and
enlarged in 1894, when it provided altogether 1,035
places, for boys, girls, juniors, and infs. Av. att.
was 841 in 1904, 781 in 1919. The juniors were
removed in 1920 and the two senior depts. enlarged
to 390 each. The sch. closed in 1941.
Newington High: formed in 1945 from the senior
dept. of Wheeler St. Sch. It had 240 pupils in 1963.
Newland Avenue: a bd. sch. opened in 1896 with
junior and infs.' depts. but reconstructed, after
extensions in 1900, for 320 boys, 320 girls, 210
juniors, and 241 infs. Av. att. was 1,101 in 1911,
668 in 1927. It was reorganized in 1937 in two depts.,
senior boys' and infs.', and in 1945 the former became
Pearson High Sch.
Newland High: the Central Secondary Sch. in
Brunswick Avenue became a girls' sch. in 1907,
and in 1920 was transferred to a new building in
Cottingham Rd. and renamed Newland High Sch.
There were 480 girls in 1911, 598 in 1936, and 680
Newland Nat.: opened in Clough Rd. in 1865 as
the parish sch. of St. John's, Newland, a rural suburb
of Hull but part of Cottingham, replacing an earlier
sch. first mentioned in 1779. Av. att. rose from 45 in
1865 to 151 in 1878, when the sch. was transferred
to Cottingham Sch. Bd. In 1897, when Newland
was taken into Hull, the sch. became a Nat. sch.
again. After 1912 there was a mixed all-age dept.
of 223 and an infs.' dept. of 156. Av. att. was 320
in 1938. The sch. was replaced in 1962 by Newland
St. John's C.E. Primary.
Newland Orphan: The Port of Hull Society's
Orphan Home, founded in 1863 and established in
Park St. in 1867, maintained its own sch. run on
'British' lines. Av. att. was 182 in 1876. In 1897
orphanage and sch. moved to Newland, where the
sch. had 272 places and an av. att. of 218 in 1904,
134 in 1937. It was reorganized as a primary sch.
in 1946 and subsequently named St. Nicholas's.
Newland St. John's C.E. Primary: see Newland
North Myton (or Scott St.) Wesleyan: established
behind Scott St. chapel in 1862. It had 183 places
and 75 pupils in attendance when it closed in 1876.
Northumberland Avenue: a bd. sch. opened in
1897 for 270 boys, 270 girls, and 273 infs. An
additional junior block in 1904 increased accn. to
1,100 and av. att. in 1911 was 894, in 1927 736.
Reorganization in 1935 and 1936 left a combined
junior and infs.' dept., which closed in 1942. After
1945 the educationally sub-normal sch. and a nursery
sch. shared the building.
Northumberland Avenue Special (educationally
sub-normal): started with 80 places in 1908 in part
of Blenkin St. Sch., being renamed Malton St.
Special Sch. in 1913. In 1937, when Blenkin St.
closed, it expanded to 150 places. After war-time
evacuation it occupied part of Northumberland
Avenue Sch. pending transfer to a special-school
campus in Cottingham Rd. in 1964.
Open-Air: established in Cottingham Rd. in 1931
with accn. for 270 delicate children. The site was
planned as a special-school campus in 1963, to
include the schs. for educationally sub-normal and
physically-handicapped children previously in
Northumberland Ave. and Park Ave.
Osborne St.: founded by the Sch. Bd. in 1878 for
750 pupils in 3 depts., increased by a new junior
block in 1904 to 1,072 (248 boys, 256 girls, 300
juniors, and 268 infs.). Av. att. was 705 in 1904, 555
in 1919. In 1925 the girls were transferred to Villa
Place, and in 1939 juniors and infs. amalgamated.
The sch. closed in 1940. From 1903 to 1936 the
deaf centre shared the building.
Paisley St.: opened by the Sch. Bd. in 1893.
A separate junior block was added in 1903, bringing
accn. to 1,126 (308 boys, 308 girls, 300 juniors,
and 210 infs.). Av. att. was 1,026 in 1911, 762 in
1938. Boys', girls', and combined junior and infs.'
depts. remained in 1963.
Park Rd.: originally the parish sch. of All Saints',
Sculcoates, built without government grant in 1872
for 280 pupils. The managers conveyed it in 1876
to the Sch. Bd. which enlarged it to 3 depts. each
of 250. Av. att. was 645 in 1878, 696 in 1904, and
508 in 1927, when it was reorganized as a combined
junior and infs.' sch. which still remains.
Pearson High: formed in 1945 from the senior
dept. of Newland Ave. Sch. It had 160 boys in 1963.
Pickering Rd.: opened as a combined junior and
infs.' sch. for 400 in 1934.
Priory Rd.: opened as a combined junior and infs.'
sch. in 1939 and reorganized as 2 schs. when a
junior block for 480 was built in 1950.
Ragged and Industrial (later Truant): provided by
voluntary workers to feed, clothe, and train neglected
and vagrant children, and opened in 1849 in Mill
St., the cholera-ravaged Irish quarter. Moved to
Marlborough Terrace in 1857. The boys learnt
cobbling, joinery, and tailoring; the girls sewing,
knitting, and housework. After 1868 the committee
also maintained the training ship Southampton for
boys, and several branch ragged schs. The Marlborough Terrace building was transferred to the
Sch. Bd. in 1884 as a boys' truant sch., a separate
Industrial Sch. for Girls being opened in Beverley
Rd. The L.E.A. closed the boys' sch. in 1909.
Riley Technical High: started in Albion St. in
1894 as the junior dept. of the municipal technical
sch., with which it moved to Park St. in 1898. In
1926 it was given a separate headmaster and renamed
Riley High Sch. but the Bd. of Education refused it
recognition as a secondary sch. until it had separate
premises. After war-time evacuation it occupied the
former Boulevard Secondary Sch. building in 1945
and developed as a secondary technical sch. It moved
to a new building in Parkfield Drive in 1957 and had
640 boys in 1963.
Sacred Heart R.C.: opened in Southcoates Lane
in 1932 for 300 mixed juniors and infs. It was
voluntary aided, with 411 on roll in 1963.
St. Andrew's High: formed in 1945 from the senior
dept. of West Dock Ave. Sch. It had 220 boys in 1963.
St. Charles's R.C.: started in 1829 in a basement
of St. Charles's Church, where pupils numbered 80
in 1833. In 1839 it moved to Canning St. and had
270 enrolled and 250 attending in 1849. It moved
again to Pryme St. in 1860 and became a boys'
sch., the girls being transferred to St. Joseph's.
Accn. rose to 625 by 1901 but was reduced to 494
after 1908. Av. att. was 396 in 1927, 280 in 1963.
It was then still 'all-age'.
St. George's Rd.: built in 1881 by Newington
Sch. Bd. and taken over by Hull Sch. Bd. in 1883,
its accn. being then enlarged to 677 (228 boys, 226
girls, and 223 infs.). Av. att. was 604 in 1904, 560
in 1938. The boys' dept. closed in 1946, leaving a
combined girls' and junior sch. with separate infs.
St. Gregory's R.C.: established as school and
chapel in Scott St. in 1893, the sch. having places
for 253 girls and 256 infs. This accn. remained
unchanged, though av. att. fell from 506 in 1904 to
310 in 1938. In 1963 there were 333 all-age girls and
St. James's Nat.: built in Porter St. in 1844 to
replace an earlier temporary sch. in the Pottery.
It comprised boys', girls', and infs.' depts. and 'from
the excellence of the arrangements, the energy of
the managers and the high qualifications of the
teachers, they were . . . long considered the model
church school of the town'. Financial loss following
the Revised Code caused the boys' dept. to close in
1864, the master leasing it as a private middle-class
sch., but it reopened in 1875 after the Sch. Bd.'s
protests. Accn. was 746 and av. att. 713 in 1894.
The boys' dept. closed in 1905 leaving accn. for
440 girls and infs., and av. att. fell from 400 in
1919 to 252 in 1938. The sch. closed in 1940.
St. John's Nat.: started with an infs.' sch.
developed out of a Sunday sch. in Osborne St. in
the 1840s. In 1853 the vicar bought the Waltham
St. premises of the Savings Bank Sch. and reorganized it as a Nat. sch. with places for 598 boys
and girls. Accn. rose to 634 in 1877 but av. att. in
1890 was only 296. The infs.' sch. closed in 1887
(the Hebrew Girls' Sch. taking over the building),
the boys' and girls' depts. in 1906.
St. Joseph's R.C.: provided in 1859 by the
Convent of Mercy in Anlaby Rd. to replace the
girls' dept. of St. Charles's Sch. Taught by the
Sisters of the convent, it had 666 places for girls
and infs. by 1897, but these were later reduced to
531 (335 girls and 196 infs.). Av. att. was 272 in
1938. The building was destroyed by bombs in
1941 and the sch. formally closed in 1945.
St. Luke's C.E.: started as a Sunday sch. and
received grant as a day sch. from 1872, offering 262
(later 306) places for boys and girls. Av. att. was
256 in 1904. The sch. closed in 1911.
St. Mark's Nat.: began in the Groves in 1840
with places for 350 boys and girls, some of them
'half-timers' working at Hull Flax and Cotton
Mill. A new building was opened next to St. Mark's
Church in 1857, and accn. rose from 600 to 836 by
1902. This was gradually reduced and reorganized
in 1911 for 338 mixed boys and girls and 228 infs.
Av. att. was 543 in 1919, 364 in 1938. The sch. was
transferred to the L.E.A. in 1923 and closed in
St. Mary's Grammar: established in 1905 by the
Sisters of Mercy next to their convent in Anlaby Rd.,
partly as a pupil-teacher centre, but conducted as a
'recognized' secondary sch. after 1906. There were
127 girls in 1913, 382 in 1936. Following air-raid
destruction of its premises in 1941 the sch. occupied
huts at Endsleigh Training College until 1960,
when a new building was erected in Inglemire Lane.
There were 390 pupils in 1963.
St. Mary's R.C.: established in Wilton St. in
1856, the building serving as a mission church until
1891. An infs.' dept. was added in 1864 and in
1867 boys' and girls' depts. formed one dept., taught
by the Sisters of Mercy until 1954. There were 385
places in 1872, 798 in 1902, and 768 in 1936. Av. att.
was 610 in 1938. In 1963 there were 169 infs. and
368 all-age boys and girls.
St. Nicholas's: see Newland Orphan.
St. Patrick's R.C.: opened in Mill St., the Irish
quarter, in 1871, serving also as a mission chapel.
It had 255 places for girls and infs. in 2 depts.,
taught by the Sisters of Mercy. In 1939 it was reorganized as a single all-age dept. and this had 120
pupils in 1963.
St. Philip's: see Trippett Industrial.
St. Silas's C.E.: built in 1870 for 272 boys but
closed in 1875.
St. Stephen's Nat.: developed out of a Sunday
sch. in Collier St. in 1840 and was altered and enlarged in 1842. In 1844 some 420 were enrolled and
300 attending. A separate girls' sch. was opened in
Spring St. in 1856, and about this time an infs.' sch.,
established in Eastcheap in 1826, was conveyed to
the trustees. Total accn. after 1872 reached 925,
making this Hull's largest voluntary sch. Av. att.
was 729 in 1904. The premises having become substandard, the boys' dept. closed in 1907, the girls'
and infs.' in 1908.
St. Vincent's R.C.: opened in Queen's Rd. in
1904 with a mixed dept. of 216 and an infs.' of 60.
It was a mixed all-age sch. of 309 in 1963.
St. Wilfrid's R.C.: opened in Boulevard in 1894
with mixed and infs.' depts. having 292 places altogether. These were enlarged to 400 by 1904 and
520 by 1936. The buildings were destroyed by
bombs in 1941 and the sch. thereafter occupied the
former Saner St. Sch. premises. There were 143
infs. and 287 all-age boys and girls in 2 depts. in
Salthouse Lane Nat.: a boys' sch. on Lancasterian
lines was opened in 1809, a girls' in 1811, by trustees
who had provided Sunday schs. since 1786. In
1825 the schs. joined the Nat. Soc., gradually becoming associated with St. Mary's, Lowgate, and
av. att. was 250 boys and 125 girls in 1838. The
trustees also acquired the infs.' sch. opened in
High St. in 1828. Accn. in 1877 was 548 boys and
girls and 138 infs. The girls' sch. closed in 1903
and after 1912 boys and infs. formed one dept. of
439 places. Av. att. was 262 in 1912, only 94 in
1938. The sch. closed in 1939.
Saner St.: opened in 1913 for 280 juniors and
280 infs. to allow expansion of the Boulevard
Secondary Sch. by releasing temporary accn.
occupied by its former junior and infs.' depts.
Av. att. fell from 463 in 1919 to 164 in 1938. The
sch. closed in 1941, its building since then accommodating St. Wilfrid's R.C. Sch.
Savings Bank: to encourage thrift and to use up
accumulated surplus the bank opened a sch. for
depositors' children in 1831, moving it to a new
building in Waltham St. in 1833. It was conducted
on Brit. lines and no longer confined to depositors'
children after 1841. In 1848, when 252 pupils
attended, it received government grant. It was
closed in 1851, the bank being prevented from further
expenditure on it, and the building became St.
John's Nat. Sch. in 1853.
Scarborough St.: opened by the Sch. Bd. in 1893.
A junior dept. was added in 1898 giving a total
accn. of 1,173. Av. att. was 1,123 in 1904, 1,009 in
1927. It was reorganized in 1933 with junior mixed
and infs.' depts. which still remained in 1963.
Sculcoates Girls': opened in 1834 in Oxford St.,
one of Hull's first schs. to be built with government
aid. It served also as a mission church until St.
Paul's was built in 1844. Thereafter it housed St.
Paul's Girls' Sch. until 1872, when a new building
for girls and infs. was added to Sculcoates St.
Sculcoates St. Mary's Nat.: erected in 1852 in
Ayr St., replacing Sculcoates Nat. Sch. and Sculcoates Girls' Sch. which had both passed into the
new St. Paul's parish in 1844. Accn. was 296 in
1872 and 257 in 1894, and 244 attended in 1904. The
sch. was conveyed to the L.E.A. and closed in 1908.
Sculcoates St. Paul's Nat.: opened in 1858 as
a boys' sch. supplementing the Sculcoates Girls'
taken over by the parish in 1844. A girls' and infs.'
sch. added in 1872 increased places to 722. These
grew to 878 by 1897, making this Hull's second
largest voluntary sch., but were later reduced to
790 (336 boys, 212 girls, and 242 infs.). In 1922 it
was transferred to the L.E.A. and in 1925 reorganized for 336 girls and 389 combined juniors and
infs. Av. att. in 1938 was 419. The sch. closed in
Sculcoates Subscription (later Nat.): opened by
public subscription in 1804 next to the parish workhouse in Carr St., replacing an earlier one of 1787.
It was reorganized as a Nat. sch. in 1818 and in
1838 had 170 boys and 60 girls enrolled. It closed in
Seamen's and General Orphan: a sch. was built
by the Society to the west of its new orphanage on
Spring Bank in 1870; previously the children had
attended neighbouring elementary schs. Its original
accn. of 253 was later enlarged to 374. Av. att.
was 173 in 1904, 135 in 1919. The sch. ceased in
1920 when the orphanage moved to Hesslewood.
Selby (after 1934 Springburn) St.: opened in 1908
with boys', girls', junior, and infs.' depts., each of
300 places. Juniors and infs. formed a combined
dept. of 500 in 1925. Av. att. in 1938 was 235 boys,
226 girls, and 364 juniors. The sch. was discontinued
after destruction of its buildings by bombs in
Sidmouth High: formed in 1945 from the senior
dept. of Sidmouth St. Sch. It had 240 pupils in 1963.
Sidmouth St.: opened in 1911 for 350 boys, 350
girls, 320 juniors, and 320 infs., and for some years
after 1913 used as the Training College practising
sch. In 1937 the 2 senior depts. became one for
girls only and this became Sidmouth High Sch. in
1945. The junior dept. was closed after bomb damage
in 1941 but reopened in 1955.
Sir Henry Cooper: a bd. sch. opened in Bean St.
in 1876 and named after the bd.'s first chairman.
There were 900 places (910 after 1903) for boys, girls,
and infs. Av. att. was 813 in 1904, 543 in 1938. The
boys were transferred to Boulevard High Sch. in
1957, leaving senior girls', junior, and infs.' depts.
Somerset St.: built by Newington Sch. Bd. after
1879 and transferred to Hull Sch. Bd. in 1883. A
separate junior dept. added in 1903 increased accn.
to 1,011 places (239 boys, 239 girls, 298 juniors,
and 238 infs.). Av. att. was 984 in 1904, 704 in 1938.
The sch. was reorganized in 1957 for senior girls,
juniors, and infs., the senior boys being drafted to
Boulevard High Sch.
Southcoates, Eleanor Scott's Charity: established
in Southcoates Lane in 1856 by Eleanor Scott's
trustees under a Chancery Order of 1855 to provide
education for Southcoates children. (fn. 207) There were 30
pupils in 1866. A small one-teacher charity sch.,
it was soon obsolete, and a scheme of 1909 pensioned
off the mistress and applied part of the charity to
scholarships and Drypool C.E. Sch.
Southcoates High: formed in 1945 from the senior
dept. of Southcoates Lane Sch. It had 240 pupils
Southcoates Lane: opened in 1912, a duplicate of
Sidmouth St. with depts. for 350 boys, 350 girls,
320 juniors, and 320 infs., each later enlarged by
50 more places. Total av. att. was 1,348 in 1927.
In 1931 the two senior depts. were reorganized
as one for 440 senior boys and this became Southcoates High Sch. in 1945. Junior and infs.' depts.
South Myton (or Adelaide St.) Wesleyan: established in 1850 by the Great Thornton St. chapel,
replacing Mason St. Wesleyan. This was the largest
nonconformist sch. in Hull, having 913 places by
1902. It was conveyed to the L.E.A. in 1908 and
the girls' dept. was discontinued, leaving accn. for
284 boys and 302 infs. After 1926 a junior boys'
dept. of 473 remained, and this closed in 1937.
Springburn St.: see Selby St.
Stoneferry Rd.: built in 1877 by Sutton and
Stoneferry Sch. Bd. for 130 infs. After passing to
Hull Sch. Bd. in 1883, accn. was increased to 163
and, when a junior dept. was added in 1903, to
449. Juniors and infs. amalgamated in 1928 and av.
att. was 153 in 1936, 161 in 1963.
Sutton, Ann Watson's: founded in Stoneferry by
will of Ann Watson (d. 1721), in conjunction with
her almshouse (see p. 346), one of the inmates of
which was to be sch. dame and teach 10 poor girls
of Sutton or Stoneferry to knit, spin, and read.
When the almshouse was transferred to Sutton in
1816 the sch. remained at Stoneferry and was in
abeyance for some years. It is uncertain how
regularly it functioned and when it finally ended.
By a Scheme of 1889 the educational part of the
charity was converted into a fund for sch. prizes and
Sutton Brit.: see Sutton Council.
Sutton C.E.: the parish sch. of St. James's,
built in 1859 with a government grant on a site
given by Mrs. Broadley. The master received the
income from £150 bequeathed by John Marshall
by will dated 1803. Av. att. was 82 in 1868,
105 in 1903, and 116 in 1927. It passed into Hull
when the boundary was extended in 1929 and,
though scheduled for closure in 1946, still continued
as a voluntary sch. with 120 pupils of all ages in
Sutton Council: a Brit. sch. started in Sutton in
1850 but ceased in 1866. Its place was taken by a
Wesleyan sch. which had 61 pupils in 1867, 95 in
1904. The East Riding County Council replaced
this in 1911 by the Sutton Council Sch. with accn.
for 162 all-age pupils, 71 attending in 1927. This
passed to Hull in 1929 and was closed in 1936, the
building being occupied after 1937 by the Sutton
Sch. for the Deaf.
Sutton Sch. for the Deaf: started as a deaf centre
in the Central Higher Grade Sch. in 1894 and was
moved to part of Osborne St. Sch. in 1903. Accn.
here was 48, av. att. in 1911 being 24. The sch. was
transferred in 1937 to the building of the former
Sutton Council Sch. There were 40 pupils in
Sutton Wesleyan: see Sutton Council.
Thomas Barton Holmes: opened in South Parade
in 1877 by the Sch. Bd. and named after its chairman. There were depts. for 272 boys, 272 girls,
and 287 infs., and av. att. was 833 in 1893, 573 in
1938. After air-raid damage in 1941 only the infs.'
dept. remained and this closed in 1962.
Thomas Stratten: established in Londesborough
St. in 1881 by the Sch. Bd. and named after its
chairman. Accn. was for 797 (later 777) in boys',
girls', and infs.' depts., and av. att. was 664 in 1889,
607 in 1938. It was reorganized in 1953 for junior
boys, junior girls, and infs., the senior boys being
drafted to Wilberforce High Sch. and the senior
girls to Wawne High Sch.
Thoresby High: formed as a secondary technical
sch. after 1945 from Thoresby St. Girls' Sch. It
had 560 girls in 1963.
Thoresby St.: the Sch. Bd.'s last school, opened
in 1903, costing £20,770, and accommodating 460
mixed seniors, 460 juniors, and 402 infs. As the
district developed, av. att. rose from 524 in 1904 to
956 in 1911. The senior dept. was reorganized as a
girls' central sch. in 1920 and after 1945 developed
into a secondary technical sch. as Thoresby High
Sch. Juniors and infs. remain as one dept.
Trinity House Navigation: opened in 1787 by
Trinity House to train poor boys for the sea. A new
building behind Prince's Dock St. in 1842 permitted
expansion and in 1849 the sch. was reorganized in
lower and upper divisions. The Board of Trade
recognized it as a grant-earning navigation sch. in
1854 and in 1872 an adult dept. was added to
prepare seamen for masters' certificates. Zebedee
Scaping was headmaster from 1854 to 1909. Since
1909 it has been entirely maintained by Trinity
House and in 1949 it became a 'recognized' independent technical sch., its accommodation being
extensively modernized thereafter. Still in its 1842
premises, it had 180 pupils in 1963.
Trinity Nat.: built in 1857 on the old South End
battery site in Humber St. to replace the Vicar's Sch.
Originally accn. was for 316 boys, 190 girls, and
190 infs. In 1883 the boys' dept. closed and girls'
and infs.' amalgamated in 1924. Av. att. was 161 in
1938 and the sch. closed in 1939, a voluntary sch. to
Trippett Industrial (later St. Philip's): developed
from a sch. in Mason St. kept by the daughters of
Bromby, Vicar of Holy Trinity. It was reorganized
in 1859 as a Nat. sch. with an industrial bias,
teaching boys carpentry and brush-making, and
girls sewing, knitting, and housewifery. An infs.'
dept. was added in 1866. The boys' dept. closed
in 1881 and girls and infs. formed one dept. of 299
places associated with St. Philip's. This closed in
Twenty-first Avenue: a junior boys' sch. formed in
1937 from the Endike Lane West temporary mixed
Vicar's Sch.: established in 1730 by Mason, Vicar
of Holy Trinity, and the 'Religious Society' as a
charity sch. and rebuilt on its original site in Vicar
Lane in 1792. Fees were introduced in 1813 and
endowments of £100 each received in 1816, from a
Mrs. Porter, and 1819, from Sir Henry Etherington,
Bt. By 1850 there were 120 pupils, but the building
was condemned and Trinity Nat. Sch. replaced it
Villa High: formed in 1945 from the senior dept.
of Villa Place Sch. but was closed in 1953.
Villa Place: established in 1907 with boys', girls',
junior, and infs.' depts., each for 300. Av. att. was
947 in 1919. In 1925 the senior depts. were reorganized as one for girls, and from 1926 to 1937
the juniors also were confined to girls. The senior
girls in 1945 became Villa High Sch., leaving only
juniors and infs.
Waterhouse Lane Brit.: held in the Sailors'
Institute from 1871 to 1880. There was accn. for
256 boys and girls and the highest av. att. was 187
Wawne High Sch. for Girls: formed in 1953 from
the girls' dept. of Wawne St. Sch. It had 220 pupils
Wawne St.: a bd. sch. of 3 depts., each of 250
places, opened in 1875 and eventually enlarged to
1,078 (390 boys, 404 girls, and 284 infs.). Total av.
att. was 740 in 1911, 598 in 1938. In 1953 the boys'
dept. closed leaving an infs.' sch. and a separate
Wawne High Sch. for Girls.
Welton High: formed after 1945 from the senior
dept. of Hall Rd. Sch. It had 580 pupils in 1963.
Westbourne St.: a bd. sch. opened in 1885 with
accn. in 3 depts for 845 pupils. In 1898 a junior
block was added, providing altogether for 1,109
later reduced to 1,078 (287 boys, 287 girls, 264
juniors, and 240 infs.). Av. att. fell from 1,046 in
1904 to 683 in 1938. These 4 depts. remained in
West Dock Avenue: opened by the Sch. Bd. in
1888 for 876 pupils in 3 depts. A separate junior
dept. added in 1898 increased accn. to 1,140 and later
to 1,221. Av. att. in 1927 was 1,093. After reorganization in 1927 and 1934 there remained depts. for
310 senior boys, 264 junior boys, and 319 infs.
The senior boys' in 1945 became St. Andrew's High
Wheeler St.: established by the Sch. Bd. in
1902 for 1,334 pupils (500 mixed seniors, 500
mixed juniors, and 334 infs.). Av. att. was 1,149 in
1911, 841 in 1938. The senior dept. was renamed
Newington High Sch. in 1945. Juniors and infs.
remain as separate depts.
Williamson St.: opened by the Sch. Bd. in 1875
to replace Holderness Ward Sch., providing 750
places in boys', girls', and infs.' depts. A separate
junior dept. added in 1894 enlarged accn. to 1,010
and av. att. was 934 in 1904. The boys' dept. closed
in 1908, the girls' in 1932, leaving junior mixed and
infs.' depts. which were amalgamated in 1940.
Wold Rd.: opened in 1939 as a combined junior
and infs.' sch. and divided into two when a separate
junior block was built in 1953.
Wold Rd. Partially-Sighted: established in 2 huts
vacated by Wold Rd. Primary in 1953, so replacing
2 'sight-saving' classes held in Lambert St. and
Osborne St. Schs. from 1928 to 1939 and in Eastfield
Rd. and Twenty-first Ave. Schs. from 1945 to 1953.
There were 38 pupils in 1963.
New Schools Established 1945–63
All these schools were established in new buildings except (i) Boulevard High School, which occupied the 1895 building previously used by Kingston
High School and, later, by Riley High School; and
(ii) Wilberforce High School, which was housed in
the Leicester Street building which served Hull
Grammar School from 1892 to 1953.
The columns indicate: (1) name of school, (2) date
of opening, (3) type of school, (4) original accommodation, and (5) status of school.
Abbreviations used: C, County School; C.E.,
Church of England; R.C., Roman Catholic; S.A.,
Special Agreement; Sec. Mod., Secondary Modern;
Sec. Tech., Secondary Technical; V.A., Voluntary
|Adelaide||1962||Infants and Juniors||320||C|
|Alderman Cogan High||1957||Mixed Sec. Mod.||300||S.A. (C.E.)|
|Appleton||1954||Infants and Juniors||280||C|
|Archbishop William Temple||1954||Infants and Juniors||280||V.A. (C.E.)|
|Barham High||1953||Girls Sec. Mod.||450||C|
|Bellfield||1954||Infants and Juniors||280||C|
|Boothferry High||1961||Mixed Sec. Mod.||450||C|
|Boulevard High||1957||Boys Sec. Mod.||650||C|
|Kelvin Hall||1959||Mixed Sec. Tech.||600||C|
|Wyke Hall||1957||Mixed Sec. Mod.||450||C|
|East Mount High||1957||Mixed Sec. Mod.||450||C|
|Elizabethan Hall||1959||Mixed Sec. Mod.||450||C|
|Newton Hall||1957||Mixed Sec. Tech.||600||C|
|Shakespeare Hall||1961||Mixed Sec. Mod.||450||C|
|Jervis High||1956||Boys Sec. Mod.||450||C|
|Newland St. John's||1962||Infants and Juniors||280||V.A. (C.E.)|
|Rokeby Park||1961||Infants and Juniors||280||C|
|St. Bede's||1962||Infants and Juniors||280||V.A. (R.C.)|
|St. Richard's High||1963||Mixed Sec. Mod.||450||S.A. (R.C.)|
|Salthouse High||1961||Mixed Sec. Mod.||450||C|
|Sutton Rd.||1952||Infants and Juniors||240||C|
|Wilberforce High||1953||Boys Sec. Mod.||700||C|