[1154–8.] Transcript from the Records in the Tower of the recital
in an Inspeximus Charter of 2 Richard II. of the grant by Henry II.
to Robert Bishop of Lincoln and his successors, "ad edificia sua et
domos suas," of "totam terram cum fossato de muro ballii mei Linc. in
orientali parte per circuitum ecclesiæ beati Michaelis usque ad cœmeterium S. Andreæ, et a cœmeterio S. Andreæ usque ad murum civitatis
versus orientem," free from langavel and picage and all other things;
"et libere poterit perforare murum ballii mei ad portam faciendam ad
introitum et exitum suum habendum versus ecclesiam, et ita edificare
quod edificia sua extendantur in utrumque murum." Witnesses:—
Roger, archbp. of York, Thomas the Chancellor, Rich. de Luci, Warin
son of Gerold Chamberlain, William son of Hamo, Rob. de Dunstanville, Josc. de Balliol. At Lincoln.
An office copy, made by Geo. Holmes, and attested by W. Harvey,
24 Feb. 1704. [The original is on Charter Roll, 2 Ric. II., No. 5.]
[1157.] Charter of Henry II.—This, written in 16 lines, occupying
4½ inches on a parchment measuring altogether 6 inches (sewn sometime
late in the 15th cent., or beginning of 16th, as appears from the handwriting of an endorsement, on another piece of parchment), is the
earliest extant document among the city records. Its existence there
was not known. The silk strings of the seal remain with a very small
fragment of the wax on one of its parchment labels, together with a tin
frame in which the seal was at some time placed, probably when the
deed was affixed, for preservation, to its present parchment-back. The
charter is as follows:—"H. Rex Angl. et Dux Norm. et Aquitan. et
Comes And. Episcopo Linc. Justic., Vic., Baronibus, Ministris et
Omnibus fidelibus suis Francis et Anglis Lincotscire; Salutem. Sciatis
me concessisse Civibus meis Lincol. omnes libertates et consuetudines et
leges suas quas habuerunt tempore Eduardi et Willelmi et Henrici
Regum Anglie, et Gildam suam mercatoriam, de hominibus Civitatis et
de aliis mercatoribus Comitatus; sicut illam habuerunt tempore predictorum antecessorum meorum Regum Anglie melius et liberius. Et
omnes homines qui infra iiiior divisas Civitatis manent et mercatum
deducunt; sint ad Geldas et Consuetudines et Asisas Civitatis; sicut
melius fuerunt tempore Eduardi et Willelmi et Henrici Regum Anglie.
Concedo etiam eis quod si aliquis emerit aliquam terram infra Civitatem
de Burgagio Lincolie et eam tenuerit per annum et unum diem sine
Calumpnia, et ille qui eam emerit possit monstrare quod Calumpniator
extiterit in Regione Anglie infra annum et non Calumpniatus est eam;
ex tunc in antea bene et in pace teneat eam et sine placito. Confirmo
etiam eis quod si aliquis manserit in Civitate mea Lincol. per annum et
unum diem sine Calumpnia alicujus Calumpniatoris, et dederit Consuetudines Civitatis, et Cives poterint monstrare per leges et Consuetudines Civitatis quod Calumpniator extitit in Regione Anglie et non
Calumpniatus est eum; ex tunc in antea remaneat in pace in Civitate
mea Lincol. sicut Civis meus sine . . . recto. T[estibus], Ph[ilippo]
Episcopo Baioc. Ern[ulfo] Episcopo Lexov. Toma Cancellario, Comite
Regin[aldo], Ric. de Humes Constabulario, H[enrico] de Essexa Constabulario. Apud Notingeham." [The King was at Nottingham in
1157.] [Enrolled in Chancery, Cart. Antiq., F. 16.]
1194, 23 Apr.—Charter of Richard I. See "White Book," f. 150,
1200, 23 April. Charter of K. John. This, which is much creased
and rubbed, was long since, for its better preservation, attached at the
back to a fragment of a plea at Westminster in the time of Q. Elizabeth, while the fragments of the great seal were fastened in a tin frame
within folds of paper sewn together. [The parts in the text within
brackets are from the Charter Roll of 1 John, p. 2, m. 3.] "Jo. Dei
gracia rex Angl. dom. Hib. dux [Normannie]. Aquit[annie et] com[es]
And[egaviæ] archiepiscopis, episcopis, abbatibus, comitibus, baronibus,
justiciariis . . . io et omnibus ballivis et fidelibus nostris . . . .
Sciatis nos concessisse [civibus nostris] Linc. quod nullus eorum placitet
extra muros civitatis Linc. de aliquo placito preter placita [de tenuris
exterioribus, exceptis] monetariis et ministris nostris. Concessimus etiam
eis quietanciam murdri intra civitatem et in Portsoc, et quod nullus
[eorum] faciat duellum, et quod de placitis ad coronam pertinentibusse possint disracionare secundum consuetudinem quam Cives Civitatis Lond.
habuerunt tempore Henrici regis patris nostri, et quod infra muros civitatis illius nemo capiat hospicium per vim vel per liberacionem Marescallorum. Hoc etiam eis concessimus quod omnes cives Linc. sint
quieti de theloneo et lestagio per totam Angliam et per portus maris, et
quod nullus de misericordia pecunie judicetur nisi secundum legem
quam habuerunt cives nostri London. tempore predicti Regis patris nostri, et quod in civitate illa in nullo placito sit [meskenninga et quod]
Burewaremot semel tantum in ebdomade teneatur, et quod terras et
tenuras et vadia sua et debita sua omnia juste habeant [quicunque eis
debeat, et] de terris suis et tenuris que infra civitatem sunt rectum
eis teneatur secundum consuetudinem civitatis, et de omnibus debitis
suis que accommodata fuerunt apud Linc. et de vadiis ibidem factis,
placitum apud Linc. teneatur. Prohibemus eciam ne quis [ab eis]
teloneum vel consuetudinem capiat in Anglia de hiis que ad nos pertinent super forisfacturam decem librarum, salvis in omnibus libertatibus
civitatis Lond. Insuper ad emendacionem illius civitatis concessimus
quod sint quieti de Bridtoll et de Childewite et de Gyereseyeue, (fn. 1)
et de Scotale, ita quod prepositi nec alii ballivi scotalam faciant.
Has predictas consuetudines eis concessimus et omnes alias libertates
et liberas consuetudines secundum libertates Lond. et leges civitatis
Linc. quas habuerunt cives nostri Lond. quando meliores vel liberiores
habuerunt tempore predicti Regis patris nostri. Quare volumus et
firmiter precipimus quod ipsi et heredes eorum hec omnia predicta
[habeant et tene]ant hereditarie de nobis et heredibus nostris, reddendo per annum novies viginti libras numero de Linc. cum omnibus
pertinentiis ad Scaccarium nostrum duobus terminis, ad Pascham scilicet
et ad festum Sancti Michaelis, per manus prepositorum Linc. Preterea
volumus et concedimus quod idem cives civitatis Linc. per commune consilium civitatis [eligant] duos de legalioribus et discretioribus
civibus Linc., et presentent eos capitali justiciario apud Westm., qui bene
et fideliter custodiant Preposituram civitatis Linc. et [non amoveantur
quamdiu] in ballia sua se bene gesserint, nisi per commune consilium
civitatis sue. Volumus eciam quod in eadem civitate [Linc. per commune] consilium civium eligantur [quatuor] de legalioribus et discretioribus civitatis ad custodiendum placita corone et alia que ad nos et
coronam nostram pertinent in eadem civitate, et ad videndum quod prepositi illius Civitatis juste et legitime tractent tam pauperes quam divites.
Testibus, W[ill.] Lond. episcopo G[alfrido] filio Petri comite Essex,
Willelmo Mariscall, comite de Penbroc., "Hub. fil. Rogeri Houchard," (fn. 2)
W[ill. Briwerr.] Dat. per man. S[imonis] archid. Well. et J. de Gre[i],
archidiaconi de Gloecestre, apud Awelton xxiij die Aprilis et Regni
nostri anno primo."
1227, 20 Apr.—Charter of Hen. III. mutilated by damp; seal lost.
This was not in late years known to be in existence, but it is mentioned
in a list of charters in Vol. IV. of Reports of Municipal Corporation
Commission, p. 2345. The missing words are supplied, within brackets,
from the Inspeximus of Edw. III. in 1330. "Henricus Dei gratia Rex
[etc.] Sciatis nos concessisse civibus nostris Lincoln. quod nullus
eorum placitet extra civitatem Lincoln. de aliquo placito preter placita
de tenuris exterioribus, exceptis monetariis et ministris nostris. Concessimus etiam eis quietanciam murdri infra civitatem [et in Portsoca,
et quod nu]llus eorum faciat duellum, et quod de placitis ad coronam
pertinentibus se possint disrationare secundum consuetudinem quam
cives London. habuerunt tempore H. Regis avi nostri [et quod infra
civitatem] Linc. nemo capiat hospitium per vim vel per liberationem
Marescalli. Hoc etiam eis concessimus quod omnes cives Linc. sint
quieti de theloneo et lestagio per totam Angliam [et per portus maris,
et] quod nullus de misericordia pecunie judicetur nisi secundum
legem quam habuerunt cives nostri London. tempore H. Regis avi
nostri. Et quod in civitate illa in nullo placito sit [Meskenninga, et
quod Bu] rewaremote semel tantum in ebdomada teneatur, et quod
terras et tenuras et vadia sua et debita sua omnia juste habeant quicunque eis debeat, et de terris suis et tenuris que [infra civitatem sunt
rectum eis] teneatur secundum consuetudinem civitatis, et de omnibus
debitis suis que accommodata fuerunt apud Lincoln. et de vadiis ibidem factis placitum apud Linc. teneatur. [Prohibemus etiam ne quis
ab eis theloneum] vel consuetudinem capiat in Anglia de hiis que
ad nos pertinent super forisfacturam decem librarum salvis in omnibus
libertatibus civitatis London. Et si quis [in tota Anglia theloueum]
ab hominibus Linc. ceperit postquam ipse a recto defecerit, prepositus
Linc. namium capiat apud Linc. Insuper etiam ad emendationem
illius civitatis concessimus eis quod sint [quieti de Bridtol et de]
Childwite et Yeresgive (fn. 3) et scotala, ita quod prepositi nec alii ballivi
scotalam faciant. Has predictas consuetudines eis concessimus et
omnes alias libertates et liberas consuetudines secundum libertates
London [et leges civitatis Lincoln quas] habuerunt cives nostri London.
quando meliores vel liberiores habuerunt tempore predicti H. avi
nostri vel habent. Quare volumus et firmiter precipimus quod ipsi
et heredes eorum hec omnia [predicta habeant et teneant heredi]tarie
de nobis et heredibus nostris. Reddendo per annum novies viginti
libras numero de Linc. cum omnibus pertinentiis ad Scaccarium nostrum duobus terminis, ad Pascha scilicet et ad festum Sancti Michaelis
[per manum] prepositorum Linc. Preterea volumus et concedimus
quod ipsi cives Lincoln. per commune consilium civitatis eligant duos
de legalioribus civibus Linc. et presentent eos capitali justiciario nostro
apud Westmon. [qui bene] et fideliter custodiant prepositurum civitatis Linc. et non amoveantur quamdiu in ball'a sua se bene gesserint
nisi per commune consilium civitatis sue. Volumus etiam quod in
eadem civitate Linc. [per commune consilium] civium eligantur quatuor de legalioribus et discretioribus civitatis ad custodiendum placita
corone et alia que ad nos et ad coronam nostram pertinent in eadem
civitate, et ad videndum quod prepositi [illius civitatis juste] et
legitime tractent tam pauperes quam divites. Concessimus etiam eis
gildam suam mercatoriam de hominibus civitatis et de aliis mercatoribus comitatus, sicut illam habuerunt tempore [H. Regis avi nostri]
et ut omnes homines qui infra quatuor divisas civitatis manent et
mercatum deducunt sint ad gildas et consuetudines et assisas civitatis
sicut melius fuerit tempore predicti H. Regis [avi] nostri. Concessimus
etiam eis quod si aliquis nativus manserit in civitate nostra Linc.
per unum annum et unum diem sine calumpnia, ex tunc in antea
remaneat in pace in civitate nostra Lincoln. sicut civis noster. Sicut
carte predicti H. Regis avi nostri, et R. Regis avunculi nostri et domini
J. Regis patris nostri, quas inde habent rationabiliter testantur. Hiis
testibus W. Carleol. G. Elyens. Th. Norwicen. episcopis, H. de Burgo.
Comite Kantie Justiciario nostro, G. Comite Glouc. et Hereford, Henrico de Aldithel, Nich. de Veredun, Theobaldo Pincerna, Osberto
Giffard, Radulfo filio Nicholai, [G. de] Crawecumbe, Ricardo de
Argent[ein], Henrico de Capella, Radulfo de Raleg. et aliis. Dat. per
manum venerabilis patris Radulfi Cycestr. episcopi Cancellarii nostri
apud Westmon. vicesimo die Aprilis anno regni nostri undecimo."
[Enrolled in Charter Roll of 11 Hen. III., pt. 1, m. 8.]
1226, 21 Nov.—Further charter of exemption from tolls, &c. See
"White Book," fol. 150, infra.
1262, 7 March.—Letters Patent of Henry III. The great seal, in
white wax, is very much broken and in a very brittle state. It has at
some time about the end of the fifteenth century or in the sixteenth
been enclosed in a tin frame, like that of the charter of Hen. II., and
fastened up in several folds of paper, and the document mounted on
another parchment, as noticed below. The document is injured by
damp, which must have affected it before these precautions for its
preservation were taken. It was not known until now to be in
existence. "Henricus Dei gratia Rex Angl. Dominus Hibernie et
Dux Aquitannie vicecomitibus et ministris suis comitatus Lincoln.
salutem. Inspeximus literas quas dominus Henricus Rex avus meis
fecit civibus Lincoln. in hec verba. H. Rex. Angl. et Dux Normanie Aquitannie et Com. And. vicecomitibus et ministris suis de
Lincolnsire salutem. Precipio quod faciatis [forin]secos mercatores
venire ad Lincoln. et ibi facere mercaturas suas ita racionabiliter
et juste sicut facere solebant tempore H. Regis avi mei, ne prepositi
Lincoln. amittant meas regias consuetudines. Teste, Ricardo de Lucy,
apud Westmon. ["Wodes"[tock] Pat. Roll]. Nos igitur prefatis
civibus nostris hoc [ipsum] tam in conservationem [juris nostri]
quam juris eorundem volentes observari, precipimus quod mercatores
forinsecos ad villam predictam venire faciatis, et ibi facere mercaturas
suas ita racionabiliter et juste, sicut facere solebant temporibus predictorum H. Regis senioris, H. Regis avi nostri, necnon et Ricardi Regis
avunculi nostri et Johannis Regis patris nostri, et eciam tempore nostro
usque primam transfretacionem nostram in Britanniam. Et concedimus
pro nobis et heredibus nostris quod hoc eisdem civibus a modo observetur per forisfacturam nostram decem librarum. In cujus rei testimonium has litteras nostras fieri fecimus patentes. Teste meipso apud
Windelesoram septimo die Marcii anno regni nostri quadragesimo
sexto." [Enrolled on Pat. Roll, 46 Hen. III., m. 14.]
This is mounted on a copy, on parchment, of a petition from the
citizens of "Nicole" to the King (probably Edw. IV.) in Parliament,
in French, praying for relief from the fee-farm annual rent to the Crown
of 180l., which had become quite insupportable. Many of the inhabitants of the city have departed with all their goods, people will not
trade there on account of the excessive charge, the highways as well as
the lanes are empty and desolate for want of tenants, and the city is
consequently on the verge of destruction. Of the aforesaid rent 80l.
had been granted by the King's royal progenitors to the cathedral
church of our Lady of Nicole, in three portions, viz. 17l. for the work
("al oeps") of the chapter, 40s. in augmentation of the stipend of the
[chaplain] chanting for the King and his forefathers, and 60l. to the
chaplains of the chantry for the soul of Sir Bartholomew Burgherssh;
and the Lady de Roos, that is to say Beatrice who was the wife of Sir
Thomas de Roos late lord of Hamelok, is seised for her life of the remaining part of the said rent, viz. 100l., as her dower, it having been
granted to the Lord de Roos and their heirs in exchange for the Castle
of Werk. The citizens pray therefore for confirmation of all their
privileges, and for relief in some way or other from this burden.
1272, 12 Feb.—Charter of Henry III. This deed, like the preceding,
has been mounted on parchment, and the broken great seal fastened up
in a case of folds of paper, probably about the beginning of the sixteenth century. The existence of this original also was unknown.
"Henricus Dei gratia Rex Angl. Dominus Hib. et Dux Aquitann.
archiepiscopis [etc.] salutem. Sciatis quod cum per cartam nostram
quam inspeximus concesserimus civibus nostris Lincoln. quod nullus
eorum placitet extra civitatam Lincoln. de aliquo placito preter placita
de tenuris exterioribus, exceptis monetariis et ministris nostris, Nos
eisdem civibus gratiam ampliorem ad ipsorum instanciam facere volentes
concessimus eis et hac carta nostra confirmavimus quod omnia placita
civitatis eiusdem et non alia decetero placitentur et teneantur in aula
placitorum civitatis ejusdem que Gyldehalle vocitatur et non alibi contra
voluntatem civium ipsorum vel successorum suorum, exceptis placitis
de tenuris exterioribus et monetariis ac ministris nostris. Quare volumus et firmiter precipimus pro nobis et heredibus nostris quod omnia
placita [etc.] sicut predictum est imperpetuum. Hiis testibus, venerabili patre W. Ebor. archiepiscopo Anglie primate, Roberto Aguillon,
Elya de Rabayne, Petro de Chauent, Stephano de Eddeworthe, Matheo
de Louaine, Willelmo de Sancta Eremina, . . . Euerarde, Rogero
de Wautone, et aliis. Data per manum nostram apud Westmonasterium,
duodecimo die Febr. anno regni nostri quinquagesimo sexto."
The parchment on which the charter is sewn is a fragment of a declaration, in English, by Robert Gyll mayor, Hamond Sutton, Thomas
Wymbishe, John Stanlowe, esqs., Robert Bate, . . Long, William
Chambre, William Toft, John Dycon and Henry Hygdon, aldermen,
Roger Hogekynson, Thomas . . ney, Thomas Herde, Thomas Melburne, William Irchynnet, and Richard Codde, late sheriffs of the city,
that Sir Robert Farford person of Blaunkney and vicar of Scoupwyke
14 or 15 years ago has been untruly and maliciously defamed by Sir
Thomas Buknall, a priest, and unjustly proceeded against at law.
1291, 1 May.—Provisions (in French) by Edward I. for the staple
of wool, leather, and skins in England, Ireland, and Wales. Part of
the lower margin of the parchment has been cut, and the great seal,
which is fastened up in folds of paper, is consequently detached. "Edward par le grace de Dieu [etc.] au Meire de sa cite de Nicole. Nous
vous maundons fermement enioignantz que les choses desoubs escrites
ordeinez par nous et notre conseil por comun profit et esement du people
de tut notre roialme et povir facez crier et publier et fermement tenir
et garder en notre cite auauntdite et par tut en votre baillie." The
places assigned for the staple in England are Newcastle-upon-Tyne,
York, Lincoln, Norwich, London, Winchester, Exeter, and Bristol; in
Ireland, Dublin, Drogheda, and Cork; and in Wales, Shrewsbury,
Carmarthen, and Cardiff, and for Cornwall, Lostwithiel and Trerew,
and for Devonshire, Aysperton [Ashburton]. Eleven sections follow
of trade regulations for alien merchants, and for those of England,
Ireland and Wales; amongst which are provisions that the merchants
and people of Gascony and the duchy of Guienne who are under the
obedience of the King or his son, are not to be regarded as aliens but
as denizens; that after Christmas next no person shall use any cloth
bought after that date which was not made in England, Ireland, or
Wales under pain of forfeiture and such punishment as the King and
his Council may ordain, except the King and Queen, earls, barons,
knights, their wives and children, archbishops, bishops, and other persons of holy Church, and such secular persons as can spend 40l. per an.
of rents; cloth may be made of any length desired. "Et que gentz
eient plus graunte volunte de laburrer sur les ouereignes des draps em
(sic) Engleterre, Irlaund et Gales nous volums que totes gentz sachent
que nous graunterums fraunchises covenables as folours, telers, teynturers,
et as autres ouerurs des draps que de cest mester souereinement viuent
quele hure que teles fraunchises nous soient demaundez. Et que graunte
soit as marchauntz des leines que eux eient un maire des susdites estaples." No one to molest strangers in coming or going; otherwise
the towns which they had visited to be answerable for damages and for
capture of the malefactors. "Donetz a Kenylworthe le prime jour de
May, lan de notre roialme dis et novisme."
c. 1300. See list of lost documents, infra.
1301, 25 Feb.—Inspeximus Charter of Edward I. reciting and confirming all the preceding charters to the city. Of these there are two
original copies, one in beautiful and perfect condition, the other much
mutilated and injured by damp. The latter is contained in a small
black box. The great seals of both are enclosed in folds of paper, which
consist partly of fragments of the records of the city court.
The Charter begins with the recital of the following grants from
Henry II. which are not themselves extant.
i. "Omnibus Norensibus qui veniunt ad portum de Grimesby vel ad
alios portus meos de Lincolnsire salutem. Precipio quod faciatis prepositis meis Linc. omnes rectitudines et consuetudines quas solebatis
facere tempore Regis H. avi mei prepositis Linc. Et prohibeo ne
quis vestrum detineat eis theloneum vel aliam consuetudinem injuste
super decem librarum forisfacturam. T., W. filio Johannis apud
ii. "Precipio quod nullus mercator qui sit extraneus et deforis sit
residens in Linc. pro tingendis pannis suis vel vendendis ad taleam nisi
illi tantum qui sunt in gilda et ad omnes consuetudines ville et qui
reddunt gelda mea cum eis sicuti solebant tempore H. Regis. T., Reg.
comite Corn., H. de Essex constab., Ricardo de Humez."
iii. "Precipio quod omnes qui de mercato vivunt et mercatum deducunt infra quatuor divisas que pertinent civitati Linc. reddant communiter cum civibus meis Linc. gelda mea et assisas civitatis sicut reddere
solent [lege, solebant] tempore Regis H. et sicut juste cum eis esse
debent in cujuscunque terra maneant. T., Reg. com. Cornub., Henr. de
Essex constab., Ricardo de Humez. Apud Notinge[ham]."
To the confirmation the following clauses are added:—"Et si forte
iidem cives aliqua vel aliquibus libertatum in dictis cartis et literis contentarum hactenus plene usi non fuerunt, nichilominus volumus et concedimus pro nobis et heredibus nostris quod iidem cives et successores sui
predicti libertate vel libertatibus illis decetero gaudeant et utantur. Concessimus insuper pro nobis et heredibus nostris eisdem civibus quod ipsi et successores sui predicti imperpetuum sint quieti de muragio, panagio, pontagio,
wharuagio, stallagio et terragio per totum regnum nostrum et totam terram
ac potestatem nostram. Hiis testibus, venerabilibus patribus R. Cantuar.
archiepiscopo, A. Dunelm., J. Linc., W. Coventr. et Lichfield, et J.
Karliol. episcopis, Johanne de Warrenne Surr., Thoma Lancastr., Roger
le Bigod Norff. Marescallo Angliæ, Guidone de Bello campo Warr., et
Radulfo de Monte Hermerii Glouc. et Hertford comitibus, Johanne
de Britannia, Johanne de Sancto Johanne, Johanne de Segrave, Reginaldo de Grey, Johanne de Hastinges, Waltero de Bello campo senescallo
hospitii nostri, Petro de Tatintone, et aliis. Dat. per manum nostram
apud Linc. vicesimo quinto die Februarii anno regni nostri vicesimo
1318, 6 Dec. At York.—Confirmation by Edward II. of a license
from Edward I. to the Dean and Chapter to enclose the precinct of the
Cathedral Church with walls and gates, and to crenellate, on account of
the nocturnal inroads of thieves and other evil-doers, causing frequent
manslaughter, etc.; with the addition of license to raise the walls twelve
feet higher and to make as many turrets as they please.
An office copy from the Public Records, made by George Holmes and
attested by W. Harvey, 24 Feb. 1704.
1327, 5 Dec. At Leicester.—Writ ad quod dampnum from Edw. III.
directed to Walter de Friskeny and Robert de Malberthorp, upon an
application from the Dean and Chapter for a grant of the wall of the
bailey and a part of the city wall, which are ruinous, that they may
repair and crenellate them and use them for part of the enclose of the
An office copy from the Public Records, made by Geo. Holmes, and
attested by W. Harvey. 24 Feb. 1704.
1330, 22 February.—Inspeximus by Edw. III. of his own Inspeximus
charter of 7 Oct. 1327, at Nottingham, (fn. 4) reciting the Inspeximus of
Edw. II. of June 1316, and adding further privileges. The great seal
is sewn up in folds of paper, being fragments of a court-book of the city
probably of the time of James 1. The first charter confirmed in the
charter of Edw. II. is one of Henry II., which does not appear to be
recited elsewhere. "H. [etc.] justiciariis et vicecomitibus suis de
Lincolscire salutem. Sciatis me liberasse civitatem meam Lincoln.
civibus meis ejusdem civitatis ad illam firman ad quam solebat esse
tempore H. Regis avi mei, cum omnibus consuetudinibus et libertatibus
eidem civitati pertinentibus in civitate ex extra. T., com. Reg. et War.
fil. Ger. Datum apud Stanford." The charter of Edw. II. confirmed
to the city the wool-tolls, and granted assize of bread and beer, and of
weights and measures; and also granted "prefatis civibus vacuas et
vastas placeas nostras in civitate et suburbio predictis, habendum sibi et
heredibus ac succesoribus suis predictis imperpetuum ad commodum
suum inde faciendum, prout sibi melius viderint expedire; ita tamen
quod illud faciant absque dampno et prejudicio cathedralis ecclesie beate
Marie Lincoln. et liberi tenentis cujuslibet alterius, et quod vici in
eadem civitate et suburbio ea occasione nimium non arceantur." To
this charter of Edw. II. that of Edw. III. in 1327 added that an inquisition having been held upon his command by Walter de Friskeneye,
Robert de Malberthorpe, and Peter de Lodyngtone, in the presence of
Thomas de Newmarket lately sheriff of Lincoln, and returned into the
Chancery, respecting the privileges used by the mayor and citizens, all
these are now confirmed, including markets on the Monday, Wednesday
and Friday in each week, and a yearly fair extending from the feast of St.
Botulph (17 June) to that of SS. Peter and Paul (29 June); also the
profit of the buildings which they have erected on the city wall "ex
transverso de Neulandeyate usque mansum fratrum de ordine Minorum,"
in divers places near Walkergate and Soper lane, with power to erect
additional buildings; with criminal jurisdiction, authority for maintenance of the peace, etc.; that, as hitherto, a Burghmanmot be
held weekly in the Guildhall by the mayor and bailiffs for the
hearing of all local pleas. Of the annual rent to the Crown of 180l.
eighty pounds are to be paid in half-yearly payments at the Exchequer.
The Inspeximus of 1330 adds to this charter that whereas the judges
of assize have, as the mayor and citizens say, frequently summoned to
their courts pleas of assize about tenements in the city because such
pleas were not specifically mentioned, therefore these as well as all others
are now exclusively reserved to the Burghmanmot. Witnesses, the archbishop of Canterbury, the bishops of Ely and Lincoln, John of Eltham
earl of Cornwall, Roger Mortimer earl of March, Henry de Percy
John Mautravers steward of the household, and others, at Windsor,
22 Feb. an. 4. This charter was not in recent years known to be in
1361, 28 Jan.—Exemplification by Edw. III., at the request of the
Mayor, bailiffs and citizens of Lincoln, of the record of a case tried
before Martin de Littlebury and his companions, the justices itinerant in
Lincolnshire, on the morrow of the first Sunday after Easter 47 Hen.
III. (1263). Peter of Savoy claimed 500l. damages from the city of
Lincoln because that for 12 years they had exacted market-tolls from the
men of his honour of Richmond, whereas all those men were exempt.
The city replied that while King Hen. I. held the city in his own
hands he exacted the same tolls of every one, and that when he gave
the citizens seisin of the city at the annual rent of 180l., he gave it
with all the rights and privileges then used. The complainant replies
that the right of taking tolls of his men could not have been among the
rights thus conveyed, because the honour of Richmond had been free
from the time of the Conquest. Finally, the parties agreed that the
men of Richmond should be free of toll for all things born fed or grown
within the limits of the honour, but should pay the same toll as others
for any thing they may bring not thus exempted, and that for every
ship coming with "helmerother" they shall pay twopence; and for
every ship with "hauderother" one penny; this applying only to ships
carrying merchandise first bought from others and then exposed to sale.
The great seal is fastened up in paper.
The customary tolls levied at Lincoln are found from this record to
have been these: for every horse bought or sold one penny, for every
ox one halfpenny, for every cart twopence, for a ship fourpence, for
24 two-year-old sheep one penny, and for every quarter of corn one
1377, Apr. 23.—See list of lost documents, infra.
1378, 16 March.—Inspeximus Charter of Rich. II. reciting and confirming the previous charters, and adding the clause, found also in some
of those, that the non-use hitherto of any of the privileges granted in
them shall not involve their loss. Witnesses, S. archbishop of Canterbury, bishops W. of London, A. of St. David's, Chancellor, Thomas of
Exeter, Treasurer, H. of Carlisle, John King of Castile and Leon duke
of Lancaster, Edmund earl of Cambridge, Thomas earl of Buckingham,
(the King's uncles,) Richard earl of Arundell, Thomas Beauchamp earl
of Warwick, Hugh earl of Stafford, Richard le Scrope, steward of the
household, Guy de Briene, chamberlain, John de Fordham, keeper of
the privy seal; Westm. 16 March an. 1. "Per peticionem de magno
Consilio. Exam. per Rob. de Muscham et John de Burtone, clericos."
The great seal is fastened within folds of paper cut from the records of
the city court, as in preceding cases.
1379, May 10.—See list of lost documents, infra.
1380, 18 Apr. at Westm.—Inspeximus by Richard II. of the exemplification by Edw. III. of the record of the case between Peter of
Savoy and the city. See under 1361, supra. "Exam. per Ric. de
Holme et Joh. de Lincoln, clericos." The great seal, in green wax, is
nearly perfect; but the impression is poor.
1390, 17 Oct.—Inspeximus by Rich. II. (an. 14) of an indenture of
agreement (in French) between the Dean and Chapter and the Mayor
and citizens upon a decree and award made by John of Gaunt, duke of
Lancaster, as to the exemption of the cathedral close from all civic
jurisdiction, and of a release made hereupon by the city; both dated
12 June 1390.
This is a copy made towards the end of the 17th century.
1409, 21 Nov.—Charter of Hen. IV. reciting and confirming the
Inspeximus of Rich. II. in 1378, and adding these additional privileges:
the election of two sheriffs instead of bailiffs, the city to be called the
county of the city of Lincoln and the Mayor to be the King's Escheator,
power to render accounts to the King's Exchequer by attorney, the
Mayor and Sheriffs with four others to be justices of the peace, with
defined jurisdiction, a yearly fair beginning fifteen days before the feast
of the deposition of St. Hugh [17 Nov.] and continuing for fifteen
days after, and the receipt in aid of the payment of the city rent of
180l. of the annual rent of 6l. paid to the Crown by the weavers of
Lincoln; strictly and fully reserving the exemption from the jurisdiction of the city of the cathedral church, the close, and the Dean and
Chapter. Witn., the archbishops of Cant. and York, the bishops of London, Durham, and Bath and Wells, Edward duke of York, John earl
of Somerset, chamberlain, John Typtot, treasurer, master John Prophete keeper of the Privy Seal, and John Stanley, steward of the
household. At Westm., 21 Nov. an. 11. "Exam. per Joh. Roderham
et Ric. Bolton, clericos." The great seal (green wax, broken) is
fastened up in folds of blank paper.
1414, 15 Dec.—Inspeximus by Henry V. of the preceding charter of
Hen. IV. Witn. archbishop of Canterbury, bishop of Winchester the
King's uncle and chancellor, the bishop of Norwich, Thomas duke of
Clarence, John duke of Bedford, Humphrey duke of Gloucester, his
brothers, Edward duke of York, Thomas earl of Arundel, treasurer,
Richard earl of Warwick, Sir Henry Fitzhugh, chamberlain, Sir
Thomas Erpyngham, steward of the household, master John Prophete,
keeper of the privy seal. At Westm. 15 Dec. an. 2. "Exam. per John
Frank et Will. Aghton, clericos." Great seal in green wax, broken.
1424–5.—Copies, on one membrane, of the Statutes made at Westminster and Leicester 3 and 4 Hen. VI.
Statutes at large, 1786, vol. I. pp. 472–4.
1424, 24 Jan.—Inspeximus by Henry VI. of the charter of Hen. V.
in 1414. "Teste me ipso apud Westm." an. 2. "Exam. per Joh.
Mapiltone et Nich. Wymbyssh, clericos." Part of the great seal, green
1438, 6 Sept.—See Registers, vol. I. infra.
1439, 25 July.—Writ from Hen. VI. to the judges of assize in
Lincolnshire, commanding them to permit the Mayor and citizens of
Lincoln to enjoy without interruption the privileges with regard to the
trial of causes formerly granted to the mayor and bailiffs. "Teste me
ipso apud Dogmersfeld, xxv die Julii an. r. n. decimo septimo." This
is sewn to the charter of Hen. V. in 1414.
1441, 26 Feb.—See Registers, vol. I. infra.
1447, 13 March.—License from Hen. VI. to the Mayor and citizens
to acquire lands, tenements and rents to the value of 120l. per an., and
exonerating them from all payment of tenths and fifteenths for the
period of forty years. This is granted on the petition of John Ratheby,
mayor, and the citizens, setting forth that, whereas they are bound to
an annual payment of 180l., and have also to pay at every time of
levying a fifteenth and tenth 100l., they are so depauperized by the
withdrawal of merchants and by a great pestilence which has continued
there for a long time and other worldly misfortunes, that scarcely 200
citizens remain in the city, and not one of them can bear the burden of
the annual payment, notwithstanding that the King by authority of
Parliament has relieved them from some part of the payment of the
tenths and fifteenths. Great seal, green wax, broken.
1456, 24 Nov.—License from Hen. VI., in pursuance of his license
in 1447 for acquisition of lands in mortmain, to John Markham, justice
C.P., William Stanlowe and Joan his wife, John Busshby esq., Richard
Hillingworth, Thomas Folkingham sen., Peter Idley esq., William
Rither, John Waldeff, Nicholas Stathum, Thomas Ryby, chaplain, and
Robert Peny of Lincoln, to convey to the mayor and citizens the manor
of Canwyk with two shillings of rent in Braunstone, and also to William
and Joan Stanlowe, John Berkestone chaplain, and Thomas Folkyngham, to convey one messuage, four tofts, ninety acres of land, sixteen
of meadow, and one hundred of pasture, in Canwyk, which belonged to
the late Alexander Hervy and are held of the Crown in chief; of
which, by an inquisition taken before William Grymesby, late escheator,
the manor and rent extend to twenty shillings, and the rest to thirteen
shillings and four pence, as part of the value of 120l. licensed to be
obtained. "Pro quinque marcis solutis in hanaperio. Kirkeham."
Great seal, green wax, broken.
1463, Aug. 29.—See list of lost documents, infra.
1463, 11 Dec.—Inspeximus by Edward IV. of the preceding license
in 1447 of Hen. VI. "nuper de facto et non de jure Regis Anglie."
"Teste me ipso apud Dancastre," an. 3. "Pro decem libris solutis in
hanaperio. Exam. per Will. Morland et Hen. Upton, clericos." Good
impression of great seal, in white wax, broken in the rim. [Enrolled in
the Memoranda of the Exchequer.]
1466, 15 Feb.—Charter of Edw. IV.: see the following Charter of
1484. A copy of this is also in the "White Book," infra.
1484, 30 Nov. at Westm.—Inspeximus by Rich. III. of a charter
from Edw. IV. of 15 Feb. 1466, in which after reciting and confirming
the charter of Hen. VI. of 24 Jan. 1424, by authority of Parliament
held on 4 Nov. 1461, it was granted to the Mayor Thomas Grantham
and the citizens, in relief of the desolation and ruin which had come
upon the city, that the villages of Braunstone, Wadyugtone, Bracebrigge and Canwik should be separated from the county and annexed
to the county of the city, with the transfer of all jurisdiction of sheriffs
etc., that all their inhabitants should contribute to scot and lot and all
the charges of the city, and none be allowed to dwell within the liberties of the city who should refuse so to do. There were also granted a
large number of quit-rents paid to the Crown from various houses in
the city, many of which had belonged to Jews, and which are all
specified in detail. In the list the following names of Jews are found:
Ursell Levy of Wickford in the parish of St. Mark, whose name occurs
thrice; Diabella, a Jewess, condemned for felony, whose name occurs
four times; Bealesset or Belasset, of Wallingford, a Jewess also condemned for felony, five times; Hagin son of Benedict, of Lincoln, and
Agnu or Agni daughter of Benedict, one of whose houses is said to
have come to the King's hands by the exile of Benedict; Jacob Levi in
the parish of St. Benedict; Floria of London a Jewess of Lincoln, in the
parishes of St. Martin and St. Cuthbert; Juda, in the bailly; Benedict
le Count in the parish of St. John called "la poure"; Jacob Brauncegate, in the parish of St. George; Jocey Gabias, in the parish of St.
Michael-on-the-hill; Salomon of London, in the parish of St. Martin
and in Brauncegate; Manser de Bradeworth in the parish of St.
George; Jocey of Colchester; Benedict of London, in Brauncegate;
Hagin Calf; Elias Gaboys. Besides these there is a rent of 2s. partly
from the burial-ground of the Jews, and 19d. paid by the bailiffs from
various Jews' houses not specified. The charter goes on to grant the
goods and chattels of felons and outlaws, with fines, forfeitures, waifs
and strays, and treasure trove. For this confirmation by Rich. III.,
which fills three large membranes. 26s. 8d. were paid in the hanaper.
The great seal (green wax, broken) is enclosed in folds of paper.
|1484, Dec. 2.||See list of lost documents, infra.|
|1509, May 28.|
1515, 24 Oct.—Inspeximus by Henry VIII. reciting and confirming
an Inspeximus of Hen. VII. of 8 July, 1498, an. 14. This is on four
membranes, slightly mutilated and discoloured through exposure to
damp, and is in its original leather-covered box. The great seal, in
fragments, is attached in a tin box, with one lid of an outer box.
1546, an. 38, 11 Dec.—Charter of Henry VIII. granting to the
city for relief of their burdens, and in consideration of the sum of
135l. 14s. 3½d. paid to the Treasurer of the Court of Augmentations,
the advowsons and rectories of Hanslape, Bucks, and Hemyswell,
Surflett and Beltone, Linc., saving the present incumbencies of Robert
Bone rector of Hanslape, Roger Norton rector of Hemyswell, William
Clyfton rector of Surflett, and John Pope rector of Beltone. The
vicars appointed by the city are to be bound to residence, and each to
have a fit dwelling-house, "unacum curtilagiis, ortis, pomeriis et gardinis
eidem domui spectantibus," with stipends of 13l. 14s. 4d. for Hanslape
and 11l. for the other parishes. Two membranes, with the great seal
enclosed in a paper case. The initial letter contains an outline portrait
of the King on his throne, with the inscription "Vivat Rex."
1549, an. 3, 13 May.—Exemplification by Edw. VI. of an Act passed
in the second session of the Parliament held Nov. 1547.—Nov. 1548
for the union of certain parishes in the city of Lincoln. "Where[as] in
the auncient citie of Lincolne and the suburbes of the same there are
many parishe churches the benefyts whereof, for that the same parisshes
were well peopled, were good and honest lyvinge for lerned incumbents
and personnes of the same, by reason of privie tythes of the rich marchaunts, clothyers, artyficeres, and of the offrynges of a great multitude
of people within the same parisshes, whiche lyvynges are now soo much
decayed by the great ruyne and decay of the said citie and of the trade
of clothmaking and merchaundise there that the revenues and profittes
of dyvers the said benefices there are at this present not above the clere
yerely value of thirtie shillinges, so that a great sort of these are not a
competent and honest lyving for a good curate, and no personne wil
take the cure of them, but that of povertie and necessitie there are some
late religious personnes being stipendaries taken and appoynted to serve
the said cures and benefices, whiche for the most parte are unlerned and
verie ignoraunte personnes not able to do any parte of there dueties;
by reason whereof the said citie is not only replenisshed with blynde
guydes and pastours, but also the people very muche kept in ignorance
and blyndnes as well of their dueties toward almightie God as also the
Kinges maiestie their soueraigne lord, and the commen wealthe of this
realme, and to the great daungier of their soules," therefore it shall be
lawful for the Ordinary, with the Mayor, Recorder, and Justices of the
peace, within six years after this session of Parliament, to unite parishes,
so that the yearly value of any one shall not exceed 14l., to pull down
superfluous churches, and to use the materials for repair of others, &c.;
with reservation to dispossessed incumbents of a third part of the profits
of their benefice, and the saving of all existing rights of others. Fragment of the great seal, in white wax.
1596, an. 39, 13 Dec.—Charter from Q. Elizabeth, granting that,
whereas questions have arisen as to the power of the Mayor and the
Town Clerk, otherwise called the Mayor's Clerk, to take recognizances
of debts according to the form of the statutes of Acton Burnell and of
Merchants, it shall be lawful for them so to do; and after the death of
Leonard Carre, the present Town Clerk, his successors shall be Clerks
of the Crown for such recognizances, which are to be sealed with a seal
to be called the Queen's seal (or seal of the Crown). The initial letter
has an outline sketch of the Queen, with "Vivat Regina." Of a
beautiful impression, in brown wax, of the great seal only a portion
The original leather box in which the charter is contained is lined
with fragments of a curious black-letter chap-book apparently relating
to some astrological or fortune-telling game with dice. There are headings "Aristotelus philosopher" "Socrates philosopher," with heads of
Agamemnon, etc., and then, under various throws of dice, many such
inscriptions as these, "Go to Venus, to the Spirit Rada; go to Mercurius,
to the Spirit Efra; goe to ye Sunne, to the Spirit Mara."
1608, 26 Nov.—Letters of commission from James I. appointing
commissioners, in pursuance of a statute made 43 Eliz., to enquire concerning all gifts assigned at any time for charitable purposes of every
kind within the city and county of Lincoln, and into all abuses and
breaches of trust of the same. Great seal lost.
1628, an. 4, 18 Dec.—Charter of incorporation by Charles I. (under
which the city was governed until 1834) establishing the Common
Council, with thirteen aldermen, four coroners, four chamberlains, etc.,
and regulating modes of procedure and jurisdiction; with reservation of
the rights of the bishop, the dean and chapter, and the lord of the
liberty of Bemon fee, and also saving "nobis et heredibus nostris in
jure ducatus nostri Lancastriæ castro nostro Lincoln. ac fossatis et
muris ejusdem infra et extra cum omnibus suis membris, visu franci
plegii et quicquid ad visum franci plegii pertinet, et omnibus libertatibus privilegiis et franchesiis eidem pertinentibus." The initial
letter has the customary outline portrait, with the motto "Carolus
Rex." Only one half of the great seal remains, with the view of
London and the greyhound. Four membranes. In a box.
1684, an. 36, 17 Dec.—Charter granted by Charles II. after the surrender by the city of their previous charters on 18 Oct. 1684, renewing
the former privileges, enlarging powers of jurisdiction with regard to
unlawful assemblies, conventicles, etc., granting a four-days' fair, and a
weekly market on Tuesdays, with the same clauses of reservation as in
the charter of Charles I.; but naming the mayor and all other officers,
and reserving to the Crown power, by order in Privy Council, to remove
all or any, at the King's free will and pleasure. On six membranes, with
beautifully engraved arabesque borders containing shields of the royal
arms, and a fine portrait of the King. Only fragments of the great seal
remain. In a box.
1696, an. 8, 22 July.—Grant by William III. of a horse and cattle
fair to be held yearly on the first Wednesday in September and two days
following. With engraved portrait of the King, and engraved border.
Only a small fragment of the seal remains.
List of Charters, &c. in existence a few years ago but now missing.
1. Circa 1300.—"Provisions" for the government of the city, "on
a vellum membrane," with the Great Seal. Ross's Civitas Lincolnia,
2. 1377, Apr. 23.—Letters patent of Edward III. exemplifying
a judgment given in favour of the privileges of the city in a case
with the abbot of Tupholme in 1340, and a post mortem inq. on the
death of Henry Lacy, earl of Lincoln in 1311; with the Great Seal.
Ibid. pp. 17–18.
3. 1379, May 10.—Letters patent of Richard II. exemplifying a
judgment in a suit at Westminster respecting property in the city; with
the Great Seal. Ibid. pp. 12–20.
4. 1463, Aug. 29.—Letters patent of Edward IV. acquitting the city
from payment of 100l., part of the fee-farm rent to the Crown of
180l., "on one large membrane"; with the Great Seal. Ibid. pp. 23–4.
5. 1484, Dec. 2.—Letters patent of Richard III., incorporating in
the city the villages of Washingborough, Heighington, Fiskerton, Greetwell, Burton-juxta-Lincoln, and Cherry Willingham; granting an additional fair, with a court of Pie-poudre; &c. Ibid. pp. 27–8.
6. 1509, May 28.—General pardon to the citizens from Henry VIII.;
with the Great Seal. Ibid. p. 29–30.
[Besides the notices of the foregoing charters, Mr. Ross's book contains also abstracts of others, taken from the enrolments in the Record