The corporation of Hereford
Court rolls, to 1509

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Institute of Historical Research

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Historical Manuscripts Commission

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1892

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292-302

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'The corporation of Hereford: Court rolls, to 1509', The Manuscripts of Rye and Hereford Corporations, etc.: Thirteenth report, Appendix Part IV (1892), pp. 292-302. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=67159 Date accessed: 22 October 2014.


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IV. Bailiffs' and Mayors' Rolls, and Rolls of Cases in the City Court, to the end of the Reign of Henry VII.

1264–5, 48–9 Hen. fil. Joh.—Roll of receipts of tolls for 14 weeks from the f. of St. Denis (Oct. 3) to the Purif. B. M. V. (2 Feb.), and of expenses for 10 weeks. The tolls are from Way Gate, Bishopstreet Gate, St. Owen's Gate, Zizene Gate, and Widmarsh Gate. The name Zizeue (al. Ighene) appears now in the form Eigne; but its derivation seems to be unknown. In the payments are the weekly wages to the gate-keepers, who appear under the name of Insidiatores: "tribus insidiatoribus tempore nundinarum at portam Waye, vid.," and so at the other gates. The wages of labourers are 1½ per day: to four labourers working at repair of the wall, three shillings are paid for a week, and to one working for three days 4½d. To a smith for making a chain for a gate, 5s.

1270, 54 Hen.—Receipts for 24 weeks from f. of St. Peter in Cath. (22 Feb.). These accounts are very interesting as showing how the traffic varied at the different gates; e.g. in the first week in March "De porta Waye, nichil. De porta de Igene, vd. De porta de Wythm[ersh] 11d. ob. De porta Episcopi. viid. De porta Sancti Audoeni, 11d. Summa, xvid. ob." But in the first week in July, "die Sabati prox. post festum beati Petri et Pauli," the receipts (the highest in the 24 weeks) are, "De porta Waye, 11s. viiid. De porta de Igane, xxd. De porta de Withm[ersh], xvd. De porta Episcopi, xxd. De porta Beati Audoeni, vid. Summe, viis. ixd." The total sum in the 24 weeks is 4l. 18s. 5d.

1273, 1 Edw.—Compotus of John Seym and Walter le Wanter [bailiffs], the Wedn. after Mich. Day. A very short summary of their accounts. With this is a very tattered small fragment of an expense roll some time in the reign of Edw. I.

1275, 3 Edw.—Court roll, of six courts held from July to Sept. John de la Felde, chaplain, sues Richard de Swynefeld, prebendary of Berton, for debt.

1276, 4 Edw.—Receipts and expenses, in two rolls, of Reginald Moniword (bailiff)]. The receipt roll has been carefully mounted on linen, being mutilated. The receipts are chiefly derived from fines. The majority of items in the expense account are of wine (a sextary and a half, a sextary, or half a sextary) sent to the following persons: Roger Barbastre, J. Saym ("in adventu suo de Lond."), J. de Meus, Sir Giles de Berkeley, Sir Walter de Rudmarleye, Sir W. de Heliun, Sir Edmund de Mortimer, Sir H. de Montfort and Salamon his companion, John de Gernemue (i.e. Yarmouth) "inquratori (sic) bonorum Flandriæ," Richard the clerk "in adventu suo de Lond.," the Seneschal of Goderich Castle, Sir Richard de Hereford, Robert prior of Hereford, and the Bishop of Hereford, to whom also were given an ox and four pigs. For a breakfast ("jentaculo") for four persons going to London for some inquest, 12d.; for the expenses of a messenger sent to London only 2s., but to Richard the clerk for his expenses on a like journey, 24s., and "ad expensas proborum hominum versus Lond." (probably the four mentioned above), 51s. 10d.

1277, 5 Edw.—Account of the same Reginald Moniword on one roll (mounted on linen). The total receipts are 9l. 2s. 2d. The expenses are not summed up; but the gifts of wine are far fewer (as well as other gifts) than in the preceding year, being only to the wife of Rich. de Hereford when she came from London after his death, to Salomon de Roff' [Rochester ? Ross ?], to the Sheriff of Hereford, and to W. de Heliun. Half a mark was paid for the carriage of a tun of wine from Gloucester.

A tattered court roll for the same year.

1279–80, 8–9 incip. Edw. — Mutilated expense roll of John le Gaunter; the first part of every line wanting; (mounted on linen). Some special persons mentioned are Sir Roger de Norwode, Master Will, de la Marche, Rob. Fulk, "_____ duxerunt Thomam Turbevile extra villam."

1281, 9 Edw.—Receipt roll of William Godknave, John le Gaunter, and Gilbert Blod; a short summary, mutilated; (mounted on linen). To this has been recently attached a roll of receipts from fines and rents which has no evidence of year, and may or may not belong to this account.

Enclosed with this is a writ from the King to the Sheriff of Hereford respecting a plea of disseisin brought by Sibilla, daughter of John Monyword against various parties, dated at Westm., 10 May, an. 9, which is endorsed with a return of persons giving bail for appearance, &c.

1282, 10 Edw.—Receipt and expense rolls of John de Strettone and John le Gaunter. (Mounted on linen.) The receipts are not added up; the expenses amount to 51l. 4s.d.; but the roll being mutilated all the separate sums are lost. There are several journeys to London, as before, for payment of the rent of the city into the Exchequer. Three horses are provided for the bailiffs and two servants ("garciones") who have shoes allowed them. The presents are, wine to Sir Roger de Northwode, Sir N. de Castell with three cheeses, and the same to Rich, de Stayvorde, the Bishop with two pigs, Will. de Hay, Sir Hugh Burnel, the Sheriff, Sir Walter de Helion, Sir Rob. Fouc, Sir Roger de Mortimer. Two pigs are sent to the Dean, and also two sextaries of wine "in celebratione novæ missre" (?).

1284, 12 Edw.—Receipt roll of John le Gaunter. The receipts from the market stalls are 13s. 6d., and the large sum of 50s. is received "de quodam homine de Crikhowel pro recreantis'" [regrating ?].

1285, 13 Edw.—Receipt roll of Will. H . . . el; name and date almost entirely effaced. This is a very long and interesting account, with receipts of rents under the several parishes and from tenants outside the city. The fines "pro pace fracta," "pro bateria," and "pro sanguine effuso" are extremely numerous, showing that there must have been frequent riots; and amongst those who are amerced are 10 or 12 persons from Lugwardine, Newton, and Withington. Several are fined for digging in the King's highway; Will. Hondy 12d., "quia recettavit in domo sua mercandisiam contra libertatem"; several for brewing without license; "de Gilberto Saym pro clamore et utesio" (hue and cry) vid.; one offender was allowed to compound, "de Willelmo de Wynton quia non est prosecutus, xiid." The first mention of Jews which I have seen in these accounts occurs here in the following entries; "de Judæis, xiid.; de Johanne Bibol (?) quia vendidit carnes Judæorum, xiid.; de duabus filiabus Cok Judæi de introitu, ii sol."

1287, 15 Edw. I.—Roll of pleas in the city court, chiefly in cases of debt. Roger Cunyng sues Joan wife of Thomas Hamond, because she "contra pacem noctanter fregit laticium suum ad dampnum ipsius Rogeri dim. marcæ," which she is ordered to pay, and is fined. A writ from the King is recited respecting a complaint of Thomas Cope and Joan his wife against John of the Halle in the matter of the will of Hugh of the Halle.

Account-roll of John le Gaunter; three membranes sewn together, of which the receipts fill more than two. The profits of the fair of St. Denis amount to ixs. xid. The receipts are chiefly, as usual; from fines (including some for forestalling), fees for admission into the city of comers from other parts (which include one from Oxfordshire, "de Willelmo filio Johannis de Wyteneye, pro introitu, xiid."), and fees for the gild. Among the fines are, "de Cecil, le Bolter de Presthemede attach. cum quadam tunica furata de blueto, de qua tunica vocat warantum et non invenit, iiis. iiid. De Rogero le Gaunter de Kaynham pro gratia habenda inveniendi warantum suum de pellibus domorum, et non invenir, iiis. De Roberto de Sonursete pro clamore et hutesio, vid. De Johanne de Radenovere pro litera habenda de aveyamento, (fn. 1) iis. De Johanne de Wormebrugge pro habenda litera ad curiam Leominstre, dim marc. De Stephano Knoyl pro indictamento capcionis piscium de fossato, iiiis." The curious Christian female name of Danecosa occurs. The total receipts are 16l. 15s. 3d. Among the outgoings are the expenses of J. le Gaunter three times to London, for the first time 25s. for himself, 4s. for hire of a horse, and 4d. for shoes for his servant; for the second time, 41s. for himself, 3s. for a horse, and 8d. for a servant; and for the third, 19s. 6d., two horses 6s. and servant 8d. Wine is sent to Robert Crevequor, and also 18s.d. "ad perficiendam pacationem Roberti Crevequor," and "clerico marscalli pro allocacione R. Crevequor, xiid." Wine is also sent to the sheriff several times, and bread and wine "uxori vice-comitis ad pur[ificationem] suam"; wine to Rob. Fulcer, Sir Will. de Heliun, Will. de Haya the Chancellor's clerk, Sir Peter de Huntingfeld "marscallo Comitis," Adam de Wynton, Sir N. de Castell, and Rob. de Wallisford, clerk of the Exchequer; and bread and wine to Sir Roger Loveday, to the Earl of Cornwall "in adventu suo," to Sir Will. de Hamiltone (twice), Sir Ralph de Hingham, Sir Robert Fulk, to the Abbot of Gloucester "in adventu suo," and to Will. de Mortimer. The year was a year of law-suits; besides that noticed above with Sir R. de Crevequer, there were disputes with the abbot of Reading, (fn. 2) at Hereford itself, on some business connected with the Jews, and other matters. For the Reading dispute there are these entries: at the King's Bench, "ad impetrandum rotulamentum judicii abbatis de Redinge, iis.; lib. vice-comiti Hereford pro summonitionibus Scaccarii de Reginaldo Moniword, Johanne le Gaunter et Johanne clerico pro placito abbatis de Redinge, xxiiiis. viiid." For Hereford, "lib duobus attornatoribus coram domino R. de Hyngham pro communitate versus episcopum, decanum et capitulum, vis. viiid." (To the bishop a salmon was sent on Easter Eve, which cost 4s.) Entries relating to the Jews are these: "in vino misso Absoloni (fn. 3) in adventu suo de London, viiid.; in vino misso domino Macolino in adventu suo ad faciendum deliberationem de catellis Judeorum, xvid.; Ade de Wynton, clerico Judaismi pro breve recreando de contemptu ballivorum, iis." Other notices connected with law-suits are, a journey to Leominster "coram Rob. Fouk et sociis suis," a journey to London "propter placitum domini Ednrundi," a journey to Worcester "coram domino Thoma de Weylonde," "item, justiciariis pro gratia habenda, iis."; a journey to Gloucester and a journey to London not only for the half-yearly proffer to the Exchequer but "ad computandum de subsidio Johannis de Kyrkeby." Among miscellaneous entries are these: half a mark given to Sir Robert de Littlebure and also to Sir Nich. de Castel ["de Castro"]; "ad emendandum fossatum circa villam, iis.; in uno novo rete empto, iiis. iid. ob.; in viginti ulnis linee tele emptis ad opus domini Ricardi de Staunford, viis."

1291, 19 Edw.—Similar roll of John le Gaunter, in duplicate; one copy mutilated and mounted on linen; the other perfect. The receipts from stallage at St. Denis' fair were xs. vd., and from fines at the same ("amerciamenta nundinarum") which are entered separately, xxiiiis. vid. The "summa de claro" of receipts was 24l. 6s. 10d., and of expenses 19l. 11s. 3d. The law suit with the Abbot of Reading is continued. Presents are very frequently made to two sheriffs of the county, whose names are now first mentioned, Sir Roger de Burhulle and Sir Henry de Solers. Other gifts in wine, bread and cheese ("formagio") are to Sir Will. de Assheburne, clerk of the Wardrobe, Reginald Moniword, Sir Roger le Rous "et sociis suis" (judges), Sir John de Metingham, Will. de Louth ("Luda"), Bishop of Ely, the sheriff of Glamorgan, Rob. de Kriketot, seneschal of the Bishop of Bath, Rob. de Tipetote, the Lord Treasurer, Sir Nich. de Castell, the Countess of Gloucester, (fn. 4) Nich. de Warcwik, serjeant at the Bench, Sir Peter de Leycestre (8 cheeses, xixd.), Sir John Batetourte, a judge, John Theubaud xxis., and Sir Will. de Mont Reuel, xs. The sheriffs were on several occasions entertained at breakfast "ad tabernam."

1292, 20 Edw. (Called in the heading "anno undecimo nono.")—Part of the expense-roll; containing seven weeks' expenses in work (quarrying, labour, carting, and smith's work) "circa panag." [a bakehouse ? (fn. 5) ], expenses at law, and a few other items. The suit with the Abbot of Reading is continued, and there is one on the part of John le Gauter versus the Master of the Temple. "Lib. vic. Hereford die dominica, invencionis Sancte Crucis, anno r.r. E. xx pro lib. civitatis per manus Roberti de Dik et Hugonis Clote, tunc temporis ballivorum domini Regis, xiiili. vis. ob. Item, lib. Roberto de Dik ad pacandum domino Joh. Boutetourte pro quadam fine facta, xiiis. iiiid. Item, lib. eidem, Roberto de Dik ad emendum meremium ad furcam ad aventum (sic) justiciariorum domini Regis in itinerant. (sic), xvd. Item, die dominica post festum Sancti Jacobi apostoli lib. fuit Rob. de Dik et Johahni Ethelman ad deliberandum duas cartas de manibus Roberti de Ratford, vis. viiid."

1293. 21 Edw.—Account-roll of the receipts for 11 weeks from the tolls at the gates. The Eigne gate appears under the names of "Zeyne" and "Zyne."

1299–1300.—Account-roll of Henry. . . . of the weekly receipts of tolls at the city gates from the feast of St. Denis, 26 Edw. I. to the same feast in the following year.

1306, 34 Edw.—Receipt-roll of Richard Monyword (somewhat mutilated, and mounted on linen), and the expense-roll, as it seems, of the same (much injured by damp, and mounted), in which many of the payments belong, however, to the preceding year. The former roll is endorsed with the gild receipts, which include some of 35 Edw., and 12s. 10d. "de Rogero Penkes conballivo meo in recompensacionem liberacionis firme." Amongst the expenses are frequent breakfasts provided for the judges, and wine given to Sir Miles Pychard the sheriff, and to Sir Will. de Mortimer.

1314–5, 8 Edw. II.—A tattered roll of pleas in the city court. The Eigne gate appears under the form "Zezene." One of the plaintiffs bears the name of Warin Oldecrist. A complaint is brought by Alice la Lymbernere as executrix of the will of Sir Richard le Lymberne [sic], chaplain of B. V. M. in the Church of St. Nicholas, against the prior and convent of Llanthony.

1316, Oct. 10 Edw. II.—"Placita in nundinis Hereford die sabati in festo S. Dionysii et aliis diebus subsequentibus." A short roll.

1318, May–July, July–Oct., 12 Edw. II.—Two rolls of the city court, without the names of the bailiffs. The first of these is much mutilated and very tattered.

1319, July–Sept., 12 (ending) and 13 Edw. II.—A similar roll. Two actions brought by executors run through the greater part of it, viz., one brought by Master Richard do Hamenashe and Roger le Taylor, executors of the will of Master William de Caple, against John de la Maudeleyne, chaplain, and the other by Osbert, vicar of the church of St. Peter, Hereford, Will. de Orleton, Roger de Maddeleye, and Walter de Paris, executors of the will of Richard de Cruce, against Cecil. de Amyas. These cases are continued in the next rolls.

1319, Feb.—1321, 12–15 Edw. II.—The same; on 13 rolls. In 1319 there is a case of seizure of goods for rent. A. le Engleys complains that Ralph le Gurdeler came to his house in Cabage Lane, which he rented of the said Ralph, and took away "unum tapetum, unam supertunicam, unum firmaculum, quinque paria sotularium, et duo paria des enpeynes qui vocantur embles," to the value of 30s. Gurdeler replies that he had let the house at 3d. per week, and that the rent was 17d. in arrears, and that he therefore took these things (but not the "firmaculum," brooch), as he was well entitled to do by the custom of the city. In Oct. 1319 the court was held before John de Brompfeld, the Bishop's steward, and the bailiffs of the city. In 1320 James de Henleye, a canon of Hereford, brings an action for debt. "La Mercerierewe" is mentioned in an action in 1321 as the street in which certain cloth was bought. Walter de Lugwardyn, a citizen of Oxford, becomes bail with Hugh the butcher of Wormbrugge in Oct. 1320, for payment of one mark for Walter of Oxford, a citizen there, who had been arrested "pro una cloca" of Hugh de Moutton's, a citizen of Hereford, which was found in the house of John Sat, also a citizen of Oxford, and which had been carried away the Sunday before Michaelmas Day.

1319, Mich.–1320 Mich., 13–14 Edw. II.—Account of Philip le Worror (called in the preceding court-rolls Werrour), bailiff, in three rolls of five membranes. Thomas Tope accounts for receipts as bailiff of the toll-house ("tolneti") and Will. Godkuave as bailiff and collector of the King's rents. The receipts for stallage at the fair of St. Denis are only 4s. 6d. "De Glodythe, serviente Cecil. Amyas, pro sanguine, xviiid." John Wade the clerk had one mark for his robe, and Roger de Hull 40d. for his fee. Two marks are paid to Hugh de la Hull "communi attornatori civitatis pro feodo suo." The customary gifts of bread and wine are very often sent to John de Carewe; they are also sent to Sir Rich. de Wottone, to the sheriff, Roger de Elmrigge (who is also twice entertained with wine in the house of Will. Godknave), and to the judges, Sir Henry Spigurnel and Adam Herwyntone. There are expenses in connection with, apparently, a confirmation of the city charter; "ad impetrandum unum breve pro libertatibus allocandis," and payment to Rich. de Westbury "pro auxilio præstando ad cartam allocandam." "In expensis ballivi, clerici, et sub-ballivi per duodecim dies in quibus generales inquisitiones tenentur, xxs." The "compotus" of Henry de Orleton, "collector muragii" (a tax for the city walls which was granted by Edw. I. in 1297 for five years, but must have been renewed) is attached on a small separate roll. The receipts are 30l. 16s. 9d., and the expenses these :—"Liberavit Thomæ de Strettone per preceptum civitatis, iiis. iiiid. Item liberat. Willelmo de Aylmestone pro prosio (sic) faciendo apud Ebor. termino Mich. anno xiii, viis. iiiid. Item lib. eidem Willelmo de Aylmestone in reditu suo pro labore suo, vis. viiid. Item in expensis duarum feriarum, xviis. viiid. Item in expensis omnium janitorum Hereford, xxxixs. Item in salariis facientes (sic) signa, 11s. Item in cariagio et operacionibus et aliis expensis circa paina (?) xxviili ixd."

Throughout the long reign of Edw. III. there is not a single roll of bailiffs' accounts now found. In the 27th year, 1353, there is a county justices' roll containing a list of all the fines inflicted, with the names of those who were bail for the offenders, which is thus headed: "Civitas Hereford. Hec indentura facta inter Ricardum Talbot et socios suos, justiciarios ad transgressiones et excessus operariorum, servientium et artificum in com. Hereford assignandos, et Thomam le Brut, chevalier, et socios suos, collectores xve et xe, juxta ordinacionem domini Regis et consilium anno regni sui vicesimo septimo." But there is a large, though nevertheless very incomplete, series of the rolls of the city court, as follows :—

1329, 3 Edw. III.—Four rolls.

1334, 8 Edw. III.—One roll.

1335, 9 Edw. III.—One roll. Walter le Cachepol is bailiff. There is a plea of debt against Master John de Orleton as executor of the will of Master Thomas de Orleton.

1336, 10 Edw. III.—Four rolls.

1343, 16, 17 Edw. III.—One roll.

1345, 19 Edw. III.—One long tattered roll. The Friars Minor of Hereford do not make appearance in a plea of debt, and are therefore distrained upon to the extent of one horse and one [bushel ?] of meal; afterwards they appear and give bail. The curious name of Vygorous occurs in this roll, as also before.

1351. 25 Edw. III.—Six rolls. The following royal acknowledgment of a loan is entered:—

"Edwardus &c. Noveritis nos recepisse per manus Thesaurarii et Camerariorum nestrorum quinquaginta libras de Communitate villæ Hereford, quas eadem Communitas nobis pro expedicione arduorum negociorum nostrorum salvacionem et defencionem regni nostri Angliæ contingencium mutuavit, nos igitur volentes præfatæ Communitati de summa prædicta satisfieri prout decet, concessimus et assignavimus eædem Communitati dictas quinquaginta libras percipiendas de exitibus custumarum et subsidiorum lanarum, coriorum et pellium lanutarum quæ eadem Communitas vel alii extra regnum nostrum Angliæ educet vel educent, in quibuscunque portubus ejusdem regni eligere voluerit, in duobus annis post festum S. Michaelis proxime futurum proxime sequentibus, per equales porciones, per manus custumariorum vel receptorum custumarum et subsidiorum eorundem. In cujus rei, &c.

1353, June–Sept., 14 Edw. III.—Two rolls; no names of bailiffs. To these is attached a writ from Richard de Brugge, sheriff of Herefordshire, with a copy of a writ from the King respecting an action for debt, with his seal of arms (checquy) attached.

1356, 30 Edw. III.—One roll.

1358, 32 Edw. III.—Three rolls. Thomas Dun (alias Don) is bailiff.

1359, 33 Edw. III.—Four rolls. The Prior of St. Guthlae's, Hereford, is sued by Reginald Monyword for taking and detaining a silver cup with a cover, and, together with William Blokkeley, a monk, by Thomas, parson of Newington, near Banbury, on a plea of trespass.

1366, 40 Edw. III.—Nine rolls.

1367, 41 Edw. III.—One roll.

1374, 48 Edw. III.—Fourteen rolls; (one of these was found amongst papers of 1764–5).

1375, 49 Edw. III.—One roll.

The City Court Rolls then continue as follows :—

1377–8, 1 Rich. II.—Four rolls, "Tempore Hugonis Osebarn," of which one is much rubbed and in parts illegible; and a fragment of one on paper. John Penny, chaplain of the Chantry of B. Mary, in the church of St. Nicholas, sues John Yattone, prior of Lanthony "in Wallia," and the convent, for debt.

1378–9, 2 Rich. II.—One roll.

1379–80, 3 Rich. II.—One roll. Richard Pallmere, bailiff.

1391–2, 15 Rich. II.—Six rolls. Thomas Chippenham, mayor. The title of mayor was first granted by the Charter of 7 Rich. II.

1392–3, 16 Rich. II.—Three rolls; one on paper.

1406–7, 8 Hen. IV.—Fragment of one roll.

1407–8, 9 Hen. IV.—Nine rolls. One plea of debt is interesting from the information it affords of the price of armour and complete fitting out of a horseman-at-arms. Roger Atfurton sues Thomas Leynham for "1 loricam, prec. xiiis. iiiid.; 1 brestplate, 1 paunce, prec. ixs.; 1 bassenet, 1 ventaille, prec. ixs.; 1 paire gloves de plates, prec. iis. vid.; 1 paire quysshers, 1 paire greves and saboters, cum 1 paire de bourges, prec. xs.; 1 paire vaumbras and 1 paire de rerebras, prec. vis. viiid.; 1 pollax, prec. xxd.; 1 paire de trussyng cofres, prec. xxd.; 1 equum nigrum, prec. xxxs.; 1 curt' tog' cum capucio (short cloak with hood) viridis coloris cum liliis, prec. xxd.; 1 huyke, prec. iis.; 1 curt' tog' (the scribe here wrote gou, but crossed it out before adding n) viridis coloris cum 1 capucio de ray, prec. xiid. ; 1 toga de ray furur[ata], prec. viis.; 1 somosadull (?), prec. xxd.; 1 chalover, prec. xiid." (fn. 6) One other case of debt is a plea of Thomas Burghull, John Hale, and Will. Waryn, "procuratores et supervisores operis et fabricæ ecclesiæ de Wythintone," against Michael Checkeley for 10s. 6d., "quos ex sua propria voluntate promisit et concessit novæ fabricæ companarum dictæ ecclesiaæ, et quos solvere debuisset, etc., et quos nondum solvit licet inde sæpius fuerit requisites." The defaulting Michael denies the promise; and, on giving bail, the trial is postponed.

1409–10, 11 Hen. IV.—Nine rolls. John Mey, mayor. The churchwardens ("procuratores") of St. Owen's sue Sir John Nokes, because after he and John Adam, chaplain, had on the f. of St. Cecilia, 10 Hen. IV., altogether submitted themselves in a matter in dispute to the arbitration of John Mey and three others, and had been ordered to pay 6s. 8d. to the work of a certain window in the said church, he refuses to do it. Robert Walker, vicar choral of the Cathedral, is sued because on 18 April he by force and arms took away a horse from the house of one Henry Nowel. Lewis Breules is mentioned as being Warden of the Friars Minor. William Smyth (whose trade is not mentioned) brings complaint against Grono ap Jevan that after he had engaged him on the Sunday before the feast of St. Martin to serve him as an apprentice for one year, then for two years, and that then in the fourth year, if they suited each other, he should give him 30s. for his wages, the said Grono left him on the Wednesday in Easter week; to which the latter replies that the agreement was conditional, upon their mutual liking.

1412, 14 Hen. IV.—Roll for the months of Oct. and Nov.; John Falke, mayor. Sir Leonard Hakeluyt has a plea of debt against Will. Hosey of the parish of Maurdyn. (fn. 7)

1414–5, 2 Hen. V.—Three rolls. John Mey, mayor. Walter Eton is prior of St. Guthlac's, Hereford. A plaint of debt is brought by William Hemmyng, one of the vicars choral. The name of Walter Bookbyndere occurs, which affords the first mention of that trade which has been here noticed.

1415, June—1416, 3, 4 Hen. V.—Eleven rolls. May 4, Walter Eton, prior of St. Guthlac's, sues Hugh Lukas, vicar of Felton, for 20s. for tithes granted to him at Felton, and 20d. which he had paid for the said Hugh to the clerk of the abbot of Gloucester. June 23, one is prosecuted for assault who "vi et armis jacuit in agaito in Cabouche lane."

1434–5, 13 Hen. VI.—Three rolls, "rotulus primus," "tercius," and "sextus," John Fuster, mayor.

1439, Oct.–1440, Oct. 18.—A paper book of eighteen leaves. On 30 Apr. John Hauler and John Pewte sue Thomas Sporyour "de placito detencionis unius libri de lusionibus, prec. iis. iiiid.," for which detention of a playbook Thomas is arrested.

1441, July–Aug., 19 Hen. VI.—One leaf, tattered.

1446, Oct.–1447, June 13.—Nich. Falke and John Fuster, mayors, One roll.

1473, 13 Edw. IV.—Cases on Aug. 9. One leaf.

1475, 14 Edw. IV.—Cases on Jan. 4. One leaf. "Item, presentant pro nyghtwalkyn cum- gladiis Thomam Carver, clericum, Johannem Lloid, clericum, Johannem Bolter, clericum, Johannem Swanstone, et Thomam diaconum de Priorye. Item presentant Thomam Bullocke pro raptione unius puellæ. Item presentant Johannem Cariour of Lemster pro malo regimine in receptione mulierum. Item presentant Johannam vocatam feyr Jenet pro borderia." Presentments of this last kind are unusually numerous about this time.

1475–6.—Six leaves, being a fragment of a paper book of cases in the Mayor's court.

1477, Oct.–1478, Oct. 17, 18 Edw. IV.—Paper book, chiefly containing pleas of debt. On the inside of the parchment cover at the end is a list of the wardens of the trade guilds at the time, viz., bakers, drapers and hosiers, painters, butchers, smiths, fellmongers, and shoemakers.

1478, 18 Edw. IV.—Eleven leaves of presentments at the sessions. "Item, presentant quod Ricardus Taillour et Ricardus Hugyns, capellani, sunt communes pervigilantes per noctem, ac jactant lapides aureos (sic) per vias, etc." Several persons are presented for selling "metheglyn pro viiid. contra proclamationem domini Regis." Amongst several cases of adultery, &c., are these: "That Sir Jon Tanner, vycarye of Allehaloue, holds comyn bawdry with Ales Bath, the wyffe of Water Bath. Item, Sir John Glover holds comyn bawdry with Elenour. . . . Item, præsentant Margeriam Catour quod ipsa tenet borderiam cum Willelmo Chestourfelde, fratrum Prædicatorum."

1482, 22 Edw. IV.—View of frankpledge on 17 Sept. One paper leaf.

1490, 6 Hen. VII.—Cases on 4 Oct. One paper leaf.

1492, 7 Hen. VII.—Among many presentments at the Easter sessions for street affrays, one is made against Roger Draper, a draper, for shooting two arrows at the mayor, Thomas Draper, and wounding him.

c. 1500.—A mayor's account-roll, torn, and wanting name and date 4 but evidently about 1500 from Sir Rich. Delabere, knt., being named as Steward and John Goodman as Clerk.

1502, 18 Hen. VII.—View of frankpledge, 26 Sept. Three paper leaves.

1503–4, 19 Hen. VII.—Fragments, on three tattered leaves, of the court roll.

1506, 22 Hen. VII.—Accounts of the chamberlains (Robert Carpenter and John Mower), Dec. 21. The total of the receipts is only 17s. 4d., and of payments 18s. 11d., which are almost entirely for repairing "Fryerne Yate," and for gilding the swords. On paper.

Court-rolls, Aug. 31-Sept. 3.—Thomas Newent, sub-prior of the house of St. Guthlac, Hereford, is presented for breaking into the house of Robert Williamson "vi et armis," and one Excetour, a monk of the same house, for being a common nightwalker.

1507, 23 Hen. VII.—Accounts of the chamberlains (Robert Carpenter and Maurice Davies). The total of receipts is 39s. 8d., and of payments 29s. 4d., of which 19s. are "paied to the vicars of the quere." One paper leaf.

1508, 24 Hen. VII.—A long paper roll of the Michaelmas Sessions.

All these earliest rolls of court and of accounts are placed together, in an iron box, together with the earliest mayors' inventories. The later court-rolls and presentments are with the parcels of papers of the years to which they belong; but the rolls of account are all placed together in the box.

Mayors' Inventories.

1475, Oct, 20,15 Edw. IV.—The first Mayor's Inventory is of this date. The outgoing mayor, Thomas Brynles, hands over to his successor, Thomas Mey, "duos libros, videlicet unum librum de Statutis, alt[e]rum de consuetudinibus civitatis prædictæ; item, duos alios libros de recognitionibus et memorandis ibidem, unam lagenam æneam; item, . . . corpus Johannis Mosley condempnati ad sectam Hugonis Williams in xlvis," with four other prisoners, of whom three are for numerous debts and one for felony and murder.

The next inventories of persons and things handed over by one mayor to another which have been met with are of the years 1522, 1528, 1530, 1531, 1549, (fn. 8) and 1554. That of 1557 may be taken as a fair representative of the general character of these lists at that period, and is as follows:—"Three swordes, called the King's and Quenes swordes, with theire three scabards . . . . . one hatte of purple velvet . . . . . . the scale of the offyce of the meyralte . . . . . one statute book of customs and three bokes of recognysances and remembrances of the courte of the saide citie; and also . . . . fouer maces of sylver, one pollaxe, one case of tymber gylte to putt in the saide swordes, and also two scochyns of sylver berynge the armes of the saide citie, with two roses of sylver to the saide scochyns pendente weyinge thro onces and half, a quarter scante, and two halberds; and also [etc.] three peire of boltes, seven peire of gyves, three iron cheynes, three necke collars, one peire of armeboltes and eighte pecis of brasen weightes lemaynynge in the handes of John Kynge, and one keye of the Tolsyende dore of the said citie; and also [etc.] the harnes remaynynge in the said Tolsyende, that is to saye, two peyer of harnes for horesmen, one peire of Almen [i.e., Almayn] ryvetts without splyntes, fouer peire of splyntes, one aperne [apron] of mayle, twelve salettes, one scull, nyne swordes, fyve sworde gyrdelles, two bowes of yewe, three sheffes of arrowes, thre gyrdelles, nyne glcyves, eighte daggers; and also [etc.] one brasen metynge. yarde, a gallon, a quarte, a pynte of `brasse, nyne weightes of grete and smale of troy weighte, the letter H graved on them, also thre quarters of a pounde of Abberdepoys, (fn. 9) and ten peces of ledden weightes; and also [etc.] in the Kynges and Quenes gayole of the cytye of Hereford the bodies of all thes prysoners whose names hereafter folowethe: [fourteen, for felony, larceny, trespass and debt; and also fourteen bonds of persons out on bail. Signed by the outgoing mayor, Thomas Havard].

The next year's inventory, that of 1558, adds in an interlineation "one key of the common coffer"; the list of harness is omitted; the prisoners (among whom are two women mentioned in the preceding indenture, convicted of felony but reprieved on the score of pregnancy in Jan. 1556/7, and who continue still mercifully reprieved (fn. 10) ) are twelve, of whom four are for debt. The bail-bonds are 26. The other inventories met with up to the end of the century are for the years 1564, 1580, 1585, 1589, 1591, 1594, 1596, and 1600. In 1585 the scabbards are described as "three crapes of sylver guilte"; there are two hats, one of black velvet, the other of red; the escutcheons become four "scochyngs of sylver, being the armes of the said citie," with four roses. The prisoners are only two for felony, three for debt, and one, Thomas Hall, committed by letters from the Privy Council, "in that he departed from his captayne after he was by him receaved to serve in the Lowe Contries of his owne voluntarie free will." The prisoners cease to be mentioned in these inventories towards the end of Q. Elizabeth's reign.

Footnotes

1 * For a license to come to Hereford? "Aviamentum, itio, aditus." Du Cange.
2 † These arose out of the fact that the priory of Leominster was dependent at a call upon the abbey of Reading.
3 * He was, it seems, an officer of the city bailiff, probably a converted Jew. In 1291 shoes are given to him and William the clerk at Christmas.
4 † In one copy of the roll this is entered as "Com. Glouc.," in the other, by interlineation, "Comitisse Glouc."
5 † The wages of the labourers slightly vary, but are for the most part still 1½d. per day; three labourers receiving xxid. per week. The master has 2s. per week and his companion ("socio suo") 1s. 6d.
6 * This list may be compared with one of the time of Hen. VII. or VIII. found in a small parcel of early bills of the same kind (now bound up in a volume of selected papers) for the supply of "harness." "John Whytewood. The coste off the harnessynge of a man. In primis, a jaeke with slevys, viiis. Item, a apurne and a gurgytte of mayle, iis. Item, ii. swyrdys, vs. iiiid. Item, ii. dagars, xiid. Item, ii. swyrd gurdyls, vid. Item, a salett, iis. Item, a hawbert, xvid. Item, for the scorynge of the salett and the mayle, xiid. Item, a shotynge glove, iid. Item, a braser, id. Item, for v. yardys and a halfe of whyte clothe, pryce the yard, xiiid., summa vs. xid. ob. Item, for bokulles and thinges for the brygtreyers (?), iid. Summa, xxviis. vid. ob." Another parcel of similar bills, without dates, is among the papers of 1521–2.
7 † As an example of the utter confusion in which all the papers were found, it may be mentioned that this roll was discovered in a parcel of pleas, &c. endorsed as belonging to 1782.
8 * There is no list of prisoners in this inventory. The sum of 24l. is handed over for the maintenance and expenses at Parliament of Thomas Havard and William Barckeley, citizens.
9 * In the inventory of 1554 this word is disguised under the form of "hzbard price."
10 † A fragment of the inventory for 1576, which was found to be used as the cover for a book of bonds, contains a similar instance of a merciful reprieve, in the case of a woman who had been originally reprieved in Sept. 1573.