The chronicle
To 1132

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Institute of Historical Research

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Richard Copley Christie (editor)

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1887

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2-19

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'The chronicle: To 1132', Annales Cestrienses: Chronicle of the Abbey of S. Werburg, at Chester (1887), pp. 2-19. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=67177 Date accessed: 01 August 2014.


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To 1132

INCIPIT vjta Etas Seculi. THE sixth age of the world begins.
i JESUS CHRISTUS filius Dei in Bethleem natus est anno Octaviani Cesaris Augusti quadragesimo secundo: ebdomada juxta Danielis prophetia sexagesima sexta; Olimpiadis centessimo nonagesimo tercio. 1 JESUS CHRIST the son of God was born in Bethlehem in the forty-second year of Octavian Cæsar Augustus: in the sixty-ninth week according to the prophecy of Daniel; in the hundred and ninety-third Olympiad.
iiij Herodes omnes pueros interfici in Bethlem. 4 Herod killed all the male children in Bethlehem.
vij Herodes miserabiliter obiit. 7 Herod died miserably.
xij (Indictio i). 12 (Indiction 1).
xv Obiit Octavianus cui successit Tiberius. 15 Octavian died. Tiberius succeeded him.
xxvij (Indictio ij). 27 (Indiction 2).
xlij (Indictio iij). 42 (Indiction 3).
lij Obiit Claudius. Nero successit sub quo persecutio prima. 52 Claudius died. Nero succeeded, under whom the first persecution arose.
lvij (Indictio iiij). 57 (Indiction 4).
lxxij (Indictio v). 72 (Indiction 5).
lxxxv (Indictio vj). (fn. 1) 85 (Indiction 6).
xciij Hujus temporis Statius claruit, hujus temporis Sanctus Johannes in Pathmo exlegatur ubi apocalipsin scripsit quem Hireneus exposuit. 93 At this time Statius flourished. At this time S. John was exiled to Patmos where he wrote the Apocalypse which Irenæus has explained.
cij (Indictio vij). 102 (Indiction 7).
ciij Plinius hystoriographus claruit. 103 Pliny the historian flourished.
cxvij (Indictio viij). 117 (Indiction 8).
cxix Aquila interpres habetur. (fn. 2) 119 Aquila is held in esteem as an interpreter of Scripture.
cxxxij (Indictio ix). 132 (Indiction 9).
cxliij Hujus temporis floruit Galienus medicus. 143 At this time Galen the physician flourished.
cxlvij (Indictio x). 147 (Indiction 10).
clxij Catafriganum heresis exorta est. 162 The Cataphrygian [Montanist] heresy sprung up.
clxij (Indictio xj). 163 (Indiction 11).
clxv Sanctus Eleuther papa factus. 165 S. Eleutherus made pope.
clxvj Ab hoc Elutherio Lucius Britannorum rex per epistolam se christianum fieri cum gente sua petiit et impetravit; quam fidem usque ad tempora Dioclesiani integram servaverunt. Hujus igitur Antonii tempore Sanctus Eleuther papa regem Britanorum christianum fecit. (fn. 3) 166 From this Eleutherus, Lucius, king of the Britons, sought by letter to be made a christian, together with his people; and he obtained [the faith which he sought] which faith they preserved pure until the days of Diocletian. Therefore, in the time of this Antoninus, S. Eleutherus the pope made the king of the Britons a christian.
clxxvij (Indictio xij). 177 (Indiction 12).
clxxviij Egesippus historiographus insignis habetur. 178 Hegisippus is esteemed a distinguished historian.
clxxxiij Teodotion interpres habetur. 183 Theodotion is held in esteem as an interpreter of Scripture.
clxxxviij Lucius rex Britannie ad Eleutherium epistola christianum se fieri impetrat. 188 Lucius, king of Britain, asked by letter from Eleutherus that he should be made a christian.
cxcv Severus Britanniam fossato circumivit a mari usque ad mare per cxxxvij millia passuum. 195 Severus enclosed Britain from sea to sea with a dyke for a distance of one hundred and thirty-seven miles.
ccvij (Indictio xiiij). 207 (Indiction 14).
ccxviij (fn. 4) 218
ccxxvj Origenes claruit. 226 Origen flourished.
ccxxix Sanctus Calixtus papa sedit annos quinque. Hic constituit jejunium quatuor temporum in anno fieri propter abundanciam frumentorum vini et olei et xij lectiones in sabbato. (fn. 5) 229 S. Calixtus occupied the papal see for five years. He appointed the fasts of the four seasons [by way of intercession or thanksgiving] for the abundance of corn, wine and oil, and the twelve lessons [to be read] on the Saturdays [of the Ember weeks].
ccxxx Hujus temporis floruit Africanus inter scriptores nominatissimus hac tempestate Philippus primus christianus factus ex omnibus Romanis imperatoribus. (fn. 6) 230 At this time Africanus flourished, most distinguished among writers. At this time Philip, first of all the Roman emperors, became a christian.
ccxxxviij (Indictio xvj). 238 (Indiction 16).
ccxliij Eraclas claruit. 243 S. Heraclas [patriarch of Alexandria] flourished.
ccxlvj Philippus primus christianus imperator. 246 Philip the first christian emperor.
ccxlix Hoc tempore Novatiana heresis oritur. 249 At this time the Novatian heresy sprung up.
cclij (Indictio xvij). 252 (Indiction 17).
cclxviij (Indictio xviij). 268 (Indiction 18).
cclxxxij (Indictio xix). 282 (Indiction 19).
ccxcvij (Indictio xx).
Item Sanctus Julianus et Sancta Basilissa cum x fere milibus monachorum et mille virginibus coronati sunt. Quo tempore Sanctus Georgius passus, Sanctus Vincentius in Hispania, Sanctus Marcellus, Pantaleon in Nicomedia, Sanctus Albanus in Britania, Sanctus Sebastianus, Sancta Agnes, Sancta Agatha, Sancta Margareta in Antiogia.
297 (Indiction 20).
Also S. Julian and S. Basilissa [his wife] with nearly ten thousand monks and a thousand virgins received the crown [of martyrdom]. At which time S. George suffered [martyrdom]. Also S. Vincent in Spain, S. Marcellus, Pantaleon in Nicomedia, S. Alban in Britain, S. Sebastian, S. Agnes, S. Agatha, S. Margaret in Antioch.
cccxij (Indictio xxj). 312 (Indiction 21).
cccxxvij (Indictio xxij). 327 (Indiction 22).
cccxl Hylarius Pictavensis ab eccła [exsilio?] rediit. 340 Hilary [bishop] of Poitiers returned from exile.
cccxlj (Indictio xxiij). 341 (Indiction 23).
ccclxv Hylarius Pictavensis obiit. 365 Hilary [bishop] of Poitiers died.
ccclxx (Indictio xxv). 370 (Indiction 25).
ccclxxxvj (Indictio xxvj). 386 (Indiction 26).
cccc Pelagius hereticus vixit. 400 Pelagius the heretic lived.
ccccj (Indictio xxvij). 401 (Indiction 27).
ccccxvj (Indictio xxviij). 416 (Indiction 28).
ccccxx Sanctus Ieronimus presbiter obiit. 420 S. Jerome priest [and doctor] died.
ccccxxiv Sanctus Augustinus Yponiensis obiit. 424 S. Augustine [bishop] of Hippo died.
ccccxxxj (Indictio xxix). 431 (Indiction 29).
ccccxlv (Indictio xxx). 445 (Indiction 30).
ccccl Hoc tempore celebratus Calcedonense concilium de ccxx episcopis adversus Euticen abbatem et Dioscorum. 450 At this time the council of Chalcedon against the abbot Eutyches and Dioscorus was held by two hundred and twenty bishops.
cccclxj (Indictio xxxj). 461 (Indiction 31).
cccclxx Sanctus Augustinus magnus doctor floruit. 470 S. Augustine, a great doctor, flourished.
ccccxcj (Indictio xxxiij). 491 (Indiction 33).
ccccxcix Hoc tempore claruit S. Flavius archiepiscopus Rotomagensis. 499 At this time S. Flavius, archbishop of Rouen, flourished.
dvj (Indictio xxxiiij). 506 (Indiction 34).
dxxj (Indictio xxxv). 521 (Indiction 35).
dxxxvj (Indictio xxxvj). 536 (Indiction 36).
dxlvj Arator subdiaconus claruit. 546 Arator the subdeacon flourished.
dxlviij Beatus Benedictus pater monachorum claruit. 548 The blessed Benedict, the father of the monks, flourished.
dlj (Indictio xxxvij). 551 (Indiction 37).
dlxvj (Indictio xxxviij). 566 (Indiction 38).
dlxxxj (Indictio xxxix). 581 (Indiction 39).
dxciiij Sanctus Augustinus doctus apostolus venit in Angliam. 594 S. Augustine, the learned apostle [of the English], came into England.
dxcv (Ind. xl). 595 (Indiction 40).
dciij (fn. 7) Gregorius papa misit pallium Augustino episcopo Anglorum. 603 Pope Gregory sent the pall to Augustine as bishop [of the English].
dcv Obiit Sanctus Gregorius papa. 605 Pope S. Gregory died.
dcxj (Ind. xlj).
Hoc tempore Columbanus claruit et luxovium construxit et post Bobium infra Italiam.
611 (Indiction 41).
At this time Columbanus flourished, and erected [the monastery of] Luxeuil [near Besançon] and afterwards [that of] Bobbio in Italy.
dcxvj Ethelbertus rex Cantii obiit. 616 Ethelbert, king of Kent, died.
dcxxij Sanctus Rotomanus archiepiscopus rotomagensis. 622 S. Romain, archbishop of Rouen.
dcxxvj (Ind. xlij). 626 (Indiction 42).
dcxl Eadbaldus rex Cantii regnans xxv annis obiit. 640 Eadbald, king of Kent, died after a reign of xxv years.
dcxlj (Ind. xliij).
Hoc tempore Paulus Constantinopolitanus episcopus heresim condidit.
641 (Indiction 43).
At this time Paul, bishop of Constantinople, was the author of a heresy.
dcxlij Sanctus Oswaldus rex occisus est. 642 S. Oswald, king [of Northumbria], was killed.
dclv Penda rex periit et Mercii facti sunt christiani. 655 Penda, king [of Mercia], was slain, and the Mercians became christians.
dclvj (Ind. xliiij). 656 (Indiction 44).
dclxiv Ercombertus rex Cantii obiit. 664 Ercombert, king of Kent, died.
dclxx Sanctus Cedda floruit. 670 S. Chad [bishop of Mercia] flourished.
dclxxj (Ind. xlv). 671 (Indiction 45).
dclxxv Wulferus rex Merciæ pater Werburge obiit. 675 Wulferus, king of Mercia, father of S. Werburg, died.
dclxxix Sancta Hilda abbatissa Whytby obiit. 679 S. Hilda, abbess of Whitby, died.
dclxxx Sancta Etheldreda bis nupta et virgo obiit. 680 S. Ethelreda died, twice married, and a virgin.
dclxxxv (Ind. xlvj). 685 (Indiction 46).
dclxxxix Anno Domini d.c. octogesimo ix Rex Merciorum Ethelredus, avunculus beate Werburge, ope Wilfrici episcopi Cestriensis, ut reffert Giraldus, fundavit ecclesiam collegiatam in suburbio civitatis Cestrie in honorem Sancti Johannis Baptiste. 689 In the year of our lord six hundred and eighty-nine Ethelred, king of the Mercians, the uncle of S. Werburg, with the assistance of Wilfric, bishop of Chester, as Giraldus [Cambrensis] relates, founded a collegiate church in the suburbs of Chester in honour of S. John the Baptist.
dcxc Obiit beata Werburga. 690 The blessed Werburg died.
dcxcv Obiit Sanctus Ansbertus Rotomagensis archiepiscopus; cui successit Gripo. 695 S. Ansbert, archbishop of Rouen, died; Grippo succeeded him.
dccj (Ind. xlvij). 701 (Indiction 47).
dcciiij Ethelredus rex Merciæ regnum dedit Kenredo fratri Sancte Werburge. 704 Ethelred, king of Mercia, gave up the kingdom to Kenred, brother of S. Werburg.
dccix Kenredus rex Merciæ Romam petiit. 709 Kenred, king of Mercia, went to Rome.
dccxvi (Ind. xlviij).
Coelredus rex Mercie defunctus est.
716 (Indiction 48).
Ceolred, king of Mercia, died.
dccxxviij Beda claruit. 728 Bede flourished.
dccxxix Obiit Hugo archiepiscopus Rotomagensis cui successit Robertus. 729 Hugo, archbishop of Rouen, died; Robert succeeded him.
dccxxxj (Ind. xlix). 731 (Indiction 49).
dccxlvj (Ind. 1). 746 (Indiction 50).
dcclvj Hic benedictus Pepinus rex a Sancto Stephano papa Parisius et filius ejus Karolomannus et filia ejus Sigila inter sacra missarum solemnia precipiente Sancto Petro et Sancto Paulo et Sancto Dionisio. 756 At this time king Pepin was blessed at Paris by pope S. Stephen, with his son Carloman, and his daughter Sigila, during the solemnization of mass; under the auspices of S. Peter, S. Paul and S. Dionysius.
dcclxj (Ind. lj). 761 (Indiction 51).
dcclxxvj (Ind. lij). 776 (Indiction 52).
dcclxxviij Conversio Saxonium. 778 The conversion of the Saxons.
dcclxxix Karolus Hispanias intravit. 779 Charlemagne entered Spain.
dcclxxx Inde Saxoniam venit. 780 Thence he came into Saxony.
dcclxxxj Saxonia capta est. 781 Saxony was conquered.
dcclxxxiij Signum crucis in vestibus. 783 The sign of the cross appeared upon the garments of men.
dcclxxxix Primus Danorum educatus [adventus] in Angliam qui docuerunt Anglos nimis potare. 789 The first arrival in England of the Danes, who taught the English to drink too much.
dccxcj (Ind. liij). 791 (Indiction 53).
dcccvj (Ind. liiij). 806 (Indiction 54).
dcccxx (Ind. Iv). 820 (Indiction 55).
dcccxxij Fames valida. 822 A severe famine.
dcccxxxvj (Ind. lvj). 836 (Indiction 56).
dcccxxxviij Denariorum Sancti Petri primo concessit a Rege Anglie Ethelwolfo. 838 S. Peter's pence first allowed by Ethelwolf, king of the English.
dccclj (Ind. lvij). 851 (Indiction 57).
dccclxvj (Ind. lviij). 866 (Indiction 58).
dccclxviij Fames valida. 868 A severe famine.
dccclxix Item fames et mortalitas hominum et pestis animalium. 869 Again a famine and mortality among men, and a plague among animals.
dccclxxv Aluredus rex Angliæ ad consilium Neoti Abbatis scholas publicas variarum artium apud Oxoniam primus instituit, et eam in multis articulis procuravit. Neminem illiteratum ad quamcunq. dignitatem ecclesiasticam ascendere permittens. (fn. 8)
Eodem anno hiemantibus Danis apud Rependon fugatoq: rege Merciorum Burdredo, Hamburgenses sibi timentes cum feretro corpus Divæ Werburgæ tunc primum in pulverem resolutum ad Legecestriam tanquam ad locum tutissimum contra stragem barbaricam confugerunt. (fn. 9)
875 Alfred, king of England, under the advice of Neot, Abbot [of Hamstoke (afterwards called S. Neot's), Cornwall], first established public schools of the several [liberal] arts at Oxford, and promoted its interests in many ways, permitting no illiterate person to rise to any ecclesiastical dignity.
In the same year, when the Danes made their winter quarters at Repton after the flight of Burdred, king of the Mercians, the men of Hanbury, fearing for themselves, fled to Chester as to a place which was very safe from the butchery of the barbarians, taking with them in a litter the body of S. Werburg, which then for the first time was resolved into dust.
dccclxxxj (Ind. lix). 881 (Indiction 59).
dcccxcvj (Ind. lx). 896 (Indiction 60).
dccccviij Hungari Saxoniam et Thuringiam vastant. 908 The Huns lay waste Saxony and Thuringia.
dccccxj (Ind. lxj). 911 (Indiction 61).
dccccxxiv Adelstanus rex coronatur, in cujus tempore Canonici Seculares usque adventum Normannorum collatis vicissim (fn. 10) possessionibus, ac deinde Monachi Regulares ad Werburgæ virginis militarunt laudes [in hoc monasterio]. 924 King Athelstane is crowned; in whose time, and thenceforth until the arrival of the Normans, secular canons with possessions mutually conferred, and afterwards regular monks, served in this monastery in honour of S. Werburg.
dccccxxvj (Ind. lxij). 926 (Indiction 62).
dccccxlj (Ind. lxiij). 941 (Indiction 63).
dccccxlij Occiditur Willelmus dux Normanie ab Arnulpho Flandrensi cui successit Ricardus filius ejus qui vetus dicitur. 942 William, duke of Normandy, is killed by Arnulf of Flanders. His son Richard, called the old, succeeded him.
dcccclvij (Ind. lxiiij). 957 (Indiction 64).
dcccclxxj (Ind. lxv). 971 (Indiction 65).
dcccclxxxvj (Ind. lxvj). 986 (Indiction 66).
dcccclxxxviij Sanctus Dunstanus obiit. 988 S. Dunstan died.
dcccclxxxix Robertus Rotomagensis archiepiscopus. 989 Robert, archbishop of Rouen.
mj (Ind. lxvij).
Hic sumpsit abbas Gwillelmus primus regimen loci fiscanni. (fn. 11)
1001 (Indiction 67).
This year the abbot William took on himself the government of the abbey of Fecamp as first abbot.
mxvj (Ind. lxviij). 1016 (Indiction 68).
mxxxj (Ind. lxix). 1031 (Indiction 69).
mxxxvij Obiit Robertus archiepiscopus, cui successit Malgerius qui culpa sua depositus. 1037 Robert, archbishop of Rouen, died; Malgerius, who was [afterwards] deposed on account of his neglect of duty, succeeded him.
mxlij Mortalia magna. 1042 A great mortality.
mxlv (Ind. lxx). 1045 (Indiction 70).
mlvij Leofricus Comes Cestriæ reparavit Ecclesiam Collegiatam S. Johĩs Baptistæ ac Ecclesiam S. Werburgæ infra civitatem situatam, ac privilegiis decoravit tempore S. Edwardi Regis et Confessoris, prout refert Willielmus Malmsburiensis (fn. 12) de gestis Anglorum Lib. 2o 1057 Leofric, earl of Chester, in the time of S. Edward, king and confessor, repaired, and conferred privileges on the collegiate church of S. John the Baptist, and the church of S. Werburg situate within the city [of Chester] as William of Malmesbury relates in his Chronicle, De Gestis Anglorum, Book 2.
mlxj (Ind. lxxj). 1061 (Indiction 71).
mlxvj Willelmus dux Normannie transiit mare in kal. Oct. cum valida bellatorum manu, cui occurrit Haroldus contra pugnatores commisit prelio ii idus Oct. occubuit Haroldus ejusque exercitus post hoc Willelmus elevatus in regem die natali Domini apud Lundoniam. 1066 William, duke of Normandy, crossed the sea on Oct. I with a strong band of warriors; Harold met him and joined battle with the invaders on Oct. 14, when Harold was killed and his army with him. After this William was raised to the throne, on Christmas day, at London.
mlxvij Obiit Maurilius rotomagensis archiepiscopus cui successit Iohannes qui prius Abrincensem ecclesiam rexit. 1067 Maurilius, archbishop of Rouen, died; to whom John, who before ruled the church of Avranches, succeeded.
mlxxiiij (Ind. lxxij). 1074 (Indiction 72).
mlxxviij Obiit Johannes archiepiscopus Rotomagensis cui successit Willelmus prius cadomi abbas. (fn. 13) 1078 John, archbishop of Rouen died, to whom William formerly abbot of Caen succeeded.
mlxxxvij Willelmus rex Anglorum obiit. 1087 William [the Conqueror], king of the English, died.
mlxxxix Obiit Lanfrancus archiepiscopus et fuit ecclesia Cantuariensis quatuor annos sine pastore. 1089 Archbishop Lanfranc died, and the church of Canterbury remained for four years without a shepherd.
mxciij (fn. 14) In hoc anno venit dompnus Anselmus abbas Ecclesiæ Beccensis Angliam qui sepius ante venerat in Angliam, veniens itaque tunc Angliam Anselmus a multis acclamatus archiepiscopus, quitanti honoris onus humiliter fugiens, rogatu nobilis principis, comitis Hugonis Cestriam venit, ibique abbatiam in honorem Sanctæ Werburgæ fundavit, et monachis ibidem congregatis Ricardum monachum Beccensem primum abbatem instituit. Quo facto, in eodem anno in reditu suo a Cestria, archiepiscopus Cantuariensis factus est. 1093 In this year the lord Anselm, abbot of the church of Bec, came to England, who before this had frequently been in England. On his coming to England this last time, Anselm was acclaimed by many as archbishop, but, humbly desiring to escape the burden of so great an honour, on the invitation of the noble prince, earl Hugh, he came to Chester, and there founded the abbey in honour of S. Werburg, and, having assembled the monks together, he appointed Richard, a monk of Bec, the first abbot. Having done this, in the same year, upon his return from Chester, he was made archbishop of Canterbury.
mxciiij Hoc tempore edificata magna aula Westmonasterii. 1094 At this time the great hall at Westminster was built.
mxcv Consilium tenuit apud Clarimontem. 1095 A council was held at Clermont.
mc Occisus in Anglia in nova foresta Willelmus rex Anglorum filius magni Willelmi. 1100 William [Rufus], king of the English, son of the great William, was killed in the New Forest.
mcj Defuncto Hugone comite cestrensi principe nobili. Ricardus puer vij annorum comitatum suscepit. 1101 The noble prince Hugh [Lupus, 1st], earl of Chester, being dead, Richard, a boy of seven years of age, inherited the earldom.
mcvj (Ind. lxxiiij). 1106 (Indiction 74).
mcix Obiit dompnus Anselmus Archiepiscopus Cantuariensis. 1109 The lord Anselm, archbishop of Canterbury, died.
mcx Henricus rex filius Willielmi Bastardi filiam suam Udescalco imperatori Alemanie dedit qui nunc Cestrie jacet. (fn. 15) 1110 King Henry, son of William the bastard, gave [Matilda] his daughter in marriage to Udescalcus [Henry V.], emperor of Germany, who now lies buried at Chester.
mcxiiij Apud Londinum Tamisia tota exiccata est et mare x miliaria suos excessit [fines]. 1114 The Thames at London was completely dried up, and the sea overflowed its boundaries for a space of ten miles.
mcxv Ricardus comes Cestriæ duxit uxorem Mathildam neptem Henrici regis filiam Stephani comitis. 1115 Richard, earl of Chester, took to wife Matilda, niece of king Henry [I.], daughter of earl Stephen.
mcxvj Obiit Ricardus primus Abbas Cestriæ; et Robertus Epũs. 1116 Richard, first abbot of Chester, died; also Robert [of Limesi], Bishop [of Chester, Coventry, and Lichfield].
mcxviij Obiit Matildis Regina secunda Anglie. (fn. 16) 1118 Matilda II., queen of England, died.
mcxx Obiit Robertus Prior.
In die S. Katerine filius regis et Ricardus comes Cestrie cum uxore sua et multis aliis submersi sunt apud Barbelfleo.
1120 Robert, the prior [of S. Werburg], died.
On S. Catherine's Day [Nov. 25], the king's son [William] and Richard, earl of Chester, with his wife and many others, were drowned near Barfleur.
mcxxj (Ind. lxxv).
Willelmus abbas effectus. (fn. 17)
Ranulphus Miscinus factus comes.
1121 (Indiction 75).
William was elected [second] abbot [of Chester].
Randle Meschines was made earl.
mcxxiij Willelmus archiepiscopus Cantuariensis. 1123 William [de Curbolio made] archbishop of Canterbury.
mcxxviij Obiit Godefridus abbas Scropesburiensis.
Obiit Ranulphus Miscinus comes Cestrie cui successit Rannulphus comes filius ejus.
1128 (1129) Godfrey, abbot of Shrewsbury, died.
Randle Meschines, earl of Chester, died, and was succeeded, as earl, by his son Randle II.
mcxxxij Bellum apud Wadiece in quo occiditur Cadwathlan (fn. 18) et multi cum eo. 1132 A battle at Wadiece (?) in which Cadwallon and many with him are killed.

Footnotes

1 The indiction marked this year is an error, the sixth indiction should be in the year 87. Those which follow are often incorrect, but I have not thought it necessary or desirable to correct them. They should occur every fifteen years.
2 The reference to Aquila, like those to Galen and Theodotion, seems to be directly taken from the Chronicle of Roger of Wendover, or of Matthew Paris, if not, indeed, from their original Adonis Viennensis Chronicon. The entry relating to Aquila in our English Chronicles is as follows:-"Anno gratiæ cxxvi. Aquila orator, genere et natione Ponticus clarus habetur, qui post septuaginta, secundus interpres divinæ legis extitit."
3 The entries for the year 166 and 188, illustrate the mode in which this Chronicle was compiled. The same event, i.e., the conversion of Lucius by pope Eleutherus, has been extracted from two different writers, who have assigned different dates to it, and the careless compiler has not even noticed that they were really the same event. Archbishop Usher has collected, from various writers, no fewer than twenty-three different dates, ranging from 137 to 199, to which the supposed conversion of Lucius has been referred. By Antonius, Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, who was emperor in 166, is no doubt intended, and the word "hujus" lets us see that the compiler has abridged or taken a fragment of a sentence from a longer entry in which the emperor M. Aurelius Antoninus had been previously mentioned.
4 Here is inserted a Welsh entry, referred to in the Introduction.
5 A long dissertation on the question whether S. Calixtus instituted the fasts of the four seasons will be found in the work of Moretto (De S. Calisto P.P. et M. ejusque Basilica, Romæ 1767, pp. 66-82), who cites from Maurolycus (Martyrologium) under October 14, (Calixtus) "constituit jejunium IV temporum anni pro frumento vino et olio secundam prophetiam." The Libri Pontificales have of Calixtus "hic constituit jejunium die sabbati ter in anno fieri frumenti vini et olei secundam prophetiam quinti septimi et decimi" (Mon. Eccl. vol. iii. p. 253), a passage of which Tillemont speaks as "un endroit fort obscur des Pontificaux." Moretto quotes several prayers and thanksgivings for the fruits of the earth in connection with these fasts. Matthew Paris, who follows Anastasius (Vitæ Pontificum), has of Calixtus, "Hic constituit jejunium quatuor temporum fieri per annum, ad impetrandam aeris serenitatem et frugum abundantiam." The Saturdays of the Ember weeks were called "Sabbata duodecim lectionum" from the twelve lessons read in the mass on those days. See Dictionary of Christian Antiquities, ii. 1827, Article Sabbatum.
6 Here again are two extracts, evidently from different authorities, relating to the Emperor Philip, one under 230, the other under 246. A similar remark applies to the two entries relating to S. Augustine under the dates 424 and 470.
7 "601" (Gastrell).
8 It will be noticed that this entry, as well as that of 924 a few lines further on, are not to be found in the Gloddaeth MS., but are printed from the MS. appended to Bishop Gastrell's Notitia; and they may be taken as evidence that the Chronicle, of which the Gloddaeth MS. is a copy or an adaptation, is of an earlier date than that used by Bishop Gastrell, which the entry relating to Alfred and Oxford proves could not be earlier than the fourteenth century.
9 "Howe the body of saynt Werburge contynued hole and sub stanciall at Hambury after the trāslacion by the space of two hundreth yeres tyll the danes were comon to this lande when it felle and was resolued unto powder" (Lyfe of Saynt Werburge, chap. 33, Chetham Soc. vol. xv.).
10 The meaning of the words collatis vicissim possessionibus is not clear. I have given a literal translation of them.
11 The college of canons of Fecamp was transformed into a monastery in 1001, by Richard, second Duke of Normandy, by the aid of William, who became first abbot, and who, according to Robert de Monte, enjoyed no less than thirty abbeys at the time of his death (Gallia Christiana, art. Fiscannum).
12 William of Malmesbury says that the monasteries at Coventry, S. Mary's at Stow, Wenlock, and Leominster, were built by Leofric and his wife Godiva, but makes no mention in his De Gestis Anglorum either of S. John or S. Werburg at Chester. The reference intended is either to the Gesta Pontificum of Malmesbury or to Florence of Worcester, Roger of Hoveden, or Roger of Wendover. Florence says "Leonense etiam et Wenlocaniense cœnobium Sanctique Joannis Baptistæ ac Sanctæ Werburgæ virginis monasteria in Legeceastra sita . . . . pretiosis ditaverunt ornamentis" (Thorpe's edit., i. 216). The two Rogers usealmost the same words.
13 Except the notice of the election of Walter of Coutances in 1184, this is the last entry of the death or election of an archbishop of Rouen, many of which events (though not a complete succession) have been previously recorded. It will be observed that this last entry is a very few years before the foundation of the abbey of S. Werburg, and the substitution of monks for canons at Chester by S. Anselm. It is probable that Richard, the first abbot, who was a monk from Bec, brought with him to Chester a chronicle of Rouen, from which the numerous entries relating to the archbishops of Rouen, and a few others referring to Normandy, were made. Probably others of the monks besides the first abbot were also brought from the abbey of Bec, and this would account for the prominence of Rouen and its archbishops in the earlier part of the chronicle.
14 "1094" (Kennet).
15 A description of the altar tomb in the south aisle of the choir of the Cathedral Church of Chester, purporting by tradition to be that of Henry V. of Germany, will be found in Ormerod (New Edit. i. 295, see also 193). Giraldus seems to be the original source of the legend, that Henry, after his abdication, instead of dying at Utrecht as historians relate, came to Chester, where he lived for many years as a hermit, died, and was buried in the church there. The words of Giraldus (Itinerarium Cambriæ, G. C. vi. 139) are, "Imperatorem itaque Romanum se jactat, hæc urbs (Cestria) habere sepultum. Qui quoniam suis diebus tam patrem carnalem, quam etiam spiritualem summum pontificem scilicet Paschalem incarceraverat, demum pœnitentia ductus, et ultroneus exul effectus, sanctam in eremo finibus istis vitam ut fertur consummavit." Walter de Mapes (De Nugis Curialium, Distinctio V. cap. 6. 229, Cam. Soc.) mentions the belief that the emperor's death and burial as related by historians were fictitious, and that he really passed the remainder of his life in poverty, but makes no mention of his residence or burial at Chester. Higden, however, in his Polychronicon (b. vii. c. xvi.) accepts the statement of Giraldus, whom he cites, and adds that the emperor lived ten years at Chester as a hermit under the name of Godescallus "quod sonat a Domino vocatum." Udescalcus is clearly the same name as Godescallus.
16 The chronicler appears to consider the wife of William the Conqueror as Matilda I., the first wife of Henry I. as Matilda II., and the wife of Stephen as Matilda III.: see her death recorded in 1152.
17 Five years had elapsed since the death of the first abbot, and as the election of William followed so speedily on the death of Robert the prior, it seems probable, as suggested by Dr. Ormerod, that the government of the abbey had been intermediately confided to the prior.
18 "Catwalaun filius Grifini a consobrino suo Cadugaun filio Goronou et Eynaun filius Owini in Nanneudni occisus est" (Annales Cambriæ, p. 139).