Part II. Chronological List of Aldermen.
The following pages contain the names of the Aldermen of the City of London
from the reign of Henry III., arranged in chronological order according to their dates
of election, so far as these are ascertainable, such particulars being appended in each
case as I have been able to collect with regard to the civic and other public offices
held by them from time to time, as well as the dates of death, precise or approximate,
where it has been possible to procure them. In the present volume the succession is
carried as far as the end of the 14th Century (1400).
In the first part of this work the succession of Aldermen in each Ward from the
early years of Edward I. has been set out. This it has been found possible to ascertain
with only a few lacunæ from the official records (Letter Books, Journals and Repertories)
preserved at Guildhall. Where, as is most frequently the case in the names occurring in
the first hundred years which these records cover, and also in a considerable portion of
the fifteenth century, the actual date of election has not been preserved, it is possible to
infer the order of succession in each Ward and to determine the approximate date,
with a degree of exactitude almost tantamount to certainty, by noting the recorded
attendances of individual Aldermen and by reference to the deeds enrolled in the
Court of Husting, many of which are attested by the Alderman for the time being of
the Ward in which the property was situated to which the particular deed refers.
At pages 235–237 I had added a few notes as to Aldermen of an earlier period than
that covered by the Guildhall records to which I have referred, these being mainly
derived from the not very accurate transcript of the Liber Trinitatis now in the Guildhall
Library. (fn. 1) These may however be considered as superseded by the fuller information
furnished in this portion of the work.
Since those memoranda were printed I have been enabled (as the result of a very
careful study of the references to London Aldermen in the Catalogue of Ancient Deeds
preserved at the Record Office and in the Calendar of Documents at St. Paul's Cathedral
given in the Appendix to the 9th Report of the Historical Manuscripts Commission,
supplemented by personal inspection of some hundreds of these deeds and documents.)
to collect evidence as to the names of a considerable number of Aldermen of the 12th
and 13th centuries previous to the date at which the Letter Books and Husting Deeds
begin to supply them; to many of these it is possible to assign their particular Wards
with either absolute certainty or a high degree of probability.
The most ancient list of the Wards now extant, so far as has been ascertained, is
to be found in pages 47–50 of Liber L, one of the MSS. in the Library of St. Paul's
Cathedral; this has been printed in facsimile in Price's Descriptive Account of the
Guildhall. The date is very early in the 12th century, probably about 1115. In this
document the number of Wards recorded is twenty in all, one being described as the
Bishop's Ward, three bearing local names, and the remaining sixteen being distinguished
as the Wards of individual citizens, who, although not expressly so styled, may, without
doubt, be regarded as Aldermen. That that designation was already in use in connexion
with the Wards at that period is evidenced by the fact that, a deed dated 14 Kal. Aug.
[i.e. July 19] 1111, is witnessed by 'Turstenus' or 'Tursten,' 'Aldermannus de la
Warde.' The Ward in question was probably Castle Baynard, the property to which the
deed refers being situate close to the Church of 'St. Benedict Super Tamisiam,'
(afterwards known as St. Benet, Paul's Wharf,) which parish at a later period was
certainly comprised in this Ward. I believe that Tursten has been claimed as Alderman
for Queenhithe Ward, but the identification of his Ward with Castle Baynard has the
support of the Rev. W. J. Loftie [London (Historic Towns Series), page 78] on grounds
which appear to me to be decisive.
The word 'Alderman' was in use before the Conquest, but I do not know of any
earlier instance in definite connexion with a City Ward, and Mr. Loftie is doubtless
right in saying that 'Tursten is the first Alderman of a Ward in London of whom so far
any mention has been found.'
In the list referred to above (Liber L, St. Paul's MSS.) the Wards are arranged in
the following order which I have numbered for convenience of reference.
|5.||" Edwardi Parole.|
|6.||" Algari Manningestepsune.|
|7.||" Radulphi fil. Liuuie.|
|9.||" Godwini fil. Esgari.|
|10.||" Brichmari Bordarii.|
|11.||Warda Brichmari Monetarii.|
|13.||" Eilwardi fil. Wizeli.|
|15.||" Osberti Dringepinne.|
|18.||" Hugonis fil. Ulgari.|
|20.||" Radulphi fil. Algodi.|
Mr. Loftie in a private commmunication to Dr. Sharpe (Records Clerk at
Guildhall) dated May 16th, 1901, which has not been printed, has suggested
identifications of most of these Wards, which he has deduced from a careful consideration
of such evidence as the descriptions of the properties named under each Ward affords.
"Warda Fori" and "Warda Alegate" are obviously Cheap and Aldgate respectively.
The name "Brocesgange" no doubt refers to the course of the Walbrook, and the Ward
so designated can hardly be other than either Walbrook or Dowgate. In his 1901 letter
Mr. Loftie leaves it an open question as between these two Wards: in his Historic Towns
volume he inclines to the former (p. 96) though apparently (p. 92) not without hesitation.
The fact, however, that the several pieces of land named as situate in Brocesgange Ward
are each said to extend to the Thames [durat usque Tamisiam] seems to point to its
identity with Dowgate.
Mr. Loftie's identifications of other Wards are as under:—
1. Castle Baynard.
2. Broad Street.
19. Coleman Street.
20. Bread Street.
I have taken the identification of 18 from a communication made to myself in
May, 1907, by Mr. Loftie. In his 1901 letter he suggests either Queenhithe or
Walbrook for 18, and either Queenhithe or Cordwainer for 16. I am inclined to identify
14 with Walbrook; (fn. 2) if, however, 17 is Walbrook, 14 is presumably Dowgate, and in
either case I think 16 is Cordwainer and 18 Queenhithe.
Mr. Loftie has not suggested the identity of the Wards numbered 10 and 13
respectively; the Wards not named in the above suggestions are Bridge, Langbourn,
Lime Street, Bassishaw, Portsoken, and that subsequently known as Farringdon. It
may be taken as certain that neither Portsoken nor Farringdon was at that date included
in the City Wards, and I am inclined to think that the same may be said of Lime Street
Of the persons named in the above list, Osbert Dringepinne, Hugh fitz-Ulgar and
Ranulf fitz-Algod were amongst the 15 members of the Cnichtengild who gave their land
and soke to the Priory of Holy Trinity in 1125 and were at the same time admitted
members of that confraternity and Algar "Manningestepsune" (i.e. Manning's Stepson)
may not improbably be regarded as identical with "Algar Secusenne" whose name
appears in the same list (Letter Book C, folio 135).
Between 1120 and the last quarter of the 12th century a few names of Aldermen
occur. In Liber L (from which the list examined above is taken), we find mention under
date 1142 of Azo as Alderman: he was an eminent goldsmith and son of Reimund (or
Reinmund), whom he appears to have succeeded in the Aldermanry of Coleman Street
Ward. (fn. 3) From the same source we have, without any precise date, Walter fitz-Terri,
probably Alderman of Cripplegate, the property with which his name is associated
being in Aldermanbury. From the Ancient Deeds in the Record Office, we get the
names of Aldermen Godselin, (fn. 4) Geoffrey, (fn. 5) Jordan (fn. 6) and Blacestan, (fn. 7) of whom the two first
named appear to be connected with Castle Baynard and Cornhill Wards respectively,
Jordan (and possibly Blacestan also), with Billingsgate; Blacestan is named earlier
than the other three, viz.: in the Priorate of Peter (1148–1167) whereas their names
occur in the Priorate of Stephen (1170–1187); also Ernulf and Peter are named as
Aldermen, one of whom was probably Alderman of Cripplegate, the other names in
the deed, which is undated, pointing to the early years of Henry II. (fn. 8) Liber Trinitatis
supplies Edmund, apparently Alderman of Aldgate. Peter is probably identical with
Peter fitz-Walter (Sheriff 1174–75).
From about 1170 the deeds in the Record Office Catalogue relating to City property
and attested by Aldermen of the Wards increase in frequency, and in addition to those
who bear this designation, many others who are not definitely so described may, with
some confidence, be assumed to have been entitled to it both from the positions which
their names repeatedly occupy in the lists of attestations and from the fact that those
names in many instances occur in the succession of Mayors and Sheriffs.
The name of Henry fitz-Ailwyn is of common occurrence without the addition of
"Mayor" and therefore presumably before his election to that office, which he held
continuously from at least as early as 1193 till his death in 1212. In one entry during
the Shrievalty of John fitz-Nigel and John Waleraun (1177–78), he is definitely styled
"Alderman." (fn. 9) Many deeds are preserved which were executed during his tenure of the
Mayoralty, when his name usually appears as "Henry Mayor" simply: in one document
he is described as "Henry fitz-Ailwyn fitz-Leofstan," (fn. 10) in another as "Henry of
Londonstone." (fn. 11)
Contemporary with him the following names occur, with the addition of
"Alderman," at one or more of the references given in the footnotes: John fitz-Nigel (fn. 12)
(Sheriff 1177–78), William de Haverell or Haverill (fn. 13) (Sheriff, 1189–91), Jukel or Jokel (fn. 14)
(Sheriff, 1194–95), Robert Blund (fn. 15) (Sheriff, 1196–97), James "Alderman" (fn. 16) (Sheriff
1199–1200), who (as is also the case with Robert Blund), is sometimes called
"fitz-Bartholomew," William fitz-Alice (fn. 17) (Sheriff 1200–01), Thomas de Haverell, son of
William (fn. 18) (Sheriff 1203–04), Theobald fitz-Ivo, (fn. 19) Alan "Burserius," (fn. 20) Matthew Blund, (fn. 21)
William Fulbert, (fn. 20) Thomas fitz-John, (fn. 22) John Sperling, (fn. 23) Peter Blund. (fn. 24)
Of these, the two Haverells were certainly Aldermen of Cripplegate (fn. 24a) and Sperling
of Billingsgate, in which Ward he was succeeded by his brother Ralph early in the reign
of Henry III. Theobald fitz-Ivo was presumably Alderman of Portsoken by delegation
from the Prior of Holy Trinity, who at that time was Peter of Cornwall (see Note A
below), Jukel is assigned by Mr. Loftie to Cripplegate (Historic Towns, p. 90); he is named
in the St. Paul's MSS. as Alderman in connection with the parish of St. Mary Magdalene,
Fish Street, the greater portion of which was in Castle Baynard Ward, of which Ward,
notwithstanding Mr. Loftie's high authority, I am inclined to infer that he was
Alderman. Peter Blund's Ward was probably Aldgate or Tower; that of Robert Blund
and of William fitz-Alice, Bread Street.
Others during this period were almost certainly Aldermen though not so described
in any extant document which I have seen. Such were Andrew Bukerel (Sheriff 1172–74), (fn. 25)
Henry de Cornhill (fn. 26) and Richard fitz-Reiner (fn. 27) (Sheriffs 1187–88), John fitz-Herlicon (fn. 28) and
Roger le Duc (fn. 29) (Sheriffs 1189–90), John Bokointe or Bucuint (fn. 30) (Sheriff 1190–91), Nicholas
Duket (fn. 31) (Sheriff 1191–92 and 1196–97), Roger fitz-Alan (fn. 32) (Sheriff 1192–93, and fitz-Ailwyn's
successor in the Mayoralty), William fitz-Isabel or fitz-Sabel (fn. 33) and William fitz-Alulf (fn. 34)
(Sheriffs 1193–94), Constantine fitz-Alulf (fn. 35) (Sheriff 1197–98) and his brother Ernulf
fitz-Alulf (fn. 36) (Sheriff 1198–99), John Waleran (fn. 37) (Sheriff 1204–5), Alulf fitz-Fromund, (fn. 38)
Jordan de Turri (fn. 39) (probably identical with the Jordan already mentioned), Henry fitzReiner, (fn. 40) William Facetus, (fn. 41) and Alan fitz-Peter. (fn. 42)
In the Mayoralty of fitz-Alan, who succeeded on fitz-Ailwyn's death in 1212,
C. fitz-Alulf (fn. 43) is named as an Alderman together with Alan fitz-Peter, T. de Haverell, Joce
fitz-Peter (Sheriff 1211–12), Andrew Nevelun—son of Peter Nevelun and hence called
elsewhere Andrew fitz-Peter (fn. 44) —(Sheriff 1215–16), and Robert fitz-Alice. Andrew Nevelun
was probably Alderman of Vintry.
Between 1215 and 1230 the Mayoralty was held by William Hardel "James
Alderman," Salomon de Basing, Serlo le Mercer, Richard Renger and Roger le Duc, who
were all presumably Aldermen before their elevation to the Chair, though I am not satisfied
that this was an invariable rule in those days. [The last-named is probably not identical
with the Sheriff of 1189–90, named above. Renger is definitely named as an Alderman
under date, March 24, 1317 (fn. 44a) and Serlo also appears to have been one at the
same time.] T. de Haverell, C. and E. fitz Alulf, J. fitz-Peter, J. Sperling,
W. fitz-Alice, and H. fitz-Reiner, who have already been named, appear definitely
as Aldermen: also Andrew Bukerel (fn. 45) (who succeeded Roger le Duc as Mayor in
1230 or 1231 and survived till 1237–8, and must therefore be a different person from the
Andrew Bukerel of 1172–73), Stephen Crassus or le Gras (fn. 46) (often printed erroneously
le Gros), and Adam de Witebi (fn. 47) (Sheriffs 1210-11), Martin fitz-Alice (fn. 48) (Sheriff 1213–14),
Benedict (fn. 49) (Sheriff 1216–17), Thomas Bukerel (fn. 50) (Sheriff 1217–18), John Viel or Vitalis (fn. 51)
(Sheriff 1218–20), Hugh Tabur, (fn. 52) John de Cornhill, (fn. 53) John Hanin, (fn. 54) Laurence Lamb', (fn. 55)
[sic, possibly an abbreviation for Lambyn], William de Bosco, (fn. 56) Robert de Woburn, (fn. 57)
and William Wilekin. (fn. 58) Gervase de Aldermanbury (fn. 59) was probably an Alderman about
this time; possibly also Constantine 'juvenis' (fn. 60) (Sheriff 1212–13). To the same period
it seems likely that Henry de St. Elena (fn. 61) should be assigned who is named as an
Alderman, probably of Bishopsgate; Tabur was Alderman of Bassishaw, Lamb' of
Queenhithe; Woburn, apparently, of Aldersgate, and A. Bukerel, of Cripplegate.
In the Great Rolls of the Exchequer of 12 and 14 Henry III. (i.e., 1227–28 and
1229–30) the assessments of the different Wards for tallage are set forth in detail with the
names of the Aldermen responsible for its collection. Twenty-four Wards are named in
each list, all distinguished by the names of their Aldermen, except Portsoken (the Aldermanry of which was held ex officio by the Prior of Holy Trinity) and Bassishaw (here
written "Bassushag"). One Ward (Cheap) has both its local name and that of its
Alderman (W. fitz-Benedict). The name of Roger le Duc, who was Mayor 1227–30, does
not appear in either list, unless (which appears probable) he was identical with "Roger
Burserius" with whose name I have not met elsewhere. The earlier list (that for 12
Henry III.) gives the following names:—
|William fitz-Benedict.||Richard Raynger||In the later list (14 Henry
III) all these names are repeated, except that of Peter
fitz-Alulf; his place is taken
by John de Solariis (usually
written de Solio), who, however, is twice named as an
Alderman in the Mayoralty
of R. Renger and Shrievalty
of R. Le Duc and M. fitzWilliam, i.e., between 1225
and 1227 (fn. 61a) |
|Andrew Bukerel||(usually written Renger).|
|Michael de St. Helena.||Ralph Sperling.|
|Joce fitz-Peter.||Ralph Stepering.|
|Robert fitz-John.||Gervase fitz-Fulk.|
|John Viel.||Walter de Insula.|
|Ace le Mairemer.||John Travers.|
|Roger Blund.||Peter fitz-Roger.|
|Stephen le Gras.||James Blund.|
|John Waleran.||Roger Burserius.|
|Warine fitz-Nicholas.||Peter fitz-Alulf.|
|Richard de Russye.|
I have not met elsewhere with the names of Ace le Mairemer, Peter fitz-Roger,
and Peter fitz-Alulf as Aldermen. Waleran, fitz-Nicholas, Russye, Stepering, de Insula,
and Travers are not found later, but occur in documents of earlier date: the rest appear
as Aldermen both before and after this time.
Several of these can be assigned with practical certainty, and others with varying
degrees of probability, to particular Wards. Thus fitz-Benedict (or as it is usually written,
fitz-Benet) was Alderman of Cheap as already stated; A. Bukerel of Cripplegate, (fn. 62)
J. fitz-Peter of Ludgate and Newgate (the modern Farringdon), (fn. 63) S. le Gras of Vintry, (fn. 64)
R. Renger of Bridge, (fn. 65) G. fitz-Fulk of Aldgate, (fn. 66) R. Sperling of Billingsgate, (fn. 67)
R. Stepering of Tower, (fn. 68) J. Travers of Langbourn, (fn. 69) M. de S. Helena may probably be
allocated to Aldersgate, (fn. 70) James Blund to Broad Street, (fn. 71) Roger Blund to Cordwainer, (fn. 72)
de Insula (i.e. Lisle) to Bishopsgate, (fn. 73) Russye to Candlewick, (fn. 74) and Viel to
Bread Street. (fn. 75)
Joce, "junior" (fn. 76) appears among the Aldermen in the year 1231–2 (16 Henry III.),
probably as successor to Russye; Richard de Hadestok (fn. 77) and Richard de Wimbledon, (fn. 78)
who served respectively for Dowgate and Queenhithe occur in 1233–4 and 1234–5
respectively. During the next four or five years the names of Gerard Bat, (fn. 79) William
Joynier (fn. 80) and Reginald Bungheye, (fn. 81) (all of whom reached the Mayoral chair while still among
the junior Aldermen, if indeed they were then already Aldermen), are found as witnesses to
deeds; also Stephen Bukerel, (fn. 82) who succeeded to Andrew Bukerel's seat for Cripplegate
and Richard fitz-Walter (fn. 83) who served for Aldgate. Between 1239 and 1245 we come upon
the names of Robert de Cornhill (probably Alderman of Lime Street), (fn. 84) Ralph Hardel, (fn. 85)
Simon fitz-Mary (Walbrook), (fn. 86) William fitz-Richard (Tower), (fn. 87) Lawrence Frowyk (Ludgate
and Newgate), (fn. 88) Thomas de Dunelm (i.e. Durham), (fn. 89) Ralph Eswy (or Aswy) who was
Alderman of Cheap, (fn. 90) Michael Tovi, (fn. 91) and John de Gisors (fn. 92) ; the three last named of
these became Mayors whilst very junior Aldermen, unless (as I think nearly certain in
the case of Gisors, and probable in that of Tovi), they reached the Mayoral chair before
the Aldermanic bench. J. Norman also appears to have been an Alderman at this
period, though not definitely so styled till later.
At the end of 1245 John de Coudres is named as an Alderman in the Chronicle of
Mayors and Sheriffs (page 12), written by Arnold fitz-Thedmar, who a few years later
attained himself to that dignity; R. Sperling, N. Bat and T. de Durham are named with
Coudres. In the same year William Eswy (or Aswy) appears as Alderman, probably of
Coleman Street. (fn. 93) In 1246–7 we meet with Walter de Winton (Dowgate) (fn. 94) ; in that year
Peter fitz-Alan served as Mayor. In 1249, fitz-Thedmar records the deprivation of
fitz-Mary and the election of Alexander le Ferrun on March 8, to succeed to his
Aldermanry (Walbrook). (fn. 95)
For the year 1249–50 (34 Henry III.), we have the names of 23 Aldermen,
forming with the addition of the Prior of Holy Trinity who is not included, the complete
list for that date; (fn. 96) of these, 13 are those of Aldermen with whom we have already met,
the remaining ten appearing now for the first time definitely as Aldermen. They
may be divided thus:—
R. de Hadestok.
R. de Cornhill.
T. de Durham.
A. le Ferrun.
Roger fitz-Roger (Mayor).
John Tolesan or Tulesan.
Adam le Basing.
John le Minur.
Gervase le Cordwainer
(also called Gervase Barn').
It is strange that neither J. Gisors nor P. fitz-Alan, though they had so recently
been Mayors, is found in this list, but Gisors' name appears as an Alderman in 1251–52, (fn. 96a)
and P. fitz-Alan's in 1261–62. (fn. 96b) The latter's name is also found in the years 1250–51,
1251–52, and 1257–58, (fn. 96c) in such a position as might suggest the rank of Alderman, though
he is not actually so called at those dates, and may very probably have been so placed as
an ex-Mayor, and on the whole I am inclined to the belief that he was not an Alderman
at all until after his Mayoralty, and that he succeeded W. Eswy, as Alderman of Coleman
Street about 1260, though he may have been Alderman of another Ward earlier. [Note B.—He appears definitely as Alderman of Coleman Street in Ancient Deed,
A 1901, in the year 1261–2.]
The only additional name before 1258 is that of Thomas de Wymburne, who is
found acting as Alderman of Portsoken in 1256–57. (fn. 97) [See Note A, p. 365]
It is noted by fitz-Thedmar that in February 1258, the King deprived all the
Aldermen of their Wards, but permitted them to be restored "if elected by the Commons
of the City," with the exception of Ralph Hardel (Mayor), N. Bat, N. fitz-Joce,
J. Tolesan, J. le Minur, fitz-Thedmar himself and Matthew Bukerel, who is here named for
the first time. (fn. 98) Those not thus excepted secured re-election, with the exception of
R. de Hadestok. (fn. 99) New Aldermen were chosen in place of the excluded ones, save that
fitz-Thedmar's Ward (Billingsgate) (fn. 99a) remained in the hands of the new Mayor (W. fitzRichard), (fn. 100) Osbert de Hadestok acting as Deputy - Alderman for that Ward (fn. 101)
Fitz-Thedmar himself does not record the names of the new Aldermen elected; we find
for the first time in the course of the next two years those of John de Blakethorne
(Aldersgate), (fn. 102) Richard de Ewell (Ludgate and Newgate), (fn. 103) and John Blund (fn. 103a) (probably
In November, 1259, fitz-Thedmar was restored to his Ward and, as he records in
his Chronicle, the King "recalled to his grace and favour" fitz-Joce, le Minur, and
M. Bukerel. In the interval since their ejection from office the other deprived Aldermen,
(Hardel, Bat and Tolesan) had died. (fn. 104) It does not appear that the removal of the
King's displeasure involved the return of the deprived Aldermen to their Wards;
neither fitz-Joce nor Minur is again named in any list of Aldermanic attendances or
attestations, but the name of M. Bukerel occurs as that of the Alderman of Langbourn
in 1270–1. (fn. 104a)
Between 1259 and 1275 few new names occur among the Aldermen other than
those which are found in the Hundred Rolls of the latter year, to which reference will be
made later. Those not included by name or by implication in the 1275 lists are Adam
Bruning (fn. 105) who succeeded Ewell in Ludgate and Newgate, Richard de Walebrook (fn. 106)
(Bassishaw), Bartholomew Castell (fn. 107) (Cripplegate), Walter Hervi (Cheap), Geoffrey de
Winton (fn. 108) (Bridge) and Edward Blund. (fn. 109) Hervi, who apparently succeeded fitz-Thomas
in Cheap after the latter's disappearance (fn. 110) and later took his place as the leader of the
democratic party in the City, (fn. 111) was deprived of his Aldermanry in June 1274. (fn. 112) In a deed
of the year 1265–66 (when J. Adrien and W. Hervi were bailiffs), R. de Walebrook is
described as "tunc custode Aldermannie de Colemanstrate" and B. de Castell as "tunc
custode Aldermannia de Bassieshawe." (fn. 113) This is explained by the fact (recorded by
fitz-Thedmar) that in that year all the Aldermen were temporarily displaced by the Earl
of Gloucester and Wardens appointed in their stead. There is no later record of
Walebrook in connexion with the Aldermanry of a Ward, but Castell, as stated above,
was Alderman of Cripplegate a few years later. Edward Blund was probably Alderman
of Bassishaw after Walebrook and succeeded by Thomas de Basing about 1269. (fn. 114)
Michael Tovi appears as Alderman of Newgate and Ludgate on December 9, 1264,
and on three other occasions in the year 1264–65. (fn. 115) I am not sure whether this was the
ex-Mayor or his son, both of whom are named as joint witnesses to undated deeds in
the St. Paul's MSS., probably he was the son. I have not found the ex-Mayor's name
amongst the Aldermen between 1257–58 and 1264, and he must have been Alderman of
another Ward originally, as Newgate and Ludgate was held by L. Frowyk from about
1240 till about 1258, when he was succeeded by R. Ewell. (See p. 373).
In the troubles connected with Simon de Montfort's rebellion, the ex-Mayors
Gisors and fitz-Richard, with Aldermen R. de Cornhill, J. Adrien, A. fitz-Thedmar,
B. Castell, G. de Winton and also G. de Rokesle and W. de Durham, who became
Aldermen shortly after, were conspicuous as adherents of the king's party; Tovi,
fitz-Thomas, A. le Ferrun and S. Bukerel being on the other side (Chronicle Mayors and
Sheriffs, p. 120).
We now come to the Hundred Rolls of 3 Edw. I. (1275), which contain three lists
(one incomplete) of the Wards at that time. The first (vol. i., pp. 403–423), gives 16
Wards, five distinguished by local names ("Bassingshae," Cheap, Portsoken, Langbourn,
Dowgate), the rest by those of their respective Aldermen, viz.:
Anketel de Alv'ne (i.e. Auvergne),
Wolmar de Essex,
John de Norhampton,
William de Hadestok,
Robert de Meldeburne,
Thomas de Basing,
Walter le Pot' (i.e. Poter),
John de Blakethorne,
Simon de Hadestok.
A second list appears on pp. 423, 424, and a third on pp. 425–443. Both these are
complete and they are very similar to each other. In both the Wards of Cheap,
Portsoken and Dowgate are described by their local names, so also are Bassishaw,
Langbourn and Walbrook in the third list, but not in the second.
The eleven Aldermen named in the first list reappear (with some orthographical
variations) in both the second and the third, which also supply the following additional
Peter de Edelmeton,
Henry de Coventre,
Ralph Faber (elsewhere called le Fevre),
William de Dunelm (i.e. Durham),
Philip le Tailleur,
Henry le Waleys.
Henry de Frowyk.
The second list adds John Adrian, Ralph le Blund and Nicholas de Winton who represent the respective Wards of Walbrook, Bassishaw and Langbourn named in the third.
We have thus the names of twenty-one Aldermen, two Wards (in addition to
Portsoken, whose Alderman ex officio was the Prior of Holy Trinity), being designated by
their local names in each of the three lists, viz: Cheap and Dowgate. Of these twenty-one
Aldermen, seventeen are named under their respective Wards in part I. of this work.
The others are P. Aungier, who served for Broad Street, W. le Poter (Cornhill), R. Faber
and R de Meldeburne. At p. 1 of this work I have assigned Meldeburne to Aldersgate,
following a tentative, but (for the date indicated) erroneous, identification in Dr. Sharpe's
Calendar of Letter Book A, p. 205. The Alderman of Aldersgate at this time (1277) was
undoubtedly Blakethorne, who was serving for that Ward in 1258–9, 1267–8, 1269–70, and
as late as December, 1280. (fn. 116) Meldeburne served for Coleman Street from as early as
1270–1. (fn. 117) I am, however, inclined to think that Meldeburne may have succeeded
Blakethorne in Aldersgate in 1281, as both he and his successor in Coleman Street
(J. fitz-Peter) are recorded as being present as Aldermen on May 13, 1282 (Letter Book C,
fo. 52b) and W. le Mazeliner, the next Alderman of Aldersgate, does not appear as such
earlier than December 11, 1282. By the process of exhaustion, it may be inferred that
Ralph Faber was at this time Alderman of Lime Street. Mr. Loftie, misled by his
description "de Cornhill," which probably refers to his place of abode (as in the similar
case of John de Tulesan or Tolosan "of Walebroc" who was not Alderman of Walbrook
Ward), has assigned him to Cornhill Ward, (fn. 118) which was certainly held by Poter. (fn. 119)
Faber (or LeFevre) afterwards acquired the Aldermanry of Ludgate and Newgate in
succession to Anketin (or Anketel) de Auvergne. (See page 143).
It is not necessary to refer in detail to the lists of Aldermen with their Wards
which are printed in Dr. Sharpe's Calendar of the Husting Rolls, and of Letter Books
A, C, E, as the dates to which they refer are covered by the succession of Aldermen given
in Part I. With regard to the date of the first of these, Dr. Sharpe is undoubtedly
accurate in assigning it to 1285 or 1286: the list corresponds (except for the absence of
one name, the omission of which is satisfactorily accounted for by Dr. Sharpe in his
footnote) with that of the Aldermen recorded in a Husting Deed of January, 1286. It
is not possible to make, with certainty, a closer approximation to the actual date of the
list than between June, 1285, the first-recorded mention of Martin Box as an Alderman
(Letter Book A, folio 127) and March 3, 1287 (not February, 1286, as Dr. Sharpe has
accidentally misdated it), when John de Northampton's successor is first named
[H.R. 17 (22)]. I concur, however, with Dr. Sharpe, who has gone into the question
with me, that the most probable date is about the beginning of July, 1285, immediately
after the appointment of R. de Sandwich to be Custos of the City. This suggestion receives
strong support from the fact that on June 16, 1293, five days after the appointment of
John de Breton as Custos, there was a General Election of Aldermen—those whose names
form the list given in Letter Book C, fo. 6 (xxx.).
Having thus set forth the material which exists for supplying the names of
Aldermen of London from an earlier period than that covered by the Letter Books at
Guildhall, I proceed to give the succession in chronological order from c. 1230. It will
be seen from the foregoing remarks that for the first forty years of that period the list
cannot be regarded as certainly exhaustive, and in several cases it is impossible to assign
Wards to individual Aldermen, and in others such allocation is only tentative. From the
beginning of Edward I.'s reign we are on surer ground.
When the full date is given it is usually that of election; during the period of
Annual Elections (1377–1394) the day (March 12) is that of assumption of office, the
actual days of election not being recorded. Where the word "sworn" is appended in
brackets, only the date of formal admission has been preserved; the words "and sworn"
indicate that election and admission were on the same day. In the majority of
elections after the fifteenth century and in some earlier ones, two dates are given, the
earlier being that of election, the later that of admission.
The succession in each Ward is given in Part I. (pages 1–224); the following list gives
the chronological succession of persons. Hence, when one or more translations from one
Ward to another took place in consequence of a single death or resignation, the new Alderman
is regarded as taking the place of the one who had died or resigned, not of the one to
whose Ward he succeeded. Thus, Sir T. Crosby, the present (May, 1908) Alderman of
Langbourn, is regarded as the successor of Sir Stuart Knill, at whose death Sir T. Crosby's
predecessor in Langbourn (Sir J. Savory) was translated to Bridge Without.
The names of Mayors and Lord Mayors are printed in small capitals: those of
persons elected Aldermen but (certainly or presumably) not admitted and sworn are in
Note A.—In Stow's Survey, vol. i., it is distinctly stated that fitz-Ivo was
"instituted Alderman of Portsoken by Eustachius, the eighth prior, about the year 1264
because he would not deal with temporal matters." I had accordingly adopted that
statement at p. 180 of this work, as others have done, including Sir W. Besant in his
Mediæval London (vol. ii., p. 241), which was published since my lists of Aldermen of
the Wards were printed. There can be no doubt, however, that Stow is wrong. Fitz-Ivo's
name appears as Alderman under date 1196–97, being the year of Shrievalty of Nicholas
[Duket] and Robert Blund (in conjunction with "Henry Mayor" and William Fulbert,
Alderman), in Ancient Deed A 5915 and again (without date but in conjunction with
William Fubert [sic] Matthew Blund and Alan Burser, Aldermen) in Ancient Deed A 7826.
Moreover the name of Thomas de Wymburne (Sheriff 1252–53) is found as acting
Alderman of Portsoken both before, during and after the Priorate of Eustace, being
described as "Alderman" as early as 1256–7 (Ancient Deeds A 1867), as "Warden of the
Soke" as late as 1270–1 (Ancient Deeds A 1868) and "Sockenreeve of Portsoken" in
1271–2 (Ancient Deeds A 1512).