The Cockpit Lodgings

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English Heritage

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Montague H. Cox and G. Topham Forrest (editors)

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1931

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46-55

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'The Cockpit Lodgings', Survey of London: volume 14: St Margaret, Westminster, part III: Whitehall II (1931), pp. 46-55. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=67929 Date accessed: 20 September 2014.


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CHAPTER 5: THE COCKPIT LODGINGS

The first person to obtain the office of Keeper of the Palace of Whitehall was Thomas Alvard, whose appointment (fn. 1) was dated 20th March, 1529–30. In connection with the construction of that part of the Palace lying to the west of the street, provision was made for a lodging for Alvard. (fn. 2) Nothing further is heard of the Keeper's lodging for nearly seventy years, and none of such of the formal appointments of Alvard's successors (fn. 3) during that time as have been found contain any reference to a lodging. In 1598, however, the overseers' accounts give the name of Thomas Knyvet, (fn. 4) who had been appointed Keeper in 1581, next to the names of the occupiers of Hampden House. A similar entry occurs for every subsequent year until Knyvet's death in 1622 (although Knyvet's actual occupation had ceased even before 1598), and on several occasions the word "Cockpitt" is placed against the name. These indications that Knyvet occupied a house on the "Cockpit" side are confirmed by an inquisition (fn. 5) held in 1611 on the rights of the Keeper of the Palace, which found that among a number of houses appurtenant to the office was one which lay "juxta le Tennys Courte," and had been occupied by Knyvet himself. Whether Knyvet's house was identical with Alvard's lodging it is impossible to say. The fact that no entry that can be referred to it is contained in the overseers' accounts between 1562 (the earliest volume extant) and 1598 might suggest that in the latter year it was a new house. This would, however, conflict with the statement made in the course of the inquisition mentioned above that Thomas Knyvet at one time lived there as Keeper of the Palace, and that afterwards Sir Henry Knyvet occupied the house. As Sir Henry was living there in April, 1597, (fn. 6) it is evident that the above assumption would be incorrect.


Knyvet, Lord Knyvet.

From what follows it will be seen that the Duke of Albemarle's lodging after the Restoration was in the direct line of descent from Knyvet's residence, and therefore probably included the site, or perhaps even the actual buildings of the latter.

The first reference to the building which has been found in the accounts of the Paymaster of Works is for the year 1597–8. (fn. 7) Two other references follow within the next year or two, (fn. 8) and shortly afterwards the premises were taken over by James I to serve as a residence for Prince Charles. (fn. 9) A few months later the prince's sister, Elizabeth, was in occupation. (fn. 10) The inquisition mentioned above (which is unfortunately not legible in places), states that, after the occupation by Sir Henry Knyvet, Lady Frances Har[rington] and afterwards the Lady [Elizabeth] occupied the house by the appointment and grant of Lord Knyvet, and that from the time that [not legible] and the Lady Elizabeth were seised of the messuage, King James allotted to Lord Knyvet £20 a year for such use. The accommodation seems to have been insufficient for the princess, and the Little Close Tennis Court was adapted for her use as a kitchen and other offices. (fn. 11) Elizabeth was at this time only eight years old, and her residence at Court was infrequent, but from 1608 onwards she was there more often; the accounts of the Treasurer of the Chamber for every year from 1607–8 to her marriage in 1613 containing notices as to "making ready within the Tennis Courte for the Lady Elizabeth." Occasionally her apartments were used by Prince Charles. (fn. 12)

The princess's connection with the lodgings ceased on her marriage with the Elector Palatine in 1613, (fn. 13) and the rooms seem to have reverted to the use of the Keeper of the Palace. This was now Robert Carr, Viscount Rochester, who on 19th June, 1611, received a grant (fn. 14) of the office, including "totum illud mesuagium … & gardinum … iacentia iuxta le Tennys Courte … modo vel nuper in possessione preclarissime filie nostre Domine Elizabethe." Rochester, who in 1613 was created Earl of Somerset, seems to have made his residence there (fn. 15) after the princess's departure. When the investigation concerning Overbury's murder was proceeding in 1615, the commissioners wrote to the earl, requiring him "to keep his chamber near the Cockpit." (fn. 16) The countess was sent to Lord Aubigny's house in the Blackfriars, it being suggested that the Cockpit was unsuitable for her, "there being many doors and few keys." (fn. 17) Somerset was tried and found guilty, and on 19th October of the following year (1616) the position of keeper was filled by the appointment of Philip, Earl of Montgomery, (fn. 18) who in 1630 succeeded his brother as Earl of Pembroke. The grant again mentions specifically the house "lately in possession of … our daughter, the Lady Elizabeth."


Carr, Earl of Somerset.

Pembroke's residence at the house is well established. (fn. 19) There is a well-known passage in the Sidney papers, (fn. 20) which tells how he, on the day of Charles I's execution (30th January, 1648–9), "out of his chamber window … looked upon the King, as he went up staires from the parke to the galerye in the way to the place of his death." Pembroke's own death, which took place almost exactly a twelve-month later (23rd January, 1649–50) occurred "in his lodgings in the Cockpit." (fn. 21) Pembroke was the last of the Keepers of the Palace to reside in these lodgings. The appointment of George Kirke (fn. 22) after the Restoration did not include the grant of "the house next the tennis court."


Herbert, Earl of Pembroke.

On 29th February, 1649–50, a few weeks after Pembroke's death, the House of Commons resolved "that the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland [Oliver Cromwell] have the Use of the Lodgings called the Cockpit." (fn. 23) Several references to his residence there for the next few years are extant, (fn. 24) but on 14th April, 1654, he removed to the main building in Whitehall. (fn. 25) After his death, on 3rd September, 1658, his widow returned to the Cockpit lodgings. It is said that Richard Cromwell occupied the lodgings for a time in 1659, (fn. 26) but this seems to be a mistake. (fn. 27) On 22nd July, 1659, "the Cockpit" was assigned to General Fleetwood. (fn. 28)

We now come to the residence of George Monck (afterwards Duke of Albemarle) at the Cockpit lodgings. According to Wheatley and Cunningham, (fn. 29) this began a few months before the Restoration. The statement is, however, incorrect. On his arrival in London on 3rd February, 1659–60, Monck had assigned to him the apartment at Whitehall called the Prince's Lodgings, (fn. 30) and thither he returned on 21st February, but almost at once removed to St. James's. (fn. 31) After the entry of Charles II into London on 29th May, he "retir'd to his Apartment at the Cockpit, whither he was now remov'd, to be nearer the King's Presence and Counsels." (fn. 32) His removal therefore coincided with the Restoration, (fn. 33) and the Cockpit continued to be his London residence for the remainder of his life. (fn. 34) Even during the Plague he, almost alone of the courtiers, remained at his post. Here he died on 3rd January, 1669–70. (fn. 35)


Monck, Duke of Albemarle.

There are many references to works carried out at the Cockpit lodgings during Albemarle's residence. Among them was the erection of a new hall (fn. 36) and a chapel. (fn. 37) There are also allusions to the rooms of Sir William Clarke, the duke's secretary. (fn. 38) No evidence has been found suggesting that Albemarle's son, the second Duke, resided at the Cockpit. Later in the year (1670), on the arrival of the Prince of Orange on a visit, (fn. 39) the latter was appointed lodgings in the Cockpit. It seems probable that it was the Albemarle lodgings which were utilised for the purpose. The references, (fn. 40) under the heading of "Cockpitt Lodgings, Oct. 1670," to "Repaireing & fitting severall Lodgings & offices There For the Reception of ye Prince of Oring" contain allusions to "ye bricke wall in ye garden next ye parke," "ye presence chamber and ye white guilded withdraweing roome," and to "a guilded carved chiminey peece in one of ye lodging roomes next ye Parke," which make the identification almost certain. The plan of 1670 (Plate 1) shows the Albemarle lodgings as including the actual Cockpit, as well as practically all the buildings lying to the west of the "passage from the Park" and the new tennis court.

After the death of Albemarle the premises were divided into three portions, the westernmost ("ye outer lodgings next ye parke") being assigned to the Duke of Buckingham, and the easternmost to the Duke of Monmouth, while the central part of the premises, including the Cockpit itself, is found a few years later in the possession of the Earl of Danby. The Buckingham and Monmouth properties are dealt with in Chapters 10 and 7 respectively.

It seems probable that Sir Thomas (afterwards Lord) Clifford preceded Danby in the occupation of the central part of the premises. There are several references from June, 1671, to November, 1672, to work done at Clifford's lodgings, and the first of these shows that the lodgings were at any rate on the Cockpit side of Whitehall. (fn. 41) Clifford resigned his office of Lord Treasurer in June, 1673, and retired from the court. He was succeeded in office by Sir Thomas Osborne, who in the following year became Earl of Danby. There are suggestions that Osborne had made a bargain with Clifford (fn. 42) with regard to the Treasury, and it is possible that the Cockpit lodgings were included in the transaction. Be that as it may, he was certainly in possession of the lodgings in the middle of 1674. The accounts for that year contain items headed "charges in building severall new lodging roomes at the Cockpitt for the Right Honourable Thomas, Earle of Danby, Ld. High Treasurer of England, and altering and fitting the old building there for severall offices belonging to the said lodgeings in the moneth of Sept. 1674 and severall other months before." The works continued until November, 1674. It was not, however, until 28th March, 1676, that a grant (fn. 43) was made to the earl, "in Considerac[i]on of the repaireing of such buildings as are already erected and of new buildings to be erected upon the ground herein after menc[i]oned," of "all that peece … of ground with the buildings thereupon now built called … the Cockpitt, abutting South upon Hampden House and garden, East upon the Tennis Court, and West and North upon our Parke called St. James Parke, and conteyneing in length from North to South Two hundred and tenn foot … and in breadth from East to West att the South end thereof One hundred and Forty Foote … and att the north end thereof fowerscore Foote," for a term of 99 years or the duration of his own life and the lives of two sons.


Osborne, Earl of Danby.

The plan (Plate 37) accompanying the grant shows the extent of the property.

In 1681 Danby let a portion of his lodgings to the Earl of Conway. Accommodation was reserved for Danby's son and daughter, Viscount Latimer and the Countess of Plymouth, (fn. 44) and some misunderstanding evidently arose about these rooms. (fn. 45) Danby had offered the rooms free of charge, but Conway insisted upon paying rent. A letter, (fn. 46) dated 13th March, 1682(–3), to the Earl of Conway "at the Cockpit," shows that the latter duly took up his residence there. The Countess of Danby seems to have lived with her son and daughter in the reserved rooms, for on 30th March, 1682, she presented a petition, stating that she was very ill as the result of an accident to her coach, and praying that her husband (who was imprisoned in the Tower) might be allowed to visit her at the Cockpit. (fn. 47) .

On 19th June, 1684, Charles II granted (fn. 48) to his niece, Anne, Princess of Denmark (afterwards Queen Anne), the lodgings, described in the same terms as in the grant to Danby. According to the Duchess of Marlborough, the property had been "bought of the duke of Leeds." (fn. 49) There is a slight anachronism in this, as Danby was not created Duke of Leeds until 1694, but the statement would in other respects seem to accord with probability, for his lease had still some time to run. There is, however, ample evidence that the purchase money (£6500) was paid to the Duke of Albemarle, and the only explanation that fits the facts would seem to be that Danby had disposed of his lease to the latter. (fn. 50)

The story of Princess Anne's escape from the Cockpit on 26th November, 1688, on the news of her husband's defection to the Prince of Orange, is well known. (fn. 51) A few weeks later she returned, and, "hearing that the Prince and Princess of Denmark were come to town, he [William III] called to see them at the Cock-pit." (fn. 52) Anne's actual residence at the Cockpit did not last long after William's accession. In the early part of 1692 the King and Queen insisted upon the departure from the Cockpit of the Countess of Marlborough, and Anne, rather than be separated from her favourite, resolved to leave with her. (fn. 53) She visited the Cockpit occasionally, (fn. 54) and disposed of its rooms as she would. (fn. 55)

In 1702, a portion of the lodgings was utilised for the accommodation of ambassadors. (fn. 56) On the first occasion, at the coming of the Prussian Envoy, at least five rooms (fn. 57) were set apart, in addition to the provision of a kitchen (fn. 58) in another part of the building ("in ye Court at ye Cockpit between ye Councill Chamber & ye Tennis Court,"), but in 1705 only three are mentioned. (fn. 59) About 1733 "the new buildings" shown on Danby's plan (Plate 37) were demolished for the construction of Kent's Treasury, which extended southward so as to take in a large slice of the courtyard or great garden attached to the lodgings. The "old buildings" south of the courtyard were still in existence in 1722 (see plan on p. 120). They are shown on Lediard's map of 1740, but had disappeared before 1793 (Plate 61), their site, together with the remainder of the courtyard, forming the "stableyard" shown in the plan of 1824 (Plate 68).

Apart from the chief set of lodgings, the history of which has been traced above, and from the residences of Ormonde, Monmouth, etc., which are dealt with separately, other lodgings, generally of a minor character, were provided on the Cockpit side after the Restoration. A few, such as those of the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Bishop of London and Mrs. College, are dealt with in the appropriate place, but a complete account is not possible as the position of these lodgings cannot usually be identified. The more important instances are as follows: (i) On 9th December, 1680, an order was issued (fn. 60) to "furnish the roomes at the Cockpitt … in all things as they were furnished for ye prince Elector Palatine: To be ready for ye Entertainmt of ye prince of Hanover." The latter prince's stay at Whitehall lasted from 11th December, 1680, to 12th March, 1681, (fn. 61) and on 23rd March (fn. 62) an order was issued that "the lodgings in the Cockpitt in Whitehall where the Prince of Hanover lately lodged bee delivered unto the Earle of Craven to lodge there untill further order." No other reference to Lord Craven's residence has been found. (ii) In 1683 the lodgings of Lord and Lady Sunderland "at the Cockpit" are mentioned. (fn. 63) (iii) On 10th November, 1685, the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury were asked to send a customs officer "to visit the Earl of Clarendon's goods at his lodgings in the Cockpit prior to their going for Ireland." (fn. 64) (iv) In 1699 the Commissioners sent from France concerning the settlement of trade with England were given "the rooms in the Cockpitt formerly belonging to his Grace the Duke of Shrewsbury" as their meeting place. (fn. 65)

Footnotes

1 "Sciatis quod nos … dedimus … dilecto servienti nostro Thome Alvarde uni generosorum hostiariorum camere nostre officium custodis Placee sive mesuagii nostri vocati Yorke place." (P.R.O., C. 66/654.)
2 "For vij Stocklockis of a meaner Soorte with their keys … whereof ij were Sette upon two dores apperteynyng to the lodgeing appoyntid for the saide Maister Alvarde within the forenamed newe Galarye"; "for two paire hookis with their hengies sette upon ij dores in the forenamed lodge within the parke appoyntid for Maister Alvarde." (P.R.O., E 36/252, Westminster Manor Accounts, pp. 414, 421.) It would seem that the "new gallery," a term usually applied to the Privy Gallery, here refers to the latter's continuation to the west of the Holbein Gate, that is, to the Tiltyard Gallery. In any case the second quotation shows that the lodging was on the Cockpit side.
3 These were: (i) Anthony (afterwards Sir Anthony) Denny, appointed on 30th January, 1535–6, as from 10th February, 1534–5. (ii) Sir Andrew Dudley, appointed 4th November, 1549. He probably was removed from office on his conviction for complicity in Lady Jane Grey's rebellion in 1553. (iii) Arthur Sturton (formal appointment not found). A notice of his burial is contained in Machyn's Diary ("The xj day of Feybruary [1557–8] was bered at sent Marten'sin-the-feyld master Arthur Sturton, sqwyre, the keper of the [White] halle, and brodur to the lord Sturtun"). (iv) George Bredyman, appointed 24th March, 1557–8. (Probably the "Mr. Georgius Bridema' in Westm'," who was buried at St. Martin's on 30th July, 1580.) (v) Thomas Knyvet, appointed probably on 3rd April, 1581. This was the date of the grant to him of many of the appurtenances to the office as stated in the inquisition on the rights of the Keeper (P.R.O., Exchequer Special Commission, 4192, Middx.), and the confirmatory grant of 1604 (P.R.O., L.R. 1/50, f. 61). The original grant has not been found.
4 Knyvet was a gentleman of the privy chamber to Elizabeth, and afterwards to James I. He was knighted some time before October, 1600 (see Cal. of S.P., Dom., Eliz., 1598–1601, p. 476), the statement in the Dict. Nat. Biog. that he obtained that honour on 14th March, 1603–4, actually referring to another person of the same name. In 1605 he made the search of the cellars of the Houses of Parliament which resulted in the discovery of the Gunpowder Plot. In 1607 he was created Baron Knyvet of Escrick.
5 P.R.O., Exchequer Special Commission, 4192, Middx.
6 Letter, dated 9th April, 1597, from Sir Henry Knyvet to Burghley, written "at my lodging in St James's Park." (Cal of S.P., Ireland, 1596–7, p. 262.)
7 "Stopping, pryming and layeing of a leade Cullor in oyle near the walle by Mr. Knevetts." (P.R.O., E. 351/3233.)
8 "Reareing upp a greate staire-case at Sr Thomas Knevitts in St. James parke"; "laying of ix wyndowes with a Crest of xl foote longe and a poste upon the Stayres at Sr Thomas Knevetts." (1600–1 & 1601–2, P.R.O., E. 351/3236–7.)
9 "Oct. 27. 1604. Grant to Sir Tho. Knyvet of 20l. per ann., for life, in consideration of his giving up his lodgings at Whitehall, for the use of Prince Charles." (Cal. of S.P., Dom., 1603–10, p. 161.) "For makeinge readie certen roomes of the Tennis courteside at Whitehalle for the Younge Duke Charles … mense Octobris, 1604." (Accounts of the Treasurer of the Chamber.)
10 "For makeinge readie for the Ladie Elizabeth at Whitehalle againste her comeinge thether neare unto the Tennis courte … mense Februarii, 1604–[5]." (Ibid.)
11 "Frameinge and settinge upp of fyve greate particions in one of the close Tennys Courts for the Ladie Elizabeth, the Kings daughter. … Paveinge a bigge floore wth bricks in the close Tennys Courte servinge for a Kitchen for the Ladie Elizabeth, the Kinges daughter, and also for a Buttrie and Larder" (1604–5); "Layinge of … purbecke paveinge in the Lady Elizabethes kytchen. … Layinge of xlty Norwey Deale boordes in the newe lodgings over the Ladie Elizabethes Kitchen" (1609–10); "Takeinge downe a p[ai]re of newe staires which were made in the second story of the Lady Eliz. newe lodging, joystinge and boordeinge the same up againe, and framing and settinge up a newe p[ai]re of windinge staires from the kitchinge belowe unto the third story of the same lodgeinge" (1610–11). (P.R.O., E. 351/3240, 3244 & 3245.)
12 "For makenge ready wthin the Tennys Courte at Whitehall for the Duke of Yorke … mense Novembris, 1608"; "for makinge readie … the Lady Elizabeth her Lodginges for Prince Charles." (1612–13.)
13 "We hear, however, of a suggestion that she should occupy the rooms again in 1633. "… my Lord of Arundel … goes ambassador extraordinary to condole with the Queen of Bohemia … for the death of her husband … In case the queen do come for England, I hear that her lodging appointed in court is the Cockpit, at Whitehall, where she lay when she was a maid." (Letter to Sir Thos. Puckering, dated 3rd January, 1623–3, The Court and Times of Charles I, II, pp. 212–13, pub. 1848.)
14 P.R.O., C. 66/1899.
15 Neither Somerset nor Montgomery (afterwards Pembroke) are shown in the overseers' accounts, which consistently give Knyvet's name in respect of the house until his death.
16 Calendar of S.P., Dom., 1611–18, p. 316.
17 Ibid., p. 322.
18 P.R.O., C. 66/2104.
19 Besides the evidence of the address of certain letters the three following references may be cited: (i) "My Lady of Carnavon [Pembroke's daughter, Anne Sophia] being well in the Favour and Belief of her Father and Husband, came with her Husband to the Court, and it was determined she should have been all this Year at London, her Lodgings in the Cockpit; but my Lord Wentworth hath been at Court, and in the Queen's Withdrawing-Room was a constant Looker upon my Lady … for which Cause, as it is thought, my Lord of Carnavon went Home … but my Lady Carnavon is sent down to her Husband, and the Night before she went was with her Father in his Chamber till past Twelve, he chiding and she weeping." (Letter from Lord Conway in Letters and Dispatches of Thomas, Earl of Strafforde, 1740 edn., II, p. 47.) (ii) "And when the Civil Wars between the King and the parliament began to grow hotter and hotter in England, my said Lord [Pembroke] and I came together from Wilton (12 Oct. 1642) with my younger daughter, then the Lady Isabella Sackville, and the next day we came to London, where my said Lord went to lie at his lodgings in the Cockpit in St. James's park over against Whitehall to be near the parliament. But I and my daughter went to live in Baynard's Castle." (Hist. MSS. Comm., Leeds and other MSS., p. 90.) (iii) "Furring and bourding of the floore of the Lord Chamberleines [Pembroke, then Montgomery, had been made Lord Chamberlain in 1626] great Dining roome in the Cockpit Lodgings, conteining in measure vje squares di. vij fo. [i.e. 657 sq. ft.]." (P.R.O., E. 351/3265, 1631–2.)
20 1825 edn., p. 96.
21 G. E. Cokayne's Complete Peerage.
22 Cal. of S.P., Dom., 1663–4, p. 45.
23 House of Commons Journals.
24 E.g. (i) a letter, dated 3rd May, 1651, to his "beloved wife, Elizabeth Cromwell, att the Cockpit in Westminster" (Ellis' Original Letters Illustrative of English History, 2nd series, III, p. 366); (ii) order, dated 29th July, 1652, to certain persons to meet "at the Lord General's house at the Cockpit" (Cal. of S.P., Dom., 1651–2, p. 351); (iii) letter, dated from the Cockpit 11th June, 1653, from Cromwell to the Mayor of Chester (Hist. MSS. Comm., 8 Rep., Pt. I, p. 386a).
25 See the course of events traced in Survey of London, Vol. XIII, pp. 32–3.
26 "Richard Cromwell has left the King's lodgings, and lies at the Cockpit." (Cal. of S.P., Dom., 1658–9, p. 354—May 23–June 2, 1659.)
27 "The pittifull Protector is still att Whitehall and hath the benefitt of his mothers table att Cockpit." (Letter, dated 3 June, 1659, from W. Greene in The Nicholas Papers, IV, p. 152, Camden Society.)
28 Cal. of S.P., Dom., 1659–60, p. 38.
29 London Past and Present, I, p. 438.
30 Survey of London, Vol. XIII, p. 80.
31 On 27th February, 29th March and 12th May, letters were written by him from "St. James's." (Cal. of S.P., Dom., 1659–60.)
32 Skinner, Life of General Monk, p. 342.
33 The earliest references to his residence here which have been found are dated 2nd June, 1660. (Certificate by Monck on behalf of Capt. Wm. Applegarth and letter from Ann, Lady Monck to Secretary Nicholas, Cal. of S.P., Dom.).
34 Pepys has several references to Albemarle's residence at the Cockpit. The two following are characteristic: (i) "Thence to the Cockepitt, and there walked an houre with my Lord Duke of Albemarle alone in his garden, where he expressed in great words his opinion of me." (Diary, 24th April, 1665.) (ii) "Thence to the Cockpitt, and dined with a great deal of company at the Duke of Albemarle's, and a bad and dirty, nasty dinner." (Ibid., 28th March, 1666.)
35 "Dyed at his appartment in the Cockpit, his Grace, George, Duke of Albemarle." (London Gazette.) "The corpse of the Lord General has been removed from the Cockpit to Somerset House." (News-letter to Robt. Aldworth, 13th January, 1669–70, in Cal. of S.P., Dom.).
36 "Ripping new lathing and tyling of two squares of plaine tyling at the Cockpit over the new hall." (P.R.O., Works, 5/1, July, 1660.)
37 "Saweing, frameing & raiseing of iiijer squares of flooreing at the intended Chappell at the Cockepitt." (P.R.O., E. 351/3275, 1661–2.) "Cutting out of two great stones out of a window for the Carpenters to put in theire timber at ye Chappell at the cockpit … working of a doorecase & freese & cornish of portland stone for ye Chappell at ye Cockpit … makeing one Gallery Leading from ye cockpit to the new Chappell Cont' one floore Joysted & bourded 33 fot longe & 7 fot ½ wyde and 2 side walles 33 fot longe & 8 fot high & 3 windowes 4 fot, square … and one roofe 33 fot longe & 7 fot ½ wyde." (P.R.O., Works, 5/1, Octr. 1660.) "To Thomas Bagley … for xijc xxx fot of new glasse in the D. of Albemarles intended Chappell." (B.M. Harl. MS. 1656, March 1660–1.)
38 "Collouring & varnishing xxxti yards in secretary Clarks roome at ye Cockpit." (P.R.O., Works, 5/1, June, 1660); "putting in an outer doore & doorecase & alsoe a partition wth another doore & doorecase in a little roome for Sr Willm Clarke, the Duke of Albemarls Secretary." (Ibid., 5/2, June, 1661.) Clarke was appointed Secretary at War on 28th January, 1661, and died as the result of wounds received in the sea-fight with the Dutch off Harwich on 4th June, 1666.
39 "The Prince of Aurang is expected wth ye first easterly wind. His lodgings are prepared at ye Cockpitt and are very fine." (Letter dated 20th October, 1670, from Sir Chas. Lyttelton in Hatton Correspondence, Camden Socy., I, p. 59.)
40 P.R.O., Works, 5/15.
41 "Breaking way for a window at Sr Thomas Cliffords Lodgings from a Foundation at the Cockpitt and digging ye Foundac[i]on for the Chimneyes & taking downe part of a Chimney there, and divers other needfull workes done aboute the house." (P.R.O., Works, 5/17.)
42 The Travels and Memoirs of Sir John Reresby, 1813 edn., p. 175; Letters to Sir Joseph Williamson (Camden Socy.), I, p. 47.
43 P.R.O., C. 66/3185.
44 Bridget, who had in 1678 married Charles, Earl of Plymouth, natural son of Charles II. In a letter written a few days after the marriage by Robert Paston to his father, Lord Yarmouth, he says: "he [Lord Plymouth] has his apartment at the Cockpit, and lies it out every day till 12 o'clock." (Hist. MSS. Comm., App. to 6th Report, p. 388.)
45 "I am confident itt must bee a mistake that shee [the Countess of Danby] is unwilling to part wth any roomes wch was att first sett out for yr Lops use, and I have ye more reason to bee of that opinion because my daughter Plymouth & my son Latimer happen to bee both wth mee att this time, & do assure mee that all ye roomes wch were att first shew'd to ye servants are still reserved to yr Lops disposall. They likewise tell mee that the new kitchen is neare finished wch I built for yr Lops convenience & that they are reduced themselves to as much straitnesse as itt is possible for them to live withall." (Letter from Danby to Conway, dated 13th October, 1681, B.M. Addl. MS. 28053, f. 283.)
46 Cal. of S.P., Dom., 1683, p. 105.
47 Cal. of S.P., Dom., 1682, pp. 144–5.
48 P.R.O., C. 66/3245.
49 An account of the Conduct of the Duchess of Marlborough, p. 57.
50 See (i) order dated 23rd June, 1684, for the payment to Sir John Worden and Sir Benjamin Bathurst of £6500 "to be by them paid for the lease of the house in or nere St James Parke, which we have purchased or doe intend to purchase in their names from our right trusty and right entirely beloved cousin and councillor, Christopher, Duke of Albemarle"; and (ii) receipt, dated 29th June, by Worden and Bathurst for the money, "being for satisfaction of the like sume which was paid to the Duke of Albemarle for the lease of a house in the Cockpitt bought by order of His Majesty for Her Royall Highness the Princess of Denmarke." (Information kindly given by Mr. B. R. Leftwich from Treasury Warrant Book, Custom House.)
51 "The Princess went to bed at the usual time to prevent suspicion. I came to her soon after; and by the back-stairs which went down from her closet, her Royal Highness, my lady Fitzharding, and I, with one servant, walked to the coach, where we found the bishop [of London] and the earl of Dorset. They conducted us that night to the bishop's house in the city, and the next day to my lord Dorset's at Copt-Hall." (An account of the Conduct of the Duchess of Marlborough, p. 17.) According to the Earl of Dartmouth, whose father was at the time living next door (see p. 71), the back-stairs had been constructed a short while before for the purpose of the flight. (Burnet's History of his own Time, 1823 edn., III, p. 318 note.)
52 Ellis's Original Letters, 2nd series, IV, p. 180.
53 "Satturday, 20th February [1691–2]. Yesterday the prince and princesse of Denmark, with their attendants, removed to Sion house. … The princess has taken lady Marlborough with her." (Luttrell's Brief Relation.)
54 "Teusday, 18th October [1692]. Yesterday the prince and princesse came to the Cockpit, and after a short stay return'd in their chairs thro' St James Park to Berkley house, so to Kensington." (Ibid.)
55 Thus in 1698 being in need of rooms at St James's for her son, the Duke of Gloucester, she turned out Lady Wentworth and gave her in exchange rooms in the Cockpit. In a letter to Lady Bathurst, Lady Wentworth's sister, she says: "The lodgings I intend to give my Lady Wentworth are those ye old Lady Berkly Lived in, there are Garretts just over them yt I ordered Sir Benjamin to keep empty, wch she may have, there is a seller to, just by Danverses Lodging, yt is not disposed of, & for a kitching there is one yt belonged to ye Clarke of ye kitching, wch Sir Benjamin had once a mind to have given to one of ye french people yt are now at ye Cockpitt, I wish you would putt Lady Wentworth in mind these lodgings are now in my disposall, & therefore ye sooner she takes possession ye better" (Letters of Two Queens, by Lt.-Col. the Hon. B. Bathurst, p. 240). It would appear that Lady Wentworth duly took possession, for in a letter to her son, Lord Raby, dated 28th October (1698), she says: "I shall be so busy with removing that you will mis hearing from me a hole fortnight, I believ, for packing hear and unpacking at ye Cockpit & taking leav here will make me very buissy" (Ibid.). She was there as late as 1716. "Orderd the Lady Wentworths Chimney in the Cockpit to be secured." (P.R.O., Works, 4/1, p. 101–22 Feby, 1715–16.) Lord Raby was in occupation of these lodgings in 1699, several entries in the records for that year (P.R.O., Works, 5/50) referring to work done to his lodgings in the Cockpit.
56 "The Queens House at the Cock-pit is fitting up for the entertainment of Foreign Ambassadors on such days as they are Treated at Her Majestie's Cost." (English Post, June 8–10, 1702.) "Baron Spanheim, the King of Prussia's Ambassador Extraordinary to the Queen, made his publick Entry yesterday with extraordinary Pomp; and in the Evening his Excellency was splendidly Entertained at the Cockpit, at her Majesty's charge." (Ibid., 15th–17th June, 1702); "the Venitian Embassadr being to be entertained at the Cockpitt by her Majesty, These are to Pray and Require You to give Orders for making four new Sashes to the windows towards the Park in the Cockpitt where Embassadrs are entertained, the old ones being rotten and worn out." (P.R.O., L.C. 5/154, p. 123–23rd Novr., 1705.)
57 See order, dated 27th February, 1701[–2]. (P.R.O., L.C. 5/153, p. 163) to "provide … ye following particulars for furnishing an apartment at ye Cockpit for ye Entertainment of ye Ambassadr from Prussia, Viz., for ye Eating Room a Canopy of State, of Crimson Damask with Silke Fringe, with one Chair, one footstool, Two Cushions Suitable, One Barbary Matt, one green Cloth Carpet for ye Eating Table, three pair of Window Curtains of Crimson Serge to draw back; in ye withdrawing room, two pair of Window Curtains of Crimson Tabby, one Walnutt Table Glass & Stands; in ye Bedchamber, Two pair of White Tabby Window Curtains, a black Table Glass & Stands, one Barbary Matt; in the Room beyond ye Bedchamber one pair of Crimson Tabby Window Curtains; in ye Closet within it, one close stool with a Velvett Seat & 2 Panns; in ye room where ye Second Table is to be, Two pair of Crimson Tabby Curtains, Six Pewter Chamberpots, Six Pewter Basons, Ten Dozens of Cane Chairs, Six pair of Snuffers & Six Snuff pans with Twelve pair of Brass Candlesticks, Ten Thousand Tenter hooks & Ten thousand Tacks, wth four Hammers."
58 Ibid., p. 168.
59 "These are to Signify her Majestys Pleasure that his Grace, the Duke of Devonshire, Lord Steward of Her Majestys Household, is to have the use and possession of the Three Rooms at the Cockpitt which were Appointed for the reception and Entertainmt of Forreign Embassadrs. which are to be deliver'd up by him for her Majestys use during the time that any Embassadr is to be entertd." (P.R.O., L.C. 5/154, p. 129–8th December, 1705.)
60 P.R.O., L.C. 5/144, p. 25.
61 Ibid. p. 90. While he was at the Cockpit a burglary took place. "On the 11th Instant the Prince Hannover's Lodging in White-Hall was broke open, and a Bed with Gold Fringe and richly Embroidered was stolen thence, valued at three thousand pound, but upon search several parcels of the Fringe, and other remarkable appurtenances were found, and the persons in whose custodies they were taken, carryed before the Board of Green-Cloath to be examined in order to their Commitment, who as we hear are sent to Prison." (The Protestant Oxford Intelligence, 14th–17th March, 1680–1.)
62 P.R.O., L.C. 5/144, p. 72.
63 P.R.O., Works, 5/37.
64 Cal. of Treasury Books, 1685–9, p. 411.
65 P.R.O., L.C. 5/152, p. 165.


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