CHAPTER 5: IV—THE ADMIRALTY
The old portion of The Admiralty, with which this survey deals, was
built on the site of Wallingford House.
In 1557 the ground immediately to the north of the Tilt Yard
consisted of a piece of waste land which had been used as a carpenter's yard.
On 17th February of that year it was leased to Thomas Browne for a term of
sixty years at a rent of 26s. 8d. It is described in the letters patent (fn. 1) as a piece
of waste ground, enclosed by the fence and wall of St. James's Park, on the
south of the messuage in the tenure of John Kempe, together with a shed or
hay-house built partly on the park wall, and a cottage on the south side of
the ground. On 29th May, 1560, Browne, in consideration of the receipt
of £100, surrendered (fn. 2) his lease to the Queen, reserving, however, his interest
in the cottage, for which the rent was reduced to 13s. 4d. The remainder
of the ground reverted to its former use as a timberyard (fn. 3) for the purposes
of Whitehall Palace. Ten years later (18th December, 1570) Browne transferred the cottage to Sir Francis Knollys, (fn. 4) who in 1572 obtained a new lease
from the Crown for sixty years at a rent of £6 13s. 4d. of not only the cottage
but a portion of the timberyard. The measurements are given as follows:
(i) "The soyle, parcell of the saied voyed ground wherein the saied Cottage
is scituate, doethe conteigne in length from the este to the west upon the
Northe syde ioyninge upon the Carpenters yarde one hundreth and eightene
foote withn the walls, and in length upon the southe syde buttinge upon the
highewaye into St James parke and Tylteyarde end conteyninge one hundrethe and fyve foote wthin the walls, in bredth the est ende buttinge upon
the highwaye from Charinge Crosse to westmr in lengthe fyftye and one
foote, and the weste ende buttinge upon St James parke conteynethe fortye
eighte foote." (ii) "As muche more of the saied ground as conteyneth
xxxix foote at the weste ende thereof and asmuche at the Este ende, and in
lengthe as afore northwarde one hundreth and eightene foote, and also xvj
foote more in lengthe and bredthe at the weste end, wch maye be verye well
sparyd out of the reste of the saied voyed ground beinge nowe callyd the
timber hayes." (fn. 5) The intention of Knollys was "to buylde a convenyent
house" on the ground, and in view of the increase of rent asked for an
allowance of £160 "towards the chardges of the buylding thereof." The
amount actually allowed him was £120. The house, which was duly erected, (fn. 6)
passed, on Knollys' death in 1596, to his eldest surviving son, Sir William
Knollys, (fn. 7) from whose title of Viscount Wallingford it obtained the name of
Knollys, Earl of Banbury
In May, 1602, Sir William entertained Elizabeth "at his residence
in St. James's Park." (fn. 8) On 20th March, 1610–11, he (now Lord Knollys)
obtained a grant of the house in perpetuity. (fn. 9) The premises are described as
"all that our mansion house and all those our gardens, lands, buildings and
new structures … now in the tenure … of the said William, Lord
Knollys, situated … between the common way … leading from
Charing-crose to Westminster on the east, and our garden commonly
called the Springe garden in part and our park called St. James Parke in
other part on the west, and abutting on a way or passage leading from the
aforesaid common way … to our aforesaid park called St. James Parke
in part and a certain building now or late in the tenure … of Sir Thomas
Walsingham and Awdrey his wife (fn. 10) … in other part towards the south,
and on our land or yard commonly called the Tymber yard towards the north,
containing on the east side 152 feet (fn. 11) … and on the west side 146 feet."
In addition there was included in the grant a part of the timber yard, north
of the house, described as "all that part … of land being parcel of our
said yard commonly called the Timber yard which is next to and immediately
adjoins the north side … of a certain new 'le Gallery' or of the aforesaid
new buildings, and extends along the walls of the aforesaid 'le Gallery' from
our aforesaid garden called the Springe garden to the aforesaid common
way … leading from Charingcrosse to Westminster, and contains in size
from the aforesaid wall of the aforesaid new buildings … towards the
north 70 feet … throughout the whole width of the same parcel of land."
The stipulated rent was £7 13s. 4d. plus 20s. in respect of the part of the
timber yard, and liberty was given to build on the latter and to have windows
opening on to Spring Garden. (fn. 12) A few years later Knollys (now Viscount
Wallingford) fell into disfavour at court owing to enmity between his wife's
family (the Howards) and Buckingham. In 1622 a reconciliation was effected,
and Buckingham (fn. 13) purchased "all that mansion house comonly called …
Wallingford House" for £3,000. (fn. 14) The 70-feet-wide portion of the timber
yard was included.
Villiers, Duke of Buckingham
At the time of the purchase Buckingham had apparently been for
some little while in occupation. (fn. 15) There are notes of his residence there in
the immediately succeeding years. (fn. 16) In August, 1626, however, the house
was prepared to accommodate the Duchesse de Trémouille, whose visit
lasted until the following February, (fn. 17) and during her stay the duke seems to
have been resident at York House. (fn. 18) On 30th January, 1627–8, the duke's
second son George (afterwards 2nd Duke of Buckingham) was born at
Weston, Earl of Portland
Buckingham was assassinated on 23rd August, 1628, and the duchess
seems soon after to have let the house to Lord Weston, the lord treasurer, who
was certainly in occupation of the premises in May, 1630, (fn. 19) and the following
note (fn. 20) written a few days after his death: "The Dutchess of Buckingham
was married about a Week since to the Lord Dunluce (fn. 21) and are to live at
Wallingford-house, whence the Treasurer's Family removes," shows that he had
continued to reside there. (fn. 22) The house did not, however, with the death of
the Lord High Admiral, cease to be used for admiralty business, and numerous documents are extant (fn. 23) showing that the Lords of the Admiralty held
meetings there until 1634. The next occupant of the house of whom we have
information is the Marchioness of Hamilton, who died there on 10th May,
1638. (fn. 24) In the early part of 1649 (fn. 25) the Duke of Richmond and Lenox was in
occupation. (fn. 26) The duke's name in respect of what is probably Wallingford
House is given in the ratebooks for 1641 ("Duke of Lennox iiijli"), 1647
and 1648 ("Duke of Richmond," nil and £4 respectively), but in the two
latter years there is also an entry: "The Lady Covell at Wallingford House,"
£1. On 14th December, 1649, the Committee for Advance of Money
granted Wallingford House to Edward, Lord Howard of Escrick, for a year
from the following Christmas at a rent of £40, and at the same time ordered
that "the Earl and Countess of Rutland, who inhabit Wallingford House,
avoid possession of the same in 14 days." (fn. 27) It was subsequently provided that
"after the Expiration … of a Lease made to the Lord Howard of Estrick
… of Wallingford House … late the Inheritance of George Duke of
Buckingham … The same shall … remain for ever, to the use of the
Commonwealth to be disposed as the Parliament shall order." (fn. 28)
Manners, Earl of Rutland
Lord Howard's rent seems to have been difficult to collect. (fn. 29) After
his year's tenancy had expired the Earl of Rutland (fn. 30) resumed occupation. In
1652 the trustees for the sale of fee farm rents sold the rent of £8 13s. 4d.,
due from the owner of Wallingford House, to Edward Keeling for the sum
of £112 13s. 4d. (fn. 31)
Rutland's residence at Wallingford House was from 1649 to 1655,
with the exception of the one year during which Lord Howard was there. (fn. 32)
An inventory of the earl's goods at Wallingford House, dated 30th May,
1655, very shortly before his removal, is preserved at Belvoir Castle. In all,
fifty-four rooms are mentioned, and the published summary (fn. 33) contains
references to the Long Gallery, the Great Drawing Room, the Dining Room,
"my Lord's Closett," Mrs. Wootton's chamber, the Gallery over the Chapel,
the White Parlour, "my Ladyes Chamber," and the wardrobe.
The ratebook for 1655 brackets with the name of the Earl of Rutland
that of "Lord Fleetwood." (fn. 34) Fleetwood took up his residence at Wallingford
House immediately on his return from Ireland, (fn. 35) and remained there until
nearly the end of the Commonwealth. (fn. 36)
At the Restoration Wallingford House reverted to Buckingham (the
2nd Duke), who seems to have lived there until 1672, (fn. 37) and it was from that
house that the body of Buckingham's friend, the poet Cowley, was in 1667
taken to be interred in Westminster Abbey. (fn. 38) The duke had left the house
before 1673, and it may be surmised that he had removed into the new
house built for him on a portion of the site of No. 10, Downing Street. (fn. 39)
Lord Clifford of Chudleigh
On the removal of the duke the house was taken by, or for the use of,
Lord Clifford, (fn. 40) appointed lord treasurer in November, 1672. Clifford was
certainly in occupation before 15th January, 1672–3. (fn. 41) His stay was brief.
In June, 1673, he resigned the treasurership and Sir Thomas Osborne
(afterwards Earl of Danby) was appointed in his place. On 25th July we are
told that the latter was very ill, "but Wallingford house he removes to as
soon as my Lord Clifford has left it." (fn. 42) Evelyn visited Clifford at Wallingford
House on 18th August and found him preparing to leave for Devonshire.
"He was packing up pictures, most of which were of hunting wild beasts,
and vast pieces of bull-baiting, bear-baiting, etc. … Taking leave of
my Lord Clifford he wrung me by the hand, and looking earnestly on me, bid
me God b'ye, adding, 'Mr. E., I shall never see thee more'." In less than
a month he was dead.
Osborne, Earl of Danby
On Clifford's removal Osborne (fn. 43) (now Viscount Latimer) moved in at
once. (fn. 44) The last ratebook showing "My Ld. Treasurer" at the house is that
for 1677, but there is a report by him headed "Wallingford House," dated
2nd May, 1678. It seems probable that during the latter part of this period
he used the house more as an office than as a private residence. For the
latter he had the Cockpit lodgings, where the large works of rebuilding and
repair carried out for him (and which may have been the reason for his going
to Wallingford House) were apparently finished in 1674. (fn. 45)
According to the ratebooks the Duke of Buckingham then returned,
his name first appearing in the book for 1678 and continuing until 1686 (he died
in 1687), after which the "Dutches of Buckingham" is given until 1692.
On 16th March, 1693–4, the Duke of Buckingham's trustees leased (fn. 46)
Wallingford House to Edward Hayes in trust for John Evans for a term of
sixty-one years at a rent of £480 a year, and in the course of the next few
months the house was razed to the ground. (fn. 47)
The First Admiralty.
The demolition of Wallingford House offered an opportunity for the
erection, in a convenient spot, of a building for use as an Admiralty Office,
and Sir Christopher Wren was ordered to submit a report. This was evidently
favourable, (fn. 48) for on 28th August, 1694, the Lords of the Admiralty directed (fn. 49)
the Navy Board to pay the Admiralty Solicitor the sum of £500 "for his
paying Advance Money for building a new house for an Admiralty Office."
Details are given in an agreement dated four days later (1st September, 1694)
between John Evans, "Carpenter," and "the Principall Officers & Commisioners of their Matys Navy … for & on behalf of their Matys." (fn. 50) In
this document Evans agrees to set out a portion of the site, comprising
115 feet in length "fronting the Spring Garden backwards," and abutting
south on the house and ground of William Blathwayt (on the site of Admiralty House), and 45 feet in depth, beginning from Spring Garden on the west
and running eastward towards the intended court fronting the high street
that leads from Whitehall to Charing Cross, and on the ground to build
"with well-burnt brick & Substantiall Tymber … a Sufficient Pyle of
Buildings for the Use & Service of ye Rt Honble ye Comrs for Executing ye
office of Lord High Admirall." It was provided that the walls of the new
building were not to be set upon any part of the old foundations. The height
of the various storeys was specified as: cellar, 8 feet "if the water permits";
1st storey, 15 feet; 2nd storey, 13 feet; and 3rd storey, 9 feet. The building
was to be finished before Midsummer Day, 1695, and was then to be leased
to the Admiralty for eleven years at a rent of £400 a year, £500 being paid in
advance and deducted from the first five years' rent at the rate of £100 a year.
A further agreement with Evans dated 23rd March, 1694–5, (fn. 51)
states that the building, or great part thereof, had then been erected, and
provides that, in consideration of another £500 to be paid to Evans at once
and a further £100 on 24th June, he should during the next eleven years
restrict his buildings on the remainder of his plot in the following way. The
courtyard in front of the Admiralty Office was to be left clear of buildings
for a space of 44 feet in depth and 78 feet in length; the new buildings fronting
the street were to be "only One Story from ye Ground and contain Twelve
feet from the first floor to the Ceiling" and their roofs "to be made Flat and
cover'd with Lead, with Rails & Banisters wth a Mondilion Cornice fronting
the said Street around ye Topp of ye said Erection & building for the better
ornamt thereof"; and there was to be a space of 10 feet between these
buildings (which were to be finished before 24th June) and the courtyard,
"[on] which said Tenn Feet backward part of the said New Buildings so to be
erected pillars shall be sett upp in ye Nature of Piazzas, being floor'd &
covered at Topp … which is hereby intended as an enlargement of ye
said Court in depth for conveniency of dry walkg therein."
The Admiralty took possession of the new building in June, (fn. 52) and in
July applied to the Treasury, stating that it was the King's pleasure "to
grant part of Old Spring Garden on the back side of Willingford (sic) House in
fee for the use of the Lord High Admiral of England, or the Admiralty
Lords, as necessary to the Office of Lord High Admiral kept at Wallingford
House," (fn. 53) and praying for the passing of a grant. This was done, and the
portion of the Spring Garden so taken was utilised as the Admiralty garden. (fn. 54)
A view of the new buildings, including the one-storey erections facing
the street, is given in the view of Whitehall in 1695–8, ascribed to Knyff
(Plate 58.) Kip's Prospect, circa 1710 (see p. 9), shows the rear of the
premises, facing the Park and numbered 39. The building is noticed by
Hatton (fn. 55) and Strype. (fn. 56)
Whatever the reasons were that led the Lords of the Admiralty
merely to take an eleven years' lease of the building, they must soon have
ceased to operate, for before 1720 the Admiralty had acquired the freehold
of not only the Admiralty Office, but (with one exception) of all the other
houses on the site of Wallingford House, including the buildings between the
street and the courtyard. The latter are particularised (fn. 57) (with their rents)
|li per annum|
|The thacht hous Tavern||250|
|The barbors shop||30|
|The semstres shop||30|
|The selor under ye barbors & semstres||27|
|The skrivnors shop||45|
|The hattors shop||45|
|The brandey shop||30|
|The shop layd to ye Coffee hous||30|
|The sellor under ye brandy shop||20|
|In all 507 pr ann.|
They had also purchased the lease of a house on the north-west side
of the Admiralty Office, the site of which had formed part of the 70–feet strip
of the timber yard, (fn. 58) and had been rented by the owners of Wallingford
House for use as a garden, but had not been included in the sale of the house.
The total expenditure had amounted to over £18,000, made up as follows: (fn. 59)
|To John Evans (Contractor for Building the Admiralty Office) According to Agreement, by way of
Advance of Rent … by Order from the …
Lords of the Admiralty … 28th Augst 1694||500||0||0|
|To Ditto on consideration of his not building any
Edifices to incommode the Lights of the Office or
incumber the Court before the Same|| (fn. 60) 500||0||0|
|To Ditto for Purchase of the Vaults, under the Yards
belonging to the Office, by Order from the …
Lords of the Admiralty … 7th June 1697||250||0||0|
|To Ditto for Purchase of the Admlty Office & other
Buildings (fn. 61) Contiguous thereto, according to Contract for the Same Pursuant to an order from the
… Lords of the Admlty 22d Apr1 1698|| (fn. 62) 10050||0||0|
|To D°. for Rent of the Admlty Office & one House Adjoyning thereto, Ending ye 25 Mar: 1698||li||s||d||0747||6||0|
|To D°. for building a brickwall round ye
Garden, & Gardiner's house, Levelling the
Ground, & for Gravel & Mould for the
Gardens according to the Measurement &
Appraisement by Sir Christopher Wren||364||15||0|
|To Mr. John Fawler being so much paid
by him in part of ye said Service||200||0||0|
|To Francis Cook the Gardiner for his Disbts
& Service done in the said Garden||49||11||0|
|To the Collectors of the King's Taxes||33||15||0|
|Being all paid pursuant to an Order from the …
Lords of the Admlty Dated … 15th August 1698.
To D°. for Purchase of two Houses (fn. 63) Contiguous to
the Office & Buildings Adjoining thereto pursuant to
an Order from the … Lords of the Admlty …
21st Septembr 1699||2100||0||0|
|Payment By Bill to Mr. Robert West|
|For purchase of a Term in his House (fn. 64) adjoining to
the Admiralty Office by Order from the Rt Honble
the Lord High Trea[su]rer Signifyd by Letter from
William Lowndes Esqr … Dated 5th of January
|To Mr. Browning for the Purchase Money paid for
the House, & sheads (fn. 65) near the Admiralty Office …
by Order from the … Lords of the Admiralty …
2d July 1720||3712||0||0|
These proceedings did not escape notice, and an interesting sidelight
is thrown upon them by the following, not entirely unbiassed, criticism (fn. 66)
made in 1699:
"… the King has been put to a vast charge in purchasing and
fitting the Admiralty Office, and at a time when there was an extraordinary
scarcity of money; and the frequent alterations made in the office, Sir
Robert Rich's house, the Secretary's and doorkeeper's apartments, are
vastly more than the 300l. per annum paid for the old Office in Duke
Street, besides the landlord's tax and the Lords giving the man, whom
they purchased the office of, the place of purveyor of the navy at
Portsmouth (fn. 67) —an employment of consequence, trust and difficulty—though he was never in the navy before, and no ways qualified for such
a place; but this was given him as a consideration for keeping him out
of his purchase money for a considerable time, notwithstanding they
paid him interest for it, and, immediately before this session of
parliament, they contracted with him for two houses more in the
Admiralty Court, for some of their creatures to live in, and are in treaty
with him for all the low buildings next the street, in order to pull
them down because they hinder the view of the Office, and that they
would have the whole Court to themselves. But the parliament's
calling them to question for some things has put a stop to these
proceedings for the present; tho' when the session is done, they design
to proceed as formerly.
"The house Sir Robert Rich lives in cost the King 3,000l. or
thereabouts, and was purchased on pretence of keeping the Admiralty
Court there; but Rich has got it now for his own use, and let his house
in Soho Square; and he puts the King to 500l. a year expense for alterations, furniture, firing, candles, etc., which are all placed to the account
of incident charges of the Admiralty Office.
"In making these purchases the Lords of the Admiralty have
given 20 per cent. more than any other purchaser would, or the thing
really worth; Sir Robert Rich … has the chief government in these
matters, and most of the money paid by his private order."
In spite of the expenditure that had been incurred, the new building
had only a brief existence. On 2nd February, 1722–3, the Lords of the
Admiralty resolved: "That a Memorial be laid before his Majesty in Council
humbly informing his Majesty of the bad condition of this Office and the
Range of Buildings appertaining thereunto, and praying his Mats pleasure
whether, as the Workmen have proposed, the Same Shall be taken down and
other Buildings erected in their room." (fn. 68) On 25th March an Order in Council
was obtained "approving of the Estimate [by Ripley, see below] and Scheme
of Building a New Admiralty Office and Range of Buildings belonging to the
Same and directing" the Lords of the Admiralty to provided themselves
"with a Convenient Place for executing the Business of the Office until the
Said Buildings can be finished." (fn. 69) The temporary home of the Admiralty
was established in St. James's Square, (fn. 70) and in May, 1723, the building was
demolished. (fn. 71)
The Present Admiralty.
Thomas Ripley, (fn. 72) who had built the recently-erected Custom House,
was appointed architect for the new building, and on 5th March, 1722–3,
submitted (fn. 73) an estimate amounting to £22,400. Proposals for the extension
of the site northwards and southwards by taking in the two adjoining houses
were considered, but rejected. (fn. 74) To facilitate the erection of the building the
Board of Ordnance was induced to remove part of the Gun House in St.
James's Park, "for that otherwise the Said Buildings cannot be carried on in
the manner directed by his Majesty's Order in Council." (fn. 75) The mahogany
to be used in the building was brought from Jamaica. (fn. 76) The building was to
a certain extent ready for occupation in September, 1725, but was not completely finished until over a twelve-month later. (fn. 77) As in the case of Ripley's
recent work at the Custom House, (fn. 78) the cost far exceeded the estimate. On
20th December, 1728, Ripley, "who hath been employed in building this
Office and the Houses adjoining thereunto," was called before the Board of
Admiralty, "and acquainted that upon Our looking over the Bills & Papers
relating to the same, We found that the Expence hath very much exceeded
the Estimate which was first made, and approved of in Council; and …
it was recommended to him to prepare, and lay before Us in one distinct
Account, the several Articles by which the Charge of the aforesaid Building,
have so very much increased." (fn. 79) Unfortunately this detailed account has not
Plan showing the street widening at the Admiralty
A view of the building in 1731 with the stone wall as existing at that
date is given in 58. The wall lasted until 1760. In 1759 the Westminster Bridge Commissioners informed (fn. 80) the Admiralty that they required
a portion of the courtyard in connection with their scheme for street widening
(see appendix). The Lords of the Admiralty were not inclined at first to
assist the commissioners, (fn. 81) but subsequently an agreement was come to by
which the Commission was to pay the Lords of the Admiralty £650 and,
in addition, give them so much (24 feet wide by 25 feet deep) of the site of
the house adjoining the Admiralty on the north as had been left over from the
widening. In consideration of this the Admiralty agreed (fn. 82) to clear a portion
of the courtyard containing in length 124 feet and in depth 16 feet "by taking
down and Carrying away the Brick Wall and other Erections … now
standing thereon," to pave it "with proper Coachway and Footway Pavements," and "to Cause a New Stone-Wall with one large Gate and Two
Doors to the same and other Conveniencies to be erected … for Fencing
… so much of the said Admiralty Court-Yard as shall remain after the
said Street shall be widened." The work of demolition of the old wall and
erection of the new was entrusted to Robert Adam, whose accepted estimate
of the cost was £1,293 11s. (fn. 83) The porter's lodge, etc., at the northern end
of the wall covers the site of the additional 24 feet frontage. The new wall
(148 feet) thus corresponds exactly (except that it is situated 16 feet further
west) with the original frontage of Wallingford House.
The large extensions of the building at the latter end of the nineteenth
century and in the twentieth century in Spring Gardens and St. James's Park
lie outside the scope of this book.
View of The Admiralty showing the semaphore in operation
A brief reference to the apparatus formerly in use at the Admiralty
for receiving messages from the coast may not be thought out of place. On
28th January, 1796, an apparatus (represented in Plate 79) of this kind was
installed. Rude and ineffective as it must have been in comparison with the
modern wireless installation crowning the Admiralty roof, it evoked enthusiastic admiration at the time. Twenty years later an improved apparatus
was set up. "The improved semaphore has been erected on the top of the
Admiralty. It consists of a hollow mast of 30 feet, on which two arms are
suspended when not making signals. There is also one erected in West
Square, Lambeth, and in a few days the experiment of communicating to
Sheerness will be made." (fn. 84) A view of the Admiralty showing the semaphore
in operation is reproduced on p. 59.
Part of western elevation of Admiralty before erection of new block
The block facing Whitehall is U-shaped on plan with an Ionic pedimented portico as the central feature of the elevation, and contains a carved
cartouche bearing the Admiralty badge in the pediment (Plate 62.) The
exterior is in brick with stone dressings, and consists of three storeys with
rusticated quoins and a heavy stone cornice and frieze. Similar treatment is
carried out to the rear elevation. The portion of the latter shown in
the illustration here reproduced was demolished when the new buildings
were erected on the site of the garden. The proportion of the columns to
the portico was not improved when the screen was built across the front
of the courtyard by Robert Adam in 1759–61 (Plate 61 and 65) This screen
consists of a central arched carriageway with a series of Doric columns on each
side supporting an entablature with slightly advanced wings, which have their
wall surfaces occupied by semicircular headed niches (fn. 85) and finished with
pedimented gables containing carvings representing respectively a Roman
prow and the bow of a British man-of-war, the work of a Dutch sculptor,
Michel Henry Spang, who died in 1768. The central archway has a balustraded parapet between pylons which, breaking forward, are surmounted
by hippo-griffs with carved dolphins in panels below. In the back wall
of the screen are two doorways for pedestrians, which were, until recently,
filled in, and two new entrances formed by the removal of the central column
on each side and openings made in the wall. This piece of vandalism was
carried out during 1827–28 at the request of the Duke of Clarence, when
Lord High Admiral, to afford better facilities for the manipulation of his
carriage. This treatment caused the central archway to become redundant.
Detail of North Pediment to Screen
Some of the old link extinguishers to the entrance
doorways of the one-time residential quarters are still preserved in the courtyard on the front of the main building.
The portion of the building which projected beyond
the north wing at the eastern end was carried out at a later
date and the general lines of the main building were followed.
This has recently been refronted and merged in the design
of the new bank premises of Messrs. Glyn, Mills and Co.
Internally, with the exception of some rooms on
the principal floor, the building does not possess any special
features of architectural interest. Some of the rooms on
that floor, including those formerly used as residential
quarters, are panelled and have mantelpieces in marble (see
Plates 77 and 78).
The Entrance Hall, which is entered from the portico, has the wall
surfaces interspaced with coupled Doric pilasters supporting a frieze and
cornice. The principal doorways have pedimented heads and the doors
panelled in oak. In a niche facing the entrance is a statue by Baily of Lord
Nelson, which is recorded as being the original model for the statue on the
Nelson column (Plate 66.) From the ceiling, suspended by a chain with a royal
crown, is a brass lamp of late eighteenth-century workmanship which, it is
stated, belonged to the old Navy Board. There are also preserved two
interesting leather chairs with drawers under (Plate 66.)
The Admiralty, balustrading in southern staircase
In room No. 32, known as the Captains' Room, on the ground floor,
Nelson's body lay in state on the night before the burial in St. Paul's Cathedral
(Plate 68.) The walls are panelled and the ceiling,
like No. 31 adjoining, is vaulted. The ceiling to the
corridor adjoining is also vaulted.
The northern staircase, which originally
only continued to the first floor, has a wrought-iron
balustrading and a mahogany handrail (Plate 67.)
The staircase in the southern portion of the
building has an iron balustrading (a sketch of
which is here reproduced) and leads to the Board
Room (No. 36). This staircase was reconstructed
when Admiralty House was built in 1786–8. The
windows were blocked up by the new building and
an elliptical dome with skylight inserted (fn. 86) (Plate 67.)
The southern portion of the main corridor
on the first floor has the wall surfaces divided into
bays by Ionic pilasters and corbels with entwined
dolphins to the frieze. The ceiling is barrel vaulted,
divided into panels by bands containing the
guilloche ornament (Plate 77).
The Board Room (Plate 69 and 70), the
most interesting room in the building, has been the
scene of many momentous naval discussions and
decisions affecting the nation. The walls, lined
with oak, are divided into bays by fluted Corinthian
pilasters supporting an enriched entablature containing a modillion cornice. The ceiling, which was reconstructed in 1786,
has a deep cove with raking octagonal coffering, and is finished with a flat
surface covered with interlacing circles and rosettes. The focal point of the
room is the central bay containing the fireplace and wind dial over (Plate 71.) (fn. 87)
The marble mantelpiece has a handsome cast-iron fire-back with the arms
of Charles II. The wind dial (Plate 72), which is controlled by a vane on
the roof, is similar to the one at Kensington Palace. It dates from between
1707 and 1714, and was probably preserved from the former Admiralty
building. Faintly mapped out can be seen the British seas and adjacent coast,
each country ornamented with its heraldic cognizance, while ships, whales
and allegorical figures appear among the waters. The elaborate carved
festoons were at one time on the south wall behind the First Lord's chair,
and were fixed in their present position in 1847, when the room was
renovated and pictures added. The carving, which is executed in pearwood, has been attributed to Grinling Gibbons, and represents festoons
containing a medley of fruit, flowers, fishes and nautical instruments and the
BOARD ROOM of the ADMIRALTY.
The nautical instruments represented in the carving are those which
were in general use in the Navy in the fifteenth to seventeenth centuries, and
some are the only contemporary facsimile models now in existence. The
following is a list of some of the instruments depicted: On the left-hand side:
compasses, ring dial (invented by Oughtred), backstaff, rings numbered
3, 6 and 12, sea astrolabe, forestaff or cross sector and Gunter's (fn. 88) quadrant.
On the right-hand side: forestaff or cross staff, a universal ring dial (broken),
a sea astrolabe, an ordinary nocturnal, rings numbered 3, 6 and 12, a backstaff (invented by John Davis of Limehouse, circa 1540), a sector and a volvelle
on the back of a quadrant for computing tides. The "Eye in Glory" below
the royal crown over the centre was one of the emblems popular early in the
seventeenth century which survived among the royal cognizances of the later
Stuarts in token of their divine all-seeing vision. It practically disappeared
with Queen Anne and the last vestige of the doctrine of Divine Right.
Over the doors (fn. 89) on the same side of the room are two paintings of
Vandevelde representing naval engagements (Plate 75.) At the other end are
two full-length portraits, one of William IV by Beechey (Plate 73.) purchased
in 1894, and the other of Lord Nelson by Leonardo Guzzardi, painted for Sir
William Hamilton at Palermo in 1799, after the battle of the Nile, and
presented to the Admiralty in 1848 by the Rt. Hon. Robert Fulke Greville
The long mahogany table which occupies the greater length of the
room has at the end a tier of drawers resembling a desk, between which is
a deep recess for the first-secretary's chair.
The handsome grandfather clock shown in Plate 76 bears the Admiralty badge on the scrolled metal face and the name "L. Bradley" of London.
It has a walnut veneer case with gilt gessoed ornaments and a glazed door,
and dates from circa 1697.
Two verges are also preserved in this room which were carried when
the Admirals proceeded to their barge, and are borne on all State occasions
to-day. That of the Admiralty has a screw-on silver crest, and bears the
maker's mark "I F." It dates from 1662, and was made for James, Duke
of York (afterwards James II), then Lord High Admiral. The other (of the
Navy Office) has a plain round top. It was made in 1786, when the Navy
Board was in Somerset House, and was brought here when the Board was
abolished in 1872 (Plate 76.)
Also preserved is the silver gilt badge worn by the coxswain of the
Admiralty barge until its abolition in 1863.
Rooms Nos. 63 (Plate 68) and 64 have their walls panelled and the
Room No. 65 has an interesting marble mantelpiece with tapering
pilasters to the jambs and carved medallions over, containing an antique
ship's beak and stern respectively. The frieze also has carvings showing an
anchor between cross swords (Plate 78.)
Condition of Repair.
Until 1788 the admiralty was the residence of the first lord as well as of other lords
commissioners and officials. Attention has here been confined to the first lords, a list of whom
during the period in question is given. The dates are taken from the patents.
|Date of Appointment.|
|16th April, 1717||James, Earl of Berkeley|
|2nd August, 1727||George, Viscount Torrington|
|21st June, 1733||Sir Charles Wager|
|19th March, 1742||Daniel, Earl of Winchilsea and Nottingham|
|27th December, 1744||John, Duke of Bedford|
|26th February, 1748||John, Earl of Sandwich|
|22nd June, 1751||George, Lord Anson|
|17th November, 1756||Richard Temple, Earl Temple|
|6th April, 1757||Daniel, Earl of Winchilsea and Nottingham|
|26th September, 1757||George, Lord Anson|
|17th June, 1762||George Dunk, Earl of Halifax|
|1st January, 1763||George Grenville|
|20th April, 1763||John, Earl of Sandwich|
|16th September, 1763||John, Earl of Egmont|
|15th September, 1766||Sir Charles Saunders|
|11th December, 1766||Sir Edward Hawke (afterwards Lord Hawke)|
|12th January, 1771||John, Earl of Sandwich|
|1st April, 1782||Admiral Augustus Keppel (afterwards Viscount Keppel)|
|30th January, 1783||Richard, Viscount (afterwards Earl) Howe|
|10th April, 1783||Augustus, Viscount Keppel|
|31st December, 1783||Richard, Viscount Howe|
James Berkeley, 3rd Earl of Berkeley, was born in 1680. He entered the navy and in
1701 was appointed captain. In 1704 he took part in the battle of Malaga under Sir George Rooke.
Three years later, when in command of the St. George, he was engaged in the siege of Toulon, and
on his return to England with Sir Clowdisley Shovell had a narrow escape from sharing the latter's
fate in shipwreck. In 1708 he became vice-admiral. In 1710 he succeeded to the earldom, and
in 1717 was appointed first lord of the admiralty, a position which he held until 1727. In 1718 he
was made K.G. During the war with Spain in 1719 he was commander-in-chief of the fleet in
the Channel, and by special warrant hoisted the lord high admiral's flag. On several occasions
during the King's absence in Hanover he acted as one of the lords justices. He died in 1736.
George Byng, 1st Viscount Torrington, was born in 1663. His career at first wavered
between the army and the navy, and he actually held commissions in both services. In 1688 he
was entrusted with the task of canvassing the navy captains in the interests of the Prince of Orange,
and obtained the latter's goodwill. Soon after this he gave up his commission in the army, and
devoted himself to service afloat. By 1703 he had risen to the rank of rear-admiral. He took part in
1704 in the capture of Gibraltar and the Battle of Malaga, and was knighted for his services. In 1705
he was made vice-admiral, and in 1708 admiral, and in the latter year repulsed the Pretender's
fleet. In 1715 he was made a baronet. In 1718 he was promoted admiral of the fleet, and in the same
year gained the notable victory of Cape Passaro, in which he entirely destroyed the Spanish fleet.
On his return to England in 1721 he was appointed rear-admiral of Great Britain and treasurer of
the navy and was created Baron Southill and Viscount Torrington. In 1725 he was made K.B.,
and in 1727 became first lord of the admiralty. He died on 17th January, 1732–3. He was father
of the admiral Byng who was executed in 1757.
Sir Charles Wager, born in 1666, was the son of a navy captain held in esteem by Pepys.
He took part (as second lieutenant) in the battle of Barfleur in 1692, and for the next seven years
served in the home waters. From 1702 to 1706 he was chiefly in the Mediterranean with Byng
and Shovell. In 1707 he was appointed commander-in-chief at Jamaica, and in the following year,
with an inferior force, defeated the Spanish treasure fleet off Cartagena. He returned home in
1709 as rear-admiral and a very wealthy man, and was knighted. From 1715 to 1718 he was
comptroller of the navy, and from 1718 to 1733 a lord commissioner of the admiralty. These
duties did not, however, prevent his resuming active service from time to time. In 1716 he was
made vice-admiral and on several occasions was in command of a fleet, notably in 1727–8 when
he blockaded Cadiz. In 1731 he was promoted to be admiral. Two years later he was made a
privy councillor and first lord of the admiralty, (fn. 90) a position which he held until 1742. He died
Daniel, 8th Earl of Winchilsea and 3rd Earl of Nottingham, succeeded to the earldoms
in 1730. He held the office of first lord of the admiralty twice, in 1742–4 and 1757. He died
John Russell, 4th Duke of Bedford, second son of Wriothesley, the second Duke, was
born in 1710 and succeeded his brother in the dukedom in 1732. He joined the party hostile
to Walpole. In 1744 he became first lord of the admiralty in Pelham's ministry and was very
successful. The same can hardly be said of his next position, that of secretary of state for the
southern department, to which he was appointed in 1748. He was accused by Pelham of idleness,
and was in continual disagreement with Newcastle. He therefore resigned in 1751 and went
into opposition. On Newcastle's resignation in 1756 he became lord-lieutenant of Ireland, a position
which he held until 1761. In 1762 he was sent to Paris as ambassador for the purpose of settling
peace with France. On his return in the following year he quarrelled with Bute, and became
lord president of the council in a ministry formed by himself ("the Bedford ministry"), though
Grenville was the nominal head. His opposition to a bill for imposing high duties on Italian silks
aroused the indignation of the Spitalfields weavers, and his house in Bloomsbury Square was attacked
by rioters. He had earned the hearty dislike of George III, and in 1765 was dismissed. Although
he took part in subsequent political intrigues he never again held office. He died in 1771.
John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich, was born in 1718 and succeeded his grandfather,
the 3rd Earl, in 1729. After an education at Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge, he travelled
abroad, returning to England in 1739. He at once entered political life as a follower of the Duke
of Bedford, under whom he was in 1744 appointed a lord commissioner of the admiralty. In
1746 he was sent as plenipotentiary to the congress at Breda, and continued to take part in the
negotiations for peace until the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748. On the appointment of Bedford
to be secretary of state in that year he succeeded him as first lord of the admiralty, from which position
he was dismissed in 1751. (fn. 91) In 1763 he was appointed ambassador extraordinary to the court
of Madrid, but before he could take up the office he was again nominated first lord. Later in the
year he also became one of the secretaries of state. He took an active and disgraceful part in the
prosecution of Wilkes, and for his attitude in thus turning against the companion in his own evil
deeds was henceforth known as "Jemmy Twitcher." (fn. 92) In 1768 he became postmaster-general,
in 1770 he was again one of the secretaries of state, and in 1771 for the third time became first lord,
a position which he held for eleven years. During this period incompetence and corruption in the
administration of the navy reached its greatest height. His attitude in ordering and pushing
forward the court martial on Keppel was publicly denounced, and on the latter's acquittal the mob
savagely attacked Sandwich's residence at the admiralty. The circumstances connected with the
murder of his mistress, Martha Ray, in 1779 added to his unpopularity, and his retirement in 1782
was hailed with joy. He died in 1792.
George Anson, Baron Anson, second son of William Anson, of Shugborough, in
Staffordshire, was born in 1697. His mother was sister of Janet, wife of Thomas Parker, afterwards
Earl of Macclesfield and lord chancellor. From boyhood he followed a seaman's career, and in
1716 obtained a commission in the navy. For the next 24 years his career presents no striking
incident. In 1740 he was sent out, with the nominal rank of commodore, in command of a squadron
consisting of the Centurion and five other ships for service in the Pacific. The voyage which
followed, and which lasted for nearly four years, was marked by heroism and resource in the face
of sickness and disaster, and by many stirring incidents, which culminated in the capture by the
Centurion (then the only ship left, and that with a greatly depleted crew) of the Spanish treasure
galleon from Manila for Acapulco. The treasure amounted to half-a-million sterling, and was
brought home safely, reaching Spithead on 15th June, 1744. The story of this voyage round the
world has always been popular. Anson was at once promoted to the rank of rear-admiral. In 1746,
now a vice-admiral, he crushed the French fleet off Cape Finisterre, and was raised to the peerage
as Baron Anson. In 1748, in the absence of Lord Sandwich, he became virtual first lord of the
admiralty, and in 1755 was actually appointed to that office. He again became first lord in 1757.
In 1761 he was made admiral of the fleet, and on 6th June, 1762, died suddenly at his seat at Moor
In the short interval between his two terms of office as first lord he resided at No. 14,
Downing Street. (fn. 93) The London Chronicle for 6th–8th February, 1759, contains a note: "Lord
Anson lies dangerously ill of a fever at his house at the Admiralty."
Richard Grenville-Temple, Earl Temple, born in 1711, was the eldest son of Richard
Grenville, of Wotton Hall, Bucks. His mother Hester was sister of Richard, Viscount Cobham,
on whose death in 1749 she succeeded as Viscountess and a few weeks later was created Countess
of Temple. When she died in 1752 Richard succeeded to the earldom and took the additional
surname of Temple. He had entered parliament in 1734, and had regularly supported Pitt, who
in 1754 married his sister Hester. In November, 1756, Temple was appointed first lord of the
admiralty. He held the position for only a few months, being dismissed from office in April, 1757.
A few weeks later he became lord privy seal, and was made K.G. in 1760. He resigned with Pitt
in 1761, and although several times invited to become first lord of the treasury, never again took
office. He died in 1779 as the result of a carriage accident.
George Montagu Dunk, 2nd Earl of Halifax, was born in 1716 and took the name of
Dunk on his marriage with Anne Richards, who inherited the property of Sir Thomas Dunk. He
succeeded to the earldom in 1739. From 1748 to 1761 he was president of the board of trade.
Under his supervision British mercantile interests were greatly promoted, and the commerce
of the American colonies so much extended that he obtained the title of Father of the Colonies.
The name of Halifax in Nova Scotia still attests his energy in aiding the foundation of that colony.
In 1761 he was appointed lord-lieutenant of Ireland, in 1762 first lord of the admiralty, and in
the same year and 1763 was made secretary of state for north and south respectively. In this
capacity he signed the general warrant against Wilkes, for which damages were afterwards awarded
against him. Halifax retained his office until 1765, and again became secretary of state in 1771.
He died the same year.
George Grenville, born in 1712, was the second son of Richard Grenville, of Wotton
Hall, Bucks. Though at first destined for a career at the Bar, he turned his attention to politics,
and in 1741 entered parliament as member for Buckingham, a seat which he held until his death.
He joined the "Boy Patriots" in opposition to Walpole, and at first acted with Pitt, but after 1760,
under Bute's influence, gradually deserted him. At this time he was treasurer of the navy. In
1762 he was appointed secretary of state, but had considerable differences with Bute over the
terms of the peace with Spain. Later in the year he was forced to resign in favour of Halifax,
whose post of first lord of the admiralty he took. On Bute's resignation in 1763 he became first
lord of the treasury and chancellor of the exchequer. His ministry was chiefly remarkable for the
passing of the Stamp Act and for the early proceedings against Wilkes. He irritated the King
by his tediousness and want of tact, and in 1765 was dismissed. In 1769 he opposed the expulsion
of Wilkes from the House. He died in 1770. He obtained the nickname of "Gentle Shepherd,"
in allusion to Pitt's mocking quotation of "Gentle shepherd, tell me where" in the course of
Grenville's defence of Dashwood's cider tax.
John Perceval, 2nd Earl of Egmont, was born in 1711. In 1741 he entered parliament
as one of the members for Westminster, but showed so much independence that at the next election
(in 1747) he had to seek another seat, and was chosen to represent Weobley. He then attached
himself to the Prince of Wales's party and was made a lord of the bedchamber. In 1748 he succeeded
to the earldom. His wish to be an English peer was fulfilled in 1762 by his creation as Baron Lovel
and Holland of Enmore. In the same year he was made joint paymaster-general, and in September,
1763, became first lord of the admiralty, a position which he resigned in August, 1766. He died
in December, 1770. He was an active pamphleteer, his best-known work in this direction being
Faction detected by the Evidence of Facts (1743) which has been pronounced "one of the best
political pamphlets ever written." He was also an ardent genealogist.
Egmont was succeeded at the admiralty by Sir Charles Saunders. Saunders was born
about 1713, and entered the navy in 1727. In 1740–3 he was with Anson in the latter's famous
voyage, from which he returned as captain. He took a distinguished part in Hawke's victory of
1747. In 1754 he was appointed treasurer of Greenwich Hospital, and in the same year entered
parliament as member for Hedon, Yorks, a constituency which he continued to represent until
his death. In the following year he was made comptroller of the navy, and in 1756, then being
rear-admiral, was sent to the Mediterranean at first as second in command under Hawke, and
afterwards as commander-in-chief. In 1759 as vice-admiral he was in command of the fleet
co-operating with Wolfe at Quebec, and his skill, as well as the friendly co-operation between the
two, had no little to do with the culminating triumph of the campaign. In 1761 he was made
a knight of the Bath. In 1765 he became one of the lords of the admiralty, and in September,
1766, first lord, a position which he resigned in less than three months. He was promoted to be
admiral in 1770, and died in 1775.
Edward Hawke, Lord Hawke, was born in 1705 and entered the navy in 1720. His
early service was uneventful. On the outbreak of war with Spain in 1739 he took command of
the Portland, and served in the West Indies. The ship was old and rotten and nearly drowned
her crew, but in 1743 Hawke was appointed to the Berwick and attached to the Mediterranean
fleet. In the battle of Toulon in 1744 Hawke gained great distinction, taking the only prize. In
1747 he was appointed rear-admiral and, owing to the illness of Sir Peter Warren, took command
of the squadron detached to intercept a French convoy on its way to the West Indies. He gained
a complete victory, for which he received the knighthood of the Bath. Later in the year he
entered parliament as member for Portsmouth, and represented that constituency for nearly
thirty years. In 1748 he was promoted to be vice-admiral and in 1757 full admiral, having in
the meantime (1756) been sent out to relieve Byng in the Mediterranean command and send him
home for trial. In 1759 he won the great and decisive battle of Quiberon Bay. He had no
further service at sea. In November, 1766, he was appointed first lord of the admiralty (fn. 94) in
succession to Sir Charles Saunders, and held the position until January, 1771. In 1776 he was
created a peer with the title of Baron Hawke of Towton. He died in 1781.
Augustus Keppel, Viscount Keppel, second son of William Anne Keppel, Earl of
Albemarle, was born in 1725 and entered the navy at the age of ten. In 1740 he served under
Anson in the celebrated voyage round the world, and in 1744 was promoted to be commander and
post-captain. In 1747 he ran his ship, the Maidstone, ashore near Belle Isle while chasing a French
vessel, but was honourably acquitted by a court martial. After the peace of 1748 he was sent as
commodore to the Mediterranean to persuade the Dey of Algiers to restrain his subjects' piracy.
He was in constant service during the Seven Years' War, and in the battle of Quiberon Bay his
ship, the Torbay, was the leading ship. He had served on the court martial which tried Byng,
and had exerted himself, in vain, to secure the intervention of parliament. In 1762 he was made
rear-admiral, and vice-admiral in 1770. His relations with the first lord, the Earl of Sandwich,
were the reverse of friendly, and when in 1778 he received the command of the main fleet, which
was in a most unfit condition, he conceived that he had been deliberately placed in a position in
which Sandwich would be glad to see him fail. Moreover, one of Keppel's subordinate admirals
was Sir Hugh Palliser, who was one of the lords of the admiralty, and in general opinion jointly
responsible for the bad condition of the navy. The fight with the French off Ushant which ensued
was indecisive owing partly, at any rate, to Palliser's not obeying instructions, and the result was
a series of recriminations, as well as a court martial on Keppel. He was triumphantly acquitted
amid enthusiastic scenes. The gates of the Admiralty were torn down and the windows of the
official residences were smashed. In the following month (March, 1779) Keppel was ordered to
strike his flag. On the fall of North's ministry in 1782 he was appointed first lord of the admiralty.
He held the position for ten months only, but was again appointed in April, 1783, in the coalition
ministry. On the fall of that ministry at the end of the year he retired into private life. He died
Richard Howe, Earl Howe, born in 1726, was the second son of the 2nd Viscount Howe
(in the Irish peerage) and Mary Sophia Charlotte, daughter of the Baroness Kielmansegge, afterwards
Countess of Darlington, mistress of George I. He entered the British navy in the Severn, one of
the ships in Anson's squadron in the latter's famous voyage. The Severn, however, failed to round
Cape Horn and returned home in 1742. Howe's first command was of the Baltimore on service
in the North Sea during the rising of 1745, and he was severely wounded while co-operating with
a frigate in an engagement with two large French privateers. In 1755 he was captain of the
Dunkirk, and his fight with and capture of the French Alcide was the first conflict in the war. In
the battle of Quiberon Bay (1759) he led Hawke's fleet as captain of the Magnanime. In the previous
year he had succeeded his brother as Viscount Howe. In 1762 he entered parliament as member
for Dartmouth, and continued to represent that constituency until he became a British peer. In
1763–5 he was a lord of the admiralty and in 1765–70 treasurer of the navy. In 1770 he was
made rear-admiral, in 1775 vice-admiral, and in 1776 was appointed to the command of the North
American station with a commission to treat with the colonists. The Declaration of Independence
had, however, already been issued before his arrival. The advent of a superior French fleet compelled
Howe to act on the defensive, but he completely baffled the French admiral until the arrival of
British reinforcements gave him a decided superiority in arms. He then returned to England
(1778) and refused to serve again so long as Lord Sandwich, whom he bitterly mistrusted, remained
in office. On the latter's fall in 1782 he was promoted to be admiral, and was created a British
peer as Viscount Howe of Langar in Nottinghamshire. Later in the year he was selected to
command in the Channel, and in the autumn he carried out the final relief of Gibraltar. This
operation, in face of a fleet enormously superior in numbers, was brilliantly executed. In the
early part of 1783 and again from 1784 to 1788 he was first lord of the admiralty. In the latter
year he was created Earl Howe. In 1794 he won the epoch-making victory of the First of June.
In 1797 he was called on to pacify the mutineers at Spithead, and the great influence of "Black
Dick," as he was called, with the seamen who trusted him was conspicuously shown. He died in
In The Council's Collection Are:
(fn. 96) Plan of the Admiralty Office, 1793, from a drawing in the possession of the Admiralty
(fn. 96) (fn. 95) Elevation of new designed Gateway for Admiralty fronting towards Whitehall, from a
drawing in the possession of the Admiralty (photograph).
(fn. 96) (fn. 95) Elevation of new designed Gateway for Admiralty fronting towards the Court, from
a drawing in the possession of the Admiralty (photograph).
(fn. 96) (fn. 95) Plan of new designed Gateway for Admiralty, from a drawing in the possession of the
(fn. 96) First-floor plan of the Admiralty Buildings, 1896, copy of drawing in the possession of
H.M. Office of Works.
(fn. 96) General exterior to courtyard (photograph).
(fn. 96) General view of screen facing Whitehall (photograph).
(fn. 96) General view looking north-west (photograph).
General view looking south-west (photograph).
Details of wings to screen (photograph).
General view of west elevation facing courtyard in rear (photograph).
(fn. 96) View of entrance hall showing statue of Nelson (photograph).
(fn. 96) General view of entrance hall showing fireplace (photograph).
(fn. 96) General view of Captains' Room (No. 32) (photograph).
(fn. 96) General view of northern staircase (photograph).
(fn. 96) View of skylight to southern staircase (photograph).
(fn. 96) General view of corridor on first floor (photograph).
(fn. 96) Board Room, general view showing mantelpiece (photograph).
(fn. 96) Board Room, general view showing southern end (photograph).
(fn. 96) Board Room, general view of mantelpiece and wind dial over (photograph).
Board Room, detail of carving showing nautical instruments, etc. (photograph).
(fn. 96) Board Room, detail of wind dial (photograph).
(fn. 96) Board Room, two paintings of naval scenes by Vandevelde (photographs).
(fn. 96) Board Room, portrait of H.M. King William IV (photograph).
(fn. 96) Board Room, portrait of Lord Nelson (photograph).
(fn. 96) Board Room, detail of grandfather clock (photograph).
(fn. 96) Board Room, detail of two verges (photograph).
Room No. 54, general view (photograph).
(fn. 96) Room No. 55, general view (photograph).
(fn. 96) Room No. 56, general view (photograph).
Room No. 57, general view (photograph).
(fn. 96) Room No. 63, general view (photograph).
Room No. 64, general view (photograph).
Room No. 44, detail of mantelpiece (photograph).
Room No. 57, detail of mantelpiece (photograph).
(fn. 96) Room No. 65, detail of mantelpiece (photograph).