East Indies, China and Japan
February 1618 (1-15th)

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Institute of Historical Research

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W. Noel Sainsbury (editor)

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1870

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115-129

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'East Indies, China and Japan: February 1618 (1-15th)', Calendar of State Papers Colonial, East Indies, China and Japan, Volume 3: 1617-1621 (1870), pp. 115-129. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=68828 Date accessed: 17 September 2014.


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February 1618 (1-15th)

Feb. 1. Aboard the Unicorn. 258. Ric. Hounsell to Geo. Ball, president at Bantam. "Discourtesies pierce deep, especially where they are not deserved ;" is free from deserving any from him. In reply to his demands whether Capt. Pepwell had been aboard the Unicorn and confirmed Hounsell captain ; whether Pepwell had power to do so, and that Ball would ere long alter what had been done. Has six men with him who came from the Dutch at several times and are in want of apparel. [One page and a quarter. O.C., Vol. V., No. 603.]
Feb. 2. Bantam. 259. Wm. Stonywell to Edw. Longe at Jacatra. His last was by the James. The French report that the Admiral is daily expected in the road, and thinks when she unlades that good may be done ; but in the Vice-Admiral can lay out nothing to any purpose. The Chinese report that two junks will arrive in two or three days, "as their devil telleth them." Remembrances to Mr. Powers. [One page. O.C., Vol. V., No. 604.]
Feb. 2. Jacatra. 260. Wm. Methwold to President Ball at Bantam. On landing their first care was to get oysters, but their longing desires were frustrated, because "in the time of rains the coming down of the fresh kills or makes uneatable those salt shell animals." Ufflete will advise him of the provisions sent aboard the Attendance. Conspiracy on board, the men refusing to leave the place, but they were reduced to an unwilling obedience and the ship has sailed. In favour of Soverin, late master's mate of the Unicorn, now of the James, for an advance of wages, he being sick. Desires his commands as to his return or longer stay. Disbursements on account of the Attendance. Requests his "dispensation or excuse" for Buggins, purser of the Unicorn, who came to Jacatra for his health, without the president's leave. [One page and a quarter. O.C., Vol. V., No. 605.]
Feb. 3. Bantam. 261. W. Stonywell to E. Longe at Jacatra. He will receive his money by the bearer, Robt. Carter, purser of the Rose ; is sorry he could not do according to Longe's desire. The French ship still in the Flemings' custody, not one ryal's worth of commodities sold as yet, and not so much as a shirt suffered to be delivered out of the ship to shift men ashore. [One page. O.C., Vol. V., No. 607.]
Feb. 3. 262. Court Minutes of the East India Company. Sir Julius Cæsar allowed to adventure 1,500l. Cause of Best suspended in the Council Chamber, but still in the Company's power to have him called up again if he do not demean himself as is fitting. Accusations against Withington. General order to the commander of the fleet against taking any on the voyage but those entertained for employment. Letter from Sir Thomas Dale, dated from the Low Countries, 15th Jan., stating that the Dutch commanders have orders from the States to engross the pepper at Bantam and Jacatra into their hands, to undersell the English at home, and to weary and punish the English so as to force them to the desired union ; advises them to stand upon their defence if the Flemings shall attempt against them. His intention to return to England by the end of January. On Lady Dale's application, 50l. to be lent her to provide for her husband's return. Thomas Mitford desires to have his goods and satisfaction from Nath. Martyn for things stolen from his cabin ; he also pleads for some gratification for his good service ; but "he, having deserved so ill, gave no encouragement to think any further of him." Committees to go to Gravesend to hasten the departure of the ships. The ships that go to relieve any ships they meet standing in need of men and provisions. Bargain to be concluded for certain frames, feathers, and pictures. Ships to take two pinnaces with them from Bantam to the Moluccas, to carry goods and run in and out to discover as occasion shall be presented. Lord Zouch having acquainted the Privy Council with a bill set upon the Exchange by a new East India Company, they all wondered that the Lord Mayor had allowed it to be set up so publicly to the discountenancing of this Company, and resolved to let the King know "how ill they all do conceive thereof and to crave reformation." Thomas Spike to be sworn a free brother on his return. Gratuity to Rand the preacher. Samuel Hazard entertained as a factor. [Three pages. Court Bk. IV., 122-125.]
Feb. 4. Ahmedabad. 263. Sir Thos. Roe's instructions to the chief factors, Thos. Barker and Edw. Monox, in Persia. To be instant with the Shah to force the Portugal to consent to a free trade ; all relief to Ormuz from the main forbidden, or some port fortified for shipping. To avow Connaught [Connok] to have been a messenger sent from the King, though not with absolute power, as ambassador to treat and conclude ; but that if the Shah fulfil the desires of the English, his Majesty will send ample authority further to contract with him. The points to be concluded upon which Connok already began to treat-the quantity of silk to be bartered for and how ; privilege for a staple and standing mart at Shiraz, where the English may barter and trade with the Shah's subjects ; free passage for all their goods on the conditions granted to Connok ; powers to sign such contract. Directions in detail for carrying on the trade ; John Leachland, factor, to be employed in buying the silks. Monox appointed second factor, and in the event of Barker's decease to succeed him as Cape merchant. True inventories to be taken of the estates of factors dying in the Company's service, particularly of that of Wm. Tracy, and the goods and moneys or debts of the late Ed. Connok to be seized to the use of his creditors and the Company. [Two pages and three quarters. Endorsed by Sir Thomas Roe, "To be conveyed by the way of Sinde by Mr. Ker[ridge ?], the ship not going." [O.C., Vol. V., No. 608.]
Feb. 6. Madrid. 264. Fras. Cottington to Sec. Lake. It is now resolved that Sir Robt. Sherley shall be received, lodged, and entertained as an extraordinary ambassador (from Persia), and a house is preparing for him, but he has not yet arrived at Madrid. [Extract from Correspondence, Spain.]
Feb. 7. 265. Court Minutes of the East India Company. Suit of Thomas, brother to John Gourney, factor, that his brother's wages may be put into the second joint stock. Henry Elwaies to be admitted a free brother on his return. 50l. lent to Lady Dale by her brother, Sir Wm. Throgmorton, because he would not trouble the Company. Request of Jonson and his wife, Sedgwick's daughter, that the 200l. reserved by the Company to the use of Capt. Downton's daughter and child should return to them if both die without issue. Petition preferred against the Muscovy Company at the council table to be read, many of this Court being of that Company. Concerning a debt of 100l. due to the Muscovy Company by the late Mr. Basse, the dispatch of Paul Trigs with the King's letters into France, and the fourth voyage ; Freman, not approving of the proceedings, renounces his interest in the voyage. Petition of John Myller for relief for the loss of his right hand, which was shot off in the Advice. Disposal of the 36,000l. put up in chests into the several ships. Committees to go to Gravesend for the dispatch of the ships. Gratification to Tucker. The allowance of powder and shot to each ship to be increased. Annuity of 20l. granted to Daniel Wight's father. Samuel Hazard, entertained for a factor. Loan of 100l. to Sir Thomas Dale. [Two pages and three quarters. Court Book IV., 125-127.]
Feb. 10. Ahmedabad. 266. John Browne to the East India Company. In reply to their letter of 6th February 1616-7. Concerning their affairs in general ; the death of Robt. Gipps, the accountant, before he had prepared his books, left the accounts very confused, and as Browne could not trust on Chr. Farewell's judgment, he has run through them himself in the form they will see. Touching the accounts of those deceased, particularly of Thos. Aldworthe, Robt. Gipps, who died 23rd May 1616, and Wm. Bell, who died 19th June 1617. Reason of the detention of the ships, a fault where means are used to accomplish their dispatch. The office of mint master is in the nature of a monopoly, and the sheriffs are poor and beggarly ; dares not trust them further than a pawn ; they have not in all his time compassed the buying of a chest of ryals at once. Reply to Capt. Keeling's brutish and untrue advice ; wonders if it were not by community to make his own filthiness the less ; believes that none but those of Keeling's own fleet have been touched with that disease. The negligence of John Willoughby, a young merchant, prevents him sending the Company copies of their factory letters. In point of private trade, is guiltless of sending one pennyworth of commodities either north or south. Little encouragement to him when he sees Capt. Towerson, Rich. Steele, and others laden with commodities, and last year Martyn, Mitford, and others returned unfit proportions of commodity of more moment. Is persuaded the poor condition of their servants there will keep them clear of this crime. As to the payment of too great a proportion of their servants' wages, a cause of private trade. Concerning "the request or disrespect of goods," those which are unprofitable and those which will sell the best. Their treatment by Mocrob Khan and Aseph Khan, who disgraced them in the King's presence ; suggestions for preventing similar treatment in future. Account of the trade of the Portuguese. Supply of commodities ; the sales at Surat cannot be hindered by Ahmedabad, because Ahmedabad is supplied from Cambaya, as Surat is from Deccan, Burrampoor, and those southern and southeastern countries. Two things for consideration, the sale of the Company's commodities, and the prevention of others from serving this place. Disposal of the two ships of Capt. Joseph's fleet. A barrel of window glass received by the last fleet, but the glaziers all gone to Persia. Difficulty of selling the goods after they have been refused by Aseph Khan, who must first see them ; hopes he may deserve as well of the English as Sir Thos. Roe opineth. Observations upon the powers given by the Company to the ambassador, Sir Thos. Roe. Arrival of Richard Steele and his engineer ; account of his proceedings ; anticipated failure of his grand projected waterworks. Brought up last year from Surat the Unicorn's horn, and showed it to Mocrob Khan at the price of 5,000 rupees, "a price too high only for the shape, and five times too mean if it had the virtue he expected ; and made trial of by the lives of a pigeon, goat, and man, which they losing, it also lost his esteem, and so I returned it aboard from whence I had it." Prices at which the quicksilver was sold. Two bales of sugar candy and two jars of borax sent by the Globe. The expectation of the King's arrival makes all things dear. [Seven pages and a quarter. Indorsed, "Received by the Bull 13th Feb. 1618-9." O.C., Vol. V., No. 609.]
Feb. 14. Ahmedabad 267. Sir Thos. Roe to the East India Company. Their letters by the Charles arrived safely in Sept. 1616, and answers were dispatched by the Globe the following March. A journal and transcripts of letters will make the Company acquainted with their business in court and factories. "You may in some clauses find me sharp and censuring your advices from home, but you will find my reasons justifiable and my ends honest and upright." The little doubts that arose between Roe and Capt. Keeling soon vanished. Roe found him in all things a reasonable and discreet man. The English, suffering from the insolencies of the Prince, have this year made trial of Gogo, and searched all the bay, but can find no place but Surat fit for the Company's head residence. To waft the Mogul's subjects into the Red Sea will never give the Company's men bread and water. Jealousies of the Moors on the motion of building a fort ; the English were disarmed at Surat, and "I am not yet clear of liberties lost upon it." Has wondered at the patience with which the many insolencies of the English have been borne, yet the English complain. Last year 200 naked men were sent ashore from the ships to take Surat, yet ten men would have kept them from passing the Great River ; this year they offered to force the custom house. Is against building forts ; all their profits may be eaten in garrison ; and it is no way to drive their trade by plantation. The Dutch have spoiled the Moluccas, which they fought for, and spent more than they will yield them if quiet in seven years. Scinde they may go to, to lade and relade, but it is inhabited by the Portugal, and lies not well for the Company's stock. Bengala has no ports but such as the Portugals possess for small shipping ; it will vent nothing English, the people being unwilling in respect of a war they are expecting. Knows not what profit they can make by residence there, "speaks upon searching the bottom of all the secrets of India." The Prince has been his enemy these two years ; had Roe yielded he must have been the Prince's slave ; has stood out to the last, and they are now so reconciled that the Prince is now Roe's effectual mediator ; his father grows dull and suffers him to govern all his kingdoms. The Company can never expect to trade upon capitulations, but by phirmaund and promise from the King ; "all the government depends upon the present will." What became of last year's presents after they were seized by the Prince on the way. The Flemings planted at Surat have obtained a phirmaund upon almost as good terms as the English, though he did his endeavours to cross them. Connok got hold of Roe's letter to the Shah of Persia, and used it as his own ; the substance of which was not to make any sudden conclusion with the Portugals, but to offer in general terms the English shipping upon the Persian coast. What Roe has done in reformation of particular wrongs and recovering of debts. There is no place of security up the river of Surat to land goods ; they must stick to Swally Road. Great mortality among the landmen this year ; fears greater in time to come. A peace with the Portugals the best service Roe could do the Company ; made an overture to the Viceroy, which his pride never answered ; since then the English have given them a knock or two, and at this instant Roe is in hopes of a treaty ; but that the Company may understand the true state of this business, gives a full account of all the passages. Has tried many ways to force the Portugal to a peace ; finds the best to be chastizing their neighbours for their sakes. The loss, hazard, and inconvenience the Company sustain by the stay of their fleets ; dares promise to provide their lading by October, and so they shall prevent the Portugal, who cannot be fit for an attempt two months after. April and March the seasons to buy. The remainder of the old stock very great. As to the future lading of the ships. Whatever discontents Roe took were soon digested ; the place provides him daily with new to put out the old. Never desired to know any of the Company's secrets in trade but for their good ; is satisfied with their opinion of him, and shall, he doubts not, fulfil part of theirs to him ; a little experience will confirm both. Banggam's service ; every man seeks his own preferment ; his factory upon good reasons, has been dissolved, so could not deny his desire to return, though a very good servant and an honest man. As to the Company's doubts of Roe's providence and thrift in regard to his servants. Difficulty of suppressing private trade, which hath gotten such head last year. The master of the Globe then ran riot. Large investments by Mitford. The powers given to Capt. Keeling ; the care with which Roe has been entrusted he will use with modesty and take no more upon him than is fit. Kerridge quick, and will do them great service, he could not now be spared ; is engaged to assist him in any of the Company's good intents towards him. Browne well contented with his first agreement ; he is an honest man, and Roe hopes he will hearken to his advice for contracting his expenses. Fettiplace a most discreet good servant, and is now with only one other at Agra ; the Company have not a better servant ; his desire for increase of wages. Next year the Company will see what Agra will afford. Persia has taken many of the Company's supplies last year and this. Most of their old servants ready to return. Biddulph follows the court by reason of the many debts. Suggestions as to the colours, price, and sale of cloth. What has been begun in Persia should not now be given over, though begun imperfectly ; remarks thereon ; doubtless, if to be done, it is the best trade in all India ; can see no way sure but a composition in Spain, which to Roe's poor understanding his Majesty's authority might effect, though Roe knows not by what pretence the King of Spain can prohibit the Company trade in a free Prince's country to which he hath no pretence. The means to furnish this trade will not arise from England ; it is folly to deceive with hopes that will fail. Commodities which will sell well. Distate of the Grand Signor, who doubtless will seek to hinder the passage of the Persian commerce by sea. Steele is settled upon waterworks, rather for his own ends than any profit to the Company. Will do his best to settle this trade, if he may do it upon such grounds as he may have credit by. Has written at large to Sec. Win wood on the point of the peace and all else that may help the Company. Steele's other projects will be found in letters to the Company. Concerning the bringing of goods by the Indus to Lahore, an old project very hard to be effected. Twenty thousand camels pass yearly by Lahore from Agra and other parts with spices, indigo, sugar, and goods for Persia. Advantages of having the trade of Persia free and the Portugals friends. Steele's proceedings ; has bound his wife to Mistress Towerson at her suit ; was resolved to send her home, but she hath one child sucking and, as they say, forward of another, it were unfit to send her home alone among men. Steele's private trade ; he laid his own plot well, having stole a painter [Hatfield] on board at the Downs, who is bound to him for seven years, and is a very good workman both in lymning and oil ; they are to divide profits, as also he and his smith, who makes clocks. Dares not send the painter home for fear of the King's displeasure. Towerson and his wife find poor reception ; her friends are poor and mean, and weary of them ; he came with hopes of great diamonds ; is sorry for him and his little vanity, and has used his best advice to persuade his return ; he pretends the Company's licence for private trade. Evils of granting this favour ; it makes all their servants grudge. Mrs. Hudson claims the like for her proportion, but has also denied her ; is the same to man and woman. Exaggerated report of Capt. Hawkins' money ; it has fallen from 2,000 to 200 rupees, and is not worth recalling. Remarks on the presents sent ; things not worth what they were, the Company's ships have made all things common ; they imitate everything the English bring, and embroider now as well as the English. Thanks for the tokens sent him, their love to him is sufficient present. Was fully resolved to return by this fleet, but their earnest desire prevails above his own occasions ; he will not fail them in his utmost endeavours. Shall take their offer to return next year in one of their ships, and to command her. There were never fairer words and less faith among the Cretans than in these people. The Company may sell 50,000l. of the jewels specified by him yearly for ready money, and their free recourse be desired by the King and Prince and great men, and if they are pleased the cry of a million of subjects would not be heard. Advice as to the supply, &c., of commodities. These seas begin to be full of rovers ; Sir Robt. Rich and one Philip Barnardoe set out two ships to take pirates, which is grown a common pretence for being pirates ; they missed their entrance to the Red Sea, and gave chase to the Queen Mother's junk, and had not the English fleet arrived would have taken and rifled her. Remarks on the danger that would have ensued had the design succeeded, and how Sir Robert and the others should be dealt with. As to the Dutch, who wrong the Company in all parts, and grow to insufferable insolencies. Advises the Company never to join stock with them to profit and loss, for their garrisons, charges, and losses by negligence will engage the Company to bear part of their follies for no profit ; "but your accord must be by a stint at those parts common to you both and agreement to what ports you may resort without offence one to the other. If they keep you out of the Moluccas by force, I would beat them from Surat to requite it. In both these I have been large to Mr. Secretary and some of the Lords, that they may have feeling of the injuries and be assistant to you." Arrival from Ispahan of a footman from Edw. Connok with letters ; remarks on Connok opening and suppressing the contents of Roe's letters. Has this day received news from Ormuz of a revolt of all the Mahometans subject to the Portugals ; if it be not suddenly appeased, it may occasion the Shah to take the fort into his hands, which by a little help from the English might easily be effected. Audience refused to the new pretended Spanish ambassador, principally because his presents were not of great value, but by a later pretence because he was no right ambassador and had no letters from the King of Spain, but had come suddenly from Damaun, a city of the Portugals, the new Viceroy of which could neither prepare a fit present nor letters. Concerning Steele, who follows the court with as great expense and as many servants as Roe. Sends copy of the will of William Hempsale, the King's coachman, who is dead ; he formerly served the Bishop of Chichester, Dr. Overall. Commendations of Mr. Young. Has sent his servant, Ed. Haynes, as one of the merchants, which he hopes the Company will consent to. Is forced to send home Wallys and others who have disorders. Progress of the King ; he is good to Roe ; his son lately better, who is absolute King ; he has granted Roe a few privileges, and reconfirmed their trade and liberties at Surat, but will hear of no more ports. Is so weary of the ways of this court, which are governed by no rule, that he opens to the Company his full resolution. Assurances of his affection and right and honest services. [Seventeen pages and a quarter. Indorsed, "Received 4 January 1618-9." O.C., Vol. V., No. 610.]
Feb.? 268. Sir Thos. Roe to the East India Company. Answers to Steele's projects concerning the discovery of a port in the Gulf of Persia, where one ship may safely ride. The trade between Scinde and Ormuz ; the great profit to be made on spices sent to Persia from the south ; the trade of the Guzerats in the Red Sea ; and how there can be any profit from the projected waterworks. Would have sent home Hatfield, the painter, but Steele would not then have followed the business, and may have complained to the King "that I cross his pleasure in painting." Steele avows that he came out with the Company's consent and privity, allowed by Mr. Salmon, and that no waterworks can be made without him ; but Roe knows his drift and will prevent him. [Two pages. O.C., Vol. V., No. 611.]
Feb. ? 269. Sir Thos. Roe to Thos. Kerridge. Has received his of 21st January. Understands his conclusions as to the Red Sea, and it seems Kerridge thinks Dabul will vent all his dead commodities ; remarks thereon. Would make prize of the [Guzerat] allies of their enemies ; if the English do not, the Dutch will ; had rather the English began to compel these allies to take them for their protectors than another, by which the English will hinder and bridle the Portugal of his profits and force them to some composition. "Now he lets us rust and decay in reputation while he gets credit and heart." The company of our ships will awe the Guzerats, as I have often urged, and make them see our friendship necessary to them, for my opinion is we cannot hold long in peace with them. Reasons why Roe advises the taking of any junk or ship of Diu. Suggestion for the disposal of the ships ; the James for the south, the Bull for Sumatra, the Gift for England, Capt. Shilling, and the Ann, for the new voyage, and the Bee, if she arrive in safety, to attend the Admiral. Will send no commission for discourtesy's sake. Two things considered ; what merchants are fittest and what kind of trade to use. Steele intrigued in a work without end. Thinks Monox fit for the chief with two assistants. Not only approves the dissolving of the Burrampoor factory, but has ordered their sales and dispatch down, which Roe desires Kerridge to second effectually. Ahmedabad is cloyed. Masulipatam corresponding with Bantam ; cannot expect a ship from them, the season is late and Roe's counsel good. Agra shall have four, the two now remaining and Biddulph, who must settle there for the King is removing ; Banggam might also be sent thither. If Steele make a waterwork it must be in Agra. Agrees to Kerridge's motion for employing Rastell, Martin, and others ; well approves of Martin's employment in Baroach. Consents to Banggam's return as merchant of -. [Fragment. Four pages. O.C., Vol. V., No. 612.]
Feb. 14. 270. Sir Thos. Roe to Capt. Pring. All the papers from Persia directed to Pring and Kerridge returned by the same messenger, and Roe's proposal to relieve the factory speedily if it may be done, and the entrance to the Red Sea not lost. Has sent instructions for the voyage to the Red Sea, to which Kerridge must add his for merchandizing affairs, and deliver goods to Pring to begin their trade. Answers objections. Thinks Jask and the Red Sea of most consequence. A ship shall be as soon laden from hence and upon the old joint stock as she can be from Bantam. To the objection that the Grand Signor "will embarque our English in his dominions for our molesting his trade, to which I say we go to offer peace, to secure his seas, and not to disturb any but our enemies that deny us trade." In the Red Sea the English will best make the Guzerat understand their danger and the benefit of the offer of the English. "If we are so jealous of our friends at Constantinople, how can we proceed in Persia ?" Advice for the disposal of his fleet ; how the inconveniences which have arisen this year may in future be avoided. Concerning the junks of Diu and Mocrob Khan. "The women are almost arrived at court, but I hope I shall depart this town before." Directions about a box of letters and toys for England for Sir Thos. Smyth ; commends the charge of another to Banggam. Has long expected Mr. Cooke ; thanks him for the surgeon. Assurances of his affection ; "I have loved you seven years . . . . We live in a barbarous, unfaithful place ; you in the sea, with more security and constancy. Pray for us, that God will be pleased to keep us, that among heathens we may be as light in darkness, at least that we shame not the light. . . . . All the blessings that attended Jacob when he went out with a staff and returned with troops of servants and herds of cattle accompany you, that in the seas you may find Machinÿma [Mahanaim], and at your return Bethel." In a postscript Roe takes leave of Capt. Newse, Copeland, Coytmore, and others. In favour of John Hatch. Perceives by his letters just received that it was impossible to supply Jask, and so that unfortunate business must lie in its wounds until better occasion. Has sent a declaration and instructions to the Red Sea. Is well assured of Capt. Shilling's sufficiency. Knows not how Rastell can be spared. Hopes his servant Haynes will, prove diligent and honest. The Company will be weary of this trade at this expense, and Roe knows not how to help it, but agrees to the necessity of the ship for England. Begs him, in the name of justice, not to suffer Roe to be abused by slanderous knaves who he has fed and kept from the gallows. All the wrong Roe has done the surgeon is to suffer him, by a plot of Biddulph's, to receive his whole pay in the country and to cheat up and down ; has found him a drunken, perjured, malicious knave, no surgeon, but a mountebank impostor, and demands justice from him if he will make no public recantation. Desires that Hill, who is an idle boy, may have "at the mainmast three barricoes of water poured in his neck." Wonders to see Goulding here. Gave consent for the rest to Mistress Steele but never for the minister ; now her husband discovers himself, but one of them must break in this business. Expects to hear from him no more, for the King is entering into the woods. "The God of heaven bless you and all your company, and send me once more to live among men of honesty." [Four pages. O.C., Vol. V., No. 613.]
Feb. 15. The Camp of the Great Mogul. 271. Sir Thos. Roe to the King. His Majesty's reception of his Travels has given him new life and quickened him almost in the grave. The result of the negotiation with Persia is that the Shah has sent his Majesty a very noble letter, with ample privileges for quiet commerce to the King's subjects. There are yet many difficulties unconsidered, which forbid him to give judgment either of the convenience or possibility of this trade. He delivered to the Mogul his Majesty's letters and presents, which were received with as much honour as their barbarous pride and customs afford. He has sought to maintain upright his Majesty's greatness and dignity, and withal to effect the ends of the merchant, but these two sometimes cross one another. The Mogul has written his Majesty a letter full of good words but barren of all true effect. He will not suffer his Majesty's name to be diminished for any consideration, and will establish by courtesy for his subjects as good terms for their traffic as any strangers or "naturals, or teach them by force to acknowledge his Majesty lord of all the seas, which this King cannot yet see for swelling." The Portugal is not wise enough to know his own weakness ; the want of peace makes the trade to India and hopes of one to Persia dangerous and heavy to the undertakers. [One page. East Indies, Vol. I., No. 58.]
Feb. 15. Ahmedabad. 272. Wm. Biddulph to the East India Company. They will perceive, by his last by the Globe, what goods were sent to the court last year and the sales that were made. Since the arrival of the fleet, has had little advice from any of the factories, all business and letters being addressed to the Lord Ambassador (Roe), who will acquaint any with what and when he pleaseth. Excuses himself for not being able "at first sight" to answer all the particulars of their letter, having but once had the perusal of it from his lordship. Goods sent to the Lascar all directed to Roe. As to the sale of the pearls. The hangings and greatest part of the rich embroidered goods given to the King, Prince, Aseph Khan, &c., with the pictures, globes, and knives. Strong waters not in request ; glass for windows not worth anything, being of no use here. The cochineal sent enough for two or three years, and will not yield the price it cost in England. Worth of other commodities. Enumerates goods which are not needed for another year and those fittest for the court. The debts at court slow in coming in by reason of the King's never resting long together in one place. Had hoped to have come home in this ship, his seven years time being near expired. Richard Steele, his wife, and his projects. Sir Thos. Roe's expenses. Is bound to follow the King ; now is the worst and hottest time of all the year. Death of Wm. Hemsall, the King's coachman, on 11th present. [Two pages and three quarters. Indorsed, "Received by the Bull, 13 Feb. 1618-9." O.C., Vol. V., No. 614.]
Feb. 15. Firando. 273. Richard Cocks to the East India Company. His last was of the 1st Jan. 1617 [see ante No. 1]. Has since received their letters by the Advice, which arrived at Firando 2nd Aug. 1617, with advice of the receipt of his letters of 10th December 1614, and directions to attempt trade once more to Cochin China ; to dispose of large quantities of broadcloth even at a lower rate than before ; to procure a sale for sandal wood, skins, &c., to be brought from other factories, so as to furnish good store of silver, which the Company are informed abounds in Japan ; for, except upon the hopes of purchasing trade into China, there is small encouragement to maintain a factory in Japan ; that the Company had procured his Majesty's letter to the King of China, and sent as presents his own and other pictures and some scarlet cloth. Also touching the purchase of the junk ; a supposed error in his accounts ; the supplying of patterns of all dyeing stuffs used in Japan ; and the appointment of Edw. Connok about the Company's business in China. Result of an attempt at trade in Cochin China ; Ed. Sayer going with a cargo of goods in a junk belonging to Wm. Addames. Endeavours of Sayer and Addames to find out the truth of Peacocke's death ; he was murdered by a Japan, his host, with the consent of some of the chief men about the King, and it is said the young Prince was of their council. The old King knows nothing but that Peacocke was cast away by chance or misfortune ; the great men and his host shared all the money and goods of the Hollanders as well as of the English, who were all slain together in one small boat. Peacocke's ill behaviour partly the cause of it ; the King used him kindly and gave him large privileges to trade in his dominions ; how Peacocke, being in drink, tore up these privileges and cast them under his feet, with other matters which much estranged the people's hearts from him and were the chief occasion of his death. Addames and Sayer very earnest to have speech with the King, but when he knew they would bring in question Peacocke's murder, "he being guilty of it," put them off, and had they not left they would doubtless have been murdered also ; the treacherous host fled in a boat with a company of slaves and was driven on the coast of China, where they had all their throats cut. Things Cocks lent to Peacocke when he went for Cochin China, which Cocks requests may be kept from Peacocke's wages. Walter Carwarden said to have carried away all the goods and money which Peacocke left behind ; "at least, they can understand of nothing which may be recovered, for there is no news of Walter Carwarden, so that out of doubt he is cast away." Goods returned from Cochin China by Edmund Sayer ; money stolen from him ; the Mandarin has promised to recover it. Thinks of sending Sayer again this year with Robt. Hawley, and to adventure two thousand tais in refined plate to buy silks with ; is the more willing to do this the Chinas having hired Wm. Addames to go pilot in their junk, and the King of Cochin China having given the English large privileges to trade in his country, with offer of anything they desire, only he requests a piece of brass ordnance given to him, and asks no other custom ; the Hollanders have already given him a demi culverin of brass. The quantity of broadcloth and cloth of India that will be vented in this place. As to what the Company direct may be sent to China. Hears nothing as yet of the King's or of any other picture, neither has he seen any sort of wood called sandal, but has only received red wood and deer skins from Siam. Is of the same opinion as the Company, "that except we procure trade into China it will not quite cost to maintain a factory in Japan, for now it is worse than ever, we being debarred of our trade into all places of Japan, only Firando and Nangasaki excepted, and to have our shipping only to come to Firando." Has been again this year, in company with Wickham and Addames, to the Emperor's court, hoping to get their privileges enlarged ; their presents received as from his Majesty, including a "scritoris," with gloves, mittens, looking glass, and other silver implements in it, with many complimentary words, but in the end were answered they had as large privileges as any other strangers, wherewith they might rest contented, or if they found not trade to their content they might depart when they pleased, and seek better in another place. To his request for an answer to his Majesty's letter it was answered that the letter was sent to Ogusho Same the deceased Emperor, and therefore held ominous among the Japans to answer dead men's letters. To assurances that the English had no acquaintance with the priests or padres, they were told that was all one ; the Emperor would have his own vassals to get the benefit to bring merchandize rather than strangers ; so now it has come to pass, as Cocks feared, that a company of rich usurers have got this sentence against them. The Portugals have no privileges, only a monsoon trade. Has used his best endeavours to procure trade into China, yet matters have fallen out so contrary that nothing is effected, through the pillaging of China junks by the Hollanders under the name of English, instances of which Cocks details ; whenever the trade is effected it must be in Cocks' name, as his China friends tell him. Desires to return to his native country, for he finds he has ill-willers, who go about to disgrace him, as Ball, who last year detained his books of accounts, and Jourdain. As to the junk having been bought at too dear a rate. Shoby Dono's junk, supposed to have been lost last year, wintered in Chiampa, and arrived at Firando with the first monsoon. Money received on Benj. Farie's account. The junk Sea Adventure returned again for Siam, Wm. Eaton commander and Jas. Burgess pilot ; her cargo. In answer to a supposed error in his accounts, according to the advice of Geo. Ball. Remarks on the wills of Barkeley, the late agent at Bantam, and Baylie, who came over merchant in the Thomas and died at Firando, leaving Totten and Osterwick his overseers ; "dead men many times are said to be poor, especially those which die far from their country." Sent last year a piece of the right root which is sold for its weight in silver ; that which came from the Cape was dried up and worth nothing. Capt. Addames expected General Keeling's coming to have conferred about the discovery to the northward ; it is reported that the Hollanders pretend to take the matter in hand and to employ Addames, Five great Holland ships arrived this year at Firando, the Sun, Red Lion, Flushing, Black Lion, and a galliasse ; they report ten sail of tall ships at the Moluccas, for the purpose of seeking out Don John de Silva's fleet and to fight with the Spaniards at their arrival. Great cruelties to the Chinas, their junks seized, pillaged, and then set on fire by the Hollanders. Fight between the Holland and Spanish fleets ; the Admiral of the Hollanders, the New Sun, sunk and two other ships burnt, without any loss of shipping on the Spaniard's side. Resolution by the Hollanders that their ships which remained should save themselves, one of which, the old Sun, went to Japan with John Derickson Lamb. The Red Lion and the Flushing, after fighting with a Spanish ship, brought two China junks fully laden to Xaxma, where the King would not let them stay, being no friend to the Hollanders ; no news heard of them since. Complaint of the Spaniards, Portuguese, and Chinese to the Emperor against the Hollanders as common thieves or pirates, in which they would have included the English, but the Emperor answered "he would not make nor meddle in other men's matters." The Chinese persisted in having restitution from the Hollanders for taking their goods without law or justice, but the Emperor said, "If they had taken you within the precincts of my dominions, or that any of you had gone under my pass or protection, then would I have made them do you right." Vile usage of both Hollanders and English by the Japans at Firando ; Cocks obliged to tell the Emperor's council that the English were not misused as the Hollanders were, or the debts had been lost. Great sales by the Hollanders through giving great presents to all the council. The Black Lion, of 1,000 tons, sent away, fully laden with silk and stuffs for Bantam ; the Flushing, of 700 tons, sent to the Moluccas ; disposition of the rest of the Holland ships. Broil between a Portuguese carac and some Japanese, in which one or two of the latter were slain. The Tono or King of Umbra, had ordered three or four Lascars or slaves to be executed, which it was thought better men deserved. Indignities offered by the Hollanders to the English, in "an island" taken possession of in the King's name ; they "pulled down the [English] colours, tore them in pieces in disdain, and wiped their backsides with the pieces." Those who saw this done reported it to Cocks. Ship set out for discovery by certain merchants of Amsterdam "found a passage in 58 degrees to the southward of the Straits of Magellan, not a narrow long strait, as Magellanus is, but after they entered came into a large sea, and so passed about Nova Guinea and came to the Moluccas, where the President of the Hollanders seized on the ship and men, for that they came not out under licence of the Winthebbers or Holland company." The Chinese lately begun to trade with the islands Fermosa, but none but small shipping can enter. Whether he should accept an offer to trade. Has previously made this demand of the Company, but had no answer. Has received two letters from his Majesty to the King of China, sent from Bantam by Mr. Ball, one in friendly sort, the other some stricter terms. Ball writes that no Chinese at Bantam dare either translate them, or carry them when translated, upon pain of their lives and ruin of all their generation. Their China friends, Andrea Dittis and Capt. Whaw, will not only translate them but send them by such as will see them delivered, but they are of opinion not to send the threatening letter, for they are assured there will nothing be done with the King (of China) by force ; Peacocke's threatening speeches made him and the English nation worse thought of and brought him to his end. Will soon go to Nangasaki and see Ed. Sayer dispatched away towards Cochin China, and take counsel with these China friends to get his Majesty's letter translated into Chinese and sent away. All the silk sold and the prices ; no present given to the King or his officers. Suggestions for the transportation of goods to different places. Employment of shipping to Siam ; impossible to send shipping from Bantam to touch at Patani and Siam and then sail for Japan ; and to send a ship directly for Cochin China would require a great stock and most part ready money, otherwise silk cannot be bought. As to Addames' debt of 50l. to the Company, who gives many thanks for the care they have had of his wife. His desire to have gone for England this year, but the Chinas earnest to have him go pilot for Cochin China. Ambassadors from the King of Corea to the Emperor of Japan were attended by about 500 men and were royally entertained, by the Emperor's command, by all the Tonos or Kings of Japan through whose territories they passed, and at the public charge ; they dined at the Emperor's table and were served by all the Tonos of Japan, every one having a head attire of a reddish colour with a little mark of silver like a feather in it ; Addames was present. Endeavoured to gain speech with the Ambassadors, but was unsuccessful, the King of Tushma the cause, he fearing that the English might procure trade if Cocks got acquainted with the ambassadors. His answer to the Japan lords who wished to know why he sought acquaintance with such barbarous people. The elephants' teeth all sold. Great charge of sending shipping to Siam. Suggestions for avoiding the sending of money from Japan to Siam, Camboja, and Chiampa. Concerning money due to Benjamin Farie before his death. The dangerous sickness of [Capt. John] Totten caused his stay at Firando last year. As to the cargo of goods sent from Siam, also Capt. Jourdain's account. Expenses of Richard Wickham, Wm. Eaton, Edmond Sayer, and John Osterwick. Cannot trust their cloth to Japans to sell. The three thousand taels borrowed last year of the Chinas, to pay 20 per cent, interest, has been repaid. The King of Firando has paid two thousand taels in money and rice out of the three thousand he owed. His frequent journeys to the Japan court hinder him considerably, in matters of account especially. [Eighteen pages. Indorsed, "Received the 6th November 1619, by the Little James." O.C., Vol. V., No. 615.]
Feb. 15. Firando. 274. Abstract of letter from R. Cocks, agent for the East India Company in Firando. The manner of the Emperor's acceptance of the King's letter, and the present delivered in his Majesty's name he very kindly accepted, but denied to renew privileges taken away in his late father's time, saying the English had as many as any other strangers. Describes the entertainment of ambassadors coming to condole for his father's death and to congratulate him on his accession to the crown, and the presents they brought, 100 falcons and 100 tiger skins. Relates divers fights by sea betwixt the Spanish and Dutch fleets in those parts ; and outrages and cruelties of the Dutch to the Chinese, giving themselves out to be Englishmen so as to lay the imputation upon the English nation ; their many injuries to the English nation and opprobrious and insufferable behaviour to the King's sacred person. Describes the great superiority of the Daire or chief priest over the Emperor to that of the Pope over any prince in Christendon. [One page. East Indies, Vol. I., No. 60.]
Feb. 15. Firando. 275. Rich. Cocks to Geo. Ball at Bantam. Has received his letters from Rich. Wickham by the Advice. As to the death of Capt. Barkeley ; believes it is more trouble to keep the accounts of the factory of Firando than of Bantam ; the lading of ebony for the Hollanders in the Osiander ; the death of Damyan and the honesty of other Spaniards ; and the favour Cocks has shown to Andrea Dittis and his brother, Captain Whaw ; these do not find it a matter of such great difficulty as it seems the Chinese do at Bantam to translate the King's letters to the Emperor of China, they having promised to translate and send them. Touching the opinion of the Company that the Japan factory should furnish the factory at Bantam and all other factories in India with silver and send an overplus to England ; the advice of General Sayer to send iron to Japan ; and Cocks informing Capt. Saris that silks were to be had in abundance at Siam and Patani. As to privileges for trade in Japan, the English have as large as any others. Money transactions with the China Captain Andrea Dittis and Wickham. Ball's judgment of the trade with Japan, Siam, and Cochin China. Account of the lading of the Thomas from Japan to Bantam. Reasons for the hasty departure of Wm. Eaton for Siam and his dealings for the late [John] Baylie for which Ball thinks Cocks will not pass blameless without giving a better account thereof. As to Ball's taxing him with speaking well of Capt. Saris and Peacocke, and keeping back his (Cocks') books of account, and Cocks writing in commendation of Andrea Dittis the China captain and W. Eaton, and saying that Ed. Sayer was the best pilot to save junks and goods. The Hollanders give out in all places where they rob that they are Englishmen, which reports have reached China. Replies to Ball's charges that Cocks gave passage to Chinese to trade to and fro in English shipping to the prejudice of the East India Company. Is of opinion that their Japan trade is at the best which is "starknaught" except entrance into China be purchased, Cocks' only hope. The junk from Siam which was thought to have been cast away has arrived, as also the junk Sea Adventure. If Ball thinks fit the factories of Siam, Camboja, and Chiampa may be supplied yearly from hence. The junk set forth last year by Addames in which Ed. Sayer sailed was chiefly to learn the truth of Peacocke's death, there having been so many contrary reports, but now it is known for a truth that he was treacherously murdered by means of his host a Japan, yet not without the privity of the King's chief man or secretary, and it is thought the young prince had a hand in it but the old King knows nothing of it and thinks Peacocke was cast away by casuality. Addames and Sayer did their best to get speech with the King but were not permitted, and had they ventured to go to Court they would have been murdered by the way as Peacocke was. This year Sayer goes again [to Cochin China] accompanied by Robt. Hawley to buy silk. All their silk, deer skins, and red wood sold, and some broad cloth ; the prices. Went this year to the Japan Court accompanied by Wickham and Addames to endeavour to procure greater privileges but was told that their privileges were as great as other strangers'. Five great Holland ships arrived this year from the Manillas where they had a bickering with the Spaniards who got the best of it, the Hollanders losing three ships and the Spaniards one. The Hollanders did not leave empty handed in spite of the petitions of the Spaniards, Portuguese, and Chinese to the Emperor against them, but the Hollanders have got enough to make war these seven years. The Flushing left a month past for the Moluccas fully laden with provisions and much ready money. The Sea Adventure sailed for Siam in January last, with Eaton, chief commander, and Jas. Burgis, pilot ; her lading. Thanks for the two English chronicles sent by Wickham. Presents he sends to Ball. Incloses copies of letters he has received from Siam, Camboja, and Chiampa, and invoice of goods received by the Sea Adventure [wanting]. Debts due to the factory from their host of Osaka, the King of Firando, and others. [Fourteen pages. Indorsed, "Copy of his letter written to Geo. Ball in Bantam ; small matters concerning the Company but questions between themselves." O. C., Vol. V., No. 616.]