TO THE CHARITY COMMISSIONERS FOR
ENGLAND AND WALES.
In pursuance of a minute of the Board of the 13th day
of November 1860 I have inquired into the condition and
circumstances of the charities under the management of
the Company of Fishmongers of the City of London, and
I have stated in the report, under the head of each specific
endowment, the result of my investigation.
The Fishmongers' Company is composed of—
The prime warden;
Five wardens, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, and 6th; and
the court of assistants, consisting of 28 members, exclusive
of the six wardens.
The prime warden vacates his office annually, and is
elected from the court of assistants. The other wardens
are also chosen from the court of assistants. All are elected
for two years as wardens. The prime warden is elected to
be the prime for the first year, and to be the second warden
for the second year. The fifth warden also holds the office
of renter-warden for the first of the two years, the sixth
warden as renter-warden for the second of the two years.
On vacancies in the court of assistants the number is filled
up by the court from election out of the liverymen. Freemen are nominated by members of the court for the livery
on application. The freedom is obtained by patrimony, by
servitude, and by purchase. Patrimony requires the parent
to be free at the birth of the child. Servitude is seven
years' apprenticeship to a freeman. The sum fixed for
purchase is 105l., besides the fees; the exact amount, including the stamp of 3l., is 112l. 7s. 10d.
The livery, including the court of assistants, amounts to
about 370 or 380, not having increased or diminished considerably for 20 years past. The fine for the livery is
The freemen and freewomen are more numerous, but the
Company have no means of accurately knowing their
number. On application they produce the certificate of
the father and mother's marriage, of their birth and baptism, and two persons attend before the court to vouch for
their identity by repute; in case of servitude the master
attends and states that the apprentice has duly and truly
served him for the seven years, according to the custom of
the City of London. The apprentices are previously bound
by indentures made out at the hall of the Company. The
fee for taking up the freedom is 1l. 12s. 4d., including
The title of the Company is, "The Wardens and Commonalty of the Mistery of Fishmongers of the City of
Edward Allen, by his will of the 16th August 1624, gave
to the Company 66l. 13s. 4d., to be lent to two young men,
each paying at the expiration of every three years 6s. 8d.
for the two beadles of the said Company.
The fund is in the Trust Loan Fund, and is administered
under that scheme. The assigned dividend is paid to the
beadles. (See, for the Trust Loan Fund, Cecilia Long's
Sir John Allott by his will, 17th July 1588, bequeathed
to the Company 133l. 6s. 8d., to be lent to four freemen
trading in fish, not of the livery, the said four men yearly
to provide three loads of charcoal amongst the poor inhabitants of Bread Street Ward.
The sum of 133l. 6s. 8d. forms part of the "Trust Loan"
account (see Cecilia Long's Charity). The sum of 4l. 10s.
a year is paid by the Company to the deputy of Bread
Street Ward, who divides the money among the alderman
and common councilmen of the ward for distribution to
Lady Allott's Charity.
Lady Ann Allott, by her will (date unknown), bequeathed
to the Company 100l., to be lent to two freemen of the
Company trading in fish, and paying 4l. yearly for the
|To the almspeople at Croydon||3|
|Towards repairing the church of Sanderstead,
The 100l. is included in the "Trust Loan Account."
(See Cecilia Long's Charity.)
The sum of 1l. is paid to the churchwardens of Sanderstead, and the 3l. to nine poor people dwelling in the lesser
almshouses at Croydon, in sums of 6s. 8d. each. This
payment is made personally by the clerk of the Company.
Ashton or Aston's Charity.
John Aston, by will dated the 2nd July 1436, gave
premises in the suburbs of London, which appear by a
document in the Record Office, Guildhall, to have been
three messuages and gardens in St. Andrew, Holborn,
three messuages and one garden in St. Sepulchre without
Newgate, and four messuages and one garden in St.
Botolph without Aldgate. It appears by deeds in the
Company's possession that the property in St. Botolph
and St. Sepulchre was sold in 1551. The property which
the Company consider now to belong to the trust (whether
owing to any exchange or other transaction is not explained) consists of No. 129, Aldersgate Street, and Nos.
1 and 2, Bowman's Buildings, behind the last-mentioned
premises. The will directed that the warders and commonalty and their successors, after that all the said lands
and tenements should have come to their hands, annually
and for ever, solemnly to celebrate the testator's obit with
note and ringing of bells in the said church of St.
Sepulchre. By a deed of the 20th August 1447 the wardens
of the Fishmongers' Company granted and agreed that
the vicar and churchwardens of the said church of St.
Sepulchre for the time being should annually, on the
conditions therein mentioned, retain in their own hands,
for the use and profit of the parishioners of the church
aforesaid, 10s. for the fabric of the same church; also, the
said vicar and his successors annually shall retain 3s.
thereof in their possession, namely, 4d. for himself, being
present at the exequies aforesaid and for saying the mass
aforesaid himself or by some other chaplain; also, for
recommending of the souls aforesaid, amongst others of
deceased persons, every Lord's day, as is the custom of
himself or some other chaplain, 2s. 8d.; but to distribute
the same 2s. 8d. annually in alms to the poor of the said
parish church aforesaid every year in which the said vicar
shall abstain himself from the recommendation aforesaid.
The sum of 13s. 4d. a year is paid to the collector for the
churchwardens of St. Sepulchre yearly.
John A'Wood devised to the Company, by his will of the
2nd December 1524, two messuages in St. Martin Orgar's
parish, to distribute yearly 20s. in coal to poor men and
women of the Company, and the rest of the said coals (the
word in the report of the Commissioners of Inquiry is
"the remainder," which was open to the ambiguity of
referring either to the remainder of the coals or the remainder of the whole estate), to the poor inhabitants of
St. Michael, Crooked Lane, and St. Martin Orgar; also, to
the poor of St. Michael, Crooked Lane, in money 3s. 4d.
The estate charged is the property of the Company. It is
considered to consist of houses Nos. 134 and 135, Upper
The 20s. a year is given away in money to poor freemen
and women dwelling in the city. There are eight recipients
of the charity. The selection is made by the beadle.
The 3s. 4d. a year is paid to the churchwardens of St.
Michael, Crooked Lane. The Company credit the charity
with an annual rentcharge of 30s., and discharge themselves by the above payments and by 6s. 8d. towards an
entertainment to which, under the will, the administrators
of the charity are entitled.
Alderman James Bacon, by his will of the 22nd April
1573, bequeathed to the Company 100l., to be lent to two
freemen, not being of the livery, to provide yearly two
cartloads of coal to be distributed amongst the poorest of
This forms a portion of the Trust Loan Account, and the
capital is administered accordingly. (See Cecilia Long's
The sum of 3l. a year in respect of interest is paid to the
"half-yearly poor." (See Trumball's Gift.)
Bishop Barlow's Charity.
William Barlow, Bishop of Lincoln, by his will of about
the year 1690, gave to the Fishmongers' Company 100l., to
be lent to four young men of the Company, paying 3l.
amongst them, to be distributed as follows:—
|For a sermon in Croydon church||0||13||4|
|For a dinner to the poor of Whitgift's hospital||0||13||4|
|To the common box of the hospital||0||10||0|
|To the vicar of Croydon, for giving notice of
|To one of the Company sent to see those things
|To four poor old men or women in Fishmongers'
The fund is part of the "Loan Trust Fund." (See
Cecilia Long's Charity.)
The Company subscribe, as is stated in the Commissioners' Report, page 126, 2l. to the amount of 3l.; it is
paid on the 22nd March, yearly, at the same time that Sir
John and Lady Allott's gifts are, and the clerk of the
Company, or some person under his direction, goes to
Croydon, previously having given notice through the
vicar of Croydon on the Sunday preceding the 22nd March
that the annual sum will be given on that day. On the
22nd March, whether it be a Sunday or any other day,
the clerk, or some person deputed by him, goes there, hears
the sermon, and, after giving the amount of Sir John and
Lady Allott's gifts to the Lesser Almshouses, he then
proceeds to Archbishop Whitgift's Hospital, and presents
the gifts there directed, namely, 13s. 4d. for a dinner to
the brethren and sisters, and 10s. to the poor box, the
Company adding 2l. to the dinner. Then the 13s. 4d. is
paid to the preacher for preaching the sermon in Croydon
church, and 3s. 4d. for his giving notice. Then 6s. 8d. is
paid to the clerk of the Company or his representative, and
13s. 4d. is distributed among four old men or women; so
that that makes up the 3l., exclusive of the 2l. which the
Mrs. Basden gave to the Company 20l., to be lent out
to a young man for the term of two years. This is in the
"Loan Trust Fund." No interest is considered to be
chargeable, and none is credited. (See Cecilia Long's
Randolph Baskerville, by his will 20th February 1653,
gave to the Company 200l., to be lent out at 4l. 10s. per
cent., and the interest paid as follows:—
|To St. Peter's Hospital||4||0||0|
|To Jesus Hospital||4||0||0|
|To the Company's clerk||0||10||0|
|To the beadles||0||10||0|
The fund is part of the "Loan Trust Account." (See
Cecilia Long's Charity.)
The sum of 4l. is carried to the credit of St. Peter's
Hospital, 4l. to the hospital at Bray, and two sums of 10s.
each to the officers of the Company.
Peter Blundell, by his will dated the 9th June 1599,
bequeathed to the Company 150l., to purchase lands and
hereditaments to pay thereout 40s. yearly to the poor
prisoners in the Compter, and the residue to the wardens.
It appears that at an early period, probably in or about
the beginning of the 17th century, the sum of 100l. was
laid out in the purchase of two small houses in Black
Raven Alley, Upper Thames Street, and the expense of
the conveyance amounted to a further sum of about 10l.
The Report of the Commissioners of Inquiry stating that
no premises were purchased with these trust moneys is,
therefore, inaccurate. At the time of the inquiry of the
Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer into the prison charities
the statement was corrected.
The investment, however, is unimportant, as the charge
is a fixed sum of 40s.
The payment is made to Mr. Temple, an officer of the
Guildhall, by whom the prison gifts in the city are received.
Ann Bromesgrave, by her will of 12th October 1631,
gave the Company 100 marks, to be lent to two freemen
of the Company, wet fishmongers, at 50s. a year:—
|To the poor of St. Nicholas, Cole Abbey||20s.|
|To the poor of St. Peter's Hospital||20s.|
|To the minister of the hospital||5s.|
|To the officers of the Company||5s.|
The sum of 66l. 13s. 4d., representing 100 marks, is
included in the "Loan Trust Account." (See Cecilia
The 20s. a year is paid to the churchwardens of St.
Nicholas, Cole Abbey. 1l. forms part of the Christmas
gifts to the almspeople in St. Peter's Hospital; 5s. is paid
to the chaplain, distinct from his salary; and 5s. to the
clerk and beadle of the Company.
John Carter gave to the Fishmongers' Company 20l., to
be lent out to a young man for the term of two years. No
interest is chargeable by any original direction, and none
is credited. It is part of the "Loan Trust Fund." (See
Cecilia Long's Charity.)
Robert Carter devised by his will of the 8th November
1563 a tenement in Thames Street, after the termination
of two life estates, to the Company to pay,—
|To a poor scholar at St. John's College, Cambridge, not having 4l. a year by exhibitions,
or any other ways or means||4||0||0|
|Poor children of Christ's Hospital
and the residue to the Company.||2||0||0|
The Company on any vacancy of the exhibition address
a letter to the Master of St. John's College, Cambridge,
stating the terms of the bequest, and requiring to know if
any student in the College comes within the description.
The appointment of the scholar is made upon the certificate of the Master.
One of such certificates has been laid before me, and
is in the following terms:—
"This is to certify that A.B. entered this College on the
day of, and has since conducted
himself to my satisfaction, and to the best of my belief
has no public exhibition or private income whatever."
(Signed by the Master of the College, a tutor, and
The 4l. a year is at present full, and has been so continuously.
The sum of 40s. a year is paid by the Company to
The Company were the owners of the estate on which
the charge was imposed. It was sold under the London
Bridge Acts. The property was valued, without deducting
the 6l. a year, and it still remains a charge on the purchase
Edward Cawnte, by his will of the 12th October 1591,
gave to the said Company 20l., to be lent to young men
of the Company. No interest is required to be made on
this gift, and none is charged. (See Cecilia Long's
Paul Cleater gave the Company 150l., of which 25l. was
after his decease to be kept to be lent to some young man
at 10s. per annum to be distributed among the almsfolks
in St. Peter's Hospital, to whom the 10s. per annum is
still given. The 25l. is in the "Loan Trust Fund." (See
Cecilia Long's Charity.)
Francis Coling, by an indenture dated the 15th
January 1648, gave to the Company 200l., to be lent to
four freemen of the Company, each paying yearly 15s., to
be distributed amongst 10 of the poorest freemen or their
widows on the 17th March.
The sum of 200l. is in the same position as Cecilia
Long's Charity in the "Loan Trust Fund." The 3l. a
year for interest is given to 10 poor freemen or widows of
the Company, in equal sums of 6s. in April, yearly.
Composition Money or Annual Payment to St.
Michael, Crooked Lane, and the Poor of the
A sum of 6s. 8d. a year, described as composition money
is paid to the churchwardens of St. Michael's and 2l. to
the half-yearly poor. The origin of these payments is not
William Copynger devised by his will of the 22nd
November 1512 his tenement in St. Catherine Coleman
and a shop and cellar in Old Fish Street, on condition to
pay 10s. yearly to St. Mildred, Bread Street, 6s. 6d. for his
obit, and the residue amongst the poor householders of
that parish. The Company pay 3s. 10d. a year to the
churchwarden of the parish of St. Mildred, Bread Street.
John Cowper, by his will of the 12th August 1584, gave
to the Company 20l., to be delivered yearly to one young
man dwelling in Old Fish Street. No interest is to be
charged, and there is therefore no income. The fund is in
the "Trust Loan Fund." (Long's Charity.)
John Crafton, by his will of the 16th October 1585, gave
to the said Company 40l., to deliver forth the same to two
young men, freemen of the Company. No interest is to
be charged, and none is therefore received. The fund is in
the "Trust Loan Fund."
Alice Field's Charity.
Alice field, in the terms of an indenture of 28th July
1595, paid to the Company 80l., to be lent to four young
men, two of Old Fish Street and two of New Fish Street,
they paying each 3s. 4d. yearly, and the money to be distributed in charcoal.
The 80l. forms part of the "Loan Trust Account." (See
Cecilia Long's Charity.)
The churchwardens of St. Nicholas Olave receive 13s. 4d.
Henry Gardener devised by his will, 31st December 1579,
two tenements in St. Andrew, in Hertford Town, to give
yearly to 20 poor folks, fishmongers or their widows, two
sacks of coal each or 1s. 8d. in money.
The property was long ago sold by the Company, who
credit the charity with 1l. 13s. 4d. a year, which they distribute to the half-yearly poor. (See Trumball's Gift.)
Robert Gayer's Charity.
Robert Gayer, by his will of the 15th January 1648, gave
to the Company 100l., to distribute at Christmas 5l.
amongst the poor members of the Company.
This is added to the Christmas distribution to the halfyearly poor. (See Trumball's Charity.)
Jesus Hospital, at Bray, Berks.
William Goddard, by his will made in or prior to 1609,
gave to the Company, for the purpose of erecting an hospital at Bray for 40 poor people, men or women, certain
messuages in the parish of St. Catherine Cree Church,
London, and his manor of Crutchfield and land in Bray;
the said hospital to be called "Jesus Hospital in Bray, of
the foundation of William Goddard," and the testator
also directed his wife to convey to the Company a messuage in the parish of St. Dunstan-in-the-West, London.
The testator prescribed by his will the building of the
hospital of brick, from the rent of the lands, fit and convenient for 40 poor people to dwell and inhabit in, and
that there should be in the said hospital one chapel or
place convenient to serve Almighty God in for ever with
public and divine prayers and other exercises of religion,
and also that there should be provided the domestic offices
therein mentioned; and he directed that the brethren and
sisters should be appointed and governed as therein mentioned, and that they should have the use, occupation, and
profits of the lands in Bray, except the trees and underwoods, to be equally and indifferently divided between
The letters patent are dated the 13th August, 14 James 1st,
and incorporate the wardens and assistants of the Company
as "Governors of Jesus Hospital," &c.; whilst the direction
of the will is that the "wardens and commonalty of the
Company should be governors." There is a very full
entry in the books of the Company of the 19th January
1616, showing that, to obviate the difficulties of a pecuniary
sort in the prosecution of the work, Mrs. Goddard gave
100 marks a year during her life, and the Company undertook to finish the buildings within two years after her
The present hospital at Bray was erected between 1623
and 1628, and is described by the Commissioners of Inquiry
(p. 117, vol. 12) as "a quadrangular building, containing
40 almshouses, surrounding a court divided into gardens,
one of which is attached to each house, the whole site
covering 2a. 2r. 18p. There is a chapel in the centre
of the back of the building. Over the front entrance
are apartments occupied by the chaplain."
The will directs that the lands in Bray shall be for the
use of the brethren and sisters, but does not make any
express limitation with regard to the other lands devised
to the Company; but no distinction appears to have been
ever made by the Company between the property in London
and the Berkshire estate.
The property of the charity is now as shown in the
following table, in which the numbers of the several tenements mentioned in the Report of the Commissioners of
Inquiry (vol. 12, p. 116) are indicated.
|No. 1.—No. 10, Aldgate High Street, on lease
to Messrs. Wigan, Teake, Carter, and Baxter
(representing the same firm as formerly held
it) for 21 years, from Lady-day 1853||260||0||0|
|No. 2.—No. 3, Jewry Street, on lease to Mr.
William Hill for 21 years, from Lady-day
Lands at Bray.
|Nos. 3 and 5.—Shortlane Farm, on the margin
of Windsor Forest, at a spot called Tutcham
End, consisting of farmhouse and buildings,
rebuilt in 1850 at an expense of 1,252l. 2s.,
and for surveyors 49l. 10s. 1d., and of
100l. 12s. for farm buildings in 1855, and to
which in 1859 additions were made to the
house at the expense of 124l. 15s. 6d., and
surveyor 12l. 13s. 6d.|
|Attached to the farm are five fields, numbered in the Company's map, made in 1825,
21 to 25, containing 36a. Or. 12p.|
|Gadbridge Farm lands, without buildings, numbered in the same map 18, 19,
and 20, containing 24a. 2r. 5p.|
|Glenhurst Farm (without buildings), numbered in the same map 15, 16, and 17, containing 23a. 1r. 2p.|
|This was drained in 1854 at an expense
of 109l. 6s. 5d.|
|Bridgefield, and Almshouse Mead, opposite
the almshouses, and near the Thames (formerly let to John Lewis), containing
38a. 1r. 20p. (Nos. 30 and 31 in the same
map), all let to Mr. William Heddington
on lease for 14 years, from Michaelmas 1854||186||0||0|
|And interest on the 140l. expenditure, in
addition to the house, in 1859||7||0||0|
|No. 4.—Millcroft Field, two fields, Nos. 28
and 29 on the same map, containing
14a. 1r. 11p., let to Charles Fuller for
14 years, from Michaelmas 1849||42||0||0|
|Two plots, formerly 3a. 3r. 4p. now
3a. 1r. 33p. (the quantity having been
reduced by the grant of a plot to the school
at Bray), let to Joseph Stubbs as a yearly
|No. 7.—Crutchfield Farm, a farmhouse and
buildings towards which the tenant was in
1850–51 allowed 277l. 18s., numbered 1 to
5 and 7 to 13 on the same plan (No. 6
being included in No. 5), 80a. 2r. 37p.|
|No. 6.—Land, containing 7a. 1r. 4p. (No. 14
on the same map), let to John Hercy, Esq.,
on lease expiring Michaelmas 1863||100||0||0|
|The lands in Bray are subject to a quit rent
now payable to Mr. Pourty||1||16||10|
|Copping's Gift (moiety of dividends)||35||10||4|
To this income there must be added in respect of the
augmentation to the parishionary almspeople under the
bequest of Mr. John Hibbert (stated infra, p. 7) annually
85l. 16s., and charged on the property of the Company by
their acceptance of the legacies.
It is stated in the report of the Commissioners of
Inquiry (volume 12, p. 114) from the ancient records of
the Company, that the testator directed his wife, Joyce,
to convey to the Company a messuage or tenement in the.
parish of St. Dunstan in the West, but on tracing the
various steps taken by the Company in relation to the
foundation nothing was found concerning any property
in that parish. It appears that deeds were given up by
Mrs. Goddard to Mrs. R. Sugden, in January 1609, and
on the 3rd April 1610. By entries in the books of the
Company on the 18th November 1615, it appears that
there was then a long time suits in Chancery touching
Mr. Goddard's will, and those were not terminated at
that time, although it does not appear that any question
remained save that of the execution of the specific trusts
relating to the building and incorporation of the hospital
and governors. The list of the deeds delivered to
Mrs. Sugden in 1609 and 1610 appears in the books of
the Company, but does not include any instruments relating to the messuage in St. Dunstan's. It does not appear
that the Company have ever been in the possession of any
ancient deeds. There seems to have been much litigation
with Mrs. Sugden, who was the sister and probably
heiress at law of the testator, and the first entry in the
books of the Company is of obtaining an injunction
restraining her from cutting down woods on the estate
Courts of the manor are held every four or five years.
The fines are the amount of the years quit rent on change
of tenants. It is said that Mrs. Sugden, being offended
at the gift of the property by Mr. Goddard, destroyed
the documents she had relating to the manorial rights,
and it is supposed amongst others the books containing
the admissions, &c. The Company have followed the
custom of the adjoining manors of Cookham. There seem
to have been heriots formerly taken, but have not been
recovered or attempted to be enforced since the reign of
Henry the 8th.
The balance due from the charity to the Company up
to the end of 1857 was 449l. 17s. This was explained
in the following letter to the accountant of the Charity
Commissioners from the clerk of the Company.
"I am desired to inform you that the balance arose by
the outlay of upwards of 1,400l. in repairs to the house on
Lord's lands farm, and in rebuilding the house and farm
buildings at Short Lane farm in 1851 and 1855. Also
from the outlay in 1853 of 150l. in building a wall between
No. 10, Aldgate and No. 3, Jewry Street, and a further
sum of upwards of 100l. in 1854 in draining the lands in
Bray. The income of this trust for last year reduced the
balance against the trust by nearly 200l., and as the
expenditure on account of the almshouses is not likely to
be very different from late years except in the thorough
repair of the chimnies and repainting the external work
this year, which may occasion an outlay of 200l., the
Company anticipate in the course of three or four years
the balance will be paid off."
The balance was on the 31st December 1860 reduced
to 152l. 6s. 2d. The Company have agreed to substitute
for the brick floors in many of the houses wooden floors,
which will involve some expenditure and probably prevent
the reduction of the balance in the present year.
The annual disbursements in respect of the hospital are
|Insurance of the almshouses||11||5||0|
|Pensions to the almspeople—
The London inmates (having the freedom
of the Company) are six, of whom two
are married and receive each 12s. per
|The other four being single (each 7s.)
|The Bray inmates, of whom there are 34—
The married almspeople receive 6s. 6d.
each per week, at present 8||135||4||0|
|The remaining 26 inmates being single at
4s. 6d. each||304||4||0|
|Gifts on visitation, and otherwise to the
|Medical attendance on the six London alms
people (according to circumstances), say||10||0||0|
|Nurses attending on aged and infirm (the
nurses being sometimes the almswomen),
|Coals and faggots (25 bundles of faggots and
28 cwt. of coals, to each person or married
|Gowns and coats (one every two years),
cloth for the men at 32s. and French
merino for the women, about||33||0||0|
|The chaplain and paymaster (who has four
rooms in the hospital and reads the service
to the almspeople on Tuesdays and Thursdays, and who also collects the rents and
pays the almspeople,) 20l. for his services
as chaplain, and 21l. as paymaster and
|The Company also every seven years present
him with a gratuity of 30l.||4||6||0|
|Salaries to the keepers, being two of the
|Labour and other expenses||10||0||0|
|Average repairs of the almshouses, say||30||0||0|
|Expenses of the deputation and other general
|Surveyor attending the deputation||3||3||0|
The Company, independently of the funds specifically
applicable to the hospital, credit the institution with—
|The pensions paid to the six free almspeople
beyond donor's allowance or whatsoever
other amount might be required so as to
make the pensions to the married people
12s. and the single 7s. per week each||68||9||8|
|To the medical attendance for the free people,
the entire amount of which in 1860 was||11||8||0|
|(The parishionary people being attended
by the parish surgeon.)|
|The hospital for the funeral expenses of any
|The donation to the poor's box, in 1860, of
the hospital on St. Thomas' day||5||5||0|
|The amount given to the Bray Charities||5||5||0|
The election of the free people of the Company is in
the same manner as for St. Peter's Hospital, and the
election of the parishioners of Bray is upon a list returned
under a printed form signed by the paymaster, describing
the condition, age, and character of the applicants, with
the observations as to their necessities or infirmities. I
append a printed table setting forth the orders for the
government of the hospital and the rules to be observed
by the inmates. (fn. 1)
Jesus Hospital, at Bray, in the County of Berks.
The Wardens and Assistants of the Mistery of Fishmongers, of the City of London.
1609—William Goddard, Esquire, who died in the year
1609, by will gave and devised to the wardens and commonalty of the mistery of fishmongers, of the City of
London, all his messuages and lands, situate in the City of
London, and the parish of Bray, in the county of Berks,
to erect an hospital for 40 poor persons, men or women,
to dwell and inhabit therein; whereof six are to be of the
poorest, most aged, and decayed persons, free of the said
Company, and 34 are to be of the poorest and most aged
parishioners of Bray, and such as have been dwelling in
the said parish of Bray 20 years next before being elected
thereto, and every one of the said 40 persons being of the
age of 50 years. And Letters Patent were obtained dated
13 August, 14 Jas. I., granting to the Fishmongers' Company authority to erect and establish the said hospital,
upon the trusts of the said will, to be called Jesus Hospital,
founded by King James, at Bray, in the county of Berks,
at the only costs and charges of William Goddard,
20th February 1653.—Randolph Baskerville, by will of
the 20th of February 1653, gave 200l., and directed the
yearly sum of 4l., part of the interest thereof, to be paid
half yearly to the poor in Jesus Hospital.
28th April 1676 and 23rd May 1677.—John Owen, by
indentures of these dates, gave 270l., and directed the sum
of 20s., part of the interest thereof, to be paid yearly on the
20th of March to six poor almsfolks, free of the Company,
in Jesus Hospital.
8th January 1686.—Jeremiah Copping, by will of the
8th of January 1686, gave certain monies for the maintenance of nine or ten poor old almsmen of the Company.
Under this benefaction the sum of 36l. is appropriated
yearly in the relief of the six almspeople, free of the
Company, in Jesus Hospital.
28th March 1810.—Thomas Cooke, by will of the 28th
of March 1810, gave 5,900l. Consolidated Three per Cent.
Bank Annuities to the Company upon trust, to apply the
dividends thereof weekly for ever, for the benefit and
relief of the 34 parishionary almspeople in Jesus Hospital.
Orders for the Government of the Hospital.
The paymaster is to attend at the hospital to pay the
pensions, to examine into the state of the almspeople, and
allow them to have nurses if needful; and if any of them
shall offend against the rules and orders, the paymaster
shall adopt such measures thereon as he may deem requisite; and in all matters of importance, he shall report the
same to the governors.
The chaplain appointed by the governors is to perform
divine service in the chapel of the hospital on Tuesdays
and Thursdays between the hours of 9 and 12, and to
visit the almspeople in sickness, when desired.
The upper keeper, appointed by the governors from
among the almsmen, is to take care of the keys of the
hospital and of the chapel; to keep clean the chapel; to
officiate as clerk, when divine service is performed; to
take care of the goods and chattels in the house of any
deceased almsman or almswoman, until they are removed
by the permission of the paymaster; to see that the almspeople take care of the gardens allotted to them, and that
the other parts of the garden and ground, as well as the
out-buildings, be kept clean and in good order and condition; to take notice of all offences committed by the
almspeople, and acquaint the paymaster therewith.
The under keeper, appointed by the governors from
among the almsmen, is to open the gate in the morning
and to ring the bell on shutting the gate in the evening;
also to ring the bell for assembling in the chapel.
Rules to be observed by the Almspeople.
1. The almsmen shall according to their seniority in the
hospital attend by turns at the gate, on every Lord's day,
in order to prevent improper persons from coming into
2. All the almspeople (except the almsman attending at
the gate, and such of the almspeople as are prevented by
sickness) shall both in the forenoon and afternoon of
every Lord's day, in due time, repair to some place of
public worship, and attend divine service.
3. All the almspeople (except such of them as are prevented by sickness) shall in the morning of every Tuesday
and Thursday, at the second ringing of the hospital bell,
assemble in the chapel, and join in public prayer, according
to the rites of the Church of England.
4. None of the almspeople shall use any blasphemous
words or on any occasion be drunk, or at any time make
use of any bitter, uncharitable or offensive speeches, or
give any blow to any other of the almspeople, or act disorderly or dishonestly, upon pain of being expelled.
5. None of the almspeople shall be allowed to go out of
the hospital before the opening of the gate in the morning,
or to come into the hospital after the shutting of the gate
in the evening, or shall be absent from the hospital during
the night, without license from the upper keeper, who is
allowed to permit such of the almspeople as he shall see
fit, on urgent occasions, to lie out of the hospital; but no
permission shall be given to any of the almspeople to lie
out more than two nights successively, without the consent
of the paymaster.
6. The almspeople shall have no person to reside with
them or attend upon them, but in case of sickness the
paymaster may allow a woman to attend as nurse, being of
the age of 50 years.
7. The almspeople shall not damage any of the houses,
break down any of the fences, or destroy any of the trees.
8. None of the almspeople or any person whatever shall
lay or cast any rubbish, dust, or filth, in any part of the
hospital, or the grounds, ditches, or drains thereto belonging, or wash fish, vegetables, or any utensils, at or near the
9. The almspeople shall keep clean their dwellings, and
the pavement before and behind the same, and the garden
allotted to each house; and shall also keep repaired the
glass in their windows, at their own charge, or in default
thereof, the expense of repairing them shall be deducted
out of their pensions.
10. The almspeople shall behave peaceably and quietly,
and be helpful to each other.
11. No almsman or almswoman shall marry, without the
consent of the governors, upon pain of being expelled.
12. If any almsman shall have a wife, or any almswoman
a husband, the wife of the almsman shall be allowed to
dwell with her husband, and the husband of the almswoman with his wife; and in every offence against these
orders, the offence of the wife shall be deemed the offence
of the husband, and the offence of the husband the offence
of the wife.
13. Upon the decease of any of the almspeople, none of
the goods and chattels in the house of the deceased shall
be removed, without the permission of the paymaster; and
that care may in the mean time be taken of such goods and
chattels, the key of the house shall be delivered to the
14. The badge of the almsman or almswoman that shall
die or be removed shall remain to the house for the succeeding almsman or almswoman, also the coat and gown,
if such had been received within six months previously to
the decease or removal of such almsman or almswoman.
15. These rules shall be read by the upper keeper or the
under keeper, in the presence of the paymaster, on every
24th day of June, and every 21st day of December, and at
every visitation of the governors to the almspeople,
assembled in the chapel for that purpose.
16. Offences committed against any of these rules to be
from time to time stated by the upper keeper to the paymaster.
These orders and rules were revised in the wardenship of—
|Thomas Bodley, Esq., Prime Warden.|
|John Towgood, Esq.||Wardens.|
|Samuel Mills, Esq.|
|Evan Edwards, Esq.|
|James Davidson, Esq.|
|James Ebenezer Saunders, Esq.|
And ordained at a court holden on the 20th day of July
John David Towse,
Clerk to the Company.
No fee or perquisite shall, on any account, be received by
the upper or under keeper from the almspeople.
By order of the court, June 24th, 1847.
Jeremiah Copping, by his will, 8th January 1686, gave
the Company 1,800l. to purchase lands for the maintenance
of 9 or 10 poor old almsmen of the Company, and also a
rentcharge of 50l. a year, payable to the testator and his
heirs during the life of Anthony Brown. The Commissioners of Inquiry state that under the above bequest the
Company received 2,163l. 9s. 9d., and that until a purchase
should be made in land the Company had ordered 72l. a
year to be paid to the charity account. On the 22nd October 1838 an information was filed against the Company,
at the suit of the Attorney-General, at the relation of
Thomas Spencer Hall, charging that some competent portion of the lands or other real estate, public stocks and
funds, or other property of the said Company, of which
they had a sufficiency for that purpose, ought to be appropriated or otherwise that some adequate purchase or investment of land ought, in performance of the said trust, to be
made out of the funds of the Company, as forming the
endowment of the said charity, and praying—
That it might be declared that the said Company had
made default and acted in violation of the trusts in them
reposed in the before-mentioned particulars, and more
especially in not having invested the said sum of
2,163l. 9s. 9d., derived under the will of Jeremiah Copping,
within a reasonable time after the receipt thereof, and that
the said charitable trust of the testator might be specifically
performed under the decree of the Court, and that some
adequate portion of the lands or other funds of the
said Company might be assessed and appropriated, or
otherwise that some competent purchase of land might be
made out of the funds of the said Company, as the endowment of the said charity upon the principal of compensation in respect of the loss sustained by the said charity by
the neglect of the said Company in not having laid out the
said sum in due time, and that the defendants might be
decreed to account for the difference between the said
yearly sum of 72l. and interest on the sum of 2,163l. 9s. 9d.
at 5l. per cent., or at such other rate as, having regard to
the use of the said charity fund by the said Company, or to
profit or interest actually realised, as might be deemed
reasonable, and that for the last 100, or at least 50, years
before the filing of the information. And that it might be
declared that according to the meaning of the will there
ought to be established a number of almsmen of the foundation of the said testator, independent and distinct of all
other almspeople of the said Company already existing and
otherwise established; and that it might be referred to the
master to settle a proper scheme in that behalf, having
regard to such sum as the defendants should be found
liable to pay in respect of the arrears of interest as aforesaid and to the due application thereof in advancement of
the said charitable trust.
The case came before the Master of the Rolls on the
16th November 1836. The Master of the Rolls delivered
his judgment on the 16th January 1837. After stating the
questions raised in the suit, his Honour said:—
"As to the alleged obligation of founding a distinct
establishment, it is to be observed that in the will the testator has not directed any separate foundation; he has said
nothing about almshouses or about any name to be affixed
to his charity, or any scheme of selecting the persons
amongst the freemen who were to be the objects of his
bounty, or to be distinguished as his almsmen, but he
describes the persons who are to enjoy his bounty as poor
old almsmen of the Company, not as persons to be made
solely the receipt of his bounty; and upon the construction
of this bequest I cannot say that I think he meant to direct
the foundation of a separate and distinct establishment, or
to restrain the Company from applying the income to be
derived from his gift to the maintenance of persons already
almsmen of the Company in aid of funds previously applicable for their benefit. Therefore I cannot declare that
according to the true intent and meaning of the will there
ought to be an establishment of almsmen of the foundation
of the testator independent from all other almsmen of the
"With respect to the investment, it appears to me that
the Company ought, within a reasonable time, to have invested the 1,632l. 17s. 3d. in the purchase of land. They,
perhaps, could not do so without a license, to obtain which
would have been an expense to the charity; but by incurring the expense the license in all probability might have
been obtained, and then the will in that respect might have
been strictly performed. But supposing there to have been
some insuperable difficulty about the investments in land,
there ought clearly to have been a separate investment of
some sort of both the 1,632l. 17s. 3d. and the 530l. 12s. 6d.
These sums ought to have been distinguished from all
other funds, so that it might at all times be ascertained, if
necessary, by the Court, and at all times easily proved by
the Company, that the full income of the testator's gift was
properly applied, and it appears to me that it is now necessary that a distinct investment should be made.
"With respect to the allegations that the defendants
have paid to the almspeople, whom they have considered to
be the objects of the testator's bounty, less than they ought
to be charged with for the interest of the money in their
hands, I have very carefully considered the evidence, and
upon the result of it I am of opinion that the defendants
have satisfactorily proved that for many years past they
have for the benefit of these poor people annually paid out
of their own funds far more than any specific sum of
money with which they could be charged by way of
interest. There appears to me to be no reason to presume
the case was different in times antecedent to the time to
which the evidence relates, and being of opinion that
proper objects of the charity have been substantially
benefited by the defendants as trustees to the full amount
of the income to which they are entitled, I do not think fit
to make any further inquiry in that respect; and having
regard to what the Company has done, and to what I conceive to be the real interest of the objects of the testator's
bounty, it does not appear to me to be proper to direct an
inquiry when a proper investment might have been made,
and whether any and what loss has been incurred by neglecting to make such investment at such time.
"I have considered this case with reference to the costs.
The information as to a considerable part of it fails. As
to that which succeeds, I do not think that it will substantially promote the benefit of the objects of the testator's
bounty, and it appears to have been filed without any
previous application to the Company.
"These and other circumstances have made me hesitate
considerably in allowing the relators their costs, but considering that the omission of the Company to invest the
legacy affords a substantial ground of complaint, that the
meritorious application made by the Company of their own
funds for the benefit of the objects of this charity could
not in consequence of their omission to invest be ascertained without the sort of investigation which this matter
has undergone, and having regard also to the decree made
by Sir J. Leach in the case of the Goldsmiths' Company,
I think myself bound to say, and I say it with reluctance,
that the defendants must pay the costs of the suit as
between party and party. At the same time I do not
think it is proper in this case to give to the relators what Sir
J. Leach gave to the relators in the case of the Goldsmiths'
Company, the extra costs out of the fund of this charity.
"The decree, therefore, which I make is that this sum
be brought into court and invested in 3 per Cents, that
the dividends to arise from it be paid to the defendants,
the Fishmongers' Company, on the trusts of the charity,
with liberty to any party to apply as to the investment,
and that the costs of the suit as between party and party
be paid by the defendants to the relators."
The fund was paid into court and invested in
2,367l. 14s. 1d. Consols. It still stands to the credit of the
cause, and the dividends amounting to 71l. 0s. 8d. per
annum are received by the Company, and the amount is
carried half to the account of Jesus Hospital and half to
the account of the Harrietsham Almshouses. In both of
these institutions the only participants in this charity are
the almspeople who are free of the Company.
Thomas Cooke, by his will 28th March 1810, gave to the
Company 5,900l. Consols, to apply the dividends for the
benefit and relief of the 34 parishionary almspeople in
Jesus Hospital for increasing their pensions.
The fund which was transferred to the Company in full
stands in the corporate name of the Company in the books
of the Bank of England. It seems to have been the subject of an administration suit, Neale v. Day and others, in
1813, and that the transfer was made and the arrears of
interest paid under the order of the court. The annual
dividends amount to 177l.
Baskerville's and Owen's Gifts.
The gift of 200l. by Randolph Baskerville, in 1653, is
mentioned in the Loan Trust Account (see Cecilia Long's
Gift), and the capital is there accounted for.
The sum of 4l. is paid to the account of Jesus Hospital.
Owen's Charity is mentioned in a subsequent part of this
report, and from that gift 1l. is paid to Jesus Hospital,
part of the 12l. a year comprising that gift.
Mr. John Hibbert in 1856, presented to the Fishmongers' Company 500l., on condition that they would
increase the pensions of the married parishionary almspeople in Jesus Hospital by 1s. a week; and in 1857 he
gave a further sum of 500l. on the Company agreeing to
increase the pensions of such almspeople by a second 1s. a
week. In 1860 the same gentleman gave 1,000l. to the
Company on the further condition of adding 6d. a week to
each of the married and single parishionary almspeople in
Jesus Hospital. The Company have accepted these gifts
on the conditions expressed by the donor, and the payments are made and are included in the amount of the
pensions which I have stated in my account of the hospital disbursements.
The above extra annual payments amount to 85l. 16s. a
The Free Grammar School at Holt, Norfolk.
Sir John Gresham, early in the reign of Phillip and
Mary, granted to the Company certain estates for the
maintenance of a grammar school, established previously
by letters patent of the 27th April 1654, whereby it was
ordained that there should be one grammar school in Holt
otherwise Holt Market, to be called "the Free Grammar
School of Sir John Gresham, knight, citizen, and alderman of London," for the education, teaching, and instruction of boys and youths in grammar, with one schoolmaster and one usher; and whereby also "the wardens and
commonalty of the mystery of Fishmongers of London,
governors of the possessions, revenues, and goods of the
Free Grammar School of Sir John Gresham, knight,
citizen, and alderman of London, in Holt otherwise Holt
Market, in the county of Norfolk," were incorporated
by that name and licensed to hold goods, chattels, manors,
and lands in mortmain.
Sir J. Gresham, by deed of the 16th October 1656
(recited in an instrument which has been preserved), gave
to the Company certain manors, messuages, lands, and
hereditaments therein mentioned in the county of Norfolk,
to hold to the said Company for the sustentation of the
said Free Grammar School.
The statutes for the government of the school, made by
the governors at different times, and approved by the
Bishop of Norwich, are set forth in the Report of the
Commissioners of Inquiry (Fishmongers' Company, vol. 12,
The Commissioners state that the school had declined
before the appointment of the then head master, but on
the gratuitous instruction being extended to English, the
school had revived and the increased number of 50 free
scholars had been filled up. This report was made in 1823,
Subsequently the institution came under the notice of the
Commissioners of Inquiry in the county of Norfolk, and
by their report, made in 1832 (vol. 26, p. 289), it is stated
"In September, when we visited the town, we found that
the number of free scholars had been kept up to 50; that
19 of them were receiving classical instruction; and that
there were above 20 candidates for vacancies. The master
had discontinued taking boarders, but had 10 day scholars
receiving gratuitous instruction, or paying from 2l. 2s. to
8l. 8s. per annum, according to the circumstances of their
parents. These boys are admitted as candidates, and frequently succeed to the vacancies in the number of free
"In 1831 the Company agreed to give 5l. a year for
prizes at the annual examination of the scholars before the
visitors, the master having previously provided prizes for
this purpose at his own expense.
"The national system is adopted in the school as far as
practicable, and the school appears to be in great repute.
The expenditure is nearly the same as it was in 1823, as
stated in our former report."
The school continued under the same master, the Rev. B.
Pulleyne, until the year 1857. At that time it was found
that owing to the establishment of another school in the
town, and the age and incapacity of the master, and other
causes, the school had fallen in its standing. This was
partly also attributed to the introduction of the national
system, which had led to the introduction of a lower class
of pupils, and persons of a better condition had been prevented from sending their children to it. In 1857 a deputation of the Company visited the school and examined
into its condition. I annex to this report a printed extract
of the report of the deputation.
The recommendation contained in such report was agreed
to and adopted.
The old schoolroom was taken down, leaving the
master's residence standing; the Company erected a new
schoolroom capable of receiving 100 pupils (instead of 50).
The cost of the buildings stated in the accounts laid
before the Commissioners for the year 1858 was
1,444l. 8s. 11d.
In 1858 the Company applied to the Bishop of Norwich
for power to alter the statutes of the school, the principal
alterations proposed being the introduction of mathematics, geometry, reading, geography, and history, and the
abolition of the clause in the statutes of 1821, which left it
to the option of the parents or friends of the scholars
whether they should or not be taught Latin and Greek.
The new statutes also increased the salary of the master
from 100l. per annum to 200l. per annum, and empowered
him to take 10 boarders, "or such other number as the
governors may see fit." The Committee on the 18th May
1858 considered and settled the statutes, and resolved to
apply for the consent of the bishop. Slight alterations
were subsequently made, and the statutes were finally
settled on the 8th September 1858. The statutes thus
established are set forth in the book annexed to this report
(which also contains an alteration as to the holidays approved by the same authority on the 19th July 1860).
In July 1860 the Company also resolved to increase the
salary of the usher (stated in section 3, page 10 of the
statutes) from 80l. to 110l. a year. This was done in consequence of a representation being made by the master that
a person of sufficient standing could not be obtained for
the smaller sum. This also was approved by the bishop.
The court of the Company elected a new master on the
1st July 1858. The appointment was made after advertisement in May 1858 of the intended appointment in July.
The qualifications specified in the advertisement were that
the candidate must be a graduate of one of the universities.
There were 81 candidates, and the Rev. Charles Allen
Elton, B.D., formerly a fellow of Sidney Sussex College,
was appointed. He had been engaged in a scholastic
The master, according to the statutes, appointed the
usher. Mr. R. Phillips was appointed to that office, and
continued up to Midsummer 1860, when he retired, and
Mr. Chas. F. Furbank was appointed from Michaelmas
1860 on the above-mentioned scale of salary. He is a
graduate of the University of Cambridge.
An interesting account of the reopening of the school,
and a description and view of the house and premises, are
contained in the work which is annexed to this report.
The Company were strongly urged by the deputation
to take an early opportunity of taking down the old
master's house and rebuilding it. In March 1859 a communication on this subject was made to the Commissioners
of Charities, and the result is set forth in the order of the
board of the 10th May 1859 (under its seal), whereby, upon
the statements and evidence therein mentioned, the Charity
Commissioners advise the said governors that out of any
surplus revenue which might accrue to the said charity,
subject to and after answering and satisfying the salaries of
the master and usher of the said school as settled by the
statutes and orders of the year 1858, and the life pension of
the late master, and all other charges and expenses whatsoever of or relating to the said school, as the same is now
carried on or conducted, and all costs, charges, and expenses whatsoever of or relating to the management and
administration of the said charity, and the property or
estate thereof, the said governors might repay to themselves
the sum of 1,626l. 3s. 1½d. then due to them in respect of
the rebuilding the schoolroom and offices of or belonging
to the said school and otherwise, and any sum or sums
which the said governors might lay out or expend in rebuilding the master's house (not exeeeding for such lastmentioned purpose 3,000l., exclusive of the architect's commission and payments for the clerk of the works and
travelling expenses), with interest on the said several sums
respectively at the rate of 4l. per cent. per annum; but so
always that if the state of the surplus revenue would
permit such principal moneys and interest should be repaid
(in manner and subject as aforesaid) within a period of not
more than 30 years from the date hereof; and so also that
if such principal moneys and interest should not be fully
repaid in manner aforesaid within the said last-mentioned
period, then and in such case any principal money or
interest which might happen to remain due to the said
governors should be deemed to be wholly extinguished and
discharged in favour of the said charity.
|The master's house was therefore taken
down and rebuilt at an expense, including all charges, of||3,528||0||3|
|This amount, added to the former expense of rebuilding the schoolroom,||1,444||8||11|
The sum of 1,626l. 3s. 1d. mentioned in the order of the
Charity Commissioners was reduced by the deduction of
certain expenses of the deputation, &c., paid by the charity
out of their own funds, to the sum of 1,435l. 1s. 11½d., as
stated in the accounts for 1859.
|Under the order of the Charity Commissioners (mentioned above) the Company is empowered to charge interest
at 4 per cent. on the balance of||1,435||1||11½|
|On the sum limited for the rebuilding of
the schoolmaster's house||3,000||0||0|
|And on the charges of the surveyor,
clerk of the works, and their travelling
In the necessary improvements in the reconstruction of
the premises it was thought necessary to purchase some
adjoining cottages, which was effected by the Company for
the sum of 539l. 9s. 4¾d. This sum, which was paid by
the Company, brings up the actual expense of the entire
improvements to 5,511l. 18s. 6¾d. The Company, amongst
other things, built a tennis court, and levelled a field for a
cricket ground, and rebuilt the boundary wall separating
the school from the road, and otherwise altering the fences
and filling and draining a road-side pond, flowing into the
grounds of the school. The prime warden for the time
being presented the school with an apparatus for gymnastic
The Company, in their corporate capacity as governors
of the school, have entered into a bond for 6,000l. with
the trustees of the Union Life Office in Cornhill, bearing
date the 13th October 1859, conditioned for the repayment
of 3,000l. and interest at 4½ per cent., and by an indenture
of even date the Fishmongers' Company covenant to pay
the said debt and interest, but shall not pay off the principal
in less sums than 500l., nor in less than three years from
the date thereof; and the indenture provides that the possessions, revenues, and goods of the Free Grammar School
should be the primary fund for the payment of the said
3,000l. and the interest thereof, and that the said principal
sum and interest should not, nor should any part thereof,
be deemed to be a charge upon or be levied or recovered
out of any other possessions, revenues, or goods vested in
or belonging to the said Company unless the said principal
and interest, or such part thereof, cannot in due course of
law be levied or recovered upon or from the possessions,
&c. of the said Free Grammar School.
The examinations of the school take place under the
superintendence of the visitors of the school twice a year,
in conformity with the fourth section of the statutes. No
paid examiners are appointed, but several of the local
visitors are believed to be competent examiners, Examination papers have been prepared by the master (one set of
which I append), and the answers are made in writing, and
in addition to these there is an oral examination in the
presence of the visitors. The visitors afterwards make a
report on the state of the school and of the scholars, and
of those departed and admitted during the preceding half
year, and they distribute prizes at both examinations in
books of the value of 5l. each time. They also give at
Midsummer a prize of 6l. in books to the best scholar in
mathematics, combined with general good conduct, and
which prize is called the Jodrell Prize. This arises from
2,000l. new 3l. per cent. Annuities, given by Mrs. L. Seale
Hayne to commemorate the name of her uncle, the Rev.
Sheldron Jodrell, late a visitor of the school, and late
rector of Saxlingham; the books (according to the bequest),
"Not being novels or other literary trash, to be chosen by
the scholar subject to the approval of the governors."
And the testatrix provided that the present and future
rectors of Saxlingham should be visitors of the school, and
entitled to a voice in awarding the prize. The reports made
by nine of the visitors since have been favourable as to the
progress of the school. The master of the school has made
the following report:—
Report of the Rev. C. A. Elton, to the Deputation of
Governors, respecting the progress of the Gresham
Scholars. June 20th, 1860.
"In February 1859 the school opened with its full compliment of 50 foundation scholars, with the exception of
two or three, who were permitted to remain at their previous schools until the quarter. A portion of the boys
(34 in number) had attended for three weeks in the preceding December.
"Of the whole 50 boys, I found, on examination, that
only 12 had been at school where Latin was taught, and
out of this number (12) only four (now in class 5) were
sufficiently advanced to read the text-book now in use in
class 3. The remaining eight had a most imperfect and
inaccurate knowledge of what they professed to have learnt;
indeed 12 only out of the 50 had commenced the Latin
grammar, the remaining 38 then commenced the elements
"The ages of the scholars were as follows:—
of these younger boys admitted 21 could barely read an
elementary narration of one syllable; not one of the group
could write more than the four or five first words of the
Lord's Prayer, and seven could not read the first verse in
St. John's Gospel without spelling the words, and only
four wrote the Lord's Prayer correctly as regarded spelling.
|8 between 14 and 15,|
|8 " 12 " 13,|
|13 " 9 " 12,|
|12 " 8 " 9,|
|9 " 7 " 8,|
"It will require, I conceive, quite two years to eradicate
this defect, which has nearly disappeared in class 5, and in
the others the ratio of mistakes to the number of lines of
written English is rapidly decreasing; in one class as much
as an hour a day is devoted to its correction. I mention
this because it would obviously lead to false inferences
respecting the boys' progress if their extreme ignorance of
their own language, &c. on entering the school be not now
taken into account.
"With regard to mathematical knowledge in February
1859, no boy could work a single proposition in Euclid;
our present status stands thus: nine have got up (I believe
fairly) books 1 and 2; eight have got up book 1; and 14
have advanced some little way in the same.
"In arithmetic, in February 1859, seven boys only could
do the simplest form of a rule-of-three sum, in which,
however, three were fairly advanced, five only had mastered
decimal fractions, and of the remainder 13 could neither
get through a numeration sum or the very first steps of the
multiplication tables. The lowest boys now are in the
compound rule of elementary arithmetic. The examination papers (arithmetical) set at this time were framed for
34 boys, and—
"In algebra, two boys then professed to have learnt the
elements; at present six have reached the geometric series
and 13 to the handling of algebraic fractions.
"In Latin 12 only had commenced the Latin grammar,
not more than three of the syntax, none the prosody in the
present stage; the classical books used in the 5th form
have been Livy, Virgil, Cicero's Orations, Greek Delectus;
the Greek grammar up to in pu Arnold's Latin composition; Latin versificator, Grecian and Roman history.
"In mathematics, algebra to the end of series, arithmetic
generally, Euclid books 1 and 2. In English the text
books are Morell's "Analysis of an English sentence,"
French on the "Study of Words," and for an exercise,
Goldsmith's "Deserted Village."
"In the 4th form the same course is used, saving that
Cæsar is read; that the boys have not yet commenced
Greek, and are not so advanced in mathematics.
"In the 1st form they have just got through the first
elementary Latin book, and average a fair knowledge of
geography and English history.
"Specimens of handwriting are before the governors.
"The boys are accustomed to produce weekly the map
of some country which they have prepared the previous
week out of school hours. I would call the attention of
the governors to some of them, as being finished with
much neatness and precision.
"The attendance of the scholars since the opening of
the school has been unmarked by a single case of absenteeism, save from illness, or by leave of the master. I
have known more than a fortnight to elapse without an
instance of one coming in after the doors were closed (at
2 minutes to 9), and in the afternoon such does not occur
at the rate of once in two months.
"There is at present a French master attached to the
school, who instructs 25 of the boys in the French language daily.
"Two are learning drawing.
"I am happy to say that in respect of the healthiness of
our schoolroom the ventilation is excellent, and by aid
of the apparatus which does not get out of order the
room is kept at a very even temperature (though at the
expense of a large amount of fuel). The health of the
boys has been excellent.
"I would further add that the boys' conduct towards
myself and the other masters, likewise towards each other,
is quite satisfactory.
"Two additional desks are needed in the schoolroom.
"The windows also are moved with difficulty.
"The boys' library is scarcely large enough to afford the
necessary variety for the tastes and wants of so many boys,
moreover, a higher class of works is needed for the upper
lads, the present series having been selected mainly with
reference to the younger scholars. There is, moreover, no
sufficient room in the closets fixed in the new schoolroom
for their reception. The classical works in the schoolroom
are of little use for instruction or reference, and they might
be advantageously moved to shelves in the master's study,
as during the winter holidays the covers attract the mould.
"I would ask the governors to give their attention to
the inadequacy of the usher's salary compared with the
increasing demands on his attainments, which arise from
the alteration of the statutes and the raised standard of the
subjects of instruction.
"The clock presented by Mr. Moore has not yet been
fixed, and during their visit it may possibly be desirable for
the deputation to give instructions respecting it.
"June 20th, 1860. (Signed) C. A. Elton."
The governors receive half-yearly a statement of the
names and ages of the boys on the foundation in each of
the five classes, and the books used in each class. The
children are the sons of professional men of small means,
of farmers, and of respectable tradesmen. The foundation
boys are 50 in number; they are admitted on a certificate
of two of the local visitors, and deposited with the master,
as vacancies occur, in rotation. In addition to 50 foundation boys there are 12 day scholars, who pay the master,
but the amount of this payment is not reported to the
The master had not at Christmas 1860 more than one
boarder, but his residence had been then very recently
completed. The master under the statutes (page 9) receives from the school fund a gratuity for each boy, according to his class. These gratuities in 1860 were as follows:—
|Class 5. 7 boys at 15s.||5||5||0|
|" 4. 9 " 12s. 6d.||5||12||6|
|" 3. 13 " 10s.||6||10||0|
|" 2. 10 " 7s. 6d.||3||15||0|
|" 1. 11 " 5s.||2||15||0|
|Gratuities for stationery, 50 at 7s. 6d.||£18||15||0|
The present estate of the charity is—
|1. The ground in Fore Street, Cripplegate,
London, and the property adjoining, demised to James Harrison, for 63 year,
from Christmas 1808, with a reserved rent
of 150l. a year. This is inaccurately stated
in the Report of the Commissioners of Inquiry to belong wholly to the charity. The
property granted by the founder was increased before the demise to Harrison, by
a purchase made by the Company by their
own funds. The Committee of the Company, after examination of the site, have
attributed to the Company one eighth,
and to the charity, the seven other undivided eighth parts||131||4||10|
|2. The property in South Place, Finsbury,
taken in exchange for the premises in St.
Giles, called the Peacock (as stated in the
Report of the Commissioners of Inquiry,
|No. 14, Finsbury Place South, let to I. and
W. Lee, on lease for 79 years, to Christmas 1899, at 17l. per annum.|
|Nos. 15 and 16, Finsbury Place, let to the
same persons for 81 years, from Christmas
1818, at 18l. per annum.|
|Nos. 17 and 18, Finsbury Place, let to the
same persons for 81 years, from Christmas
1818, at 65l. per annum||100||0||0|
|3. Three messuages, Nos. 18, 19, and 20,
Barbican, on lease to Richardson and
Want, for 61 years, from Christmas 1816
(as stated in the said Report, page 104)
|The land tax which has been redeemed by the Company, and
which they now add to the
|The property in Norfolk.|
|4. The addition of the play-ground, cricket
field, and making a garden for the master
has been reduced by about three acres.|
|The master occupies one field of the
remainder 2a. 2r., for which he pays rental||8||15||0|
|5. A plot of 3a. 2r. of land adjoining the
school premises let with about 50a. of land
on the Cromer Road, and (numbered 5 in
the Commissioners' Report) also the 56
acres let at the time of the former Report
to Thomas Norton (numbered 6) demised
to T. B. Frost, for 14 years, from Michaelmas 1860 for||£200||0||0|
|The Company having purchased
the lease to Whithers, which
would not expire until Michaelmas 1863, and deduct,
to recoup themselves for this
|In consideration of the rent of 200l. to be
paid by Frost, the Company have agreed
to lay out 200l. in farm buildings on the
|About 10 acres of wood land in the
Cromer Road is in hand.|
|6. About 20 acres of wood land, near Spout's
Common, No. 7, in the Report of the
Commissioners of Inquiry (page 103).|
|During the past eight years the Company have not received more than about
100l. in respect of the wood land, say annually about||12||10||0|
|7. (Numbered 9 in the former Report), a feefarm rent paid by Hudson Gurney, Esq.,
out of the manor of Hobb Hales||7||0||0|
|8. (Numbered 10 in the former Report),
quit rents of the manor of Hill Percers||4||6||2|
|A hovel on the property has ceased to
pay quit rent, but has been taken into the
governors' possession, and from the cottages near the school having been removed
the quit rents of 3d. and 1½d. have fallen in.|
|8. The last-mentioned hovel||0||6||0|
|9. (Number 11 in the former Report), acknowledgment for encroachment by Richard Cheake||0||2||6|
|10. In the year 1856 the Company received
100l. in respect of an escheat, by the
death of the tenant without heirs and unmarried, on the regrant thereof by the
governors as heirs of the manor of Holt
|(This was placed to the credit of the
trust for the current year, the same being
then indebted to the governors.)|
|11. (No. 8 in the Commissioners' Report),
land 21a. 1r. 22p. at Hunworth, let to
John Amis, yearly tenant||18||0||0|
|The disbursements are—|
|The master's salary||200||0||0|
|The allowance for gratuities to classes, year
|The writing books and stationery||37||10||0|
|Two thirds of the costs of books (for the
foundation scholars thus paying only one
third of such expense in the present state
of the school)||56||0||0|
|Printing examination papers||7||0||0|
|Prizes (exclusive of Jodrell's)||10||0||0|
|Seven tons of coals||8||10||0|
|The taxes and tithes amounted before the
late alterations to 27l., and for the future
might be estimated at||30||0||0|
|The school feast and dinner to the visitors
|The deputation expenses average||10||0||0|
|The repairs and incidental expenses annually
estimated at, say||30||0||0|
|Exhibition now held by a student of St.
Augustine College, Canterbury, who was
at the Holt School||20||0||0|
|Steward's allowance and expenses of the
estimate, including dinner to tenants||15||0||0|
|Annuity to the late master||100||0||0|
|Interest on the 4,849l. 12s. 4½d. at 4l. per cent.||193||18||10|
It is obvious that the state of the disbursements and the
receipts at present wholly exclude the possibility of paying
interest on the debt. The interest therefore is paid by the
Company out of their own funds. The capital debt with
which the charity is chargeable, as I have before stated, is
4,849l. 12s. 4½d. On this (or on so much of it as had been
expended) the interest at 4 per cent. up to 31st December
1859, 83l. 15s. 3d., 1860, 163l. 15s. 5d., and for future
years it will be 193l. 18s. 10d.
It is anticipated that the property in St. Giles, Cripplegate, and Barbican will at the expiration of the leases be
much more productive, and the governors therefore look
to the increased income from these estates as the means of
recouping the debt which is thus, at present, rapidly accumulating against the charity.
As a part of the charge of the year 1860 a sum of
11l. 6s. 7d. was expended in the redemption of the land tax
on the cottages adjoining the Holt school, removed upon
the late improvements. There are also law charges, expenses of the deputations, expenses relating to the woods
which have been occasional, and which with the excess of
expenditure on the improvements beyond that for which
the governors are allowed to charge the property as security
with interest, make up a sum of 6,381l. 4s. 3½d. due to the
Company on account of the charity on the 31st December
The rental in 1863, on the termination of Wither's lease,
of a part of the property in Norfolk (No. 5) will be increased by the amount of 55l. a year. The annuity to the
late master of 100l. a year will, of course, terminate with
his life, and Christmas 1871 the present lease of the property in Fore Street will expire, when an increased rental is
expected. It is to these several sources that the charity
must look for the reduction of the present large deficit of
annual income, and for the gradual payment of the advances
which have been made for improvements.
Extract from the Report of the late Deputation to
Holt, with the Proceedings and Recommendations of
the Committee thereon, forwarded by Order of Court,
1st instant, a Special Court being summoned to consider the same on Thursday the 6th instant.
Extract from the Report of John Kynaston,
Esquire, Prime Warden, Thomas Boddington, and
Western Wood, Esquires, who were appointed by
the Court, the 12th of March last, to be a Deputation
to visit the Estate and School at Holt, in Norfolk.
We beg to report that on Monday afternoon, the 15th
instant, the deputation, accompanied by Mr. Towse, proceeded to Holt, and on the following morning went to the
schoolhouse; and on the arrival of the Rev. E. Brummell,
the rector of Holt (one of the visitors of the school), the
proceedings of the day were commenced by the master
reading the rules, &c. of the school. 43 scholars answered
to their names. Shortly after the following visitors
arrived, viz., the Rev. J. Bulwer, Rev. J. B. Sweet, Jas.
Gay, Thos. Boyd, and John Clark, Esquires. Three
scholars of the first class were then examined in the Greek
Testament, one scholar in mathematics, several in arithmetic, in which branch considerable proficiency was shown,
especially by one scholar, who evinced rather unusual
quickness and skill. Many produced their writing books.
The deputation having remained some time in the schoolroom, requested the visitors would retire with them to a
private room, when the prime warden brought the state of
the school, and the age of the Rev. Benj. Pulleyne, under
their notice, and solicited their opinion thereon, stating
that it was the desire of the governors that there should be
a greater efficiency manifested in the establishment, that it
was considered Mr. Pulleyne had been long enough attached to the school, and that it might be desirable a
younger man should be appointed.
Mr. Gay, on the part of the visitors, replied, calling the
attention of the deputation to the fact that Mr. Pulleyne
had now been master 48 years; that he was now 72; and
that, whatever his talents might have been, he could not
now be expected to be the most proper party to hold the
appointment; that from the manner in which the school
had been conducted for several years, the class of boys had
been materially lessening in point of rank in life; and that
at least the greater number now in the school were only fit
to be educated in the national school; that respectable
people declined sending their sons to the school, or if they
did so, that it was only for a short time; that if fit and
proper persons were appointed masters, a greater number
of boarders allowed to be taken, the school continued to
be a grammar school, as originally intended, that there
were quite sufficient persons in Holt and its immediate
neighbourhood who would only be too glad to avail themselves of the opportunity of placing their sons at the
school, instead of sending them, as they now felt obliged
to do, miles away; and that he had no doubt, in time, a
class of boys would be raised, equalling those formerly in
the school, who were sons of some of the most respectable
families in the county; that the townspeople considered
the present school only equal to their present national
school; that he did not think there was much probability
of any subscriptions being made to the alteration of the
school premises, which were so much required, as parties
in the town, &c. would consider they would not be allowed
to participate in the management of the school, or share
any of the Company's privileges; that the visitors generally thought Mr. Pulleyne should, if funds for that
purpose were available, be now allowed to retire with an
allowance of l. per annum; that a new schoolroom
should be at once erected, the present being too small and
low, and therefore very unhealthy; and that, as funds
admitted, a new residence for the master should be erected;
but that, whatever alterations might be made, they trusted
a good playground would be made, as at present the
boys played in the public street with the lowest class of
children. Mr. Gay concluded by stating that the visitors
would be very thankful if something could now be done,
and that they would be ready at all times to give their best
advice on the subject.
The visitors then resumed the examination of the
scholars, being shortly afterwards joined by the Rev. A. T.
Hudson; and the deputation, after viewing the lands,
returned in the evening and were present at the distribution
of the prizes. On this occasion, as on the last, no scholar
was found worthy of the "Joddrell Prize," which was
therefore not given.
On the following morning the deputation again visited
the school premises, &c. We found the state of the buildings and their general character such as to render any
permanent repairs and alterations perfectly useless. If
attempted, it would be a rebuilding in a most unsatisfactory manner, and only money thrown away, if reconstruction at a remoter period be contemplated.
We cannot recommend anything being done beyond
some trifling repairs to keep out the rain from Mr. Pulleyne's house.
Rebuilding of school.
Bearing in mind the suggestions of the court, we devoted our best attention to the consideration of the distribution and condition of the building, the former standing
of the school and its future prospects, the intention of the
founders, and what we believe to be the earnest desire of
the governors; and we think that the time has now
arrived for the total reconstruction of the buildings, taking
down all the present ones, as well as the unsightly cottages
on the road-side purchased by the Company.
We recommend the school being continued as at present
till Christmas next, when it should be closed until, at
least, the new schoolroom be erected.
We would suggest that a plan and estimate for the whole
construction be obtained, to consist of a schoolroom, residence for the master, with sufficient accommodation for
boarders and necessary offices; that it should occupy a
site further back than that on which the present building
now stands, affording a good playground for the boys in
front of the building, to be enclosed by a dwarf wall with
The building, which we submit should be in the style
of the period of the foundation of the school, to face the
town (as the present one does), thus becoming a great
ornament to the street and a fit monument to the liberality
of the founder and the Fishmongers' Company.
By this change of site there would be no occasion to
interrupt the school during the construction of the
Advance of funds.
The deputation earnestly suggest that the Company
should advance to the trust upon loan, without interest,
the funds necessary for the new buildings; and should the
court consider it better to spread their advances over a
wider surface, we suggest that the new schoolroom only
should be built according to the general plan adopted, and
that the new master should continue to reside in the
present house until further funds could conveniently be
The visitors drew our serious attention to the absolute
want of a playground, but we are of opinion that this may
be deferred, at all events until the appointment of a new
Assistance towards the expenses.
We regret that the visitors could not hold out any hopes
to us of pecuniary assistance from the neighbourhood
towards the expense of rebuilding the school. We are
happy, however, to add, that the rector of Holt, and many
of the visitors, appear to take a very zealous interest in the
renewal of the school, and expressed their desire to see its
character restored to the position which it maintained when
some of them were themselves amongst its scholars.
Removal of present master.
We are decidedly of opinion, and which is shared unanimously by the visitors, that the present master of the
school, at his advanced age of 72, should be replaced by a
young and more efficient one. We think that, after so
lengthened a period of service as 48 years, during which,
we have every reason to believe, Mr. Pulleyne has faithfully
devoted his best energies to the school, he has a strong
claim to the acknowledgment and liberality of the court,
and is entitled to such a retiring pension as may prevent
his feeling too keenly his removal from his accustomed
dwelling and his old habits, and the loss of the privileges
of his position, and of the income he derived from it,
averaging probably from 150l. to 200l. per annum.
We venture to suggest that an annuity of not less than
100l. be granted him, together with a gratuity of 100l. to
cover the loss and expenses of his removal to another
His only other income appears to arise from church
preferment, yielding about 90l. per annum, of which he
now pays 40l. per annum for assistance, which would be
saved when he retires from the school.
A less pension than that suggested would not, we think,
adequately provide for his few remaining years, and give
him that comfort to which the court would consider him
entitled after a service of nearly half a century.
Mr. Pulleyne's feeling.
From a private conversation with Mr. Pulleyne, we
found him quite willing to place himself in the hands of
the court, and that, while he would prefer being released
from his duties, if some adequate provision could be made
for him, he was quite ready to continue his services,
though he admitted that they were becoming onerous to
him, especially in summer, when the low and ill-constructed
schoolroom became very oppressive.
We submit that the new master should have the selection of the "usher," and that the present one be retained
or changed by the governors at the master's recommendation; and that, in the event of his being discharged
after giving him due notice, he be presented with a gratuity
of 20l. to 30l.
Prospect of the school.
It is the opinion of the deputation and of the majority
of the visitors that, if the character of the school were
raised by the appointement of a fit and proper master, and
a greater number of boarders allowed to be taken, and the
school continued (as originally intended) as a grammar
school, there is every reason to believe that it would be
amply attended by the sons of the respectable families of
Holt and its neighbourhood, and obtain a reputation in
System of education.
The opinion of the visitors, and of such residents as we
had an opportunity of conversing with, is strongly in
favour of the present system of education being continued
and that classical classes be maintained; which appears
also the opinion of the neighbourhood, from the fact that
the largest proportion of even the present lower class of
scholars is entered for classics, there being now only four
boys who are not learning Latin. The Greek and Latin
languages would, however, continue to be taught (according to the present statutes) only to those scholars whose
parents or friends desire it.
Increase of boarders.
We agree with the visitors in their views, that the larger
the number of boarders allowed, the greater would be the
efficiency and higher the standard of the school; and we
recommend that the present rules and orders of the school
be reconsidered; and we think that the selection of fit and
proper persons as master and usher would be extremely
limited, unless the master be allowed to take more boarders
than 10, as at present sanctioned by the statutes.
We are bound to add, that there was not an unanimity
of opinion amongst the visitors as to the supply of candidates for the school from that class of society by which we
believe the court would wish to see it filled, as it was stated
by some of them that at the neighbouring school of North
Walsham (even with a good master), the numbers, from
some cause or other, had dwindled from a hundred to
about one dozen boys. This we have heard attributed to
the indiscriminate introduction into the school of boys of
Rev. E. Brummell
We feel much satisfaction in thinking that we have a
very efficient visitor in the Rev. E. Brummell, the rector
of Holt, who feels a strong interest in the school, and
whose attainments in mathematics and the classics
peculiarly qualify him for the examination of the scholars,
which he chiefly conducted on the present occasion.
In conclusion, we would assure the court that we have
devoted our best attention to the objects of our visitation,
and recommended a course which, in our judgment, while
it is best adapted to meet the requirements of the case,
would also reflect the greatest credit on the governors, and
we trust that the court will consider the matter in that
spirit of liberality which characterises the proceedings of
the Fishmongers' Company.
All which we beg to submit.
Signed by the Deputation.
Dated 23rd June, 1857.
The court having referred the said report to the Holt
Committee, that committee met on the 16th ult., and
agreed to the following recommendations, viz.:—
That at Christmas next the Rev. Benjamin Pulleyne be
allowed to retire, and that the services of the usher, Mr.
John Kent, be then dispensed with.
That a gratuity of 100l. be then presented to the Rev.
B. Pulleyne, and that an annuity of 100l. be granted to
him from that date.
That a gratuity of 30l. be then presented to Mr. Kent, and
That such gratuities and yearly annuity be from time to
time carried to the debit of the school and trust accounts,
but that the trust account be afterwards credited with the
amounts, and that the same be placed to the debit of the
Company's "general account."
The committee again met on the 20th ult., and resolved
on the following report, viz.:—
The committee having, agreeably to the directions of
the court, taken into consideration the remainder of the
report of the late deputation, beg to refer to their minutes
of the 16th inst., as to several recommendations upon certain masters contained in such report. As to the larger
question relating to the school itself, the committee had
hoped that an experiment might have been made with a
new master, retaining the buildings in their present state,
thereby ascertaining whether the educational demands of
the neighbourhood were such as to justify the Company in
incurring such large expense as the rebuilding of the
master's house and school would demand; but the deputation report that these buildings are in such a defective
state as to render the experiment wholly impossible. This
being the case, your committee inquired anxiously of the
gentlemen forming the deputation whether they had made
inquiry of the inhabitants of Holt, as well as of the visitors,
as to the wants of the town as well as neighbourhood, of
such a school as would be established with a new master
and new buildings. It appears that such inquiry was
made, and that an anxiety was expressed, both by the
inhabitants and the visitors, that the Company would
supply the want which they said certainly does exist.
Upon reference to specifications and plans for a new
schoolroom, made in 1850, the committee find that the
estimate for a new schoolroom was 500l.; and in referring
to Mr. Suter as to the cost of a master's residence, with
accommodation for 20 boarders, and the alteration of
ground consequent upon both, his opinion is that the expenditure of at least 5,000l. would be incurred to complete
The committee, in the event of the court determining
upon erecting a new building, beg to recommend the
suggestion of the deputation, viz., that the Company
should advance the necessary funds, without interest to the
trust, to be repaid as the funds of the trust will permit.
The commitee beg to state the above facts to the court;
but as so large a sum is involved in the ultimate decision
of this question, they think that it ought to be for the
court at large to determine, rather than any small section
of their body.
In order to adjust the present state of the trust account,
the committee recommend that the account be credited
with the charge made for members attending committees
since August 1836, and that in future such charge be not
carried to the debit of the trust.
The committee also submit to the consideration of the
court, that, in the event of the school premises being
entirely rebuilt, the cottages now standing to the south
thereof, which were purchased by the Company, and for
which a sum of 508l. 19s. 5¼d. was due to the Company at
Christmas last, would have to be taken down, and consequently that sum would have to be written off to the debit
of the Company.
The Statutes and Orders of the Free Grammar
School, founded by Sir John Gresham, Knight,
at Holt, in the county of Norfolk,
ordained by the Court of Assistants of the
Worshipful Company of Fishmongers of the
City of London, Governors of the said School,
the 2nd day of August 1858; and consented to and
approved by the Hon. and Right Reverend the Lord
Bishop of Norwich, the 8th day of September 1858.
The statutes and orders of the Free Grammar School,
founded by Sir John Gresham, knight, at Holt, in the
county of Norfolk, in the year 1554, were revised by the
governors and sanctioned by the Hon. and Right Reverend
the Lord Bishop of Norwich, 8th September 1858.
Thomas Boddington, Esq., Prime Warden
William Edwards, Esq.
Henry Towgood, Esq.
John Morley, Esq.
William Cubitt, Esq., Ald., M.P.
Joseph Underwood Esq., Renter-Warden.
William Beckwith Towse, Clerk.
Thomas Boddington, Esq., Prime Warden.
William Edwards, Esq., Second Warden.
|Edward Edwards, Esq.||Assistants.|
|William Flexman Vowler, Esq.|
|John Towgood, Esq.|
|James Weston, Esq.|
|Samuel Smith, Esq.|
Visitors of the Free Grammar School, founded by Sir
John Gresham, knight, in Holt, Norfolk:—
|1811.||Sir Richard Paul Jodrell, Bart., Sall House.|
|1823.||Randle Brereton, Esq., Blakeney.|
|1833.||Rev. John Custance Leak, LL.B., Rector of Little
|1835.||James Gay, Esq., Thurning.|
|1835.||Henry Ramey Upcher, Esq., Sherringham Hall.|
|1837.||Right Hon. Lord Hastings, Melton Hall.|
|1844.||Walter Hamilton Pemberton, Esq., Holt Hall.|
|1844.||Colonel Hon. Hugh Fitzroy, Stratton.|
|1845.||Hon. and Rev. Thomas Keppel, M.A., Hon. Canon
of Norwich; Rector of North Creake.|
|1848.||Rev. Anthony Thomas Hudson, B.A., Wiveton.|
|1849.||Alexander Boyd, Esq., Holt.|
|1849.||Thomas Boyd, Esq., Holt.|
|1851.||Rev. James Bulwer, M.A., Rector of Hunworth.|
|1851.||Rev. John M. Randall, Vicar of Langham.|
|1852.||John Clark, Esq., Holt.|
|1854.||Rev. Edward Brumell, B.D., Rector of Holt.|
|1857.||Rev. James Brady Sweet, M.A., Rector of Colkirk.|
|1857.||George Barker, Esq., Holt.|
|1857.||Rev. Patrick Comerford Law, B.A., Rural Dean,
Rector of North Repps.|
Rev. Charles Allen Elton, B.D., Fellow of Sidney Sussex
College, Cambridge. Appointed Master, 1858.
Statutes and Orders of Holt School, Norfolk.
Section I. Of the Scholars.
The number of free scholars shall be 50, chosen from
the town of Holt and its neighbourhood.
They shall be called Sir John Gresham's scholars, and
shall be instructed, free of expense, in reading, writing,
arithmetic, English grammar, history, geography, and latin;
and at the discretion of the master, in mathematics, geometry, and Greek.
Scholars (being of the age of 7 years or upwards, and
able to read) shall from time to time, as vacancies occur,
be admitted by order of the governors, or by the master,
with the approbation in writing of at least two of the
visitors, the master in the latter case being satisfied as to
the eligibility of the scholar; and a scholar may in like
manner be dismissed from the school.
The name and age of each free scholar, and the names
of the visitors with whose approbation he is admitted,
together with the dates of his admission and final departure
from the school, shall be registered in a book to be kept
for that purpose by the master, or by the usher under his
Every scholar at his admission shall be accompanied by
a parent or friend, who shall pay to the master 1s. for
entering such scholar's name in the register, and shall sign
an engagement that the scholar shall not be detained from
school except on account of sickness, nor removed without
one calendar month's notice in writing being given to the
master, and that he shall attend at the school, clean in his
person and neatly clothed, at the appointed hours, viz.,
from 9 to 12 in the forenoon, and from 2 to half-past 4 in
the afternoon; (fn. 2) or at such other hours as the governors
may from time to time order and direct.
The only holidays shall be—
One week at Easter,
Five weeks at Midsummer,
One week at Michaelmas,
Five weeks at Christmas,
And every Wednesday and Saturday afternoons. (fn. 2)
For the encouragement of the scholars, the governors
have founded an exhibition of 20l. per annum, to be held
(subject to conditions) for four years by a free scholar
removing from the school to any university of the United
Kingdom, upon proper certificates and good recommendation of the visitors and the master. (fn. 3)
The governors will pay two thirds of the cost of all
books (excepting writing books) used in the school by free
scholars, they paying the remaining one third.
A printed copy of this section shall be delivered to the
prent or friend of each scholar on his admission.
Section II. Of the Master.
There shall be one master, whose appointment shall be
in conformity to the following orders, viz.:—
An election of master shall take place every second year,
on the Monday before the feast of St. John the Baptist.
Upon any vacancy of the mastership, every candidate,
before his name be put on the balloting list, shall produce
satisfactory certificates of his qualifications for the office,
and shall engage, in writing, to sign (if elected) a bond,
in which the terms of his appointment to the office shall be
expressed, and by which he shall bind himself to resign
the same whenever called upon by the governors so to do.
The master shall have the superintendence and management of the school; direct the usher in, and take care that
he performs his several duties. He shall appoint the
books to be read in the different classes, and personally
instruct the scholars, more especially the higher classes, in
Latin, Greek, mathematics, and geometry; he shall read
prayers once a day in the school, or cause them to be read
by the usher; during school hours he shall constantly
wear a gown, to be provided by the governors; and shall
not be absent from his duties except on urgent occasions.
He shall not take upon him any cure or other employment without the previous consent of the governors in
He shall be allowed a salary of 200l. per annum, and a
further sum in case a residence be not provided for him by
He shall be allowed 15s. per annum for each of the free
scholars, for which he shall provide writing books, pens,
ink, and paper for their use. He shall also be allowed the
sums of 10s., 15s., 20., 25s., and 30s., annually, for each
boy in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th Latin classes respectively.
He shall have the privilege of taking 10 boarders, or
such other number as the governors may see fit.
Seven tons of coals will be provided annually by the
governors for use in the school.
Section III. Of the Usher.
The usher shall be appointed by the master, with the
approbation of the governors, and in like manner displaced.
He shall teach reading, writing, arithmetic, geography,
history, and English grammar, and be qualified to assist,
if necessary, in the instruction of the lower classes in Latin,
under the direction of the master; be shall direct the
opening, shutting, and cleansing of the school, and not
be absent from his duties without leave of the master.
He shall be allowed a salary of 110l. (fn. 4) per annum, providing his own board and lodging.
Section IV. Of the Visitors.
There shall be such a number of visitors of the school
appointed from time to time as the governors shall think
There shall be an examination of the free scholars publicly
in the school immediately before the Midsummer and
Christmas vacations respectively, in the presence of the
visitors; on which occasions the statutes shall be audibly
read by the master.
The master shall give to the visitors 10 days' notice of
the day appointed for each examination; and notice thereof
shall be put upon the church door on the preceding Sunday
by the parish clerk, who shall receive 2s. 6d. for his
The visitors shall certify the number and names of the
free scholars, the dates of their admissions, and the names
of the visitors with whose approbation they were admitted,
distinguishing their several classes and the books read by
each scholar; and shall report generally on the state of
the school, which report is to be transmitted by the master
to the governors.
We do consent and approve of the above
statutes and orders so far as by law we may.
John T. Norwich.
Norwich, 8th September 1858.
A Catalogue of Books given to the Library of the
Free Grammar School at Holt, in the County
of Norfolk, by the Worshipful Company of Fishmongers, London, Governors of the said school,
founded by Sir John Gresham, Knt.
|1.||Demosthenis & Æschinis Opera, Gr. & Lat.,
|2.||Aristophanis Comœdiæ, Gr. & Lat. Kusteri,
|3.||Dionysius Halicarnassæus, Gr. & Lat. Hudsoni,
Vol. 1. Oxon.||1704|
|4.||Diito Vol 2.||"|
|5.||Fabri Thesaurus Eruditionis Scholast. Vol. 1.
|6.||Ditto Vol. 2||"|
|7.||Montfaucon's Antiquities, Vol. 1 Lond.||1721|
|8.||Ditto Vol. 2||"|
|9.||Ditto Vol. 3||"|
|10.||Ditto Vol. 4||"|
|11.||Ditto Vol. 5||"|
|12.||Montfaucon's Antiquities of Italy Ditto.||1725|
|13.||Plutarchi Opera Omnia, Gr. & Lat., Vol. 1,
|14.||Ditto Vol. 2||"|
|15.||Martinii Lexicon Philologicum Francof.||1655|
|16.||Corpus Poetarum Latinorum, Vol. 1. Lond.||1713|
|17.||Ditto Vol. 2.||"|
|18.||Novum Testam. Græcum. Millii & Kusteri.,
|19.||Xenophontis Opera, Gr. & Lat. Francof.||1596|
|20.||Scapulæ Lexicon, Gr. & Lat. Apud Elzey.||1652|
|21.||Nizolii Thesaurus Linguæ Latinæ, Vol. 1, Basil.||1613|
|22.||Ditto Vol. 2||"|
|23.||Laertii Diogenis Vitæ Philosophorum, Gr. &
|24.||Pausaniæ Descriptio Græciæ, Gr. & Lat.,
|25.||Plautus. Lambini Lutet.||1577|
|26.||Isocratis Opera, Gr. & Lat. Basil.||1570|
|27.||Herodotus Halicarn, Gr. & Lat. Gronovii,
|28.||Euripidis Tragœdiæ, Gr. & Lat. per Barnes,
|29.||Budæi Comment. Linguæ Græcæ Venet.||1530|
|30.||Ferrarii Lexicon Geographicum Lond.||1657|
|31.||T. Ciceronis Opera, Vol. 1 Basil.||1534|
|32.||Ditto Vol. 2||"|
|33.||The Works of John Locke, Esq. Vol. 1, Lond.||1727|
|34.||Ditto Vol. 2,||"|
|35.||Ditto Vol. 3,||"|
|36.||Chambers' Cyclopædia; or Universal Dictionary
of Arts and Sciences||1739|
|38.||Servius in Virgilium Paris||1532|
|39.||Homerus cum Eustathio, Vol. 1 Basil.||1560|
|40.||Ditto Vol. 2||"|
|41.||Ditto Vol. 3||"|
|42.||Cooper's Thesaurus Lond.||1573|
|43.||Pagnini Lexicon Ditto||1577|
|44.||Calepini Dictionarium Ditto||1585|
|45.||Constantini Lexicon Genev.||1592|
|46.||Lloyd's Poetical Dictionary Lond.||1686|
|47.||Vossii Grammatica Magna Amst.||1695|
|48.||System of Geography, Vol. 1 Lond.||1747|
|49.||Ditto Vol. 2||"|
|50.||Stephen's Thesaurus, Vol. 1.|
|51.||Ditto Vol. 2.|
|52.||Ditto Vol. 3.|
|53.||Ditto Vol. 4.|
|1.||Vetus Testament, Gr. ex Vers. LXX Interpretum, curâ Lamberti Bos. Franeq.||1709|
|2.||Valerius Maximus, Notis Variorum L. Bat.||1726|
|3.||Phædri Fabulæ, Comment. Burmanni Ditto||1727|
|4.||Lucani Pharsalia, Notis Variorum L. Bat.||1728|
|5.||Horatius, Notis Bentleii Amst.||"|
|6.||Terentius, Notis Bentleii Ditto||1727|
|7.||C. Taciti Opera, Variorum Notis, Vol. 1,
|8.||Ditto Vol. 2||"|
|9.||Val. Flacci Argonauticon, Burmanni. L. Bat.||"|
|10.||Ovidii Opera, cum Notis Variorum, Vol. 1,
|11.||Ditto Vol. 2,||"|
|12.||Ditto Vol. 3,||"|
|13.||Ditto Vol. 4,||"|
|14.||Virgilii Opera, Notis Variorum, Masvicii,
Vol. 1 Leovard.||1717|
|15.||Virgilii Opera, Notis Variorum, Masvicii,
Vol. 2. Leovard.||1717|
|16.||Plinii Historia Naturalis, Notis Hardvini,
Vol. 1 Paris||1685|
|21.||Ciceronis Opera, Notis Varior. Verburgii,
Vol. 1 & 2 Amst.||1724|
|24.||Hederici Lexicon, Gr. per Patrick Lond.||1727|
|25.||Juvenalis Satyræ, Henninii Ultraj.||1685|
|26.||Suetonius, ex Recensione Grævii L. Bat.||1691|
|27.||Cluverii Geographia, a Bunone Lond.||1711|
|28.||Pindari Opera, Gr. & Lat. Benedicti Salmur.||1720|
|29.||Cornelius Nepos, Lambini Lutet.||1569|
|30.||Stephani (Car.) Dictionarium Historicum,
|31.||Vossii Institutiones Oratoriæ L. Bat.||1643|
|32.||Vossius de Arte Grammatica, Vol. 1 Amst.||1662|
|33.||Ditto Vol. 2||"|
|34.||Petronius, curâ Burmanni Traject.||1709|
|35.||Quinctiliani Opera, Burmanni, Vol. 1. L. Bat.||1720|
|36.||Ditto Vol. 2.||"|
|37.||Ditto Vol. 3.||"|
|38.||Ditto Vol. 4.||"|
|39.||Q. Ennii Fragmenta, curâ Hesselli Amst.||1707|
|40.||Homeri Ilias, Gr. & Lat. cum Annotationibus
S. Clarkii, Vol. 1 Lond.||1729|
|41.||Homeri, Idem, Vol. 2 Ditto||1732|
|42.||Homerus, Didymi Amst.||1656|
|43.||Littleton's Dictionary Lond.||1735|
|44.||Moll's Maps of the Geography of the Ancients,
|45.||Baskerville's Juvenal & Persius Bir.||1761|
|1.||Authores de Re Rustica Aldus.||1533|
|2.||L. Florus, Notis Variorum, Grævii Amst.||1702|
|3.||Cæsaris Commentarii, per Clarke Lond.||1720|
|4.||Hesiodus, Gr. & Lat. Clerici Amst.||1701|
|5.||Papinius Statius, Notis Variorum L. Bat.||1671|
|6.||Petavii Rationarium Temporum Ditto||1710|
|7.||Pomponii Melæ de Situ Orbis, Lib. 3, Notis
|8.||Ausonii Opera, Notis Variorum Amst.||1671|
|9.||Epicteti Enchiridion, & Tabula Cebetis, Gr. &
Lat. Gronovii Delphin.||1723|
|10.||Claudianus, Notis Variorum Amst.||1665|
|11.||Justini Historia, Notis Variorum L. Bat.||1719|
|12.||Varronis Opera Omnia, Notis Scaligeri,
|13.||Q. Curtius, Notis Pitisci, &c., Vol. 1. Hagæ
|14.||Ditto Vol. 2.||"|
|15.||Lucretius, Notis Tho. Creech Oxon.||1695|
|16.||Herodianus, Gr. & Lat. Ditto||1678|
|17.||Theocritus, Gr. cum Scholiis Ditto||1676|
|18.||Eutropius, &c. Ditto||1703|
|19.||Velleius Paterculus Ditto||1711|
|20.||Sallustius, Notis Variorum Amst.||1690|
|21.||Grammatica Hebræa, per Bennet Lond.||1727|
|22.||Martialis Epigram. Notis Variorum L. Bat.||1627|
|23.||Luciani Opera, Gr. & Lat., Benedicti, Vol. 1.
|24.||Ditto Vol. 2.||"|
|25.||Poetæ Minores Græci Cantab.||1652|
|26.||Senecæ Tragœdiæ, Notis Variorum Amst.||1682|
|27.||Catullus, Tibullus, Propertius, Variorum,
|28.||Senecæ Opera, Notis Variorum, Vol. 1. Amst.||1673|
|29.||Ditto Vol. 2.||"|
|30.||Ditto Vol. 3.||"|
|31.||Livii Historia, Clerici, Vol. 1 Amst.||1710|
|32.||Ditto Vol. 2||"|
|33.||Ditto Vol. 3||"|
|34.||Ditto Vol. 4||"|
|35.||Ditto Vol. 5||"|
|36.||Ditto Vol. 6||"|
|37.||Ditto Vol. 7||"|
|38.||Ditto Vol. 8||"|
|39.||Ditto Vol. 9||"|
|40.||Ditto Vol. 10||"|
|41.||Dionysii Longini de Sublimitate Commentarius,
Gr. & Lat. Editore, Z. Pearce Lond.||1732|
|42.||Musarum Anglicanarum Analecta, Vol. 1,
|43.||Ditto Vol. 2.||"|
|44.||Dionysii Geographia, Gr. & Lat. Edwardi
|45.||Holmes's New Grammar of the Latin Tongue,
2nd Edit. Ditto||1737|
|46.||Ditto, Greek Grammar, 2nd Edit. Ditto||"|
|47.||Ditto, Compendium of the Hist. of England,
Eng. & Lat. Ditto||"|
|48.||Ditto, Art of Rhetoric; or, Elements of Oratory,
|49.||Ditto, Clavis Grammaticalis; or Examination
of the Latin and Greek Grammars||"|
|50.||Sophoclis Trag. Gr. & Lat. Cantab.||1665|
|51.||Barne's Anacreon, Gr. & Lat. Ditto||1705|
|52.||Corn. Nepotis cum Notis Variorum Amst.||1707|
|53.||Greek Antiquities, Vol. 1 Lond.||1751|
|54.||Ditto Vol. 2||"|
|55.||Roman Antiquities Ditto||1754|
|56.||Clarke's Homer's Odyssey, Vol. 1 Lond.||1758|
|57.||Ditto Vol. 2.||"|
A pair of Globes and a Compass.
An Account of the Re-opening of the Gresham Free
Grammar School, at Holt, Norfolk, on the 3rd
of November 1858; including the Address delivered by Thomas Boddington, Esq., Prime Warden
of the Fishmongers' Company; with Extracts from
the Report of the Deputation appointed by the Court
of the 2nd August 1858; also, an Account of the
Proceedings on that occasion, collected from the
"Norwich Mercury," the "Norfolk News," and
"Norfolk Chronicle"; followed by a Biographical
Sketch of Sir John Gresham, Knt., Founder of the
Extracts from the Report of the Deputation, appointed by Order of the Court of the 2nd of
August 1858, to open the Schoolroom lately built
1858. 2nd Nov Deputation meet at Holt.
In pursuance of the above order, the deputation, consisting of Thomas Boddington, Esq., Prime Warden,
William Edwards, Esq., Second Warden, Joseph Underwood, Esq., Renter-Warden, and John Towgood, Gilbert
W. Mackmurdo, James Spicer, George Moore, and Sidney
Gurney, Esqrs., Assistants, accompanied by Mr. W. B.
Towse, and Mr. Suter, assembled in Holt, on Tuesday, the
On the following morning the deputation viewed the
new building, which appears to have been substantially
erected by Mr. Orman, of Ipswich, under the management
and superintendence of Mr. Suter.
The room is 57 feet long, by 20 feet wide, and 18 feet
high, and Mr. Suter seems to have carefully studied the
important matters of light and ventilation, whilst the
exterior of the building, which is constructed of red and
black brick (although at present but a wing of the old
building), presents a pleasing feature, and promises to be a
great improvement to that part of the town of Holt. The
room is divided by a partition with folding doors, so
arranged as to unite the advantage of two separate class
rooms, and on occasions to enable the whole interior to be
thrown into one. Two bookcases at the west end of the
room have been made for the valuable Greek and Latin
books presented by the Company in 1729, and for the
small library of English works presented in 1844, as well
as for other books which may be added to the collection.
Between the east end of the school and the barn a playground has been formed, the north side thereof being
appropriated to a play shed, a washing place, and other
conveniences for the master and the scholars. The ground
however, being very confined, directions were given to the
Rev. C. A. Elton to have the small meadow immediately
connected with the playground levelled and appropriated as
a cricket ground for the recreation of the scholars.
Invitations (in pursuance of the orders given by the
committee of the 27th of September last to the Prime
warden and renter-warden) were sent to the visitors of
the school and to the Honourable and Right Reverend
the Lord Bishop of Norwich, to the Marquis of Lothian,
Earl of Orford, Earl of Leicester, Lord Hastings, and
Lord Sondes, also to the Dean of Norwich, and several
Clergymen, noblemen, and gentlemen of influence, resident
at Holt and its neighbourhood, to meet the deputation in
Holt. The Bishop of Norwich and Lord Hastings were
prevented attending in consequence of illness; and from
different causes many others were unable to be present.
Re-opening of the school, 3rd November.
It having been arranged that the re-opening of the
school should be celebrated, first, by an attendance in
Holt church, as on the occasion of the appointment of
the late master, the Rev. Benjamin Pulleyne, in 1809,
application was made to the rector, the Rev. E. Brumell,
to read the afternoon prayers, and afterwards to give a
short address upon the interesting event. That gentleman, however, being but recently married, was unavoidably absent, and the Rev. J. Bulwer, of Hunworth, one
of the visitors of the school, kindly undertook to perform
Attendance in Holt church.
Most of the visitors assembled in the church about
twelve o'clock, when prayers were read and an appropriate
discourse delivered by the Rev. J. Bulwer, taking his text
from the fourteenth chapter of Proverbs and the thirteenth
verse. The deputation walked from the school to the
church in their livery gowns, preceded by two mace-bearers,
the Company's beadle, the clerk, the Rev. J. Bulwer,
and the chaplain to St. Peter's Hospital (the Rev. G. W.
Cockerell), and, after service, returned in the like manner
to the school.
Déjeûner in the school-room.
About two o'clock the guests invited on the occasion
assembled in the schoolroom, to partake of a cold collation, laid on long tables down each side and across the
top and bottom of the room. The walls had been decorated
the day before with festoons of evergreens, mixed with
flowers, and hung with various flags, including the banner
of the Gresham family, and at each end of the room that
of the Fishmongers' Company, the whole producing a
lively and agreeable effect.
After the substantial part of the déjeûner was over, the
prime warden gave the health of Her Majesty, after which
that of the Bishop of Norwich, regretting the unavoidable absence of his Lordship, expressed in a note, which
he read to the company. The prime warden then
addressed the meeting on the subject of the school, and
introduced the newly elected master, the Rev. C. A. Elton.
Several other toasts were afterwards given by the prime
warden. The whole of the proceedings of the day are
reported in the "Norwich Mercury," and other Norfolk
papers of the 6th instant.
The entertainment seemed to give great satisfaction.
Dr. Buck, the celebrated organist of Norwich Cathedral,
feeling deeply the kindness done to him by the governors
in partly educating his nephew (now the Rev. F. Buck)
in Holt school, and afterwards granting him an exhibition of 20l. per annum, which he has lately resigned,
requested that his nephew, as well as himself, might be
present on the occasion.
An invitation having accordingly been sent, he attended,
bringing with him a pianist, and three choristers of his
cathedral, who first sang in the church, and added much
to the enjoyment of the day by singing some admirable
glees and songs after the repast. He also presented to
each guest a small printed book of the musical performance
during the entertainment.
Nov. 4th. Deputation meet at the school to elect the scholars.
On the following morning, the deputation (with the
exception of George Moore and Sidney Gurney, Esqrs.,
who were obliged to leave Holt) attended in the schoolroom, to receive (in pursuance of notice given) the applications from parents for the admission of their children
into the school. The deputation, having first agreed to
the form of a document for parents to sign on the admission of their sons into the school, by which they agreed
to conform to the statutes as lately revised, examined a
report submitted by the master, the Rev. C. A. Elton,
as to the circumstances and respectability of the candidates, and as to their educational wants and future
Forty-five applications examined.
The deputation then went minutely through each application, for the admission of 45 scholars, most of
whom, with their parents or friends, attended before the
As the candidates appeared before the deputation, the
prime warden informed them that their applications and
references had been duly considered (together with those
of every candidate submitted to them), and that the nomination should be announced at the end of the meeting,
upon which they retired in succession.
Thirty-four scholars elected.
The whole list of candidates having been gone through
and considered, the deputation decided upon electing
34 scholars, who, with their parents or friends, were
then called in, and addressed by the prime warden.
Sixteen scholars subsequently elected.
Since these nominations, 16 more scholars have been
elected, to complete the total number of 50 free boys,
according to the statutes of the foundation.
The deputation had not an opportunity of seeing the
usher, Mr. Phillips, appointed by the Rev. Mr. Elton,
that gentleman not having arrived during their stay at
5th Nov. Deputation return to London.
The deputation having completed their business, returned to London on Friday, the 5th of November.
The deputation conclude their report by praying that
the step taken by the Company, in building a new schoolroom, and in the selection of a new master, may prove as
conducive to the benefit of the future scholars of Sir John
Gresham's school, as every one connected with its future
prosperity seemed to expect, and as the governors can
desire, and by strongly recommending to the consideration
of the court the completion of the building as soon as it
may be deemed reasonable to carry it out.
Signed by the deputation, and dated
18th Nov. 1858.
An Account of the Opening of the New Schoolroom
at Holt, November 3rd, 1858. Collected from the
Reports in the "Norwich Mercury," "Norfolk News,"
and "Norfolk Chronicle."
Revival of the Free Grammar School.
The interest created by the revival of the Gresham Free
Grammar School was evident by the notice taken of the
looked-for occurrence by the local papers. The following
appeared in the "Norfolk News" of Oct. 30:—
"We are glad to learn that the ancient Free Grammar
School in this town, founded by Sir John Gresham, is
about to be re-opened, and that it is arranged for a deputation of the governors—the Worshipful Company of
Fishmongers of the City of London—to come down on
Wednesday, the 3rd of November, to open the schoolroom,
which has recently been rebuilt, and to introduce the
newly appointed master. The gentleman selected is the
Rev. Charles Allen Elton, late Lecturer and Fellow of
Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, where he obtained a
high position in the mathematical Tripos. He is well
known as a distinguished scholar, and has been chosen
on more than one occasion by the master and fellows of
his college to examine the cathedral school at Gloucester.
Mr. Elton, we understand, has recently been residing at
Willingham, in Cambridgeshire, where he officiated for
upwards of six years as curate, with full charge of that
important parish, and where, from his devotion to his
clerical duties, and the ability and address exhibited in
school management, he gained the general respect and
affection of his parishioners. We hope we may accept as
an auspicious augury of the success of the Holt school
the appointment of the present master, who is well known
to have given much of his time and energies to the theory
and practice of education. From all that we can learn
there is every ground for confidence that the re-establishof the school under such auspices will be beneficial not
only to the town of Holt and its neighbourhood, but to
the county generally."
Three hundred years ago Sir John Gresham founded
in this town a Free Grammar School, and endowed it with
certain property to be held in trust by "the Wardens and
"Commonalty of the Mystery of Fishmongers" in London. The school has educated 50 boys at a time, chosen
from the town and neighbourhood, besides others not on
the foundation, but taken as boarders by the master. The
structure is Elizabethan, and afforded accommodation
not only for the school, but also for the master's residence.
At Christmas last the Rev. Benjamin Pulleyne, who had
presided over the establishment for nearly 50 years,
tendered his resignation in consequence of his advanced
age and his increasing desire to be more closely united
with his parishioners at Weybourne. The rev. gentleman's
withdrawal was of course accepted, but not without
regret, for few who have occupied a position of such responsibility have discharged their duties with so much
satisfaction, and have, on surrendering office, carried with
them a more sincere respect and esteem than is entertained
for Mr. Pulleyne by those who, as youths, received their
education under his care and direction. Mr. Pulleyne's
resignation was deemed by the Worshipful Company of
Fishmongers a fitting opportunity for imparting fresh
vigour to the institution by the erection of a new and
more commodious schoolroom, and the election of a
younger and consequently a more active master. The
old school-house, which bore marks of the destroying hand
of time, could not be properly repaired or extended so as
to suit the exigencies or requirements of the present day;
and a new room has therefore been built on a plan
furnished by Richard Suter, Esq., of London, who has on
other occasions acted as the Company's architect.
The new schoolroom is erected on the left-hand side of
the old building, and abuts upon the road leading to the
parish church. The contrast between the new and the
old structures is as marked as it well could be, the deep
red colour of the brickwork throwing the dirty gray of
its plaster-covered companion completely in the shade,
and presenting anything but an agreeable and harmonious
who'e. It is, however, we believe, the intention of the
Company hereafter to confirm their right to be remembered with gratitude in Holt, by a residence which shall
render the work complete, and worthy the founder and
renovators. The interior of the school is spacious and
lofty, and calculated to afford accommodation for a large
number of scholars. It is an oblong room, 57 feet long,
by 20 feet in width, and 18 feet high, lighted by several
lofty windows. An apparatus is fixed by which abundant
ventilation may be obtained. For several feet from the
ground the sides of the room are boarded with stained
pine, having a flat panelled ceiling of the same material,
with provision for dormitories over the school, if required.
Upon the walls are tablets emblazoned with the arms of
the Fishmongers' Company, and bearing the names of the
deputations who have visited the school at various periods
since its foundation. The new building, which is about
twice the size of the original structure, is of red and black
brick, in the style of the period in which the whole was
erected; and we think that the governors have shown
good taste in restoring the school very nearly to the form
in which the trust was originally committed to them by
Sir John Gresham. The style has been carried out plain,
but not niggardly, and the few parts which may be thought
to claim any attention, would, we think, bear comparison—as far as they go—with similar features in the
several superior examples of brick Tudor buildings with
which our own and the neighbouring county of Suffolk so
Mr. Orman, of Ipswich, was the contractor, and he
appears to have done his work well.
The inaguration or reinvigoration of a school in a
district like that of Holt, and particularly at a time when
the feeling for an enlarged system is so universally prevalent, would naturally be a matter of considerable interest
to all who have been scholars or who have children to
educate. The great name of the founder of this school,
and its connexion with a Company, whose liberality and
wealth are equally known, would also create a further
interest in the neighbourhood and in the town, since to
both the quality of the education, as well as the mode by
which access to the school was to be obtained, was of
considerable importance. In this case the Worshipful
Company of Fishmongers apparently have placed the
school on a liberal foundation, while they have guarded
the selection of free scholars by very proper, yet not
stringent, restrictions. Fifty are to be the number of free
scholars; they can be admitted from seven, as vacancies
occur, by order of the governors, or by the master, with
the approbation in writing of at least two of the visitors,
who are selected from the nobility, clergy, and gentry of
the neighbourhood, and who may therefore be supposed
to have competent means of knowing the character of the
parties who may apply. The hours of school are from nine
to twelve, and from two to four; the holidays are one
week at Easter, five weeks at Midsummer, one week at
Michaelmas, five weeks at Christmas, and every Saturday
afternoon. An exhibition of 20l. a year can be held for
four years by a free scholar removing from the school to
any university upon proper certificates from the master and
the visitors. The governors pay two thirds of the cost of
all books (except writing-books), the free scholars paying
The master is to be elected every second year, and to
engage in a bond, in which the terms of his appointment
are expressed, to resign whenever called upon by the
governors so to do. He is to take no cure without leave,
and his salary is 200l. per annum, and a further sum in
case a residence be not provided for him. He is allowed
15s. per annum for each free scholar, he providing writingbooks, pens, ink, and paper; and he is also to be allowed
10s., 15s., 20s., 25s., and 30s. annually for each boy in
the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th Latin classes respectively.
He has the privilege of taking 10 boarders, or such other
number as the governors may see fit; and seven tons of
coals are allowed annually for the use of the school.
The usher's salary is 80l. An examination is to take
place before the visitors at Midsummer and Christmas,
of which notice is to be given on the church door the preceding Sunday. The visitors to report generally on the
state of the school.
The instructions to be in reading, writing, arithmetic,
English grammar, history, geography, Latin, and, at the
discretion of the master, mathematics, geometry, and Greek.
Such are in brief the outlines of the statutes of the
school, which the prime warden of this company, Thomas
Boddington, Esq., and a number of its members, opened
on Wednesday, first by divine service, and immediately
after by a déjeûner in the newly-erected schoolroom.
The ladies and gentlemen, and clergy in the neighbourhood, who had been invited to the celebration, began to
arrive between eleven and twelve, and about the hour
appointed the church was nearly full.
The prime warden and the members of the deputation,
accompanied by the clerk of the Company, attended at the
school-house, where, having robed, they proceeded to church,
preceded by their mace-bearers, officials, and chaplain, and
took their seats at the entrance of the chancel. The service
commenced by an anthem, sung, without accompaniment,
by four of the cathedral choristers in a manner that did
them much credit, although the effect of Mendelssohn's
music was greatly marred by the want of the organ.
Prayers were read by the Rev. J. Bulwer, in the absence of
the Rev. E. Brumell, the rector. The sermon was preached
from the 4th chapter of Proverbs, 13th verse—"Take fast
hold of instruction; let her not go; keep her; for she is
thy life." The rev. preacher said it was his intention to
take a short general view of education, as it affected man's
position in this and the future life. It was a trite illustration which likened the mind of man to the soil he was
appointed to cultivate. "Man's nature," said the great
Lord Bacon, "runs either to herbs or weeds; therefore let
him seasonably water the one and destroy the other."
If the soil were neglected it became a rank and foul mass,
overrun with noxious and offensive weeds, and the abode
of hurtful reptiles; but if cultivated with care, and prepared to receive and extract the blessings of heaven, it
presented a prospect grateful to the senses, and fertile in
whatever was good and useful. Just so if the human mind
were left to itself, without direction or control, the reason
lay in darkness, the appetites and passions became inflamed,
and evil habits became permanent, until at length wickedness tyrannised over the whole man, and he became lost
both with regard to this and the future world. But if
early and wholesome instruction were given, if the young
mind were taught to value the objects on which true happiness depended, and to thirst after knowledge, thence would
proceed the dutiful and affectionate child, the useful member of society, and the hopeful candidate for a happier
estate hereafter. Looking at instruction as regarded the
understanding, there was nothing which more strongly
impressed the mind of the thinking man than the prodigious contrast between the lowest state of uneducated
nature, and the highest state of mental culture or civilization. The untutored savage, ignorant of nature and the
use of everything around him, roamed the shore or the
woods in search of whatever accident might present to his
wants. He might succeed, and, having satisfied the cravings of hunger, he sank into a state of torpor, until, once
more aroused by the wants of nature, he again sought for
the means of satisfying them, and if they could not be
found, even his poor life could not be saved. Such had
been the state of existence on both the continents of
America, and in other regions of the globe, where life had
been without enjoyment, and existence a burden. But of
what was man capable? In the gradual progress of
society, from the humblest beginnings, observation grew on
observation, the aged communicated knowledge to the
young, one generation helped the next, and as circumstances occurred, the reason was strengthened, new combinations arose and experience put them to use, the mind
learnt to reflect on what passed without, the likeness of one
state of things to another taught men to foresee the future,
and thus gradually man became a highly intellectual creature. As the principles and uses of things were from time
to time discovered, the blessings of earth, air, fire, and
water were extracted, nature was made to bestow her
treasures on all that lived, and things of beauty and perfection gladdened the heart of man; cities were built, ports
were opened, commerce connected distant lands, and the
knowledge, as well as the products of nations, were mutually
interchanged; hence, arts and science arose, knowledge
begat knowledge, the human mind became enlarged, man
became a wonder in his attainments to himself, and his
achievements raised his nature, and reflected glory on his
Maker. Herein the wisdom of God seemed more admirable
than if man had been at once formed in the full vigour of
his faculties. But man was not furnished with reason and
understanding alone. There were also implanted in his
nature, and for the wisest and best purposes, affections and
passions. All were conscious of desires or dislikes, of
gratitude or resentment, of self-love or sympathy, of approving or disapproving tendencies, and of the more intense
feelings of joy or sorrow, friendship or hatred, admiration
or depreciation. These things gave energy and effect to
human life, but, permitted to become unruly, to operate as
mere impulses that sway the mind, every evil that rendered
an individual wretched and disturbed society, arose uncontrolled. Here instruction, the dictates of wisdom, the
lessons of a well-conducted education, converted into
blessings those lively affections which, if not controlled by
education, and not directed by religious and virtuous
motives, impelled all the excesses that poisoned human
happiness. When the motive was good, when the object
to be gained was praiseworthy, then these lively feelings,
this warmth of heart, rising to virtuous enthusiasm, gave
energy to those worthy exertions in the cause of benevolence, both public and private, which seemed to ennoble
our nature; but when reason and religion were not the
guides, when ambition, vanity, avarice, or other selfish
passions ruled the heart, then were to be noted the fatal
consequences on families, communities, and nations. We
had heard of tremendous examples in our own time in the
various revolutions on the continent, and the troubles of
more distant lands, where the bonds of society were broken,
the domestic ties violated, public institutions demolished,
the wise, the good, and the moderate sacrificed to ambition,
and vice inflamed into madness. We, thank God! had
been preserved from these calamities, our public or private
institutions had given instruction to every class, and taught
us to value the blessings we enjoyed. Wholesome instruction had been early imbibed, we had been taught what
miseries followed in the end of the tyranny of our passions,
what happy effects followed from the direction of our affections to worthy purposes; and when we at the same time
had been so guided by precept and example as to feel in
our own conduct the blessing of instruction, the whole
course of life took its tone and colour from such guidance,
and our friends in society, as well as ourselves, reaped the
substantial and lasting benefits of it. Even with respect to
the present life, were we so devoid of reason, independently
of revelation, as to consider it our only portion, even then
instruction would be a blessing. But when an educated
man had been taught the higher lessons of revelation, then
truly instruction, as the text declared, became life indeed,
and the lessons of the Bible sowed the seeds of eternal life.
Having dwelt upon the blessings of religious instruction,
the rev. preacher went on to observe, that those who were
in the possession of education, should the more earnestly
desire it for those who needed it, and whom Providence
had made the objects of their care. There was abundant
testimony as to the opinions of the most enlightened
characters in England on this great question; and whatever difference of opinion might prevail on minor points
among those who were benevolently carrying out the important work—thanks to their efforts thousands were from
day to day growing in useful knowledge, religion, piety,
and virtue. He did not address any one present who
thought that a humble position in life ought to be denied
a better education, lest it should tend to make them scorn
their proper duties, and thus render them bad members of
the community. Unless indifference to religion and morals
were instilled, instead of the pure principles of Christianity,
that could not happen. In every human breast God had
implanted, in some degree, the seeds of every talent and
every virtue, and they were met that day to ask God's
blessing on efforts to expand the blossom and produce the
fruit for the benefit of society and the glory of the Almighty. Might God grant to this school His abundant
blessing; might He direct and guide the minds of those
who set over it to that course which should most conduce
to the benefit here and hereafter of those committed to
their charge; and might all who were privileged to attend
this school be esteemed for their virtues as well as for their
endowments; and, after a useful and Christian life, he
made happy with Christ in the glory of his heavenly
After service a large party of ladies and gentlemen sat
down to a sumptuous repast in the schoolroom, which had
been appropriately decorated for the occasion.
At each end a purple banner displayed the arms of the
Company, bearing the Company's motto, "All worship be
to God only;" the walls were festooned with flowers and
evergreens, and numberless flags and banners formed a
gay canopy above the heads of the company.
The guests included, in addition to the deputation of the
Fishmongers' Company, viz.:—
Thomas Boddington, Esq., prime warden.
William Edwards, Esq., second warden.
Joseph Underwood, Esq., renter-warden.
|John Towgood, Esq.||Assistants.|
|G. W. Mackmurdo, Esq.|
|James Spicer, Esq.|
|Geo. Moore, Esq.|
|Sidney Gurney, Esq.|
The Rev. G. Cockerell, chaplain to the Company.
W. B. Towse, Esq., clerk to the Company.
Rev. C. A. Elton, the new master of the grammar
R. Suter, Esq., architect of the building.
Miss Boddington, sister of the prime warden.
Mrs. John Towgood.
Sir Willoughby Jones, Bart., Cranmer Hall.
Lieut.-Colonel the Hon. F. Astley, Burgh Hall.
James Gay, Esq., Thirning Hall.
W. H. Pemberton, Esq., and Mrs. Pemberton, Holt
G. Barker, Esq., and Mrs. Barker, Holt Lodge.
Rev. P. C. Law and the Miss Laws, North Repps
Rev. A. and Mrs. Dashwood, Thornage Rectory.
Rev. Jas. Lee Warner and Mrs. Lee Warner, of New
Rev. E. R. and Mrs. Jodrell, Saxlingham.
Rev. J. G. and Mrs. Girdlestone, Kelling Rectory.
Rev. James Bulwer, Hunworth Rectory.
Rev. J. R. and Mrs. Anderson, Barningham Rectory.
Rev. J. B. Sweet, Colkirk Rectory.
Rev. J. C. Leak, Rectory, Little Barningham.
C. W. Cozens Hardy, Esq., and Mrs. Hardy, Letheringsett Hall.
Rev. B. Pulleyne, Mrs. Pulleyne, and Miss Pulleyne,
W. H. Scott, Esq., and Mrs. Scott, Aylsham.
John Clark, Esq., Holt.
Mrs. Gunton, Matlask Hall.
Rev. R. and Mrs. Shuckburgh, Aldboro' Rectory.
Rev. G. and Mrs. Bryan, Swanton Novers.
Rev. A. Hudson, Wiveton.
The Misses Partridge, Hoveton.
Rev. J. W. and Mrs. Flavell, Ridlington Rectory.
Rev. Dr. Fitch, Aylmerton.
Rev. W. Eaton, Bodham.
J. Gay, Esq., Jun., Thirning Hall.
Randle Brereton, Esq., Blakeney.
J. Kitson, Esq., Norwich.
Dr. Buck, Norwich.
H. S. Ransom, Esq., and Miss Ransom, Holt.
P. Ransom, Esq., and Mrs. P. Ransom, Elmham.
G. Wilkinson, Esq., Holt.
T. Slann, Esq., Holt.
F. Parmeter, Esq., Jun., Aylsham.
W. Bircham, Esq., Reepham.
John Hales, Esq., and Mrs. Hales, Holt.
Miss Mott, Norwich.
The Misses Girdlestone, Holt.
The Misses Catton, Holt.
W. Bolding, Esq., Weybourne.
E. Julius, Esq., Holt.
W. Rippingall, Esq., Langham.
John Banks, Esq., Holt.
Mrs. Banks, Holt.
E. Skrimshire, Esq., and Miss E. Skrimshire, Holt.
W. Purdy, Esq., Salthouse.
R. Chamberlain, Esq., Norwich.
R. Seaman, Esq., Norwich.
H. Bircham, Esq., Norwich.
J. Sayers, Esq., Field Dalling.
G. Carthew, Esq.
C. Hardy, Esq., and Mrs. Hardy, Cley.
J. Wright, Esq.
W. Sheringham, Esq., and Mrs. Sheringham, Holt.
R. Bacon, Esq., Norwich.
R. England, Esq.
&c. &c. &c.
The Lord Bishop, the Very Rev. the Dean, the Marquis
of Lothian, Earl of Orford, Earl of Leicester, Lord Hastings, and Lord Sondes, Sir John Boileau, Bt., J. Scott
Chad, Esq., Col. Fitzroy, Gurney Hoare, Esq., and othe
gentlemen of the county were invited, but were unable to
be present. Masters Smith, Mann, and Baldry were in
attendance, and sang some choice selections during the
evening to the evident gratification of the company.
The déjeûner comprised all that the good taste of this
celebrated Company could suggest or procure, and the
wines, which were brought down expressly from their own
cellars, were of the very finest quality. The substantials
were provided by Mr. Parke, of the Feathers, and were
first rate, while the arrangement and attention did both
himself and his establishment great credit.
The prime warden presided, and was supported on the
right by Sir Willoughby Jones, Bart., and on his left by
the Rev. J. Bulwer. When this large company was seated,
the appearance of the school was exceedingly brilliant.
The Prime Warden first proposed "The health of the
Queen," a sovereign who not only possessed the entire
confidence and the sincerest affections of her people, but
who also claimed the admiration and esteem of the world.
She had already reigned many years over us, and he would
express the hope that her reign might be prolonged for
many years to come, and insure to us a continuance of
those blessings of peace and of liberty which we had
This toast was drunk standing, and with three times
three cheers; and was followed by the National Anthem,
beautifully sung by the boys from the Norwich cathedral
The Prime Warden said—Before he had the honour of
addressing them on the subject of their meeting to-day, he
must express the regret of the deputation at the absence of
the Bishop of Norwich, which they regretted the more, as
his lordship, to whom the statutes of the school had been
submitted for his sanction and approval, had been willing
to show great interest in the success of the foundation.
He knew he was speaking the sentiments of all present
when he said that no bishop ever entered more thoroughly
into the interests of his diocese, or considered with more
zeal, care, and solicitude the position as well as the wants
and requirements of the various churches under his charge
than the present Bishop of Norwich. (Hear, hear.) He
trusted that health and strength would be given to his
lordship equal to the vigour of his desire to promote in all
things the glory of God, and to fulfil those arduous duties
which attached to his sacred office. (Hear.) In the absence of his lordship, which they all regretted exceedingly,
he begged to propose his health, and he begged to couple
with that toast the name of the Rev. J. Lee Warner.
(Applause.) Before he sat down, it might be satisfactory
to the meeting to hear him read a note which the bishop
had been pleased to address to the deputation. It was
dated from the Palace, October the 27th. In it his lordship said—"I beg to acknowledge your kind letter accompanying a copy of the revised statutes of the Holt
School. I much regret that my engagements will not
allow me to meet you at Holt on the 3rd of November.
I should have been truly glad to have been present on
so interesting an occasion. I trust that it may please
God to prosper the efforts made by your honourable
Company to make this grammar school a sound and an
efficient means of education in the town and neighbourhood of Holt." (Applause.)
The prime warden concluded by proposing the health of
"the bishop and clergy," and coupled with the toast the
name of the Rev. James Lee Warner. (Applause.)
The Rev. J. Lee Warner, in responding, said, when
he entered this noble room and looked round under the
evergreens and flowers with which it was so tastefully
decorated he imagined that he noted the absence of his
very worthy friend, the rector of this parish. The occasion
of that absence was shortly afterwards hinted to him, and
it was to that circumstance that he believed he was indebted for the honour of being called upon to address the
company on this occasion. With respect to the absence of
their friend, all he could say was, that he wished him a
pleasant excursion and a speedy and safe return—(hear,
hear)—and he was sure that his friend would have performed the task which now devolved upon him (Mr. Lee
Warner) much better than he could expect to do. With
respect to the bishop of this diocese, he was so well known
to them all, and so justly valued, that he was sure it would
be unnecessary for him to say anything in his behalf,
saving and excepting, that he, in common with the clergy,
felt, and must necessarily feel, proud of the honour done
to him on this occasion, and of the terms in which the
prime warden had introduced the toast. With respect to
the clergy generally, he thought he might say, without
arrogance, that they were the friends of education. (Hear,
hear.) If he were called upon to produce proof of that
assertion, he would appeal to the list of subscriptions to
any national school in this kingdom. (Applause.) The
clergy were undoubtedly the friends of education. They
did not, of course, arrogate this title exclusively to themselves; on the contrary, they rejoiced to think that the
cause of education was being extended and promoted in
every way. It had been mentioned to him, and if he were
wrong there were those here who were able to contradict
him, that the wish of the patrons and supporters of this
school was to throw the doors of education as widely open
as possible—in fact, to open them a little wider than
they had hitherto been opened. (Hear, hear.) He confessed that he was of those who rejoiced in this. (Hear,
hear.) They had been very properly reminded, in the
admirable discourse they had heard this morning, that
they were working to educate men for eternity. (Hear.)
Strange, then, would it be if they did not rejoice in every
opportunity of beginning the education of those immortal
beings as early as they could obtain them; for this life was
the portal to eternity. (Hear, hear.) He believed there
was on this point some little difference of opinion, but he
was going to say that he rejoiced that the doors of education were thrown open, and about to be thrown open more
than ever, to their dissenting brethren. (Hear, hear.) It
was the case in the universities, and he had been told that
it was likely to be the case here. (Applause.) When he
looked back to the founders of this school, he looked to
Sir John Gresham, and the times in which he lived. He
knew that the statutes of many of these schools were based
on rather a restricted foundation, but he imagined that it
was the privilege of posterity to supplement the good deeds
of their worthy ancestors—(hear, hear)—and had Sir John
Gresham lived in the present day, he imagined he would
have thrown his school open to every Englishman.
(Applause.) They were all assembled here by the invitation of a guild of the city of London, which dated (he
believed) from the days of Edward III. Now, if Sir John
Gresham had lived in those days, instead of being the
munificent founder of everything great as connected with
the trade and commerce of his native city, we should have
seen him walking about in a suit of chain armour, and
dreaming of the fields of Cressy and Poictiers, while we
should have seen those arts which had now raised our
country to the highest pinnacle of glory thrown in the
shade and background by the warlike spirit of those early
times. (Hear, hear.) Therefore, he said, Sir John Gresham
was a man far in advance of that period, and that it was
our duty in the present day to carry on the institutions of
our country and advance them so as to render them as
universally beneficial as it was possible for them to be.
(Applause.) The rev. gentleman concluded by again
thanking the meeting for the honour done to the bishop
and clergy of the diocese.
The Prime Warden then rose and spoke as follows:
THE PRIME WARDEN'S ADDRESS.
Ladies and Gentlemen,
The deputation of the Fishmongers' Company feel
highly gratified in meeting you here to-day, and I beg to
thank you for so numerous and influential an attendance
on this occasion, one of great interest, not only to the
governors of this school and to the town of Holt, but to
the county in general, as it has for its object the promotion
of education—a subject which now occupies so much the
thought and wisdom of the country. (Hear, hear.) I need
scarcely tell you that this ancient school was founded in
the reign of Philip and Mary, in the year 1554, by Sir
John Gresham, Knight, citizen and alderman of London.
The name of Gresham is handed down to us as an ornament to the commerce and enterprise of England—one of
which this county, as well as London, may be well proud,
as so eminently connected with acts of munificent charity
and foundations of religious and practical education—a
name reminding us of the ancient prince-merchants of
Florence, with this difference, that I doubt whether Italy
can boast of liberal and philanthropic institutions founded
by the Medici, such as in this country bear the name of
Gresham. (Cheers.) Although, when abroad, we stand
in admiration before the central establishments raised by
regal power for public and philanthropic purposes, we are
not the less proud of those innumerable proofs of individual
energy at home, exemplified in the educational and
charitable institutions—nowhere more numerous than in
this county—and which are inscribed as "supported by
voluntary contributions." I trust such institutions will
long exist amongst us, stand upon their own merits alone,
and continue to be supported on religious and constitutional principles, according to the free wisdom and discretion of their benevolent patrons. (Applause.) It is the
boast of England that we have not waited until now for
compulsory measures of state to rouse our sympathy on
behalf of the poor and the uninstructed, or to enforce on
us the duty of every one to take by the hand the children
of the destitute, and to reform the vicious; but we have,
on that characteristic and wholesome principle of local
self-government and self-assistance, ever been voluntary
labourers in the great cause of general education in this
country. It must be remembered that, at the period of the
foundation of this school, education was but glimmering
in the horizon, and but in its dawn, when compared with
the height it has now reached, and the blaze of light it now
throws into the dwellings of our remotest villages, and into
the darkest corners of our manufacturing towns, formerly
so corrupt with ignorance and vice. It may be interesting
to you to know that on this very spot, where, upwards of
three centuries ago, stood the old manor house of Holt
market, supposed to have been originally built about
1483, in the reign of Richard III. (but since reconstructed),
lived John Gresham, of that ancient family who derived
their name from the village in this neighbourhood, father
of Sir John Gresham, founder of this school. You will
find in Mr. Burgon's interesting "Life and Times of Sir
Thomas Gresham," that Sir John Gresham was born in
this house. He afterwards bought the family mansion of
his brother, William Gresham, in 1546, and in 1554 he
converted it into the present Free Grammar School for the
inhabitants of Holt and the whole neighbouring county,
and endowed it in 1556 with the manor of Holt Pereers
and a grove called Prior's Grove, and other property,
together with certain freehold estates in the City of London,
to be held in trust and managed by the wardens and
commonalty of the "Mistery" of Fishmongers of London:
the total rental of these now amounts to about 450l. a year.
It will perhaps be as well to inform those who have not
seen the account of the Fishmongers' trusts, published in
the report of the Commissioners of Charities, wherein the
expenditure is shown to surpass the income derived from
the estate, that, although every part of that income is
devoted to the sole objects of the trust, the governors have
been obliged to make advances out of the funds of the
Company to meet the necessary expenses, without any
participation whatsoever in the benefit of this school by
themselves or by the children of their own freemen. (Great
applause.) Three centuries have passed since that time,
and many masters, as you may imagine, have succeeded
each other in teaching rising generations in this school.
It is not known who was the first master of the school, but
Christopher Williams was master in 1594, and from that
period 20, I believe, are counted to the present time,
none, however, of historical repute, excepting John Holmes,
to whom a monument is erected in the church of Holt,
and save one Thomas Cooper, who probably would have
preferred not being an exception, as he was so unlucky as
to be hung before the school door, during the civil wars,
for his adherence to Charles 1. (Laughter.) To see the
vestiges of so old a building about to pass away, and to be
replaced by a new structure, however much in the character
of a remote period, is a painful sight to the lover of typographical antiquity. The arms of the Greshams, and those
of the Fishmongers' Company, are still over the arched
doorway; but the altered state of the building, and the
modernised and patched-up interior, scarcely speak of the
real antiquity of the foundation. Such as it is, however,
with its gray walls, with its moss, with its time stains, it
finds itself in its old age out of place next to the newly
erected schoolroom, and with a good grace sooner or later
must yield to its successor; and when it shall have disappeared altogether, probably many an aged inhabitant of
this town will regret the absence of the familiar old school
front, and the substitution of a modern structure.
(Cheers.) When the building arrived at the period of its
natural decay, it became a matter of consideration with the
governors how far its reconstruction, and the appointment
of a young and energetic master, would ensure the full
benefit of the objects of the trust; and the income of the
endowed estate being, as I told you, unequal to meet such
an expenditure, it was decided to advance the necessary
funds to rebuild the schoolroom alone, leaving the completion of the remainder of the building to depend upon
the position of importance and usefulness the school might
attain in future. (Hear, hear.) It is not to be forgotten,
that, at the period of the foundation of this school, no
national free school existed at Holt, as at present, and that
probably this foundation offered the only opportunity of
instruction for the inhabitants. Considering, therefore,
that such effective elementary instruction, based upon
popular and systematic principles, is now offered by the
free schools of Holt and the neighbourhood, the governors
are desirous of raising this school to a more advanced
standard of education, and the late revision of the statutes
has been made with the object of obtaining that end, and
restoring the school to what was probably the intention of
the founder. (Cheers.) It has been thought desirable
that the selection of scholars be made as far as possible
from that class to whom, from their position and probable
future calling, such education would be suitable and
advantageous; for it is evident that the talents of a master
such as the one recently appointed would be thrown away
in imparting the mere rudiments of primary instruction
so admirably taught in national schools. With such an
object in view, the choice of a master has occupied the
closest attention of the governors, and the election has not
been the result of private interest or party influence, but
has been dictated by the degree of excellence and qualifications of the numerous candidates who sought for the
mastership of Holt School, advertised for public competition. (Cheers.) And here I must be permitted to
express a hope that parents whose children enter this
school will appreciate the value of what is now offered
them, and I especially trust that boys will not be taken
away before the needful time has been allowed them for
the full development of the benefits of a sufficient course
of study; for nothing is more distressing to a master, more
injurious to success, than that children, reared to a certain
point with so much care in the principles of religion, habits
of industrious application, and, above all, in that knowledge of God which alone is understanding, should be
prematurely stopped in their course, and taken away, too
often on vague pleas of usefulness at home. Although,
fortunately, not applicable in this case, I cannot help
alluding to those poor children, who, in crowded cities, are
taken away too soon from all moral training, and thrown
into mental idleness and temptation, and too often exposed
to contact with vice and to scenes of practical immorality,
before which, still weak, still wavering at that early age,
they lose all the good sown in the school, and we see vanish,
one after the other, the wholesome impressions we had
endeavoured to foster, the simple faith, the sensitive conscience, and that saving spirit of religion and virtue which
we had hoped to establish. The interval between childhood
and apprenticeship of the young is the most precarious
period for the morality of this country, where, especially
in factory districts, children are taken from the salutary
discipline of the school to live in the overcrowded dwellings
at home, in which there is no escaping the sight of injurious
examples and the contamination of close habitations, in
which both sexes are heaped together, and the frailties of
human nature brought before their view. I have now the
pleasure of introducing to you the newly elected master,
the Rev. Charles Allen Elton, of Sidney Sussex College,
Cambridge, whose long and tried abilities and practical
experience in teaching render him so eminently suited to
the task. He enters upon his important situation under
the auspices of the best wishes of all those who have
known him for years past, not only as an active labourer
in the vineyard, but as a vigilant guardian of the interests
here and hereafter of the numerous parishioners confided
to his charge. I need scarcely refer to his acquirements as
a teacher or a scholar, which his position at Cambridge
sufficiently testifies. He brings not only his heart, but
his head and shoulder to the work, with an ardent desire,
as well as hope of success. His exertions, I trust, will be
assisted by all those present, and we sincerely hope that
this ancient school of Holt will rise to that reputation
which, in institutions such as this, the talents, the energy,
and the popularity of the master can alone insure. (Great
The Rev. C. A. Elton, in returning thanks, said he was
afraid, if he did not make a better schoolmaster than he
was a speaker, the encomiums which the prime warden had
passed upon him would have been somewhat misplaced.
He could assure them that he considered it both a privilege
and a pleasure to be called upon to respond to the good
wishes of the friends of the Gresham Grammar School, who
had so kindly expressed themselves in reference to its
future usefulness and stability. He need not tell them
that in the action of every new piece of machinery, let it
be adjusted as nicely as it might, there must, at the outset,
be a very considerable amount of friction to overcome.
(Hear, hear.) From his own experience of schools and
school matters, and especially of new schools, he must
expect this law to prevail on the present occasion. He
trusted, however, that, by bringing to his new duties a
sincere desire to devote what faculties the Almighty had
given him to the conscientious discharge of the duties he
had undertaken, a blessing might rest upon his endeavours,
and that they might result in a good issue to His glory.
With regard to the education to be pursued in this school
he had only to ask one thing, and that was, that parents
who confided their boys to his charge would place them
with him early, and continue them with him late, not only
that they might derive the full benefit from their privileges
as Gresham scholars, but that they might give that scheme
of liberal and generous instruction, which he hoped would
be pursued here, a fair chance. Thus, when the pupils
were sent forth into the battle of life, to move in that
groove for which Providence had destined them, they
might not only leave this place as young men of cultivated
minds, refined tastes, and humanised manners, from the
training they had received, but, what was still more impor
tant, that they might have fixed and rooted in them those
good moral and religious principles, without which all
instruction was nothing but a simple curse. (Hear and
applause.) It was a legitimate ambition of the master to
turn out good scholars—to the man who had been educated
at Cambridge, perhaps, it was even a higher ambition to
turn them out good reasoners—but to the man who, with
the profession of a schoolmaster combined that of minister,
there could be nothing higher than to train up, not only
good scholars, but, above all, good Christians. (Applause.)
The Prime Warden, in proposing the next toast,
said—"Having introduced to you the new master, the Rev.
Charles A. Elton, who represents the rising hopes of this
foundation, I cannot delay expressing the thanks of the
Fishmongers' Company to the excellent and esteemed late
master, the Rev. Benjamin Pulleyne, whose valued services
for nearly half a century in this school will continue in
their recollection, as they ever must in that of the inhabitants of Holt. (Applause.) We had wished at the same
time we rebuilt and renewed the old school that we could
also have restored that bodily house in which he lives, and
have imparted fresh vigour and new youth to his frame,
worn by length of service. Probably, however, he would
not have been desirous to recommence his course of arduous
duties, and to again enter the field of laborious action.
Indeed, it is not the intention of Providence that such a
desire should prevail in any of us when we arrive at that
period, when our task is almost accomplished. It is, therefore, only left to us to thank him for his long services, and
to express a hope that he may in his retirement continue to
enjoy the comforts of peace and health as fully as he
possesses the esteem and consideration of the Fishmongers'
Company." (Loud cheers.)
The Rev. B. Pulleyne, in returning thanks, said, he
had met with a thousand difficult tasks in his life, but he
had never met with one that was more difficult than the
present. Those who had known him for many years in
this town, knew that he had laboured long and anxiously,
and most conscientiously, in the discharge of his duties as
master of this school—(hear, hear)—and he wished he
could find words adequate to the expression of his feelings
on the present occasion. When he remembered the
number of years he had been connected with this Company,
and the uniform kindness and attention he had always
received from them; and when he also considered that
they had this day invited him to have the honour of
meeting them on this interesting and important occasion,
and that the prime warden had expressed himself in such
kind and commendatory terms towards himself, and, above
all, when he considered that it was owing to the bounty of
the governors of this school that he had been able to retire
from his laborious duties as its master, to his own parish,
where he might contribute, so far as in him lay, to the
spiritual and temporal wants of those committed to his
charge, he could not but say that they had conferred on
him more than he had language to express. He was
scarcely 24 when, in September 1809, he was elected to the
mastership of this school, and he was now in his 74th year,
having only ceased his labours in that capacity during the
past year. He had laboured long, and he hoped diligently
in the service of the Company, and from the manner in
which his health had just been proposed, he thought he
might confidently say that he had redeemed the pledge he
had made at the commencement—namely, that he should
endeavour conscientiously to discharge his duties, whatever
might be the result of his efforts. (Hear, and applause.)
He had reason to hope that the young people who had
gone from the school had fully borne him out in saying
that they had received the greatest benefit from their connection with this institution as Gresham scholars. The
education that had been given in that school was a happy
mixture of the profane and religious, but he would also
state that during the whole of the time he had held the
mastership he had endeavoured to impress on the minds
of the youths that their duty to their parents and themselves was always the primary and first consideration, and
he hoped it would continue to be so. As might be supposed, during the period he had been connected with the
school—nearly 50 years—he had seen many and affecting
changes, for there was not one now alive on the list of the
wardens or assistants who was alive when he was elected
master of this school. The clerk who was present when
the school was opened at that time was no more, and had
been succeeded by his son, and those by whom he had been
surrounded had also passed away. It had happened to
him, as had happened to most men who lived beyond the
usual limits of life, that he had outlived his contemporaries.
All the sweet companions of his youth were gone, and he
alone remained; but he had the satisfaction to know that
he had done his duty so far as he was able. It had been
well said by Mr. Gay, on a recent occasion, that those who
departed were not missed. He had outlived a great many
who were useful and valuable men, but they were not
missed. Others had come in their steads, and they were
no longer wanted. The prime warden, and those by whom
he was surrounded, had arisen to fill the places of those
who had lived before them, and who had done their duty
with an ability and zeal fully equal to that of their successors. He (Mr. Pulleyne) had ceased to occupy the
position of master of this school, and he, likewise, should
not be missed; for they had elected in his stead one who
he trusted came to the school with abilities more cultivated
and with greater energy than he could claim, for Mr. Elton
was a young man whose mind was active while he was
physically strong. He (Mr. Pulleyne) had seen many and
wonderful changes in this town. When he first came here
there was only this school and a mixed day-school. Now
they had, in addition, a national and British school, very
large Sunday-schools, and an excellent grammatical dayschool. When he was young the school was most limited
in its capacity, but now they had for the Gresham scholars
a noble and excellent building, well lighted and ventilated,
and suitable in every respect to the objects intended.
(Hear, hear.) The rev. gentleman concluded by again
returning his sincere and heartfelt thanks for the honour
that had been done to him in drinking his health.
Sir Willoughby Jones next rose and said, the prime
warden had given him leave to propose a toast, and he was
about to propose one which he was sure would be drunk
with the utmost enthusiasm and cordiality by every one
present. He considered it an honour as well as a pleasure
to be allowed to propose the health of the prime warden
of the Worshipful Company of Fishmongers. (Loud
applause.) Those great London Companies were an
honour to England, and there was none that knew better
that property had its duties as well as its rights than the
Worshipful Company of Fishmongers. (Hear, hear.) The
occasion that had this day brought among them in Norfolk the prime warden, who was now sitting at the head
of this board, and the deputation who had kindly accompanied him from London to open this schoolroom, was one
of the utmost interest to all in this neighbourhood, and
in their behalf he begged to return to the prime warden
and the deputation their thanks for the noble and munificent liberality of the Company of Fishmongers. (Applause.)
The Fishmongers' Company showed themselves worthy
descendants of that Sir John Gresham, so aptly styled the
merchant prince, compared to the merchant princes of
Florence by the worshipful prime warden. (Hear, and
applause.) It was not for him (Sir W. Jones) to enter
into any of the antiquities of this foundation, for he
remembered that next him there sat an Astley, of Melton
Constable, and that the Astleys of Melton Constable
were living there when the Greshams were living on the
spot where the company now met. (Hear, hear.) He
would, therefore, leave it to Colonel Astley to lay before
them the antiquities of this noble old foundation, nor would
he detain them by following the prime warden through
any of the topics of the very admirable address he had
given them in proposing the health of the new head
master; but there was one point of the prime warden's
remarks on which he would express his cordial sympathy
and approbation, and that was the hope the prime warden
had enunciated, that the voluntary system and the local
system of education in England would long last, and
would never be merged in any government or centralised
system. (Hear, hear.) He did most cordially re-echo
this sentiment, for he believed they were none of them
aware how much of their character as Englishmen they
owed to the fact that in their early years they were not
under the thumb and screw of any government whatever.
(Hear, and applause.) Long might the education of this
country be based on the voluntary system for the different
classes that required it; might it go through the various
gradations of the national school, the middle-class school,
the grammar school, and our noble old universities, which
were the head of all. He would remind them, and the
worthy head master, Mr. Elton, whom he remembered at
Cambridge, where they were together in former years, that
the universities were now placing themselves in the position
they ought to occupy at the head of the education of the
middle classes, and that those examinations, which would
be initiated this year at Norwich, would be the most potent
means of enabling any young man to distinguish himself,
by obtaining a certificate of knowledge, which might be of
use to him in after life. (Hear, hear.) The master of this
school would, therefore, have the great moral power of
the university to back him, and the object to place before
the boys of obtaining the certificate, which would be a real,
a high, and a true reward of industry and application.
(Hear, hear.) Therefore the present master was in a far
better position than the previous master had been in; and
feeling as he (Sir W. Jones) did a deep interest in these
middle-class examinations, he had felt bound to mention
here how powerful a support they would be to the new
head master in raising the intellectual level of the school.
(Hear, hear.) He had detained the meeting as long as he
felt justified to offer the thanks, not only of the inhabitants
of Holt, but of the gentry of the county, among whom the
invitations of the Worshipful Company had been most
liberally sent, to the prime warden of the Company for the
handsome entertainment to which they had been invited,
and for the munificent and liberal spirit in which everything had been done—a spirit that reflected honour on the
Company, and which was one of the principal characteristics
of those bodies, among which the Company of Fishmongers
occupied so distinguished a position. He gave "the health
of the prime warden and the deputation of the Fishmongers' Company." (Repeated applause.)
The Prime Warden, in acknowledging the toast,
assured all present that nothing could be more gratifying
to the Fishmongers' Company than the interest they had
taken in the object of their visit. To minister to the
wants of the poor, to assist the aged, and to promote the
education of the young were among the highest privileges
possessed by them, and he really believed that the trust
which the confidence of their ancestors had placed in the
Company's keeping had been fulfilled, and would continue
to be fulfilled to the utmost of their power. (Applause.)
He had only to hope on the part of the deputation, that
when they had again the honour of meeting those present
it would be to celebrate the completion of a still greater
work than that which they had seen brought to so happy
a termination to-day, and that according to the success
which the revival of the school would obtain, they might
ere long be in a position to restore the whole of this ancient
The Prime Warden then rose and said—"I now beg
to propose 'the health of the visitors of the school,' for
whose superintendence and assistance the Fishmonger's
Company are so much indebted. We look forward with
confidence to a continuation of their support, and we feel
assured that as far as lies in their power the interest of the
scholars of the Holt School will be promoted. (Applause.)
In acknowledging their services, I beg to express the
thanks of this deputation to the Rev. Mr. Bulwer for his
assistance to-day, in the absence of the rector, the Rev.
Mr. Brumell, and for officiating for us on this interesting
occasion. (Applause.) It would be superfluous in me to
add any remark concerning a gentleman so thoroughly
respected and esteemed as the Rev. Mr. Bulwer, who is so
well known to you. We thank him personally for the
great interest he takes in the object of this meeting, and
I beg to propose his health with that of the other gentlemen who have accepted the office of visitors of the school
of Holt." (Applause.)
The Rev. J. Bulwer replied—The prime warden had
referred to the absence of the rector of the parish, and
this was a circumstance which he (Mr. Bulwer) had occasion to regret, for he had discharged duties to-day at a
very short notice, which would otherwise have been performed by the worthy rector. He was glad to see that
the interests of the school were likely to be advanced, from
the fact that the examinations would in future become
more competitive than hitherto, as the Fishmongers' Company had endowed a scholarship of 20l. a year, and there
were also the prizes given by the late Rev. Mr. Jodrell.
Mr. Bulwer then referred in marked terms to the valuable
assistance rendered to the school by Mr. James Gay, one
of the most active and energetic of the visitors, and concluded by proposing the health of that gentleman. (Applause.)
Mr. J. Gay, in returning thanks, stated that he had
himself been educated at this school, and having derived
great benefit from it, he could not do otherwise, when he
came to reside in this neighbourhood, than give it such
assistance as it was in his power to afford. (Hear, hear.)
It was now 65 years since he had entered this school as a
scholar, and it was to the education he had received here
that he was indebted for the advancement he had been
fortunate enough to make in life, and for those high
appointments that had been conferred upon him while
residing at Ceylon. (Applause.) It was consequently a
source of much gratification to him to see the school put
in such a state as would confer a great and lasting benefit
on those residing in the neighbourhood. At the time he
came to the school it was frequented by the sons of all the
gentry in the neighbourhood; but from circumstances
which it was difficult now to enter into, the school had
drooped by degrees, until at last he believed scarcely a
gentleman's son entered it. He had no doubt that the
liberal course pursued by the Fishmongers' Company in
erecting this noble building, and in having appointed to
it a master of such eminent talents as were possessed by
Mr. Elton, would raise it to be a credit to the county of
Norfolk. (Applause.) It gave him great pleasure to see
such an assembly on the present occasion, for the numbers
present convinced him that the gentry of the neighbourhood felt a great interest in the school. He should have
great satisfaction, should he live long enough, in seeing
the house restored, as he was happy to hear from the prime
warden was likely to be the case. (Applause.)
The Prime Warden—"I now beg to propose 'the
health of the architect of this building, Mr. Suter,' a gentleman whose talents and whose great practical knowledge of
his art, though perhaps not known to all here present, are
sufficiently exemplified in the various structures he has
erected in different parts of England. It is difficult to
estimate the many obstacles an architect has to contend
with in the construction of buildings of a public or parochial character, especially when acting under boards composed of numerous members. The variety of tastes—the
internal accommodation—the external appearance of the
building—the material to be used—and especially the
frequent insufficiency of funds to insure perfection, are
obstacles which all architects have to overcome. (Hear.)
The present school, although it is but a part of a whole,
speaks for itself. (Applause.) I cannot, however, do
better justice to the talent of Mr. Suter than by referring
you to the extensive structure of St. Peter's Hospital he
erected for the Fishmongers' Company at Wandsworth,
and which I hope you may all have an opportunity of seeing, when I am sure it will convince you of the taste and
the skill displayed in his works." (Applause.)
Mr. Suter, in responding, remarked that if in raising
this structure he had met the requirements of the prime
warden's large heart, and those of his colleagues, he had
not laboured in vain.
The Prime Warden—"I now beg to offer the last toast,
one which I always feel proud to give—'The health of the
ladies'. (Applause.) It is no commonplace compliment
I wish to pay to their attractions, which we all sufficiently
acknowledge, but I am glad of every opportunity of expressing my conviction that much of the comfort, the peace,
and the morality of this country is due to their exertions
and their influence. (Hear, hear.) When I see in this county
and elsewhere the daughters of the highest families occupied in the education of the young—occupied in the Sunday-school, teaching infant lips to lisp the praises of their
Creator—when I see sisters, real sisters of mercy, carrying
comfort, food, and raiment into the lowly habitations of the
destitute, I am proud of a country where such devotion
constitutes the real value of woman, and where men seek
her co-operation and assistance in all great works of philanthropy and moral good. (Applause.) I could not undertake
to enumerate the many examples of devotion, sacrifice, and
love known to you all as well as to myself. I cannot,
however, refrain from paying a tribute to the memory of
that admirable woman, Miss Gurney—(applause)—whose
acts of philanthropy and benevolence scarce yield to those
of the inestimable Mrs. Fry. (Applause.) Nor can I help
adding the name of Miss Stanley—(applause)—who joined
that glory of her sex, Florence Nightingale—(loud cheers)
in the relief and rescue of our suffering soldiers in the
Crimea. (Prolonged applause.) Ladies, I thank you for your
attendance here to-day. In your hands I leave the interests
of the children who now enter upon the foundation of this
school. (Hear.) You are best enabled, if acquainted with
any of their parents, to impress upon their minds the inestimable blessing of early education, and the benefits we
have endeavoured to prepare for them to-day." (Cheers.)
Col. Astley having been called upon to respond for the
ladies, said he had a most delicate task to perform, and he
was quite satisfied that there were many ladies in the room
who could return thanks for the toast in a far more able
manner than he could. When he entered that room he
was not at all aware that he should be called upon to return
thanks for that sex which as men they must all respect; and
considering that they were the comfort of their homes, and
that whenever they pleased to take an interest in any work
prosperity must follow, he thought that the thanks of the
neighbourhood and of the gentlemen present were due to
the prime warden and the deputation for having kindly
invited the ladies to join in the opening of that school.
He could only say that he trusted that every benefit that
had been wished for might arise in that school, and that
intelligence and education might flourish in that town and
spread over the country but, particularly in the neighbourhood of Holt. (Applause.) They wanted very little to
keep them moving, and he was happy to say that the Company of Fishmongers had given them the opportunity of
bringing education and enlightenment into the neighbourhood at a cheap rate. There were men of a certain station
who could afford to educate their children in what manner
they pleased; but there were a vast number who could not,
and it was through this charity, founded by Sir John
Gresham, and carried out by the Worshipful Company of
Fishmongers, that education was brought within the reach
of all. He expressed the regret of his brother, Lord Hastings, who as the representative of a family who had held
possessions in this part of the county as long back as the
time in which Sir John Gresham founded this institution,
naturally felt a great interest in everything which affected
the welfare of its inhabitants, was not able to be present;
and concluded by simply returning thanks for the ladies,
whom no people valued more than Englishmen. (Applause.)
The proceedings were brought to a close by Masters
Mann and Baldwin singing "My pretty Page," which they
did with an effect that elicited the loud applause of the
company. The same young gentlemen with Master Smith
also sang several other pieces in the course of the evening,
including a very pretty duet "Merry gipsies all are we,"
composed by a pupil of Dr. Buck—Mr. Atkinson. The
musical part of the entertainment was under the direction
of Dr. Buck, and the selection appeared to give great
A tablet to commemorate this event has been erected in
the schoolroom, with the following inscription:—
The Worshipful Company of Fishmongers of London, Governors of the Free Grammar School,
Holt, founded by Sir John Gresham, Knt.,
A.D. 1554, rebuilt this schoolroom and formed a
playground for the recreation of the scholars
A deputation attended on the 3rd November 1858, and,
in the presence of many visitors' re-opened the school and
introduced the newly appointed master, the Rev. Charles
Allen Elton, B.D.
Thomas Boddington, Esq., prime warden.
William Edwards, Esq., second warden.
Joseph Underwood, Esq., renter-warden.
|John Towgood, Esq.||Assistants.|
|Gilbert W. Mackmurdo, Esq.|
|James Spicer, Esq.|
|George Moore, Esq.|
|Sidney Gurney, Esq.|
|Richard Suter, Architect.|
|W. Beckwith Towse, Clerk.|
Visitors of the Free Grammar School, founded by
Sir John Gresham, Knight, in Holt, Norfolk.
1823. Randle Brereton, Esq., Blakeney.
1833. Rev. John Custance Leak, LL.B., Rector of
1835. James Gay, Esq., Thirning.
1835. Henry Ramer Upcher, Esq., Sherringham Hall.
1844. Walter Hamilton Pemberton, Esq., Holt Hall.
1844. Colonel Hon. Hugh Fitzroy, Stratton.
1845. Hon. and Rev. Thomas Keppel, M.A., Hon.
Canon of Norwich; Rector of North Creake.
1848. Rev. Anthony Thomas Hudson, B.A., Wiveton.
1851. Rev. James Bulwer, M.A., Rector of Hunworth.
1851. Rev. John M. Randall, Vicar of Langham.
1852. John Clark, Esq., Holt.
1854. Rev. Edward Brumell, B.D., Rector of Holt.
1857. Rev. James Brady Sweet, M.A., Rector of
1857. George Barker, Esq., Holt.
1857. Rev. Patrick Comerford Law, B.A., Rural Dean,
Rector of North Repps.
1859. W. Hardy Cozens Hardy, Esq., Letheringsett
1859. Rev. James Lee Warner, M.A., New Walsingham.
1859. Rev. John Fenwick, Thirning.
1859. Lieut.-Colonel Hon. Francis L. L'Estrange Astley,
1859. Rev. Randle B. Brereton, Stiffkey.
1859. Rev. Edward Repps Jodrell, Saxlingham.
1859. John Thomas Mott, Esq., Barningham Hall.
1860. Sir Willoughby Jones, Bart., Cranmer Hall.
Rev. Charles Allen Elton, B.D., Fellow of Sidney
Sussex College, Cambridge, appointed master
APPENDIX. Being a Biographical Sketch of Sir John Gresham, Kt.,
Founder of the Free Grammar School at Holt.
Compiled chiefly from Mr. Burgon's Life and Times
of Sir Thomas Gresham.
The family from which Sir John Gresham was descended,
like most other Norfolk families, derived its name from a
little village where it had been settled for many generations. One John Gresham resided at Gresham during
the latter part of the fourteenth century, in the reigns of
Edward III. and Richard II.
His son James appears to have been clerk to Sir
William Paston, the judge. He was lord of East Beckham,
and is said to have settled at Holt, which is only a few
miles from the village where his father resided.
Here he probably erected the old Manor House, which
occupied the centre of the town, and constituted the chief
ornament of Holt.
James Gresham was succeeded by his son John, who
married Alice, daughter of Alexander Blythe, Esq., of
Stratton in Norfolk; this lady brought her husband an
ample fortune, and by her he had four sons—William,
Thomas, Richard, and John; the two younger of whom
had the honour of knighthood conferred upon them by
Henry VIII. Richard was father of the celebrated Sir
Thomas Gresham. John, the youngest son, was born at
Holt; he was a merchant of great importance, and admitted
a member of the Mercers' Company in 1517. We may
infer from various accounts that he was held in high consideration, and lived, as our ancestors would have said,
"in great worship."
Liberality and benevolence appear to have been qualities
inherent in the Gresham family. In 1546, Sir John
Gresham, having purchased (fn. 5) of his elder brother William
the mansion house at Holt, he converted it by letters
patent, dated 27th April, 1 and 2 of Philip and Mary,
1554, into a free grammar school, which he endowed by
deed of gift with the manor of Pereers and Holt Hales,
in Norfolk, and a grove called Prior's Grove, and certain
freehold estates in London. The master was to have a
salary of 30l. per annum, and the usher 20 nobles; and
the government of the school was left to the wardens and
commonalty of the Mistery of Fishmongers, London; who
were to make statutes and ordinances concerning the
governance and direction of the master, usher, and scholars
of the school, subject to the approval of the bishop of the
It is stated by Mr. Burgon that the school was endowed
by its founder with demesnes sufficient, had they been
properly managed, to set it on a level with the first
establishments of a similar nature in England; but there
is no record of any demesnes excepting the property now
constituting the endowment having ever come into the
possession of the Fishmongers' Company.
There remain at present about 165 acres of land, and
the total revenue of the school amounts to not quite 450l.,
about two thirds of which arise from the rents of the
estates in London. A large increase of revenue is expected
on the leases of the London estates falling in, but
which will not be till the years, 1871, 1877, and 1899
Holt School is not altogether destitute of historical
interest, for in the year 1650 a few loyal inhabitants of
Norfolk having agreed to adventure their lives and fortunes
in the service of their royal master, we are told that one
Mr. Cooper, a minister and schoolmaster, was apprehended
and sentenced by the minions of Cromwell to be tried on
Christmas day, "partly to show their dislike of the observance of that day, and partly to add to his affliction,
whom they knew to honour that festive day; and
although they had no evidence against him that he was
privy to the plot, yet they condemned him and . . . .
he was executed at Holt, before his schoole-house
doore." (fn. 6)
Sir John Gresham succeeded in obtaining from
Henry VIII. the hospital of St. Mary Bethlem, which has
continued ever since in the hands of the corporation of
London as an asylum for lunatics. He was sheriff of
London, 30 Henry VIII., 1537, his brother Richard being
then lord mayor. In 1547, 2 Edward VI., Sir John
Gresham being lord mayor of London, he revived the
splendid pageant of the Marching Watch—a ceremony
which had been practised from time immemorial by the
citizens of London at Midsummer, till the year 1539.
Sir John was repeatedly employed as agent in Flanders,
to Henry VIII.; nor did his commission cease with that
monarch's reign, as appears from the council book of his
successor, Edward VI., where he obtains frequent notice
as a financial agent.
After having amassed a considerable fortune in trade,
by which he was enabled to purchase many estates in
Norfolk, besides the manor of Titsey, in Surrey, he died
of malignant fever, on the 23rd of October 1556, in the
reign of Queen Mary, seven days after he had made final
dispositions for the government of Holt School, and he
was interred in the beautiful church of St. Michael Bassishaw, London, in which parish he resided at the time of
"He dwelt," says Stowe, "where Sir Leonard Halliday,
who was mayor anno 1605, afterwards dwelt." Strype
has given us a list of several worthies who, in a short
space, fell victims to the same pestilential malady; and
he does not omit to mention Sir John Gresham amongst
The day of his interment happening to be a fast day,
says Strype, an extraordinary fish dinner was provided on
the occasion, at which were admitted all that came; and
the funeral sermon was preached by the celebrated
Dr. Harpsfeld. The ceremonial of his interment is one
of the proofs of his having been a personage of great consideration. "He was buried," says Stowe, "with a
standard and penon of armes, and a coat armour of
damask (Damascus steel), and four penons of arms;
besides a helmet, a target and a sword, mantles and the
crest, a goodly hearse of wax, ten dozen of pensils, (fn. 7)
and twelve dozen of escutcheons. He had four dozen
of great staff torches and a dozen of long torches.....
The church and the streets were all hung with black,
and arms in great store; and on the morrow three
goodly masses were sung; one of the Trinity, another
of Our Lady, and the third of Requiem."
Many were his charitable bequests. Besides 100l. to
poor maids' marriages, and considerable sums to the
different prisons and hospitals of London, he left to sixty
poor men and forty poor women, as many black gowns of
the value of 26s. 8d. and 20s. each, respectively.
Sir Rowland Hill and Sir Andrew Judd, Kts., conjointly
with "his well-beloved nephew, Thomas Gresham," were
appointed overseers to his will.
To the Mercers' Company he left 13l. 6s. 8d., for a
feast, "desiring them aftre dynner, to have my soul in
remembrance with their prayers."
He was twice married: first to Mary, daughter and
coheiress of Thomas Ipswell of London, Esq.; 2ndly to
Katharine, daughter of —Sampton, Esq., and widow of
Edward Dormer, of Fulham, Esq. By his first wife he
had eleven children, from the eldest of whom was descended
Sir John Gresham, the representative and last baronet
of the family, who died at Titsey, on 20th of October
On a tomb in the south side of the quire of Bassishaw
church, in London, and prior to the fire in 1666, was this
Here lyeth buried vnder this tombe the body of Sir
John Gresham, knight, sometime alderman and lord
mayor of this City of London, who had two wives, dame
Mary, his first wife, by whom hee had issue five sonnes
and sixe daughters. By dame Katharine, his last wife,
no issue—which Sir John deceased the xxiii. day of
October, Anno Domini MDLVI., and dame Mary died
the xxi day of September, MDXXXVIII. Dame Katharine died.....
Gresham Grammar School. Examination Papers, December 1860.
A. 1. Give a list of the Judges, noticing briefly any events
which marked their history. Sketch the history of
2. How were criminal offences punished under the
Mosaic code? Give instances of the considerate
temper of the Hebrew law. What were the regulations relating to slavery? What were the political
benefits of the year of Jubilee?
3. What provision was made for the Priests and
Levites? Describe the dress and duties of he
4. Describe geographically the extent of Solomon's
kingdom. Give a list of the Kings of Judah and
Israel, with the principal dates.
5. Against what Egyptian superstitions were the plagues
of Egypt specially directed ?
Give a sketch of the career of Joab. Draw a map of
the Holy Land, mentioning those places only which
occur in Scripture prior to the entrance of the
Hebrews under Joshua.
B. 1. Draw a map indicating the route taken by the Hebrews
in their passage out of Egypt. Name the stations
where they rested in their desert wanderings, and
the sins committed by the people thereat.
2. How was the Promised Land portioned among the
Hebrew tribes? What were the principal achievements of Joshua in taking possession? Give a
brief account of Balaam.
3. Write what you can about Jethro, Achan, Keturah,
Miriam, Korah, Doeg, Shimei.
4. Mention the principal events in the life of David, after
he was crowned the second time.
5. Give a sketch of the life of Elisha. Give the dates
of some prominent events in the Scripture narrative.
6. How was prophecy fulfilled in regard to Eli, Samaria, Zedekiah king of Judah, Ahab?
7. Give instances from Jewish history showing God's
displeasure for breaches of each of the ten commandments.
C. 1. Write a short history of Joseph.
2. Describe the Feast of Passover.
Describe the country of Mesopotamia.
Mention any events which occurred while the Hebrews
were with Moses in the wilderness.
1. Give the substance of the legend of the Argonauts.
Explain fully what is meant by the "Return of the
Heraclidæ." Enumerate the causes which gave
union to the different Grecian States.
2. What was the state of political parties in Athens subsequent to Solon's departure? What was the
nature of the reform introduced by Cleisthenes?
3. What colonies were founded by Athens in Sicily,
Italy, and Asia Minor? Mention any historical
events with which the cities of Sardis, Potidæa, and
Halicarnassus were associated?
4. Sketch the train of events which led to the Peloponnesian war. Specify the allies of Sparta and Athens
respectively. Name, with dates, the principal events
of the war.
5. Give some account of the events which first brought
Greece and Pessia into collision.
6. Describe briefly the different public buildings in
Athens, and draw a plan of the city and its
7. Sketch the career of Alcibiades.
8. Describe the principal features of the Sicilian war.
1. When and where was Horace born? What works of
his are extant? Whom does he describe as "præsidium et dulce decus meum," and whom as
animæ dimidium meæ"?
Quem vocet Divom populus ruentis
Imperi rebus? prece quâ fatigent
Virgines sanctæ minus audientem
To what event does this Ode allude? Who were the
"Virgines sanctæ," and what was their usual employment? Explain the peculiarities in "Divom"
Perrupit Acheronta Herculeus labor,
Nil mortalibus arduum est:
Cœlum ipsum petimus stultitia, neque
Per nostrum patimur scelus
Iracunda Jovem ponere fulmina.
Write a short account of the labours of Hercules.
Name the other two Grecian heroes who are frequently classed with him. Over what period was
the heroic age supposed to extend, and what was its
O Navis, referent in mare te novi
Fluctus? O quid agis? fortiter occupa
Portum. Nonne vides ut
Nudum remigio latus,
E t malus celeri saucius Africo
Antennæque gemant? ac sine funibus
Vix durare carinæ
Æquor? Non tibi sunt integra lintea,
Non Di, quos iterum pressa voces malo.
Distinguish between mālus and malus, lātus and latus,
populus and pōpulus. Explain the terms antennœ,
funibus, carinœ. Parse remigio and gemant What
is represented by navis, and what by fluctus?
5 Draw a plan of Thermopylæ. Give the dates of the
battles of Marathon and Chæronea, and name the
parties between whom they were fought. Mention
the principal incidents in the life of Alcibiades.
1. If a=25, b=16, c=9, find the value of the expressions
2. Reduce to their simplest forms the expressions:
3. Find the least common multiple of
3x4+14x3+9x+2 and 2x4+9x3+14x+3.
4. Solve the following equations:
5. If [alpha and beta] be values of x which make ax2+bx+c=0, shew
that ax2+bx+c=a (x—[alpha]) (x— [Beta]).
Hence resolve the expression 2x2—11x+12 into its
6. Shew that if a: b:: c: d, then a+b: a—b::c+d:
c—d; and if a:b::c:d::e: f, &c., then a: b::
7. Find the arithmetic mean between two quantities
a and b; and also the geometric mean; and shew
that the former is greater than the latter.
Find how many terms of the series 27, 24, 21, &c.
will amount to 126; and explain the two solutions.
8. A rifleman shoots at a target under the following
conditions; each time he hits the bull's eye he
receives half-a-crown; each time he misses it he
forfeits sixpence. After he has finished shooting he
receives three shillings. If out of the same number
of shots he had put twice as many balls into the
bull's eye, he would have received 12s. How many
shots did he fire?
9. At half-past eleven A sets out from his own house to
walk at the rate of 4 miles an hour to B's house,
which is 8 miles off. In the meanwhile B sets out
from home with a carriage which travels 7 miles an
hour to meet A; and as soon as he meets him he
takes him up, and they reach B's house at one
o'clock. When did B leave home? and how far did
1. Find the value of the expressions:
where a=25, b=16, c=9.
4. Simplify the expressions:
5. Solve the equations:
6. Find the greatest common measure of
20x4+x2—1 and 25x4+5x2—x—1.
7. Find a number the sum of whose fifth and sixth parts
exceeds the difference between its fourth and seventh
parts by 109.
8. A and B shoot by turns at a target; A puts 7 balls
out of 12 into the bull's eye, and B puts in 9 out of
12. Between them they put in 32. How many
shots did each fire?
Euclid, I., II., III.
1. Distinguish between a definition and an axiom. Define
a plane angle; a right angle; a trapezium. Is the
circumference of a circle a figure?
2. Prop. vii. Upon the same base, and on the same side
of it, there cannot be two triangles which have their
sides terminated in one extremity of the base equal to
one another, and also those terminated in the other
3. Prop. xxii. To make a triangle, of which the sides
shall be equal to three given straight lines, but any
two whatever of these must be greater than the third.
Point out where the construction would fail, if two
of the straight lines, namely A and C, were not
together greater than B.
4. If a triangle and a parallelogram be upon the same
base and between the same parallels, the parallelogram
shall be double of the triangle.
Show from first principles, with the aid of Euclid,
that if the base of any triangle be 3 and its perpendicular altitude 4 inches, its area contains 6 square
5. Prop, xlvii. In any right-angled triangle, the square
which is described upon the side subtending the right
angle is equal to the squares described upon the sides
which contain the right angle.
Can straight lines [square root]2, [square root]3, [square root]5 inches long be
represented with the same accuracy as a line 1 inch
long? If so, explain how.
6. Book ii. Prop. vi. If a straight line be bisected and
produced to any point, the rectangle contained by the
whole line thus produced and the part of it produced,
together with the square of half the line bisected, is
equal to the square of the straight line which is made
up of the half and the part produced.
7. Book ii. Prop. xi. To divide a given straight line
into two parts, so that the rectangle contained by the
whole and one of the parts shall be equal to the square
of the other part.
8. Book iii. Prop. iv. If in a circle two straight lines
cut one another, which do not both pass through the
centre, they do not bisect each other.
9. Book iii., Prop. xiii. One circle cannot touch another
in more points than one, whether it touches it on the
inside or outside.
10. Book iii., Prop. xviii. If a straight line touch a
circle, the straight line drawn from the centre to the
point of contact shall be perpendicular to the line
touching the circle.
B. 1. Define a plane rectilineal angle; a square; and parallel
2. Prop. iv. If two triangles have two sides of the one
equal to two sides of the other, each to each, and have
also the angles contained by those sides equal to one
another, they shall also have their bases, or third sides,
equal, and the two triangles shall be equal, and their
other angles shall be equal, each to each, viz., those to
which the equal sides are opposite.
Give an instance in which two quantities are equal
to other two, but not each to each.
3. Prop. ix. To bisect a given rectilineal angle, that is,
to divide it into two equal angles.
4. Prop. xiii. The angles, which one straight line makes
with another upon one side of it, are either two right
angles, or are together equal to two right angles.
5. Prop. xxi. If from the ends of a side of a triangle
there be drawn two straight lines to a point within the
triangle, these shall be less than the other two sides
of the triangle, but shall contain a greater angle.
6. All the interior angles of any rectilineal figure together
with four right angles are equal to twice as many right
angles as the figure has sides.
7. Prop. xxxvii. Triangles upon the same base, and
between the same parallels, are equal to one another.
8. Prop. xlvii. In any right-angled triangle, the square
which is described upon the side subtending the right
angle is equal to the squares described upon the sides
which contain the right angle.
Find the diagonal of a square field that contains
2,450 square yards.
1. If 6 ounces of silk can be spun into a thread two
furlongs and a-half long, what weight of silk would
supply a thread sufficient to reach to the moon, a
distance of 240,000 miles ?
2. The price of .0625 lbs. of coffee being .4583 shillings,
what is the value of .075 of a ton?
3. If a number of labourers can reap a field in 25 days, in
what time will 12/3 of that number reap a field 24/5 times
as large, supposing that 2 of the first set can reap as
much in an hour as 5 of the second set in 2 hours,
and that the second set work 7/8 as many hours per day
as the first set?
4. The net rental of an estate, after deducting 10d. in the
pound for property tax, and 5 per cent. on the remainder for the expenses of collecting, is 458l. 17s. 0d.
What is the gross rental?
5. A merchant bought 150 quarters of wheat, of which he
sold 50 at 45 shillings per quarter, and found that he
was thereby gaining 7½ per cent.; at what price per
quarter must he sell the remainder so as to clear 10
per cent. upon the whole ?
6. How much stock at 943/8 must be sold out to pay a bill
of 770l. 2s. 0d. due six months hence, interest being
reckoned at 4 per cent. per annum?
7. A passenger train leaves Wells for London, a distance
of 148 miles, and travels uniformly 25 miles per hour;
at what time must a luggage train, which travels at
the rate of 15 miles in 50 minutes, have left the first
station in order that they may both reach the second
at the same instant ?
1. Multiply the sum of ¾ and 5/7 by the difference between
2½ and 2/5, and divide the result by 7/16.
2. Reduce 7s. 10½d. to the decimal of 2l., and find the
value of .7265 of a guinea.
3. What is the quarter's rent of 22.7916 acres of land
at 3.68l. per annum per acre?
4. If 8 men dig a trench 100 ft. long, 3 ft. wide, and
4 ft. 6 in. deep, of five degrees of hardness, in nine
days, working 10 hours per day, how many will be
required to dig a trench 80 ft. long, 5 ft. wide, and
2 ft. deep, of 6½ degrees of hardness, in 5⅓ days,
working eight hours per day ?
5. Find the difference between the simple and compound
interest on 60l. for three years at 4 per cent. per
6. Required the present worth of 370l. 4s. 8¼d. due 15
months hence at 45/8 per cent.
7. A grocer sells tea at 6s. 4d. per lb., and loses thereby
at the rate of 6 per cent. What did it cost him per
8. What sterling money shall I receive for 1,760l. 16s. 8d.
stock at 90½ per cent.?
9. Extract the square root of 5.292/.012, and the cube root of
10. Find the whole surface of a room 22 ft. 5 in. long,
18 ft. 4 in. wide, and 11 ft. 8 in. high.
Joanna Hacker, by her will 22nd June 1584, bequeathed
to the Company 100l., to be lent to two young men of the
Company, each paying 26s. 8d. a year for the same.
|For the relief of the poor prisoners
of the King's Bench and of
the common gaol for Surrey,
|For coals to the poor of the Company||1||6||8|
The 100l. forms part of the "Trust Loan Account."
(See Cecilia Long's Charity.)
The sum of 1l. 6s. 8d. is paid to the half-yearly poor.
(See Trumball's Gift.)
The sum of 13s. 4d. is paid to the keeper of the Queen's
Bench, and the same amount to the keeper of the Surrey
John Halsey, by his will 25th November 1633, gave to
the Company 200l., to be lent to four young men of the
Company at 33s. 4d. per cent.
|To the poor of St. Mary Magdalen in
|To the beadle of the Company||0||6||8|
The sum of 200l. forms part of the fund forming the
"Trust Loan Account." (See Cecilia Long's Gift.)
The churchwardens of St. Mary Magdalen receive 3l. in
the month of December in every year, and the beadle of
the Company receives 6s. 8d.
Robert and Simon Harding's Charities.
Robert Harding devised by his will, 20th November
1568, a rentcharge of 3l. 6s. 8d., issuing out of tenements
in Pudding Lane, and Simon Harding, his son, by deed of
7th September 1576, confirmed the grant to pay 3l. to poor
inhabiters and artificers of Old and New Fish Street, compelled by necessity to repair thither to buy the cuttings of
fish and refuse of fish, and the residue to the wardens.
The 100l. New 3½l. per Cents received by the Fishmongers'
Company from the Butchers' Company, in satisfaction of
these charges, has been since reduced to 100l. New 3l. per
Cents. It forms part of the distribution to the "halfyearly poor." (See Trumball's Charity.)
Robert Harding granted, by deed of 1st May 1564, a
rentcharge of 40s. a year out of two tenements in Crooked
Lane, to the intent to distribute 36s. amongst poor fishmongers in the parishes of St. Magnus and St. Margaret,
and the residue to the wardens. The identity of the
property charged became questionable in 1815, as mentioned in the Report of the Commissioners of Inquiry, and
the Company have not since recovered the charge. It is
John Hayne devised, by his will 13th May 1682, a rentcharge of 40s., out of his tenement in Creed Lane. for the
relief of the poor of the Company. The sum of 2l. a year
is received from Mr. J. E. Craney, of 52, Fore Street, being
payable out of No. 18, Creed Lane. It is given to the halfyearly poor, as described under Trumball's Charity.
John Heron, by his will of the 19th March 1510, after
reciting that he had purchased of the Fishmongers' Company for 320l. a messuage in Friday Street, and three
messuages adjoining. let for 12l. a year; a tenement and
shop in Bridge Street let for 7l. a year; a messuage in
Finch Lane let for 40s. a year, ordained that the said Company should pay yearly to the parson of Little Ilford, Essex,
5 marks (3l. 6s. 8d.), in augmentation of the profit of his
benefice; and that the wardens of the said Company
should divide amongst themselves 13s. 4d. for their labour.
The sum of 3l. 6s. 8d. is annually paid to the rector of
Little Ilford, and the 13s. 4d. paid to the wardens of the
Company. The property originally derived under this will
were premises in Bread Street, Friday Street, Pudding Lane,
and the Salmon in Bridge Street, the latter being now part
of No. 21, Fish Street Hill. The property was by the testator subjected to obits, and it was therefore seized by the
Crown, and was, as it is alleged, repurchased by the Company, although the Company have only to pay 4l. per annum,
which they consider as a rentcharge upon them, yet for the
purpose of showing the manner in which their title to each
estate is derived, the Company since Midsummer 1835
have credited the account with the full rents, including a
third of the rent of the house No. 21, Fish Street Hill,
carrying off the balance to their own account at the end of
each financial year.
John Heydon bequeathed, by his will of 6th March
1579, the sum of 100l., to be lent to two young men at
3l. 6s. 8d. per cent. interest, and the interest paid to the
This forms a portion of the "TrustLoan Account." (See
Cecilia Long's Charity.) The 3l. 6s. 8d. a year in respect
of interest is paid to the Mercers' Company.
John Hopkins, by his will of the 27th December 1558,
directed his executor to pay to the wardens 20l., to be put
into the hands of young men of the Company. No interest
is directed to be made or is credited on this account.
Thomas Jenyns made several gifts to the Company, that
by his first will of 20th August 1572, of a shop in New
Fish Street, to pay 13s. 4d. for coal to each of the parishes
St. Mary Magdalen, Old Fish Street:
St. Mary, Somerset;
St. Michael, Crooked Lane;
St. Margaret, Bridge Street;
St. Magnus the Martyr; and
And by his second will, 31st March 1579, of a rentcharge of
40s. to Christ's Hospital out of two tenements, which he
gave to the Fishmongers' Company, to pay 6l. 13s. 4d.
towards the relief of the poor of Braughing, Herts; also—
|To the poor of New Fish Street||2||0||0|
|Ditto of Old Fish Street||2||0||0|
|Ditto of Braughing||2||0||0|
|To the Chamberlain of London for
overseeing the accounts||0||3||4|
|To the clerk of the Company||0||3||4|
The Company hold a house, No. 27, Fish Street Hill
(the Commissioners stated No. 26 erroneously), let to Evan
Evans for a term of 21 years, from Lady-day 1858, at a
rent of 75l. Of these premises the Company consider that
a portion equal to about 8/30ths of the entire site constitutes the property charged with the gift. The payments
of 13s. 4d. each are made to the seven different parishes
above stated, in the month of December of every year.
The property called the Chequer and the Horse Head,
near London Bridge, was part of 121, Upper Thames
Street, and part of Nos. 26 and 27, Fish Street Hill, which
still remain, and other property which was sold under the
London Bridge Act for 6,387l. 12s. cash, which produced
7,638l. 7s. 9d. 3l. per cent. Consols. Part of the latter sum
was laid out in February 1858, namely, 2,628l. 2s. 5d.
Consols for the purchase of the freehold of No. 28, Fish
Street Hill, and a further portion of 527l. 0s. 2d. Consols
was laid out in February 1860 in the purchase of the
interest of the Corporation of London in a small part of the
said premises, No. 121, Upper Thames Street. The account
of the estate is audited according to the direction of the
will annually by the Chamberlain of London.
The only charitable gifts arising out of this property
|To the poor dwelling in and about Old Fish
Street (4 persons selected by the beadle)
|The same to poor dwelling in and about New
|The clerk of the Company||0||3||4|
|To Christ's Hospital||2||0||0|
|The wardens of the Company||1||0||0|
|The parish of Braughing, Herts, by payment to the churchwardens||8||13||4|
|The chamberlain, 1l. 1s. 0d. is usually paid
and returned by him as a donation for the
Henry Jordeyn, by his will dated the 15th October 1468,
gave all his lands and tenements in St. Catherine Cree
Church, and the messuage and garden in the said parish,
and all his tenements in St. Bridget parish, for certain
superstitious uses, and for buying and delivering 138 quarters of coal or money to buy the same at 8d. per quarter,
|To 16 poor householders of Old Fish Street, two
|To 10 poor householders of Bridge Street, two
|To 8 poor householders in Thames Street, two
|To 30 poor householders of St. Botolph, Aldgate,
one quarter each||30|
|To 20 poor householders of the Founders, one
|To 10 poor housholders of St. Catherine Cree
Church, one quarter each||10|
|To 10 poor householders of Fleet Street, one
and to pay to the mayor 10s. yearly, to the common clerk
3s. 4d., and the residue of the rents to the Company; and
the testator provided that if the coals be bought for less
price than is aforesaid, that then there should be delivered
and given more coals after the good discretion of the
wardens for the time being.
The Commissioners of Inquiry stated that the Company
were possessed of a house in Leadenhall Street, and one in
Billiter Lane, under this devise, but of no houses in Fleet
Street, and that the Company made certain small annual
payments to the poor members of the Company for coals,
and to the churchwardens of the three parishes, and the
In 1832, Thomas Marks, of the Minories, publican, on
behalf of himself and all other the inhabitants of the parish
of St. Botolph without Aldgate, and George Smith, of Salisbury Square, Fleet Street, on behalf of himself and all other
the inhabitants of the parish of St. Bride, presented their
petition to the Lord Chancellor, alleging that the whole of
the rents and profits devised by the will were intended and
ought to be applied for the charitable purposes therein
declared, and praying that it might be referred to one of
the masters of the court to take an account of the rents
and profits of the messuages, &c. subject to the devise
received by them in respect of any lettings of the said premises; and that the said master might also be directed to
compute the value, year by year, of the coals bequeathed
or directed by the testator's will to be annually provided
and distributed by the said Company; and that the said
Company might be charged with and ordered to pay the
full value and amount of such coals, and interest thereon;
and that it might be declared that the quantity of coals
bequeathed by or which ought to be distributed under the
said will ought to be increased proportionably to the increase of the rents and yearly value of the said devised
estates; and that it might be referred to the master to
ascertain the same, and also to fix the sum to be annually
paid by the said Company out of the rents of the estates
in respect of the aforesaid bequests of coals, and to approve
of a proper scheme for distribution of the same with all
usual and necessary directions respecting the same; and
that the costs, &c. of and attending the application might
be ordered to be paid by the said Company.
The petition was heard before the Vice-Chancellor, Sir
Lancelot Shadwell, on the 22nd December 1832, and was
dismissed with costs, his honour holding that the testator
meant to give the option to the Company of either giving
coals or sums of money not exceeding 138 eightpences,
that is, 4l. 12s., and he had provided for the benefit of the
poor to this extent, namely, that if the coals were less in
price than 8d. a quarter that still they should have more
coals, so that at all events they should have up to the
value of 4l. 12s.; but the vice-chancellor saw nothing at all
in the will which at all indicated an intention on his part
that against the will of the Fishmongers' Company they
should have more in value than 138 eightpences.
It appeared to the vice-chancellor that the testator did
not mean here that the whole of the land should go for
charitable uses, but meant that certain specified objects of
charity should receive certain definite sums only, and that
the surplus should go to the Company as a benefit to them.
But then he said if the mayor of London sees that they do
not give those specific sums which he had appointed, and
giving them warning for two or three years, and they do
not comply with that, then that all those charities so firstnamed should cease so far from being permanent objects of
the bounty of the testator, and the land should be given to
the commonalty of London for different charitable purposes,
and the ultimate residue applied to the reparation of London
Bridge. The vice-chancellor's opinion, therefore, was that
the Company as against the persons who were called the
poor and who were entitled to a certain quantity of coals
were entitled to keep the surplus of the estate beyond the
4l. 12s. for their own benefit.
The petitioners appealed to the Lord Chancellor, and the
petition was heard before Lord Brougham on the 25th and
31st May 1833, when his lordship affirmed the vice-chancellor's order and dismissed the petition with costs as well
on principle as on the ground of the last clause in the will
The Company have, therefore, simply continued the expenditure of the several sums, amounting altogether to
The headle endeavours to find out whether there are
persons of the craft of fishmongers' coming under the
denomination of 16 householders of Old Fish Street, 10
of New Fish Street, and of 8 of Thames Street, standing
in need of the gift, and if there are not, the amount of
2l. 5s. 4d. is added to other small gifts and distributed in
money amongst the half-yearly poor on the third Thursday
in December, yearly. The 1l. is paid to the churchwardens
of St. Botolph, Aldgate, 13s. 4d. to the Founder's Company, 6s. 8d. to the churchwardens of St. Catherine Cree,
and 6s. 8d. to the parish of St. Bride.
John Joye, by his will of the 6th June 1556, directed
his executors to sell his two houses in Shoreditch, and the
money to be delivered to two of the poorest men of the
Company, and to have the advantage thereof for one year.
It does not appear that the Company received more than
20l. on this account, which forms part of the "Loan
Trust Fund." No interest is credited on this account.
Warner King, by his will of the 25th April 1597, gave
to the Company 40l., to be lent to two young men free of
the Company and not of the livery. No interest is to be
charged and none is credited.
The fund is in the "Trust Loan Fund." The Court of
Chancery did not notice the direction to take no interest
in these cases and it forms no part of the scheme.