East Indies
August 1622


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'East Indies: August 1622', Calendar of State Papers Colonial, East Indies, China and Japan, Volume 4: 1622-1624 (1878), pp. 51-64. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=69749 Date accessed: 22 October 2014.


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August 1622

Aug. 1.
119. Order of the Privy Council. Recites the complaint made to his Majesty by the East India Company, and what has taken place thereon. Forasmuch as at the last it evidently appears to his Majesty's Lords Commissioners that the Dutch will not be brought to any reasonable or equal agreement, but on all occasions seek to protract the treaty by delays and evasions, that the English by losses and discouragements might be inforced to give over that rich and profitable trade of the East Indies; and as complaint is also made that since the publication of the treaty in the Indies, the Dutch have in hostile manner taken from his Majesty's subjects their lawful possession of the islands of Lantar and Pooloroon (surrendered to his Majesty's use by the natives), seized their goods and murdered and despitefully used their servants, their Lordships, by his Majesty's command, hereby signify to the merchants that they should consult upon the best legal course to recover from the Dutch what by right appertains to them, whether by the Court of Admiralty, or by special commission. It is also resolved to move his Majesty to continue his purpose for putting that course into speedy execution, upon which assurance the merchants are encouraged to continue cheerfully in their trade. [East Indies, Vol. II., No. 20.]
Aug. 2/12.
120. Request of John Gonninge to Governor Houtman, and the Governor's answer in reference to an account of the goods and the names of the persons in the Spanish frigate Kalckboat, taken by the Orange, in October. The ship, which was of small value, was sent to Batavia in December, and if Gonninge means to have a share in it, it is reason that he participate in the charge. Dutch. [Three pages and a half. O.C., Vol. IX., No. 1062.]
Aug. 2/12.
121. English translation of the preceding. [Three pages. O.C., Vol. IX., No. 1061.]
Aug. 3 to Dec. 24.122. Abstract of the Journal of James Burgess, master of the Abigail, from the Lizard to Cape of Good Hope. Reached the Table Land on December 9th, Long Island on the 10th, and Saldanha Bay on the 17th, where he met the Little James, and two Hollanders bound home; on the 24th he purposed to set sail for Jacatra. [Four pages. O.C., Vol. IX., No. 1060.]
Aug. 7.
123. Deposition of John Roberts master of the Lesser James. In reference to the capture of a China junk in the Straits of Banca. Not the value of one ryal was taken from her to his knowledge. After her departure Robert Johnson, the merchant, called a consultation, and said that if the Dutch met her they would make good prize of her, for General Coen had ordered that all China junks trading at any other port than Batavia should be taken; whereupon it was resolved to send the Bear after her, and take out as much of the principal goods as she could carry; pursued her course to Batavia. In the Straits they met a Dutch pinnace, bound for Batavia, with blacks on board. [One page. O.C., Vol. IX., No. 1063.]
Aug. 9 & 10.124. Examinations of Thomas Reignolds, purser of the Lesser James, Peter Garrat, master gunner, Robert Barker, boatswain's mate, John Necksonn, boatswain, and Nicholas Geryng, surgeon of the White Bear. Concerning the taking of a China junk in the Straits of Bankey. No private pillage, nor any injury to the Chinese was allowed. [Together, nine pages. O.C., Vol. IX., Nos. 1064– 1067.]
Aug. 11–14.125. Deposition of Robert Randall, merchant, and of Abraham Woofe, "silk-throwster," both of London, before Sir Henry Marten, Judge of the Admiralty Court, in answer to 13 articles ministered on behalf of the East India Company. Concerning the Dutch in Lantar and Pooloroon. To the first; that Randall, as factor of the Company, was present and saw the surrender of the Island of Pooloroon in December 1616, and that of Lantar in November 1620. That the Dutch General, with 16 ships of war, with at least 4,000 men, and about 40 Java prows, arrived at Neira road, about three miles from Lantar, in February 1621 and all these forces said Dutch General made and bended against Lantar, for at that time he inhabited Lantar. That the English captain of Pooloroon took possession of Lantar upon its surrender as aforesaid, and continued the English factory which had been established there almost a year before. That soon after the arrival of the Dutch in Neira road, fearing a surprisal of said Island of Lantar, he went to the captain of Pooloroon, who wrote to the Dutch General, intimating that the island belonged to the King of England, and that, as an accord had been made in England between the English and Dutch Companies, he should forbear to use any violence against said island. This letter (as the messenger told Randall) the General received very scornfully, saying that whomsoever of the English he should find there he would use with no more mercy than the country people; that 10 or 12 days, after the Dutch attacked and subdued the island, and during the conflict Randall with his servants, being two English and eight Chinese, kept within doors; but the Dutch, having taken the castle, violently entered the English house (no resistance being made), and in spite of their entreaties, bound and coupled them together, cut off three of the Chinese's heads, and dragged the rest like slaves before the General and captains. Here they were humble suitors for mild usage, but were pinioned and tied by the necks fast to a post, expecting to be presently executed, whilst the Dutch in inhuman manner, stood throwing the heads of the Chinese and Bandanese they had executed under their feet. Removed from thence, they were bound to another post, and thence carried aboard the Dutch Admiral the "Holland." On their way through the castle they were ordered to go over a wall 12 feet high, and when Randall refused to attempt it unless unpinioned, they threw him over by which he was much bruised, "and without great favour of God, had broken his neck." They beat him grievously with a truncheon for ignorantly stepping into the wrong prow, put them all in irons for 48 hours in the beak-head, and kept them "in great irons" for 18 days more, until at the coming of the Royal Exchange, they set them at liberty. These Dutch also seised all the English goods at Lantar, valued at 7,651½ ryals of eight. To the sixth, seventh, and eighth articles he cannot depose. To the ninth he saith, that in November 1620, Nathaniel Courthoppe, chief of the English at Pooloroon, having been to Lantar to receive its surrender to the English, was intercepted on his return by the Dutch (as he has heard both from themselves and the country people who were present) and slain with small shot, and, as the Dutch told this examinate, they shot him twice through before he died. That in November 1620, a Dutch ship was taken by the Bandanese off Pooloroon, in which were letters from the Dutch General to the Dutch in Pooloway and Neira, which letters came to the hands of Mr. Hayes, captain of the English at Pooloroon, who broke them open, the effect being that, howsoever there was a peace concluded in England, they should use all means to engross all the spice they could before the arrival of the English fleet, as well what belonged to the English as to themselves, That when the Dutch subdued Lantar, they forced the islanders to deliver up the principal of their children prisoners, slew many of the Bandanese, and carried off all the ships and boats, and 1,200 prisoners (mostly women and children), to Jacatra. That after the Dutch had sacked Lantar and committed these outrages they presently published the accord between the Companies with great solemnity in Neira Road, and then released him. That Lantar commonly yields 800 or 1,000 tons of nutmegs and mace yearly, besides some cloves, and when subdued by the Dutch had 800 tons of spice upon it; but what was upon Pooloroon when it was subdued, or what its fruitfulness, he cannot declare.
Aug. 14.—Deposition of Abraham Woofe, of London, silk throwster. [To some of the articles his answers are similar to Randall's] That in 1618 he came to Pooloroon in the Francis as purser, but forsook her and stayed at Pooloroon as a soldier, where he saw in Mr. Hayes' (an English merchant) house writings, whereby it appeared that Pooloroon was surrendered to the English in 1616. That he has heard that Lantar was firmly surrendered to the English in Nov. 1620, and knows that at that time there were ordnance sent to the people of Lantar from Pooloroon by the English (as was said) in lieu of the said surrender. That he was one of the English living with Mr. Randall. Gives an account of the attack upon their house by 80 Japanese soldiers in the Dutch service. Believes that the Dutch made signs to the Japanese to kill them all, which, however, they understood differently. Account of their ill-treatment; were most grievously beaten, and kept 24 hours in irons and 18 days between decks, until the arrival of Capt. Fitzherbert in the Royal Exchange, when they were released. Particulars of the English goods taken by the Dutch. Cannot depose to the sixth, seventh, and eighth articles. Courthope was slain by the Dutch on the 26th Oct. 1620. That after the Dutch at Pooloway and Neira had news of the publication of the agreement at Bantam they endeavoured to buy all the spices in Lantar and Pooloroon, and when the people refused, in regard they had before covenanted with the English, took same violently from them. Cannot depose to the 11th article. That at the time of its surprisal Lantar had upon it at least 700 tons of mace and nutmegs. See Capt. Fitzherbert's letter, March 27, 1621, No. 997 in previous vol. of Calendar. [Holland Correspondence.]
Aug. 13.
126. Richard Fursland, Thomas Brockedon, and Aug. Spalding to the East India Company. In reference to the sum of 2,300 ryals advanced to Welden at Banda, for which they have given bills at 12½ per cent. interest on the Company, and request they may be honoured and charged to the factory account. [Three quarters of a page. O.C., Vol. IX., No. 1068.]
Aug. 14.
The Hague.
127. Carleton to Sec. Calvert. The States Ambassadors have advertised hither the stop in their treaty in general terms only, referring themselves for particularities to their letters to the Prince of Orange and the States Deputies at the camp, what is done here in his Excellency's absence being only pro formâ. His Excellency has advised the seventeen directors of this East India Company now assembled at Amsterdam to enlarge the commission of their deputies in England, in that sort that they may end that long business when the Ambassadors return, for which (they say) the 24th inst. is appointed; for howsoever the matter may be handled by the Ambassadors and merchants, at which he plainly sees what reason the Lords have to take just exceptions, he knows that the purpose of his Excellency and the States is that they should submit to reason, of which the treaty should be the rule. But the treaty may be wrested divers ways by interpretation, and when they meet with difficulties they advertise hither that there is no intention in the Lords, who have the chief sway in the business; to come to a conclusion, and impute the delays, which they much complain of, to a mixture of matters of State with matters of merchandise, so that one of the chief here spared not to say "that till H.M. knew what will become of Lord Digby's treaty in Spain they should not see an end of theirs in England." Their merchants, when pressed by the States (as they often are), profess to be ready to accomplish what is required by the treaty, but if more be required they leave it to the States to perform, who, looking into their purses, and finding in what state they are deeply indebted and overcharged with the cost of the war, they are amazed and confounded, and like to be lost in the labyrinth unless his Majesty furnish them a thread; for most other trades failing, this of the East Indies employs their shipping and mariners, and brings a competent profit to this State. Upon the re-establishing of this Company (whose octroy is within few months of expiration) depends the proceeding of the West India Company, and thereupon (as the enemy is now yearly and quietly supplied with money from thence) a matter of further consequence to the preservation of this State. [Extract from Holland Corresp.]
Aug. 15.
128. Sir Edward Conway to Carleton. Wishes the States Ambassadors would find a means to give an end to the East India disputes, which nourish much ill-blood. Since the treaty has been wholly broken off he has employed his weak force (not without hope) to renew it, though this be a dead time, when all the Lords are dispersed. [Extract from Holland Corresp.]
Aug. 20.
129. John Hitchens to (the East India Company). Stores wanting for supply of the factory of Jacatra. Endorsed, "Received by the Lesser James." [One page. O.C., Vol. IX., No. 1069.]
Aug. 20.
130. John Hitchens to the East India Company. Copy of preceding, with additional list of stores wanted for supply of the factory at Jacatra, which includes flesh, beer, wine, cider, butter, vinegar, cheese, capers, olives, samphire, copperas for ink, gum, quills, gall, &c. [Two pages. O.C., Vol. IX., No. 1077+1.]
Aug. 20/30.
131. (Sir Thos. Roe) to Sir Edward Herbert, his Majesty's Resident in France. The Persian hath undertaken unfortunately a war with the Mogul for Candahar, and, as Roe hears, lost his army in a great battle, but with the assistance of the English ships has recovered from the Portugals all their footing upon the Main, in the Gulf, and besieged Ormuz, with great hope of carrying it before this time, which, if the Portugals lose, they have lost the best flower of India. [Extract from French Corresp.]
Aug. 22.
132. Sir Henry Wotton, the English Ambassador, to Sec. Calvert. It is said that seven English ships have assisted the Persians to take Ormuz, which was a necessary staple of the Portugals to intermediate their trade in the East Indies, whereupon are grown two opinions, one that it will break, and the other that it will facilitate the present treaties with Spain.
P.S.—They have this addition to the above intelligence; that the castle yet held out, but could not long, for want of water, which particularly doth win some credit to the rest. [Extract from Venice Corresp]
Aug. 22.
The Hague.
133. Carleton to Sec. Calvert. The States, desirous of bringing their East India Company to reason in the treaty they have in hand now in England, have employed two of their body, Gogh, of Guelderland (one of the framers of the treaty) and Joachimi, of Zealand, first to the camp to his Excellency and thence to the 17 directors at Amsterdam, from whence they are newly returned, but knows not what they bring. [Extract from Holland Corresp.]
Aug. 22.
134. (Thomas Bright ?) to Andrew Ellam. Account of the voyage of the Trial after leaving the Cape the 19th of March. On May 25, through carelessness, they struck upon the rocks, 300 miles from the Straits of Sunda; the hold was full of water in an instant; Broock, the master, got out the skiff, provisioned it, chose his crew, to the number of nine, out of his "fellows and consorts," promised to take him and Jackson on board, "but like a Judas" slipped away privately without them, leaving 128 souls to God's mercy, whereof 36 got off in the long boat, and the ship suddenly broke up before they had got a quarter of a mile. Details their adventures and privations, discovery of certain islands, and safe arrival two days after Broock. Serious charges against Broock; he has given no account of the Company's moneys, spangles, and letters, which the writer saw put into the skiff, but admits that he threw overboard some of the letters, after having read them, because they were wet, but as the writer thinks, because "they would have done him no good" if he had honestly delivered them. He made plots against Jackson and Ellam, which were supported by the false swearing of his "consorts" "and many more gross villanies." The death of so many witnesses renders it difficult to prove anything. Hopes he may never "go to sea with him or the like." He and Jackson were much persecuted and injured for opposing his dishonesty. Kempe and Danby have proved very dishonest in assisting Broock; begs for assistance in recovering his debt from Jackson's adventure in the second joint stock, to help him in his "poor and distressed estate." [Four pages. O.C., Vol. IX. No. 1070.]
Aug. 23./Sept. 2.
135. Sir Henry Wotton to Carleton. From Aleppo both our merchants and Italians agree in a piece of news which subjecteth us to some clamour. The news is the same as in the above letter, No. 132. [Holland Corresp.]
Aug. 24.136. Commission to Sir Wm. Haydon and Chas. Glenham to make a voyage with two ships to the territories of the Great Mogul and other Princes, between the Cape of Good Hope and the Straits of Le Maire; to satisfy the Mogul with "some choice arts and rarities," and to put their works and inventions in use in those climates. [Docquet. Domestic Jac. I., Cal., p. 442. See also Grant Bk., pp. 352, 362, Domestic Jac. I.]
Aug. 24.
On board the
Bantam Road.
137. Peter Bell, purser, to the East India Company. At his first entertainment he seemed like a ragged colt, unfit for any employment, but has now succeeded Richard Eman, purser of the Ruby, deceased, by Captain Fitzherbert's appointment. Found the books very backward, and had great difficulty in getting them straight; many things not entered. Complains of the injuries they daily suffer in these parts through the insolencies of the Dutch. In case of abuses, the English must wait for redress from England, whilst they demand it at once, "nay, it is almost come to such a pass, that if they say it is a fault, we must not deny it." Can say a little about the Moluccas, for the ship rode there for 12 months as a ship of war. At their first arrival there, on 31 May 1621, Malaya was the chief rendezvous, and Governor Derickson-Lam, the Dutch Governor treated them with all love and respect; but his successor, Frederick Houtman, (who, he thinks, "hath vowed himself an enemy to all your worship's affairs in these parts,")—his coming verified the old English proverb, New lords, new laws—as soon as the fleets were gone for Batavia began to show his power and malice. He ordered that the English should be turned out of the forts, saying, they were bound by treaty to secure their goods, yet they were no way tied to secure the persons of the English. He would not suffer them to build, and pulled down what Mr. Holman had begun at Gnoffiquia, pretending he must build there "a redout, which I think will be done when I am Lord Mayor of London." These affronts can be for no other cause than to bring us into disgrace with the country people. If the trade were profitable, "this were somewhat tolerable;" but, as the Dutch pay for everything in commodities, and the English pay their "thirds in ready money," a man may boldly say it defrays the whole charge. All the Dutch build goes under the name of fortification. All their soldiers are paid their wages in linen cloth and stuffs at an unreasonable rate, except four months which they term their good months. There is no reason why the English should not pay their thirds in like kind with the Dutch, and till it be thus, he thinks their third of charges will so far exceed their third of profits, as that they will soon grow weary of the Molucca commodities. This they do by virtue of the 23rd Article made at Jacatra by the Council of both Companies, which is quoted. What is the Company's third of the yearly charge in the Moluccas he is not privy to, but he knows their third of cloves is but 19 Baharrs, 31 catties, at 600l. the Baharr. Has sent, by President Fursland's orders, the original wills of such men as have made any since the ship came out, also the accounts of those who have died since the 3rd January; all others, together with balance of Richard Eman's books, he has already sent to the President. [Endorsed, "Received the 18 June 1623, by the Lesser James." Five pages. O.C., Vol. IX., No. 1071.]
Aug. 25.
138. John Broock, late master of the Trial, to the East India Company, at Crosby House, London. Met at the Cape of Good Hope with the Charles, Capt. John Bickell, and would fain have had one of his master's mates, as neither himself, nor any of his mates had ever been the dangerous course from the Cape to Jacatra, but not one would go without increase of wages. Describes the ship's course until the 25th of May, when, at 11 p.m., she struck upon some sharp sunken rocks, for the most part two fathoms under water. The men were struck in a maze, for they could see neither breach, land, rocks, nor sign of danger. Before she struck a second time, the wind began suddenly to fresh and blow; by two o'clock he had got out the long boat and skiff, and seeing the ship full of water, and the wind to increase, he made all the means he could to save his life, and as many of his companions as he could. He put the Company's money, gold, spangles, and letters, with his own money and commission and letters, in the long boat, and sent them by John Norden, Will. Hicca, and John Willoughby, but the men being in dissension would not suffer the boat to be lowered into the water, nor the things to be put into the boat, but what one put in, the other threw overboard, so that none were saved. His people crying out of the skiff to come in and save his life, the ship beginning to open, he ran down by a rope over the people into the skiff, which he had near broken, and they put off at four in the morning. Half an hour after the ship fell in pieces; 10 men were saved in the skiff, and 36 in the long boat, in all 46 men and boys out of 139 were saved, whose names are all given. He came away with his boat for the Straits, and fell in with the east end of Java, 8th of June, at Bantam the 21st, and Jacatra the 25th. They had so much rain and sea that their boat was always half full of water, and their distress was great, as the President and his Council, having examined himself and all his people that were saved, were truly informed. This island lieth false in longitude 200 leagues, as he has found by woeful experience, as also these sunken rocks, as by his draught will appear. Narrow escape of a Dutch ship in the same place, which rode three days at the mercy of God. Capt. Fitzherbert missed this danger narrowly. "Always in that course experience of variation is the greatest help to any man." [Three pages. O.C., Vol. IX., No. 1072.]
Aug. 26.139. Richard Fursland to the East India Company. At the request of Wm. Hawkeridge, he certifies that no demand has yet been made for restitution of the money taken out of a China junk by the Supply the master and company of which are suitors that the Company will deal favourably with them. About a Bezoar stone, sent home for a debt due to him from Edward [? George, so endorsed] Pike. [ One page. O.C., Vol. IX., No. 1075.]
Aug. 26.
140. Thomas Brockedon to the East India Company. Asks leave to return home, though his covenants are not yet expired, for he can live no longer under the insolence of the Dutch. Thinks it his duty to declare some of their principal abuses which tend to the ruin of our trade, and the dishonour of our nation, the two points they chiefly aim at. The Dutch, so far from making any restitution, pretend money to be due to them for part of the excessive charges of their Fort Batavia, &c., and the full number of ships of defence according to contract, which charges grow to an incredible sum. As to their glorious pretence of future benefit by their war with Bantam, and building their Fort Batavia to curb the Pengran, "the contrary is most apparent." Peace with Bantam might have brought down the price of pepper; now they are never like to get trade as long as the Pengran lives. With all their boasting of besieging Bantam, the Dutch cannot hinder the people from fishing or from planting rice, the food they desire, so they will not easily be brought to any reasonable conditions of peace, the Pengran refusing absolutely to speak with the Dutch or themselves. They require from the English one third of the expenses of the taking of Banda, but have taken to themselves all the spices found upon the island, and sold the slaves to their own benefit. The English have failed to furnish proper number of ships of defence, but the Dutch enjoy two thirds of the trade in the Moluccas, Amboyna, and Banda, and use all indirect means to exclude them from Ligor, under pretext of a contract long since made with the King. The Fort of Batavia, in all men's judgments, will not be finished in 20 years; the monthly charges are incredible. Sends an abstract of the charges of the garrison and fortification of Neira and other places in Banda, which shows the strange exactions of the Dutch. They exact excise for the arrack our people drink, and they may not "kill a wild hog, or gather a cocoa-nut in the wood without leave," and paying the value thereof. "We do more than pay the whole charge in Banda," and there is little hope that Amboyna and the Moluccas will prove better. They receive nothing but taunts and disgraceful speeches on their complaints for redress. "Our trade in this place is not worth the name. * * * No man dare buy or sell with us." In the Council of Defence, the Dutch General continually presides, and whatever he propounds is content to hear our opinions, but concludes what he pleaseth, so that we rather retain the shadow than substance of a Council of Defence. Whatever our ships do at sea is called in question, and we must appear at their citation in company with the blacks, who they believe on their bare affirmation, having a company of ignorant fellows in their council, who do nothing but by the General's appointment. The Chinas report publicly "they can have justice against an Englishman, but not against a Hollander." Other insufferable proceedings of the Dutch, which "work our disgrace in all places." The English watch taken by the Dutch watch and imprisoned for eight days, and threatened with torture, that they might make confessions against the President. They are forbidden to keep any soldiers or court of guard in their house, or beat any drum, or shoot off at discharging the watch. Would be content rather to live under any heathen prince than under those that under colour of friendship do us what mischief and disgrace they may. [Endorsed, "Received by the Lesser James, 18 June 1623." Five pages. O.C. Vol. IX., No. 1073.
Aug. 26./Sept. 5.
141. Protest of General Coen and Council against President Richard Fursland, Thomas Brockedon, and Augustine Spalding. That he has demanded payment of the contingent of English Company's charges for Bantam from the time of the joint agreement of the two Companies, which have been expended for the good of both, by the common resolution of the Council of Defence, and that he holds the English Company responsible for all losses, interests, and other inconveniences which the Dutch Company has suffered or may suffer through the nonpayment of said charges. Dutch. Endorsed, "Rec. by the Lesser James, 18 June." [Three pages. O.C., Vol. IX., No. 1111.]
Aug. 27.
142. Commission from President Richard Fursland and the Council of Defence to John Roberts, master of the Lesser James, of 450 tons, bound for England. To show the respect to William Hawkeridge who goes passenger in the ship, befitting a man of his rank; to keep company with the Dutch ship Lioness. His principal care to be that public prayers be made devoutly to God every day in his ship, both morning and evening, by reading some part of God's Holy Word and singing of psalms, that they may, "with more assurance and comfort, expect God's blessing upon the voyage." Blasphemy, drunkenness, swearing, fighting, quarrelling, and all other vices to "be severely punished," and no dicing nor any other unlawful games admitted; the ship to be kept sweet and clean, and everything avoided that may breed sickness and noisome disease. To search for letters at Saldanha Bay, and leave behind in writing an account of the voyage, and to take heed of the savages, for of late they have surprised both our people and the Dutch as they were fishing on the river, and murdered them; to require to be furnished with men and victuals, if necessary, from outward-bound English ships. Himself, W. Hawkeridge, Henry Bate, the purser and chief, appointed his council; to beware of pirates; in case of death or otherwise Hawkeridge to succeed to the command. To show all favour and courtesy to the Dutch and help them in need, and to take charge of Anthony Wallis and William Bennett, sent over "to answer for their consuming of the Company's means," and deliver them as prisoners into the hands of the Company. [Four pages. O.C., Vol. IX., No. 1074.]
Aug. 27.
143. President Richard Fursland, Thomas Brockedon, and Aug. Spaldinge to the East India Company. Refer to their last of 16th March [see ante, No. 54]. On 25 May last the long expected ship, the Trial, was cast away upon an unknown shoal of rocks lying in latitude 22, some 238 leagues from Java, with an easy gale and fair weather; she bilged and was instantly full of water, whereupon the master, John Broock, got into the skiff with eight men and a boy, his son, and left the ship; the long boat some two hours after, with 36 men, got also from the ship, and both arrived here,—the skiff the 25 June, the long boat on 28 June; the rest of the men, near 100, perished with the ship and all that was in her, including the Company's letters. Refer to Broock's letter for a more particular relation. This disastrous affair could not have befallen their affairs in a worse time, being in extreme want of all things. Cannot but wonder the Company so far forget the state of their affairs in these parts as to have sent no supplies in this ship; money and victuals is the main life of their affairs, without which all will be brought to a confusion. The rash and indiscreet proceedings of the commander of the fleet sent for Persia who, contrary to order, have contracted with the King to war with the Portugal, and have only the warrant of a subject for the performance of the agreement. Send copy of the articles by this conveyance. These rash proceedings have caused them to lose a whole year's trade at Acheen for want of a ship to send there. Blame the factors at Surat for diverting the cargo for Sumatra for fear of the Dutch. False and indirect proceedings of the Dutch. Find the exactions so intollerable at Amboyna and Banda that if they be suffered to proceed our masters shall in short time pay the whole charges of those places, and they will reap the profit of all the fruits for nothing. They make from three to five to one profit, paying their soldiers in commodities. Do not wonder that the Dutch are so profuse in all their expenses, for the more they spend the greater is their profit by receiving our ready money for them. They have compelled the English to pay for a rotten and unserviceable galley and to submit to many other abuses, In Amboyna they are forced to pay a third of the charges of an armada, yet the Dutch retain all that is gotten thereby, alleging it belongeth to their sovereignty; and exact taxes of tenths upon all fruits and cattle with "accises" upon all meat, drink, and fishing which amount to a great sum yearly, which they keep wholly to themselves. No hope to obtain remedy here, it must be procured from the Company in Holland. About leaving the English fort at Neylacca. More deceitful practices of the Dutch; they have sent in a scroll of charges concerning the besieging of Bantam and scouring the coast of their sovereignty. Particulars of the charge which must be disallowed. The number of ships and men employed with the General to Banda, "that your worships may take notice what force they used to thrust you out of your right in those places which they conquered." The Dutch make account you should contribute to the charges of Batavia where they spend 45,000 ryals a month, which they will continue to do many months before their fort be finished. Two such impartial haters of the English as General Coen and Peter de Carpentier are, the world cannot match. The Dutch will challenge a part of the charges of their Macao fleet, if they get nothing, but all the gain shall be theirs, and they are not ashamed to say so. The wrongs of the Dutch are so gross that we cannot endure them; they judge us for matters done upon the sea as well as upon land; it is high time we were freed from being under their power; every black upon his own accusation may have sentence against us; we are no better thought of by the Dutch than if we were villains and traitors unto their kingdom (as they term it), but no wonder seeing there is "neither faith, religion, nor honesty left in them." The James and White Bear arrived in May last from Jambi, having met a China junk in the Straits of Banca, which had our pass, and made prize of her by Robt. Johnson's order. Condemn Johnson and give particulars of the capture. The Dutch make a great matter of this, and have called us before their court, though they did the same last year. Without her goods they would not have had one ryal left "so poor and miserable is our present state." They have borrowed "flesh" from the Dutch for provisioning this ship. Cargo of the James, John Roberts master, chiefly mace, nuts, pepper, diamonds, bezoars, and ambergris. The Dutch have raised the price of pepper and it is very dear. Account of the state of all the factories under their authority. Advice from Japan that after much trouble, and payment of one sixteenth part of the goods, the Manilla fleet has proceeded on their second voyage; much disorder among our people, yet some have been hanged as they well deserved. Have given orders to Ric. Cocks and others of the factory in Japan to come away in the fleet and leave John Osterwick and two others there. Have not thought it fit wholly to remove from thence until they see what the next year's business may require. To Siam they have sent the Fortune with a small cargo which the factors there are to make sale of, and all come away in the ship, first taking leave of the King and delivering over their house until their return. Have given express orders to all the factors at Patani to come away in the same ship. Have sent back Robert Johnson to Jambi to recover the great number of debts outstanding there. Are obliged to trust as well as the Dutch, or must sit still and get no pepper. In Jambi and all other places all scorn and abuse us because they daily see how the Dutch domineer over us, "that it is almost impossible to repair the honour of our nation." They can do little at Jambi until they receive means from home. Have given orders to dissolve the factory at Indraghiri. Know not whether their people will come from Acheen or stay but cannot expect any good news from thence. 200 tons of pepper lying at Acheen there and no ship to fetch it. The spangles lost in the Trial "would have been well accepted by the King." They have sent the Unity with a small cargo and 20,000 ryals to Pulicat and Masulipatam, but the factories there require much more. Wrongs inflicted by the Dutch at Pulicat, for which they can get no remedy here. It were good you had never anything to do with them. A small matter sent to Masulipatam, so cannot expect much from thence this year. The charges at the eastern factories of the Moluccas, Amboyna, and Banda excessive, not less than 20,000 ryals yearly. At Banda Richard Welden, at one drunken meeting, "shot away 22 barrells of powder and 150 Rs. in shot." In other factories they expect also to find wasteful expenses, which in due time shall be reformed. It were good to make an agreement with the Dutch to have a third of the spices and keep no factories in those places. What those factories yielded in spices last year. Can expect nothing from them next year, for the capital sent will but pay the charges of the factories, so the Dutch will get all the trade. The capitals needful to be sent yearly are by calculation, for Banda 34,000 ryals, for Amboyna 60,000 ryals, and for the Moluccas 60,000 ryals. At Macassar and Japara the eastward-bound ships are provided with rice, arrack, and boards, though "not without extraordinary charge of presents and other exactions." William Bennett, factor at Japara, hath not brought his account; "it appears he spent his time wholly in drunkenness and other lewdness which attends that beast-like vice." He is sent home, "to be rewarded according to his deserts." News from John Edwards, arrived from Succadana, of the death of Edward Pike by an unfortunate accident; account of his estate, from which money is due to Thomas Staverton. The debts at Succadana doubtful, on account of the war; the Dutch factors have come away from thence. "Batavia, the last and worst of all the factories," yields no profit at all. Trade in the hands of the Dutch, and no one dares to buy of the English. Cannot set down a lower proportion than 400,000 ryals of eight for the yearly supply of their factories, except pepper be cheaper and they have equal benefit with the Dutch of paying the soldiers in commodities. Ten ships must be furnished for the fleets of defence. Fear the Manilla and Goa fleets must be given over for want of supplies. To the former they have given an absolute order to return, but the Goa fleet they wish to keep on for another year, to prevent the carracks and galleons from returning to Portugal, and to avoid giving occasion of protest to the Dutch. Have written to the President at Surat and Captain Fitzherbert how needful it is to follow the exploit, but have cause to doubt nothing will be performed. Particulars of all the Company's ships, and where employed. Eight ships and a pinnace in the Manilla and Goa fleets. The Unity shortly expected from Masulipatam, the Globe from Amboyna with a rich cargo of cloves; and the Ruby from the Moluccas. The Clove and Supply, here in the road, so rotten they cannot be repaired. The White Bear and Bee in Jambi river and the Fortune at Siam. The English murmur at three meals of fresh meat a week. The Dutch have been content with rice alone for a year together, but if the English were put on such allowance they would "turn rogues (as many of them are never better) to betray your ships before they would endure it." Their trade in hazard of utter ruin for want of necessaries. Are in need of everything but great cables, as they have before advised. If not supplied before this reaches home, "will be in such desperate case as no supply can help us." Particulars of stores wanted, especially tiles (150,000) to cover houses and for pavement. Have given bills of exchange, payable in London or Holland, to two Dutchmen. Think now that a better course from the Cape than Capt. Fitzherbert's might be set down, for some of the Dutch ships have narrowly escaped "the south main continent." Recommend draught of a chart by Mr. Broock, whom they find "a sufficient man for charge, and of good government." William Hawkeridge's ship past service, and no other employment for him. He is sent home with high commendations, and to succeed John Roberts in command in case of mortality. John Wood, formerly master of the James, made ship's carpenter. If he returns to his old courses of drunkenness he will be sent home. Henry Bate and George Pettus, whose time has expired, sent home; also William Bennett as a prisoner. About Joseph Mills, late master's mate in John Wedell's fleet. Wills, inventories, and accounts of John Smelt, deceased in Jambi, John Davies, and all other dead men; also copies of letters and abstracts of stock remaining in the factories are also sent. Have spice and pepper enough to lade a ship of 800 tons. The Dutch General flatly refuses to trust them in negociations with the Pengran and Materam. Are verily persuaded they might get trade at Bantam. The Ruby arrived from the Moluccas with a small quantity of cloves, a miserable return for such a charge. Death of William Nicolls, the chief factor there. Anthony Wallis, factor at Motir, sent home a prisoner, having wasted 800 ryals; this John Gonning writes of him. The want of good factors causes great losses. In want of paper, books, pens, ink, an accountant, and a secretary perfect in the Netherlands language. The James and a Dutch ship to keep in company, for fear of pirates. The Ruby took a frigate from the Manillas, in the Moluccas, but the men ran ashore with the principal riches. From letters found aboard it seems the Spaniards and Portuguese have suffered terrible losses, which it is hoped will soon weary out those people of all trade, especially if the Goa fleet have good success against them. The conduct of Hawkeridge referred to the Company. The state of affairs in Masulipatam and Pulicat related in Thos. Mills' letters. The Dutch have taken "rich purchase" from the Portuguese, but flatly deny the English any share. The Company's servants at Agra and Amadavas (Ahmedabad ?) have been imprisoned, and their goods embargoed, and only through great bribes were they released, all through the robberies of the Dutch on these people. It is intended to seize the Judda junks as compensation. The President writes that from Ormuz is come most certain news that both town and castle are surprised, the galleons being first purposely sunk by the Portugals themselves, who, till the force of a powder mine sent a breach in their walls, behaved themselves valiantly. Desire of the Great Naige for trade with the English. The Danes trade under the name of the English, and are marvellously well used. A town has been given them and a place to build a castle, which is finished, and has mounted 36 pieces of ordnance. If the Company may have possession of Ormuz, and will send means to maintain it, they have gotten the key of all India, which will "be a bridle to our faithless neighbours the Dutch, and keep all Moors in awe of us." The Dutch General has protested against them for refusing to make a final conclusion in the matter of restitution, and for not paying a share of the expenses of the siege of Bantam. (See No. 141.) Send copies of the Dutch protest, with their answer and contra protest. Endorsed, "Received by the Lesser James the 18 June 1623." [Twenty-two pages and a half. O.C., Vol. IX., No. 1076.]
Aug. 27.
144. President Richard Fursland to the East India Company A summary of the last. [Endorsed, "Another letter of the same date is much larger than this; read it and pass over this. This came by the Dutch ship the Lioness, in company with the Lesser James." Six pages. O.C., Vol. IX., No. 1077.]
Aug. 27.
Sept. 6.
145. Abstract of news from Jacatra, by the Lioness. The Dutch fleets of this year and last arrived at Jacatra. The English ship Trial cast away on the land of Unity, southward of Java, wherein perished 97 souls, and all things else lost. The Sampson and Weesp [? Wasp] have arrived at Jacatra from Surat with indigo and cloth. Sixteen ships, under Cornelius Reyerssen, with 1,300 men and provisions for 18 months, gone to obtain trade on the coast of China. Banda absolutely at peace; has 2,500 souls "of ours," yet in want of more people. 6,000 piculs of pepper arrived from Jambi for each Company. Succadana taken and ransacked by those of Matarara, and then abandoned. The Unity, going from Banda to Amboyna, split in pieces on the cliffs of Amboyna, with a loss of 43 souls; 43 persons were saved, and there is hope of recovering the ordnance. The Moon and Hound going towards Cape Spirito Santo to attend upon the silver ships of New Spain, and from thence to the Manillas, and so to China. Bantam seems to incline to peace out of fear that they, with the Matarines, should beleaguer it. The fleet of defence of 10 ships lies before the Manillas. In the town is extraordinary great dearth, and some natives in the Philippines rebel against the Spaniards. Jacatra abounds in victuals. The ship Peace arrived at Jacatra. The English and Persians said to have taken the town and castle of Ormuz, but the Portugals sunk the five galleons before the English came. The English have 4,000 packs of indigo and cloths lying ready at Surat. Reports from the Coromandel coast that at Surat and Arabia the Dutch are arrested for taking the ships of Dabul. [Extract from Holland Corresp.]