America and West Indies
April 1676

Sponsor

Institute of Historical Research

Publication

Author

W. Noel Sainsbury (editor)

Year published

1893

Pages

365-388

Annotate

Comment on this article
Double click anywhere on the text to add an annotation in-line

Citation Show another format:

'America and West Indies: April 1676', Calendar of State Papers Colonial, America and West Indies, Volume 9: 1675-1676 and Addenda 1574-1674 (1893), pp. 365-388. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=70107 Date accessed: 20 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


Highlight

(Min 3 characters)

Contents

April 1676

April 1.
[Virginia.]
858. Governor Sir William Berkeley to [Secretary Sir Joseph Williamson]. Has received his letter concerning the peaceable admission of Dutch ships. All English planters on the main covet more land than they are safely able to hold from those they have dispossed of it. This was the cause of the New England troubles, the Indians complaining that strangers had left them no land to support and preserve their wives and children from famine. Account of the progress of the disputes with the Indians, and the ravages they have committed. The English have seldom had the better of them, and have often lost whole parties that have been sent out against them. The New England men will not recover their wealth and towns they have lost these twenty coming years. Murders committed by the Susquehannahs in Maryland and parts adjoining. We have now such a strength on the frontiers of all our plantations that we cannot fear them if they were ten times more in number than they are, if we can get our merchants to trust us with some considerable quantity of powder and ammunition. Endorsed by Williamson: "Rec., June." 3½ pp. [Col. Papers, Vol. XXXVI., No. 36.]
April 1.
[Virginia.]
859. Governor Sir William Berkeley to [Thomas] Ludwell. Divers would persuade the people that all their high taxes will bring them no benefit. Appeased two mutinies last year, raised by some secret villains. This year the fifty pound levy (of tobacco ?) has been cheerfully paid by everyone, though the necessity of a new tax is laid upon them, for the Indians have combined against them in all the northern parts of America. They have destroyed divers towns in New England, killed more than a thousand fighting men, seldom were worsted in any encounter, and have made the New England men desert about a hundred miles of ground they had divers years seated and built towns on. Does not expect to hear very good news, for they either have not or pretend not to have money to pay their soldiers. But, whatever the success be, they will not recover these next twenty years what they have lost. Now they are in such want of provisions that they have sent to Virginia to buy great quantities of all sorts, so has been forced to promulgate a severe law that no more provisions be exported from hence. This is not half the New England men's misery, for they lost all their beaver trade, half their fishing, and have nothing to carry to Barbadoes, for, with the commodities from thence, they were wont to carry away our tobacco and other provisions. Add to this the new tax of 1d. per lb., which my officers rigorously exact of them. If this war lasts a year longer, they in New England will be the poorest miserablest people of all the English Plantations in America. "Indeed, I should pity them, had they deserved it of the King or his blessed father." Now what has passed with us. The Susquehannahs last year killed two or three of our men in Patowmac, and as many in Maryland. Joined forces with the Marylanders and took their fort, since when that barbarous nation have killed about 36 men, women, and children on Rappahannock river, and two men at Mr. Bird's house. To prevent more mischief, the Assembly has ordered that five hundred men be immediately raised to defend the heads of all the rivers. Since Ludwell's departure, Digges, Bennet, Cockin, and Colonel Aug. Warner are dead; Colonel Willis gone for England, Major-General Wood kept to his house through infirmity, and Sir Henry Chicheley and Colonel Spencer too remote to assist in any emergency, so that he has left only Colonel Bacon, Mr. Ballard, and Ludwell's brother (Philip), and sometimes Colonel Swan, Colonel Bridger, and Colonel Cole. His wife and Jenny present their humble service. 3 pp. Endorsed: "Recd 8 June 1676." [Col. Papers, Vol. XXXVI., No. 37.]
April 2.
St. Jago de la Vega.
860. Peter Beckford to Secretary Sir Joseph Williamson. Vessel seized by the Governor for landing goods without entry, contrary to the Act of Navigation. Supposes it will be condemned. Truly, my Lord uses all possible means to suppress the privateers. Account of the seizure of a ship with negroes not belonging to the Royal Company, and the legal proceedings in consequence. The Judges dismissed the cause, and they come to trial at next Court at common law. Will give his Honour an account of the suit in his next. The Judges of the Admiralty were Sir Henry Morgan, Lieutenant-Colonel William Beeston, and Lieutenant-Colonel Robert Byndlosse. "Per the Jamaica factor, Captain Jos. Bartholomew." 2 pp. [Col. Papers, Vol. XXXVI., No. 38.]
April 3.861. Account of the Caribbee islands, by Colonel Philip Warner. St. Christopher's, "the mother island," belongs jointly to English and French; the two ends to the French, the most fertile and pleasant part; the middle to the English, the most hilly yet most contiguous and within communication. There are 800 Englishmen in arms, and 200 French, who have taken the oath of allegiance to the King. On the French side are 1,400 men in arms, besides 300 soldiers. There were 3,000 or 4,000 English in St. Christopher's. There is no wood. Sir Thomas Warner at the first settlement possessed himself of Marigalante, with Thomas Williams, Governor, but about 23 years ago the Indians cut them off, after which the French in a short time settled the island. St. Lucia was also taken by Sir Thomas Warner, who made Major Judge Governor, but the Indians worried them out and they deserted. In 1665 Lord Willoughby sent 1,100 men, who were almost all cut off, and lately the French have taken it. St. Vincent is possessed by the French, where are about 3,000 negro inhabitants, and in no other island, are as many Indians. Grenada, inhabited by French and Indians, with 200 soldiers. Bequia inhabited by Indians. Dominica has several French families who live among the Indians. Nevis belongs to the English, with 1,500 men able to bear arms, of which 1,000 have arms; there are six forts on the south-west side, which is only navigable, all the other side rocky; good anchorage for ships, but can only lade and unlade at Charles Town, so named by Sir Charles Wheler. Rodonda, an inaccessible rock of 200 acres, nothing but birds and crabs, and of no use. Montserrat, settled mostly by Irish, with 1,500 or 1,600 men in arms; Mr. Carroll now Governor; Briskett Bay, the best port; places of trade, Plymouth and Kinsale. Antigua has 70,000 acres of manurable land and 30,000 not so; 32 miles long, 18 miles broad in the narrowest part, and 25 miles in the broadest. Several good harbours and two places ordered by law for trade, Falmouth and St. John's, and in each a fort. 3,500 white and black inhabitants, and 1,100 men, disciplined horse and foot. Other islands: the biggest, 1,400 acres, called Long Island, and Goat Island of 300 acres. In Antigua, 14 files of men are kept on guard every night against the Indians, three nights before and after the full moon they are doubled, the foot are paid 8d. a day, the horse proportionably; there is a minister. Barbuda, about 10 miles from Antigua, twice settled by the English, but both times cut off by the Indians; now only used as a farm by lease granted to four persons by Lord Willoughby, who continue about twenty lusty men at a strong house to secure the stock, their end being to make it a market of provisions for the other islands. Anguilla, a barren rocky island, ill settled by English. Martinique has about 3,000 men in arms, besides soldiers. Guadaloupe has 1,300 or 1,400. Marigalante has 700 or 800. Sta Crux about 700 St. Martin's, a barren island, 400; and St. Bartholomew has as many or more. The French have in their islands two regiments of the old bodies of Poitou and Navarre, about 800 in a regiment, and have remained there since De Ruyter made his onset on Martinique in July 1674. The soldiers at St. Christopher's have an allowance of a pint of brandy, a bottle of wine, and new bread every morning, five pounds of flesh and three of fish every week. They are in King's livery, well accoutred. [Col. Entry Bk., Vol. XLVI., pp. 76–81.]
April 3/13.
Barbadoes.
862. Governor Sir Jonathan Atkins to Secretary Sir Joseph Williamson. So sensible have they been in England of our misfortunes, by the negroes first and then by the hurricane, that no ship has arrived for more than five months; but they hope for better things and are resolved to receive what comes from the hand of God with patience. They retain one advantage, they sleep not so unquietly as the rest of their neighbours in America, from whence they receive nothing but ill news of daily devastations by the Indians who increase in strength and success which spread like a contagion over all the continent from New England where they have burnt some towns and destroyed many people, to Maryland where they have done the same, likewise at Virginia; neither is New York without apprehensions of their break with them. Can say but little of Jamaica; finds the expectation which was great fades, the land proving very sterile and will not last above three years for canes which will not answer the charge. Their chiefest dependence upon a difference with Spain that they may make up by rapine what they cannot obtain by industry. Lies under some affliction at the threatened dissolution of these plantations, for if the Indians did not hasten their fate, this Act for trade and commerce will in a short time effect it by bringing all their commodities to one market. Argues that it is against all practice to refuse a free trade to any island, and that the King thereby loses 10,000l. a year customs in Barbadoes. 2 pp. [Col. Papers, Vol. XXXVI., No. 39.]
April 4.
Jamaica
863. Governor Lord Vaughan to Lords of Trade and Plantations. Has at last got the map of the Island finished, and ordered Captain Davis to deliver it to Sir Robert Southwell to present to his Majesty. It was begun by Sir Thomas Lynch, and his Lordship has taken great pains to make it perfect; all former draughts were only by guess, but in this the sea coast and harbours are exactly laid down, and the islands, rivers, &c., and settlements, perfectly described and run with a chain. Has no doubt that in few years this will prove a most hopeful and thriving colony. The only enemy to planting is privateering, which he has endeavoured by all means possible to restrain and prevent, "but these Indies are so vast and rich and this kind of rapine so sweet that it is one of the hardest things in the world to draw those from it which have used it so long." Had gone so far in reducing that most of them were on the point of coming in and betaking themselves to another course of life when the covetousness and unfaithfulness of some people obstructed his design. Fears they are grown more numerous, and under pretence of French Commissions prey upon the Spaniards to the great dishonour of this Government. Laments the frigate's going home and begs another may be speedily sent. Arrival of an English ship fitted from London with 300 negroes taken at Angola without license of the Royal African Company; at request of the factors, seized the ship and brought her into Port Royal and "libelled against her in the Admiralty," but the Judges dismissed the cause, and the matter is to be tried in the Courts of Common Law in two months. Hopes soon to send the number of the people and the rolls of the militia. Must again importune their Lordships that our laws may be considered and returned to us confirmed. "Read 22nd June 1676." 2 pp. [Col. Papers, Vol. XXXVI., No. 40; also Col. Entry Bk., Vol. XXIX., pp. 52–54.]
April 4.864. Extract of preceding letter. Indorsed by Secretary Williamson "Royal Company, Negro ship." [Col. Papers, Vol. XXXVI., No. 41.]
April 4.
Jamaica.
865. Governor Lord Vaughan to Sir Robert Southwell. Refers to his last letter by Captain Webber. Has ordered the Captain [Davis] of the Frigate to deliver to him a very fair and exact map of the island, and begs he will present it to their Lordships. Sir Thomas Lynch began it and his Lordship has used all the care he could to make it perfect; if their Lordships have any curiosity to examine it Sir Thomas is best able to answer all inquiries. Begs he will put their Lordships in mind to send another fourth or good fifth rate frigate. Longs to know what is their Lordships sense of their laws, it much imports the interest of this place to have them returned confirmed. "Rec. 19th June 1676." 1 p. [Col. Papers, Vol. XXXVI., No. 42.]
April 6.
Whitehall.
866. Lords of Trade and Plantations to Sir William Berkeley. Governor of Virginia. In reference to the Acts of Navigation of the 12th and 25th Car, II. to take strict care not to suffer any ships to trade within his Government but such as belong to the people of England or of His Majesty's Plantations, and that Bonds be taken of Masters of Vessels to bring and unlade in some part of England, Wales, or Berwick. 2 pp. [Col. Entry Bk., Vol. LXXX., pp. 53, 54.]
April 6.
Whitehall.
867. Lords of Trade to Lord Vaughan, Governor of Jamaica (circular letter). Somewhat wonder no answer has been received to their letter of 11th August last, which inclosed inquiries concerning Jamaica, so send duplicates. [N.B.—Lord Vaughan answered their Lordships' letter on 28th January 1676 and transmitted at same time an account of the state and condition of the island, see ante Nos. 799, 800, but these papers were not received until 8th May 1676.] Desire satisfaction from his Lordship in all said inquiries where he may not have already made answer. Directions for observing the Act of Navigation in respect of taking bonds of trading ships, also for regulating the plantation trade. Also expect by the first opportunity the map of Jamaica made by Sir Thomas Lynch "with great exactness as we hear" left with his Lordship to take a copy. Lastly, desire an account of the late planters, their servants and slaves, which came to you from Surinam, how they are settled and distributed and of what advantages and importance they are or may be to your island. Annexed,
867. i. Inquiries to Lord Vaughan concerning the government of Jamaica in 30 Articles "by their Lordship's commands, Robert Southwell." [Col. Entry Bk., Vol. XXIX. pp. 42–49.]
April 6.
Whitehall.
868. Journal of Lords of Trade and Plantations. Sir Robert Southwell presented letter from Colonel Stapleton of 20th December last (see ante No. 748) with depositions relating to Colonel Warner to extenuate what was here laid to his charge. Their Lordships did not think fit to proceed therein, but ordered said letter and papers to be laid aside inasmuch as his Majesty had by his Orders in Council commanded Colonel Warner to be sent for his trial to Barbadoes and that he was just then ready to embark on H.M.S. Phœnix. Sir Robert Southwell acquainted their Lordships that he had been at the Tower with Colonel Warner and finding him intelligent in the affairs of the West Indies had taken from him a large account of the Caribbee islands and declared that it would be made more complete by what the Colonel had promised to write to him, whereupon their Lordships ordered that when said account was ready it should be presented to them that they might see whether they had any reason to alter or add to their report presented to his Majesty on 18th February last touching the defence of the Leeward Isles. On enquiring about the circular letters to be sent to the Governors abroad, ordered that at their next meeting all things be prepared touching those circular letters which remain to be sent. [Col. Entry Bk., Vol. CIV., pp. 100, 101.]
869. Journal of Lords of Trade and Plantations. Memorandum.—Sir Jonathan Atkins, Governor of Barbadoes, having by letter acquainted Secretary Coventry [see ante No. 439] with the expedition of Colonel Philip Warner, Deputy Governor of Antigua, upon the Indians of Dominica by Commission from Colonel Stapleton, his Majesty, upon arrival of Colonel Warner in England, was pleased to commit him to the Tower for the murder of one Thomas Warner, his reputed half brother [see ante Nos. 688, 750]. [Col. Entry Bk., Vol. XLVI., p. 63.]
April 6.
Whitehall.
870. Journal of the Lords of Trade and Plantations. Mr. Pepys acquainted their Lordships that the two convoys to Newfoundland would in ten days depart, and therefore desired to know if they would send any new instructions, because by what Sir John Berry did represent from thence, it is worthy of consideration whether their Lordship's instructions to him about removing the Planters are now fit to be pursued. Ordered that Sir Robert Southwell deliver to Pepys the letter he received from Sir John Berry to see whether it be as full as what was sent to the Lords of the Admiralty, and their Lordships will enter upon this business before the ships depart. [Col. Entry Bk., Vol. CIV., p. 101.]
April 6.871. Journal of the Lords of Trade and Plantations. The trade touching New England considered, and the abuses put upon the Navigation Acts, &c., read the Attorney-General's report of 28th January, and the merchant's petition read to his Majesty in Council on 21st January; merchants who signed the petition ordered to attend and make good their statements. [Col. Entry Bk., Vol. CIV., pp. 101, 102.]
April 6.
Whitehall.
872. Lords of Trade and Plantations to Sir Jonathan Atkins, Governor of Barbadoes. To take strict care that the Acts of Navigation be enforced within his government, and seizure made of all ships and their commodities, except such as are actually laden and shipped in England. This is of so high importance to his Majesty's service, and so penal to him in the omission, that the Lords are resolved to be very strict inquisitors, and to exact from him a frequent and punctual account. 2 pp. [Col. Entry Bks., Vols. VI., pp. 44–46, and CIV., p. 103.]
April 6.
Whitehall.
873. Lords of Trade and Plantations to Colonel Stapleton, Governor of the Leeward Isles. Duplicate of preceding. [Col. Entry Bk,, Vol. XLVI., pp. 88–90.]
April 6.
Whitehall.
874. Same to Lord Vaughan, Governor of Jamaica. Duplicate of the above. [Col. Entry Bk., Vol. XXIX., pp. 49–51.]
April 6.
Whitehall.
875. Circular letter from Lords of Trade and Plantations to the Governors of the Plantations "about Trade and Navigation." Duplicate of the preceding. [Col. Entry Bk., Vol. XCVII., pp. 37–39.]
April 6.
Boston.
876. Samuel Symonds, Deputy Governor of Massachusetts, "by order of the Council" to Secretary Sir Joseph Williamson. Refers to Governor Leveret letter of 18th December [see ante No. 745] giving account of the war with the pagan natives. Had hoped by the next conveyance to have given a better account, but their calamities since that time have been much augmented. About 10th December, they with New Plymouth and Connecticut sent forth 1,000 men with some Indians in amity with them against the Narragansets, one of the most considerable people among those barbarians, who, notwithstanding their promises, had aided and abetted Philip Sachem of Mounthorpe, and dealt treacherously with them; these forces marching in the depth of winter (a time judged most opportune to distress them) into the Narraganset country, after much hardship. assaulted them at their headquarters in a rude fort made in a great swamp or grove of trees and underwood, where on their knowledge and concession of some captives many hundreds were slain, their wigwoms (sic) destroyed and they driven 40 miles up into the Nipmuck country towards Connecticut river, whither their forces pursued them and slew many; in the first engagement at the fort they had 70 slain and twice so many wounded, in the last pursuit not above three or four. The forces have been out in pursuit more than 100 miles to the westward and over Connecticut river, but cannot meet with any body of them, their manner being to remove from place to place almost every day, leaving their women and children in hideous swamps and inaccessible places, of which the country is full, and the men sometimes dispersing themselves in small parties all over the country, and by ambuscades and secret skulkings so infest the highways that many travellers have been cut off; then on a sudden, multitudes gathering together fall on their out towns, which, for convenience of tillage, lie dispersed a great distance from one another, so that it was impossible to preserve more than a few fortified houses, the incursions of the enemy being so sudden, and having in a few hours fired the deserted houses, barns, &c., are as suddenly fled into hiding-places before any relief could come; whereby it is come to pass that many country towns and farms are destroyed and many people brought to great want there and in Plymouth, and some towns on Connecticut river, and the like in Yorkshire, formerly the province of Maine. Immediately after the beginning of the war in Plymouth jurisdiction, it was suddenly dispersed all over the country, two or three hundred miles from Kennebec N.E., to the utmost bounds of Connecticut jurisdiction S.W., as if it had been a premeditated Jesuitical contrivance complotted long before; though they endeavoured to the utmost of their power to relieve the towns and plantations to the north of the Pascataway river, yet by their remote and incommodious situation they could not be preserved, but are mostly destroyed, many of the people being slain and the rest retired to places of better security. Since the beginning of the war, as they judge, above 500 of the King's subjects have been killed, several towns or villages wholly or partly ruined, houses burnt not easy to be numbered, people much distracted, husbandry and trading obstructed, scarcity of bread corn and provisions to be feared if the enemy prevails further and prevents planting and reaping, as they will doubtless endeavour; for such is the manner of their enemy's fighting that they judge it easier for the people to defend themselves against many thousands of a foreign nation than against two or three thousand of these barborous heathen. At their first coming, some forty years since, it was their great care to see all the people under the government well armed and trained; the Indians then had no guns, and there was a strict law with severe penalties prohibiting the selling them any powder, but in a short time they were furnished by the French and Dutch with as many as they would buy; many do affirm that they are encouraged by the French in Canada, who promised ammunition and aid of men this summer; great quantities of ammunition, they say, have also been furnished by Dutchmen (whom they name) from Fort Albany, which there is reason to believe, for in winter they had little. Have intimated thus much to Major Andros, Governor of New York, who, they hope, will do his utmost to prevent the like for the future. Will spend their lives and all willingly for the preservation of their country to the King's interest. Beseeches him to believe that the loss and sufferings have not proceeded from want of care in the government or conduct and carriage in commanders or soldiers, whose forwardness in engaging upon too great disadvantages is rather to be blamed, yet so it must be or the enemy not fought with at all. Signed by "Samuel Symonds, Deputy Governor, by order of the Council." Endorsed, "Rec. 17 June (1676)." 2 pp. [Col. Papers, Vol. XXXVI., No. 43.]
April 6–7.877. Journal of the Lords of Trade and Plantations. The complaint of Council and Assembly of Barbadoes referred by Order of Council of 24th November last read (see ante No. 714). Sir Andrew King ordered to attend on the point relating to the African Company. Finding mention in said complaint of a law for gauging sugar cask, ordered that Sir Jon. Atkins be writ to for same, also for all laws which have not had his Majesty's approbation.
April 7.Sir Andrew King and other officers of the African Company attending, their Lordships gave them some account of the complaints from Barbadoes, and directed Sir Robert Southwell to send them an extract so they might make answer, and same night said extract and letter were sent to Sir Andrew. [Col. Entry Bk., Vol. CIV., pp. 101, 102.]
April 8/18.
Barbadoes.
878. Governor Sir Jonathan Atkins to Secretary Coventry. Five months since a ship arrived from England. Having put an end to their first miseries by the hurricane, they encounter a second in the produce of their sugars, not half what there was last year, and there is little or no ginger. Account of the seizure by M. de Baas at Martinique of the "Salisbury," John Swinstead, Commander, belonging to Richard Walker. The French successes against the Dutch have raised them to a high pitch of assurance. Begs he will acquaint the King, and adjust this affair with the French ambassador. Is troubled he has the gout; they have it here, but their pains, though very violent, not of long continuance. Has sent him some of the tar of this island, which they say is a kind of balsam and works great effects. 2 pp. Annexed,
878. i. Governor of Martinique to Governor Atkins. Advises him of the seizure of the "Salisbury" on 28th January last by order of M. de Baas under pretext of her trading with the island which "I have disavowed by my declarations and protestations to the contrary." Expresses his respect and friendship for the English nation. French, 3 pp. These letters were read by Committee of Trade and Plantations on 24th November 1676, and their Lordships, being already informed of the whole state of the case, and that Mr. Secretary Coventry has some time past made complaint to France, think fit that fresh instances be made there for satisfaction, and Mons. de Baas, who is coming home, be called to an account at his arrival. [Col. Papers. Vol. XXXVI., Nos. 44, 44 I.; also Col. Entry Bks., Vols. VI., pp. 93–97, and CIV., p. 255.] With memorandum: "The petition of the parties, state of their case and depositions are entered among the papers of ships detained by the French privateers."
April 10.
Whitehall.
879. Journal of the Lords of Trade and Plantations. His Majesty having been pleased to dissolve and extinguish the late Council of Trade and Foreign Plantations, and to commit what was under their inspection and management to a Committee of the Privy Council appointed for matters relating to Trade and Foreign Plantations, their Lordships sign the following circular letter:—His Majesty having thought fit to supersede the Commission of his Council of Trade and Foreign Plantations, and restore that business to its accustomed channel, and having more especially committed to a select number of the Board "whereof we are" the management of things relating to his plantations have therefore thought fit to send some heads of inquiry "the better to guide you in the method of that state and representation of things which we expect from you and do desire it may be done with all convenient speed." Signed by Finch, C., Ormond, Anglesey, Bridgewater, Carlisle, Craven, G. Carteret, H. Coventry, and J. Williamson. [Col. Entry Bks., Vol. XVII., pp. 49, 50, and Vol. LII., pp. 21, 22.]
April 10.
Whitehall.
880. Journal of Lords of Trade and Plantations. Several drafts of circular and other letters prepared to the Governors abroad read. Two letters to Sir Jonathan Atkins, sending new heads of inquiry, and about the Acts of Navigation. Also to Colonel Stapleton with Orders in Council touching arrears of pay to soldiers and the restoration of the Planters. The defence of St. Christopher's considered and reported to the King. Good maps desired of St. Christopher, Antigua, and the Leeward Isles. The inquiries sent to Lord Vaughan, who is to send home a map of Jamaica and to declare what advantage he finds by the planters lately come from Surinam. To Sir William Berkeley, Governor of Virginia, with heads of inquiry. Also was prepared draft of letter to Lords Proprietors of Carolina, Lord Baltimore, Proprietor of Maryland, Sir George Carteret, Proprietor of New Jersey, and to the Bermudas Company, with the heads of inquiry which are written out in 30 Articles [see also Col. Entry Bk., Vol. LII., pp. 23–26]. But because the case and condition of places varied one from another, the following paper of variations was read and approved, viz., to Sir Jonathan Atkins, Colonel Stapleton, Sir Wm. Berkeley, and the Lords Proprietors. Their lordships, finding the governors had not taken the oaths which in the Acts of Navigation they are required to take, approve letter to the Attorney General to draw a commission for administering said oaths. Copy of Lord Vaughan's commission and instructions to be viewed touching approbation of laws; proposed that after the words "two years" be inserted "except in the meantime our pleasure shall be signified to the contrary."
Petitions of merchants and of mercers and weavers about the abuse of the New England trade read; the merchants attending and required to make out the facts promised to be ready in a week, and to send in the names of several persons who would depose to the truth of what they said. [Col. Entry Bk., Vol. CIV., pp. 103–109.]
April 10.881. Petition of the mercers and silkweavers of London to the King and Privy Council. That before the Act for prohibition of Irish cattle, great part of the silks and stuffs made in or imported into England, when out of fashion there, were sent to Ireland in exchange for cattle. That other great quantities were sent to the King's foreign plantations, till of late New England, contrary to law, have taken upon them to enrich themselves by sending supplies of silks and stuffs to said plantations, which they fetch immediately from France, Italy, or other parts beyond the seas, so that petitioners send little or none thither, whereby many are ruined, others greatly hurt, and most much prejudiced. The King suffers greatly in his revenue of customs by New England supplying his plantations not only with silks and stuffs but with brandy, sugar, oil, &c., with which they ought to be supplied from England and the King receive customs which would amount to above 60,000l. per annum. Humbly implore the King to grant them relief by ordering that the colonies should receive no supplies but from England, as by law directed. Endorsed: "Read at the Comtee., April 10, 1676. 1 p. [Col. Papers, Vol. XXXVI., No. 45 and Col. Entry Bk., Vol. LX., p. 107.]
April 13–15.
Whitehall.
882. Journal of the Lords of Trade and Plantations. Their Lordships enter upon the business of Newfoundland to see if it were necessary to give Captains Russell and Wyborn now going that way for convoys any instructions touching the removal of the planters as were the last year given to Sir John Berry. Whereupon Sir John's letter of 12th September last [see ante, No. 666] was read, and also the report which their Lordships had presented to the King upon the whole state of this business. Ordered that Sir Philip Lloyd take these two papers and draw forth proper heads of inquiry by Saturday next for said captains to carry with them who are then to attend.
April 15.The heads of inquiry were presented to their Lordships and reported to the King in Council who approved them. [Col. Entry Bk., Vol. CIV., p. 110.]
April 14.
Whitehall.
884. Lords of Trade and Plantations to Sir William Berkeley, Governor of Virginia. The King has superseded the Commission by which his Council of Trade and Plantations lately acted and restored all business of that nature to its accustomed channel of a Committee of his Privy Council. Find no fresher account of things under his Government than is represented in his narrative of 20th June 1671, and considering the condition of Colonies is subject to many changes and alterations send him similar heads of inquiry which formerly he had with addition of some other points for his speedy representation thereon. Enclose,
881. i. Inquiries to be sent to Sir William Berkeley, CaptainGeneral and Governor-in-Chief of his Majesty's Colony of Virginia, comprised under thirty heads. Signed by Robert Southwell "by command of the Lords of the Committee of Foreign Plantations." Together, 5 pp. [Col. Papers, Vol. XXXVI., Nos. 46, 46 I.; also Col. Entry Bks., Vol. LXXX., pp. 47–52, and Vol. CIV., p. 104.]
April 14.
Whitehall.
885. Lords of Trade and Plantations to Sir Jonathan Atkins, Governor of Barbadoes. Have lately received his letter of 20/30 November 1675. Expect from him immediately a narrative and deduction of all things past since his entry upon his government as in like manner for the time to come touching what shall happen. Recommend to him the several heads of inquiry in the paper enclosed, and desire his answer to all those points he may not already have fully answered. In a complaint from the Council and Assembly of Barbadoes referred to their Lordships by his Majesty's Order in Council of 24th November last [see ante, No. 714] find mention of a law passed touching the gauging of sugar cask which has not been transmitted to His Majesty as it ought to have been, therefore call upon him to transmit same and all other laws in use in that Colony, distinguishing those which have not yet received the King's approbation, presuming that none are of any force for more than two years which are not approved. And that all laws immediately on their passing be transmitted that his Majesty's approbation or rejection of them, even before said two years expire may be known and obedience given accordingly. Annexed,
885 i. Several heads of inquiry concerning the government of Barbadoes, contained in thirty-two paragraphs. 7½ pp. [Col. Entry Bks., Vols. VI., pp. 37–44, XCVII., pp. 31–36, and CIV., p. 103.]
April 14.
Whitehall.
886. Lords of Trade and Plantations to Colonel Stapleton, Governor of the Leeward Isles. The business of the plantations is devolved unto a Committee of the Lords of the Privy Council. Do not find among the books of the late Council any account of affairs under his government since his narrative of 17th July 1672, therefore send same heads of inquiry he had before, with some other points, that he may return all transactions and passages which have since occurred. Acknowledge that he has given them full accounts touching the soldiers; the condition of the planters dispossessed by the French, and the defence of the islands, and send him their several reports and the Orders in Council thereon (all abstracted under their respective dates). Request maps of St. Christopher's and Antigua as he has done of Nevis and Montserrat which seem very exact. Also desire a map of all the Caribbee or at least Leeward Isles. Enclose,
886. i. Heads of inquiry to Colonel Stapleton, Governor of the Leeward Isles, in thirty sections. Signed Robert Southwell. Answer to these inquiries accompanied Colonel Stapleton's letter of 22nd November 1676 to the Lords of Trade. [Col. Entry Bk., Vol. XLVI., pp. 80–87.]
April 14.
Whitehall.
Shaftesbury Papers.
887. Lords of Trade and Plantations to Earl of Shaftesbury. Because they do not as yet find themselves able to give his Majesty such account of the state and condition of that colony [of Carolina] as his services and its dependance on the Crown requires, send him "as we have done to others" some heads of inquiry [see ante No. 880], the better to guide him in the representation of what is expected from him, and desire "it may be done" with all convenient speed; and further to advise them in all matters from time to time that may conduce to his Majesty's service. 1 p. [Shaftesbury Papers, Section IX., Bundle 48, No. 97.]
April 17.888. Warrant of the Lords Proprietors of Carolina. Appointing William Saxby treasurer and agent "in matters relating to our joint carrying on that plantation," with authority to pay monies in his hands according to orders from said Lords Proprietors, and particularly to take the accounts of the late treasurer and agent Richard Davy, deceased, and receive from his executors or administrators all books and papers belonging to said Lords Proprietors, with the salary of twenty pounds per annum. [Col. Entry Bk., Vol. XX., p. 104.]
April 18.889. "Questions to be asked the New England men" concerning the observation of the Acts of Navigation. Whether ships have not gone from New England to France, Spain, Holland, Hamburgh, Scotland, Ireland, and other parts of Europe, laden with sugar, logwood, tobacco, sheeps wool, hides, &c., directly, without touching in any port in England, and have returned from these ports and sailed directly to New England, carrying with them brandy, French and Spanish wines, hats, druggets, ribbons, linens, and silks of all sorts, ironware, and other manufactures. If the persons whose names are underwritten be summoned to appear before the Committee, it is supposed they will prove what is above written. Underwritten: Captain John Wyborne, William Hawes (both at Tower Hill), John Harwood, at Mile End Green, Philip French, Canning Street, near London Stone, Benjamin Alford, Benjamin Battin, Edmund White, Thomas Norman, all to be found at the Exchange upon the New England Walk. 1 p. with stamp. [Col. Papers, Vol. XXXVI., No. 47.]
April 18–21.890. Journal of Assembly of Barbadoes. An Act for reviving and continuing an Act passed, entitled an Act for laying an imposition on wines and other liquors imported into this island, passed. John Dempster appears to prosecute his objection to Sir Alexander Walrond sitting as a member by reason of his voyage; Captain Vaughan summoned to give evidence to-morrow. Voted that no person under the age of 21 is capable to be a member of this House. Committee appointed to consider the statutes of this island, to draw new [statutes] of those expired and prepare amendment to those defective; also to prepare a Bill to prevent the meeting of negroes with Quakers as members of their congregation.
April 19.The above-mentioned Bill presented and passed. After examination of James Fauntleroy and Captain James Vaughan, voted that Sir Alexander Walrond is not of the age of 21, and that the Government be moved to issue a writ for election of a member of St. Phillips' parish to supply the defect of Sir Alexander Walrond.
April 20.A supplemental Act to a former Act for the better ordering and governing negroes, returned by his Excellency with amendments, passed. Ordered, that Colonel William Bate, Treasurer, pay out of the excise on liquors imported to Thomas Larkham, gunner of James' Fort, five thousand pounds of muscovado sugar for his salary as gunner of Willoughby Fort, also to Edward Preston, gunner of Charles' Fort, his salary as gunner of James' Fort, and to the mate and others.
April 21.That a Bill be drawn to prohibit the bringing of Indian slaves from New England to this island. Ordered, that Sir Alexander Walrond be allowed further time to make it appear he is of the age of 21 years, but that if he should not do so on the first day of their next sitting that the speaker move his Excellency to issue a new writ, the clerk of this House in the meantime to give copy of this order to Sir Alexander Walrond. Adjourned to Tuesday 13th June next. [Col. Entry Bk., Vol. XIII., pp. 216–222.]
April 19.
Whitehall.
891. Order of the King in Council. That several heads of inquiries to the Commander-in-Chief of his Majesty's ships now going to Newfoundland approved by the Lords of Trade and Plantations are hereby referred to the Lords of the Admiralty to give instructions accordingly. Then follow the heads of inquiry concerning the trade of the French there, the trade with New England, the number of planters, destruction of woods and stages, the boat-keepers, number of ships, &c. [Col. Entry Bk., Vol. XCVI., pp. 63–65.]
[April 19.]892. Petition of Francis Moryson, Thomas Ludwell, and Robert Smith, Agents for Virginia, to the King. Being instructed from the Government of that Colony to petition for a confirmation of their just privileges and properties under the Great Seal of England, about nine months since presented their petition, with such heads as they were charged to seek [see ante, No. 602], when, after sundry reports, a Bill was ordered to be passed under the Great Seal, but there it stopped, though petitioners can by no means find the cause, which much afflicts them. Pray for an order to the Lord Chancellor to pass said grant under the Great Seal. Signed. 1 p. Endorsed, "Received and read, April 19th 1676." [Col. Papers, Vol. XXXVI., No. 48.]
April 19.
Whitehall.
893. Order of the King in Council. On petition of the Agents of Virginia praying for confirmation of their privileges to the people of Virginia under the Great Seal of England to which a stop has been put, but for what cause petitioners knew not; directing the Lord Chancellor to cause said grant forthwith to pass under the Great Seal of England. N.B.—See No. 935. [Col. Entry Bks., Vol. LXXX., pp, 55, 56, and Vol. XCVI., pp. 66–67.]
April 20.
Whitehall.
894. Journal of the Lords of Trade and Plantations. Finding the Governors had not taken the oaths required by the Acts of Navigation, letter was written to the Attorney-General to draw a Commission for administering oaths to the Governors of his Majesty's Plantations to do their utmost that the Acts of Trade and Navigation be punctually observed in their respective Governments. 1 p. [Col. Entry Bk., Vol. CIV., pp. 108, 109.]
April 21.
Whitehall.
895. Order of the King in Council. That the Lord Treasurer pay to Colonel Edmund Stapleton, Deputy Governor of Montserrat, brother to Colonel William Stapleton and to Captain Ferdinando Gorges, arrears due for salary and pay to Colonel William Stapleton, but for what relates to the pay of the two Companies, that they give security for remitting same to said two Companies, care to be taken that the executors of Lieutenant Greatbach be satisfied for the pay due to him. [Col. Papers, Vol. XXXVI., No. 49, and Col. Entry Bk., Vol. XLVI., pp. 93–95.]
April 21.896. Warrant to the Attorney or Solicitor-General. To prepare a Bill for the King's signature to pass the Great Seal containing a grant to Abraham Langford of Clerk of the Navy Office in Barbadoes during pleasure, and to execute same by deputy with the fees, privileges, and perquisites thereunto belonging in as ample a manner as Londen or any others have enjoyed the same. [Col. Entry Bk., Vol. CX., p. 93.]
[April 22.]897. Petition of Sarah, mother of Giles Bland, now in Virginia, to the King. Her husband John having expended near ten thousand pounds in several plantations, sent their son Giles, on the death of his uncle, to manage same. Describes the quarrel between Giles Bland and Thomas Ludwell, and the "unexampled severity" of the Assembly to petitioner's son. That said Giles prayed he might be tried by a jury, and that the Council proceeded arbitrarily, violently, and injuriously against petitioner's son. Prays his Majesty to suppress said sentence and fine of 500l., and that the Governor and Council be required to remove that prejudice and bitterness with which they still prosecute said Giles Bland, employed in his Majesty's service as Collector of Customs. With reference to the Committee for Foreign Plantations to report their opinions thereon. Whitehall, 1676, April 22. "Read, 30 May 1676." 2 pp. "Whereupon it is ordered that copy of said petition be given to Ludwell and the other Agents for Virginia, who are to attend." [Col. Papers, Vol. XXXVI., No. 50; also Col. Entry Bk., Vol. LXXX., pp. 57–59.]
April 24.898. Minutes of a Committee for Plantations. Several merchants who traded to New England and were best able to declare the abuse committed against the Act of Navigation there, being summoned and called in one by one, some were shy to unfold the mystery, others pretended ignorance, but most declared plainly how all sorts of goods growing in other plantations were brought to New England on payment of the duties payable by the Act for going from one plantation to another, that they went with those goods and many times with ladings of Campeachy wood which they ventured to fetch from the place and to trade to all ports of Europe, that in exchange of those goods they laded what each country did afford; and even now there were two or three vessels lading in Holland, and so sailed back to New England, without calling at Old England but when they thought fit, so that wines, brandy, and all other commodities were generally sold 20 per cent. cheaper there than English merchants trading thither according to the Act could afford; which, if not prevented, would quite destroy the trade of England there, and leave no sort of dependency in that place from hence. On which their Lordships report: (1) That a Commission should be sent to all Governors abroad to swear to several Acts of Trade, &c., put in execution; (2) That officers be appointed in New England to take duties arising from the Acts, &c., and, in case of refusal to admit them, the other plantations be forbidden to trade with them; (3) That captains of Her Majesty's frigates should have instructions to seize offenders against the Acts. 3 pp. [Col. Entry Bk., Vol. LX., pp. 108–110.]
April 24.899. Journal of the Lords of Trade and Plantations. Copy of preceding entry, with direction to the Attorney-General to give his opinion concerning the Act of Trade, 15 Car. II. Also petition of Sir Robert Southwell to the King. Being constrained to withdraw from the service of their Lordships for the recovery of his health, prays consideration of his services and expenses. With report, and orders of the King in Council approving same, that W. Blathwayt is a very fit person to continue always as an Assistant to the Clerks of the Council, and that each clerk who will serve attend for not less than six months. [Col. Entry Bk., Vol. CIV., pp. 111–115.]
April 24.900. Notes by Secretary Sir J. Williamson on New England trade, &c. Signor Alberti's case. Offley. Debts stated under his own hand due to several poor tradesmen, &c. He being no public minister (successor being here on the place for several months). to have the liberty of the law against him. Mr. Stroud. Several have no reason to complain, and as to the rest to take his case into consideration. He was Resident for Venice, and having the King's word for his privileges he prays they may be kept to him; he ought to have freedom till his return, even though a successor be come; he has paid 2,000l. of his debts since his order to return; he only expects bills to satisfy the rest; that the King will please to protect him from process of law for his debts till he can have bills, &c. Alberti contrasted these debts three years ago, a year ago he received 3,000l. and paid it, a few weeks since 1,500l., 2,000l. remains due; his friends are not willing to furnish this sum yet, having not been satisfied with some affronts put upon him here about debts; doubts not but in a little time his friends will come to a better mind. His creditors; Coxe asks 45l. and yet but 5l. due; the State calls him home unexpectedly, and he shall lose his head for his disobedience (for he is no longer their master now); he has writ to the State that he cannot stir till he has wherewithal to pay his debts. Offley. Offers to give six months upon security to pay them then, &c., i.e., to be assured he will not slip away. Sir George Downing. Remedies of the New England abuses. I As to the export of Plantation commodities, &c. The cure is to have the Governors take the oaths and to see bonds transmitted carefully, &c., &c. A circular letter is gone on it to all Plantations save New England; a like must be sent to New England and an officer settled there by the officers of the Customs, as in the other Plantations. The King's ships must be instructed to secure all ships trading contrary to those four laws, &c. II. As to import of European commodities directly from home. Order given to the Governors of all Plantations save New England already gone; a like must go to the Governor of New England, and to the officer meant to be sent to New England. New England commodities. Great cod, pipestaves—of no great value. A new England man carrying tobacco to New England from Virginia pays 1d. in the pound, and an Englishman bringing it to England pays but 1d., and if he carries it out ½d. is restored to him, he carries the tobacco cheaper than the New England man. As to New England Trade. Acts as to Plantation Trade are:—12 Car. II., Act of Navigation and Trade; 15 Car. II., Act for encouragement of Trade; 22 and 23 Car. II., for regulating the Plantation Trade; 25 Car. II. for better securing the Plantation Trade. (1.) By Act of Navigation, all ships going from hence are to give bond if they lade any of the enumerated commodities in the Plantations, they shall bring them to England or Wales. It shall seem an English ship going from hence cannot trade from one plantation to another; or on lading in any plantation she must either produce a certificate of such a bond having been enacted into here in England, or must then enter into such a bond to the Governor to carry the goods to England or some other of the plantations (so by this clause it should seem such an English ship may trade directly from one Plantation to another. Qu. how this consists with the first clause ?). (2.) By Act for Regulating, &c., all the commodities must be conveyed to England, Wales, &c., or to some other the English Plantations, and what ship soever, qualified by the first Act to trade to the plantations, shall lade any of these goods without giving in such bonds to the Governor, or a certificate produced of such a bond entered into in England, &c., and shall carry the goods to any place save England, &c., or the other plantations, &c., the ship and goods are forfeited. (3.) By Act for better securing the Plantation Trade, &c, the ships capable to come to the plantations which shall there lade any of the commodities, and not give in the bond above required to bring them directly to England or Wales, is to pay the new duty, &c. (1.) A new England ship lading of these commodities from B.B., &c., to New England, must either by the law of 25 Car. II. carry them to England, which upon that supposition he must do, or pay the duties imposed by the said Act. (2.) Having paid these duties he is still obliged by the 22 and 23 Car. II. and 12 Car. II. to give a bond to carry these commodities to some other of the Plantations, or to England, &c., which, according to this supposition, he saves in carrying them to New England. N.B.—By the Act 22 Car. II., said ship ought to bring to England, Wales, &c., or to other plantations, &c., and by this of 25 Car. II. nothing is changed in that just Statute. Endorsed: "Signor Alberti, New England Trade." 4 pp. [Col. Paper, Vol. XXXVI., No 51.]
April 26.901. Warrant to the Master of the Ordnance. To deliver 50 barrels of powder to Captain Lawrence Wright, Commander of the Phœnix, to be transported to Jamaica and there delivered to the order of Governor Lord Vaughan. [Dom. Entry Bk., Chas. II., Vol. XXIX., p. 153.]
April 26.
Nevis.
902. Governor Stapleton to Lords of Trade and Plantations. Prays their Lordships to consider the sad condition of the respective islands and the two companies at St. Christopher's for want of arms and ammunition, the soldiers for want of pay, and recruits destitute of everything; commends their loyalty and patience in adversity. Declares he would rather carry a musket or a pike as a private sentinel than be a spectator of their miseries and deprived of means to relieve them. As for his own arrears as Lieutenant-Colonel in Sir Tobias Bridge's regiment shall hardly murmur if he never receives them unless his creditors compel him. Begs speedy relief for the soldiers, and to send over the public seal so often solicited and requisite for the settlement of the inhabitants in their possessions; also to represent to his Majesty the injuries done by the French to his subjects and what he has written of the many murders of the Indians, some being carried away and detained by them as slaves as the annexed addresses and depositions will more fully inform their Lordships. Endorsed: "Rec. 29 June. Read 27 July 1676." Annexed:
902. i. Depositions of Lieutenant-Colonel John Cormick, Ensign John Cormick, Lieutenant-Colonel John Sutton, Lieutenant John Sharpe, Daniel Dally, Dermott Sullivan, and John Dondy, taken before John Carrill, Deputy Governor of Montserrat. Testifying to the many times during years that the Indians have landed in different parts of the Island and murdered and taken away the inhabitants, and robbed, spoiled, and destroyed their plantations.
902. ii. Deposition of Gilbert Loxley, aged 78, taken before Colonel Abednego Mathew [? Deputy] Governor of St. Christopher's. Well remembers that Sir Thomas Warner, then Governor, had about forty-six years ago several Indian slaves, one named Tom who had an Indian wife and a little boy, commonly called Warner, but never heard the boy was baptised; after his parent's death he ran away from his master Sir Thomas Warner and was absent many years, but returned and lived as a slave as before with his master, and after his death as a slave to Madame Warner. It was generally reported he was the chief leader who came to Montserrat and killed Thomas Russell.
902. iii. Deposition of Captain Moyell Johnson, taken before John Carrill, Deputy Governor of Montserrat, concerning the Indians desperately wounding Henry Ashton at the conquest of the island by the French in 1666.
902. iv. Depositions of Daniel Miskoll, Dermott Duell, aged 101, Captain Andrew Booth, Ensign John Ryane, Sergeant William Vaughan, and Phillipp Meagher, taken before Deputy Governor Carrill, concerning murders committed by the Indians at Montserrat. That Meagher being at Guadaloupe in June 1674 he met with "Indian Warner," who he well knew, and related how he was brought into great troubles by some outrages which other Indians had committed at Antigua, which Indian Warner said was wholly imputed to him by Colonel Stapleton, and that but for his brother Warner's intercession in his behalf he had been then hanged. That for revenge he used threats against Stapleton and the island of Montserrat, and a short time after Meagher saw at Guadaloupe nine perriagoes of Indians returned from murdering and plundering the English, especially in Antigua, and several negroes they were selling to the French for rum, and he saw also a Christian boy who belonged to Colonel Warner.
902. v. Deposition of Walter Carwardine, taken before Walter Symonds, J.P., of Nevis. That about forty-five years ago coming out of England with Sir Thomas Warner and living with him about five years among other Indian slaves he took notice of an Indian male child about six or seven months who was called Warner but never christened while Carwardine lived with him, or was ever reputed Sir Thomas Warner's son, or ever accounted other than a slave [see ante No. 748 i.].
902. vi. Depositions of Major Henry Crooke, Judge of the Court of Common Pleas, taken before Colonel Abednego Mathew, [Deputy] Governor of St. Christopher's. That he often frequented the house of Sir Thomas Warner and saw an Indian boy called Warner who served as a slave.
902. vii. Deposition of Margaret Stratton taken before Governor Mathew. That she knew an Indian slave named Warner, belonging to Sir Thomas Warner, after whose death he lived in the like capacity with Madame Warner until he ran away from the island.
902. viii. Deposition of John Chambers, taken before Judge Crooke. That he was taken prisoner in 1645 "by the arbitrary power of the usurpation," and sold servant to Sir Thomas Warner, and well knew an Indian boy called Tom Warner to be a slave belonging to Sir Thomas; that he also lived in that quality with Lady Warner until he escaped with another Indian belonging to Lieutenant Thomas Fruen, that it was never credibly reported he was baptised, and is the very Indian that report goeth was lately killed by the suffering inhabitants of Antigua.
902. ix. Certificate of Rowland Williams and six others. That by virtue of a Commission from Governor Stapleton forces were raised in December 1674 under the conduct of Colonel Philip Warner, then Governor of Antigua, embarked 21st December, and four days after arrived at Dominica wholly inhabited by Indians who some time before had landed at Antigua, committed many outrages and murdered some of his Majesty's subjects. Forasmuch as reports have been made that Colonel Warner slew Indian Warner on board his own ship with his own hands without advice of his officers, certify in the capacity of commissioned officers that all such reports are false and untrue, and that to their knowledge said Indian Warner was slain in the throng among others, but by what particular hand no man knows, and that said Indians were slain by the advice and consent of the commissioned officers.
902. x. Robert Jones to ——. Is informed by Mons. Bovine of a design the Indians have in hand against Antigua at the full moon, that when they last went it was only to make an inspection and they were determined to do there more mischief yet. That they would take twenty perriagoes to war against Antigua. He saw them poisoning their arrows and says they are Warner's Indians, and that Mons. de Baas has twenty of them in prison for abuse at St. Christopher's. The rogue that does all this was formerly a slave at Antigua and ran away and will never give over till he has them in keeping that kept him; he speaks good English. They have an English boy in keeping at Dominica they took when last at Antigua. Guadaloupe, 23rd November 1674.
902. xi. Address of the Governor, Council, and Assembly of Antigua. Certifying the many murders and outrages committed in this island by the Indians of Dominica, the employment of Indian Warner who "was always confederate with those that attacked us," that some of his Indians "as he called them" were among those that committed the horrid murders at Parham in 1672, and finding themselves involved in many miseries and in danger to lose their lives prayed Governor Stapleton in September 1674 to grant commission to make war against these Indians of Dominica, by virtue of which and at their earnest request their Governor, Colonel Philip Warner. went in person in that expedition. Signed by Row Williams, Jer. Watkins, Richard Ayres, John Parry, John Cade, Paul Lee, and Samuel Jones of the Council, Richard Bolaston, speaker, and ten others of the Assembly.
902. xii. Representation of the Deputy Governor, Council, and Assembly of St. Christopher's to the King. That the cannibals, savages, or Indians inhabiting Dominica, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent have ever proved themselves treacherous and perfidious, taking all opportunities to rob, murder, and commit outrages on his Majesty's subjects who have been inhumanly butchered, miserably mangled, dismembered, and other villanies not to be mentioned by a Christian, and lately by their murders and robberies at Antigua. Signed by Abed. Mathew, Deputy Governor, Henry Crooke, John Estridge, John Crooke, Roger Elrington, John Pogson, Jos. Crispe, secretary, William Miller, Thomas Soley, Speaker of the Assembly, and eleven others.
902. xiii. Representation of the Governor, Council, and Assembly of Nevis to the King and Council. The same as the preceding with this addition: That they have always been forced to watch and ward for fear of these Indians, that the French have made use of them against Antigua and Montserrat in the late war to the great terror of the inhabitants, and that their destruction would conduce to the safety of his Majesty's subjects in these parts. Signed by Ran. Russell, Fras. Morton, Walter Symonds, John Hughes, William Burtt, John Smith, John Nethway, John Coombe, Dan. Lanhather, and Justus Burkin of the Council, Jos. Rokeby, secretary, Thomas Cooke, speaker, and eight others of the Assembly. "Rec. 29 June. Read 27 July 1676." [Col. Papers, Vol. XXXVI., Nos. 52, 52 I.—XIII., except No. 52 X.; also Col. Entry Bk., Vol. XLVI., pp. 95–128.]
April ?
Antigua.
903. Remonstrance of the Governor, Council, and Assembly of Antigua. Showing the reasons why they so earnestly craved authority and commission from Colonel William Stapleton, Governor of the Leeward Isles, to kill and destroy the Indians inhabiting Dominica, and why also they craved aid from the neighbouring islands under Governor Stapleton's command, and whether Indian Warner with his associates received not a due recompense for their villanies and barbarous practices, "we appeal to God and all the world." 4 pp. [Col. Papers, Vol. XXXVI., No. 53.]
April 27.
Whitehall.
904. Journal of the Lords of Trade and Plantations. Letter read from Sir Jonathan Atkins of 3/13th February last [see ante, No. 811] giving account of the present state of Barbadoes. Ordered that it be compared with their Lordships' letter to him of 11th August last [see ante No. 649], to see wherein he has satisfied their queries, and where he has been deficient. [Col. Entry Bk., Vol. CIV., p. 116.]
April 28.
Whitehall.
905. Order of the King in Council. Approving Commission prepared by the Attorney-General by direction of the Lords of Trade and Plantations for the Governors in America to take the oaths directed by the Acts of Navigation and Trade, and ordering that the Attorney-General prepare form of an oath to be taken by said Governors according to said Acts, to be inserted in said Commission. [Col. Entry Bk., Vol. XCIV., p. 68.]
April 28.
James' Town.
906. Giles Bland to Secretary Sir Joseph Williamson. The hardships and discouragements which he has suffered as Collector of his Majesty's Customs. Finds the state of things in a very distracted posture, which requires the immediate application of his Majesty and Council, for if not timely remedied the yearly revenue of more than 100,000l. which Virginia yearly affords to his Majesty will be very much abated. So little reverence is paid to the Government that a considerable body of the country have armed themselves without commission against their enemies, and for redress of their grievances, which he has more largely set down in enclosed paper. Seizure of a French ship which has run aground, her cargo said to be worth 13,000l. or 14,000l.; so much embezzled that it is not now valued at above 3,000l. or 4,000l. Endorsed, "Rec. June 1676." 1 p. [Col. Papers, Vol. XXXVI., No. 54.]
[April 28.]907. Considerations upon the present troubles in Virginia, with the means by which they may be settled, to the great benefit of the Crown and the good of that Colony (the paper referred to by Giles Bland in preceding letter). Virginia hath not been under such great distractions since the year 1622, when the Indians in one night murdered so many that they left not 500 alive in the whole Colony. The present danger is greater, because of their discontents, which are so great for the defence of the country against the Indians, that a body of about 500 are in arms without the Governor's commission, who have set forth a declaration of their dangers and their grievances, and take no notice of the Governor's proclamation to forbid and suppress them. They are led by persons of quality, which was wanting in 1674, when they were suppressed by proclamation and the advice of some discreet persons. They are now conducted by Nathaniel Bacon, lately sworn one of the Council. They complain of the great and unequal taxes, the poorer sort by the poll paying as much as he that hath 20,000 acres, and the charge of two burgesses is 500 lbs. of tobacco daily to each county, though many of the counties are so small that they have not 500 tithables in them. The most prudent councils and applications most necessary to allay the strong and growing discontents, and which the authority and power lodged in the aged Governor and his divided Council are very unlikely to appease. A few concessions and directions suggested as worthy the consideration of those who have the care of his Majesty's interests in England. Endorsed, "Recd. June 1676." 3 pp. [Col. Papers, Vol. XXXVI., No. 55.]
[April 28.]908. Considerations upon the present troubles in Virginia, and how they may be settled. Greatly abridged from the preceding, relating solely to the unequal burthen of the taxes and levies upon the inhabitants of the Colony. [Col. Papers, Vol. XXXVI., No. 56.]
April ?909. "The humble Appeal of the Volunteers to all well-minded and charitable people." First. Considering the poverty of this his Majesty's Colony, and how incapable they are (sic) to support the charge of a war, as also the imminent danger now at hand, whether greater loyalty to our Sovereign or charity to our country can be more shown than freely with our persons to oppose the danger and with our estates to support the charge ? 2ndly. Considering the manner of the Indians, in no ways fitted for that sort of war used among Europeans, how they privily and silently attack the weakest and most unguarded places, and with such expedition, cunning, and wariness as make it difficult for us either to oppose or prevent their too frequent incursions. 3rdly. Whether forts erected at distances, and so scantily manned that they cannot draw out any competent force, can secure us ? 4thly. Whether the intervals between fort and fort are not open to the enemy's incursions, and how, and where, we shall draw a competent number to oppose them; of what value are the forts if they only defend the ground on which they stand, and whether our security must not be completed with a moving force, but if an army must be added to these forts, how vast must be the additional charge. 5thly. If the present levy be esteemed too difficult, how can so vast a tax e paid, and by whom, when this war has drawn so many men from their occupations? 6thly. Judge therefore all unprejudiced men, for to you only do we appeal, whether anything of greater consequence for the country's good could be offered than with our persons and fortunes freely to redeem our country, and become both actors and paymasters of this necessary defensive war, and whether this our proffer be not wholly clear from any dregs of rebellion and mutiny. Whether volunteers who fight for their own lives and liberties, with their own arms and provisions, will not be every way better supplied and fitted for war than those raised at the country's charge. Whether we ought not to judge his Majesty's title prerogative good here, and his claim better than that of all Indians whatsoever, who have barbarously murdered his subjects and depopulated his lands. Considering the antipathy of all Indians to us, which they manifest as far as they dare, the sufferings of this flourishing Colony by these treacherous thieves, and our aversion to Indians, as his Majesty's enemies and the molestors of the public good, whether this be not clear evidence of our well wishes to the flourishing state of his Majesty's Colony. [Col. Entry Bk., Vol LXXXI., pp. 247–254.]
April 29.
Boston.
910. Pass signed by the Governor of Massachusetts for Josiah Willes, commander of the Sarah frigate, of London, 100 tons, ordering him to be received courteously, and admitted, on paying customs, to all ports, &c., and to be allowed to traffic where he pleases. Signed, John Leverett, Governor. 1 p., with seal. [Col. Papers, Vol. XXXVI., No. 57.]
April to October.911. Memorandum.—On 6th April and 26th October 1676 was read, at the Committee of Trade and Plantations, a paper of grievances presented to his Majesty, with a petition of the Council and Assembly of Barbadoes, and referred to the consideration of the Committee by an Order of 24th November 1675 (see ante No. 714); the second article relates to the Royal African Company.
July 6.After which was read the answer of the Royal Company, received 6th July 1676. That it is therein alleged the Company very scantily supply Barbadoes with negro servants, and those at excessive prices; to which the Company reply that they have been settled little above four years, in the two first navigation was obstructed by the Dutch war and general embargoes laid on all ships, yet the Company sent forth seven ships to carry soldiers and ammunition, &c., to preserve the forts and factories in Guinea, whence they proceeded with negroes to the Plantations, and four of the ships to Barbadoes. The third year, the war being ended, the Company most vigorously prosecuted their trade, and thence sent out fifteen ships to the coast of Africa, and ordered six of them to Barbadoes with about 2,000 negroes, which their factors disposed of at a much lower price than was usual before this Company was established. Last year they sent twenty ships to Africa, and appointed eight of them with about 3,000 negroes to Barbadoes. It is alleged the Company have sold their negroes at 20l. and 22l. per head, but an examination of the Company's books shows the price to have been about 15l. per head. By the Company's last letters there remained owing to them about 25,000l., besides the 3,000 negroes sent last year, which may swell the debt to 70,000l. sterling or more. This present year the Company have already sent ships and intend more, by which the Company hope their Lordships may be satisfied what little reason they have to complain, which the Company believe they would not have done but to prevent the Company's complaint against them. Signed by Andrew King, Sub-Governor, Gabriel Roberts, Deputy Governor.
Oct. 26.
Whitehall.
Whereupon their Lordships ordered a letter to be written to the Deputy Governor of the Company, that their answer lying before the Committee for Trade and Plantations by order of Council, their Lordships have resolved to take up the debate of it upon Tuesday next, and desire him to attend and be prepared to answer what the agents for that island may allege against the Company concerning this matter. Signed by Philip Lloyd.
Oct. 26.
Whitehall.
It was likewise ordered that a letter be written to the agent for Barbadoes, which recapitulates all that has been done since the receipt of the petition of the Council and Assembly of Barbadoes with their grievances annexed, and commands his attendance on Tuesday to make good the arguments set down in the paper of grievances. The farmers of the 4½ per cent. will also attend, as well as the Deputy Governor of the Royal African Company, and some of the Commissioners of Customs will be present, their Lordships desiring to take their opinion upon the whole matter. Signed by Philip Lloyd.
Oct. 31.On 31st October the Sub-Governor and Deputy Governor of the Company attend, as also Colonel Thornborough, agent for Barbadoes, and Sir Peter Colleton, when the Company complained they were extremely endamaged by the interloping ships, notwithstanding they have been at 50,000l. charge to build forts for the support of their trade. Colonel Thornborough confesses that Barbadoes is at present well supplied with negroes, and that the complaint was made at a time when the Dutch war had occasioned a great scarcity of them, and therefore disowns the instance which is now made by Sir Jonathan Atkins in this behalf. 7pp. [Col. Entry Bks., Vol. I., pp. 43–49, and Vol. VI., pp. 100–107; see also Vol. CIV., p. 236.]