King James much desired to match his Son Henry with a Daughter of Spain.
The grand business of State in the latter times of King James, was the Spanish Match, which had the King's heart in it, over-ruled all his Counsels, and had a mighty influence upon the universal state of Christendom. This King affecting the name of a King of Peace, and Peace-maker, as his chief glory, had designed, what in him lay, the fettling of a general Peace in Europe, and the reconciling of all Parties; and professed, that if the Papists would leave their King-killing, and some other grosser Errors, he was willing to meet them half-way. Moreover, he was ever zealous for the honour and height of Regal Majesty, and to maintain the glory of it in his Successors; 't was his chief desire and care to match his Son with some Princess of most high descent, though of a different Religion.
After Prince Henry's death the King propounded a Match with France.
There had been a Treaty of Marriage between the late Prince Henry, and a Daughter of Spain, which on the Spaniards part was found a mere Complement, carried on by the accustomed gravity and formality of that Nation. For Cecil, Earl of Salisbury, the great States-man of that time, pursued and drove the matter to that point, that the Duke of Lerma, finding no Evasion, disclaimed the being of a Marriage-treaty. Nevertheless, the Spanish Ambassador to acquit himself to this State, and to clear his own Honesty, at a full Council, produced his Commission, together with his Letters of Instruction given under the Duke's hand: Such manner of dealing might have been sufficient Cause of just Indignation against any future motion of this Alliance.
After the death of Prince Henry, the King set his thoughts upon a Daughter of Henry the Fourth, late King of France, as the fittest Match for Prince Charles; and by Sir Thomas Edmonds, his Legier Ambassador, endeavoured to know the mind of that State; but could not discern their affections, and was not willing to discover his own: at length, taking Occasion to fend the Lord Hayes Extraordinary Ambassador to the French King, to congratulate his Marriage with Anne the Infanta of Spain, he resolved to make a thorough Trial: The Matter was put forth, and in appearance well taken, but proved of no effect; for the Duke of Savoy was before-hand, and prevailed for his Son the Prince of Piedmont.
In this Interim, the Spaniard gives the overture of a Match.
During this Negotiation of Alliance with France, the Duke of Lerma frequently intimated unto Sir John Digby, Ambassador, Resident in Spain, an extraordinary desire in the King his Master, not only to maintain Peace and Amity with the King of Great Britain, but to lay hold on all means that might be offered for the nearer uniting of their Majesties, and
their Crowns; as also a disposition in this regard, to match his second Daughter to the Prince of Wales. The Ambassador replied, That his Majesty had little reason to give ear to this overture, having not long since, in the Treaty for the late Prince, received such an unexpected Answer, and Demands so improper and unworthy; and that there needed more than ordinary assurance to induce him to believe, that there was now so great a change, and the Match desired in good earnest, and not propounded merely to divert the Match with France: wherefore he expected the proposal of such terms of advantage and certainty, as might gain a belief of their sincere intentions. Lerma promised a further conference; but by reason of a strong report that the Match with France was absolutely concluded, and within few days to be published, the business lay asleep, until Sir John Digby going for England, was desired, by the Duke, to give him notice of the slate of this affair. From hence Digby gives him to understand, that there was no cause of despair concerning this new Overture, unless the difficulty of the Conditions should make it desperate; but if the Demands in point of Religion were no more than what would satisfy another Catholick Prince, and to which his Majesty might yield with honour, he knows that divers persons, not of the meanest power, were well inclined and ready to give their helping hand: He said further, That it were much better not to revive this motion, than by impossible and unfitting propositions from either side, to give distaste, and lessen the Friendship between the two Crowns. The Duke returned answer, That all assurance and satisfaction shall be given concerning this Alliance: And after Sir John Digby's arrival at the Court of Spain, he protested to him solemnly, That the King desired it; and swore for himself, that he desired nothing more. Hereupon Digby debated with him, That the remembrance of their former Demands was yet unpleasing in England; the difference of Religion, the Opinions of Divines, and the Cases of Conscience were still the same; insomuch that his Majesty and his Servants had just cause to cease for ever from all thoughts this way. Nevertheless they did not slight nor disrelish an Alliance with Spain; for many of the greatest eminency in England judge it equally valuable with any other of Christendom, though it be esteemed a matter of infinite difficulty. Here the subtil Spaniard might perceive our forwardness, though our Ambassador seemed to speak aloof off, and with reservation. The debate had this result, that the difficulties should be digested into certain Heads, and select persons appointed for Conference; but the intent thereof was, that the Kings on either side should not be interessed, nor their names therein used, till by the clearing of particulars, there should be great appearances that the business would take effect: Now because the difference of Religion was supposed the only difficulty of moment, it was thought fit to break the matter to the Cardinal of Toledo, and the King's Confessor, and one Father Frederick, a learned Jesuite, having the repute of a moderate man.
Sir John Digby's advice to the King in that matter.
Upon the review of these proceedings, Sir John Digby advised the King, not to suffer his other resolutions to be interrupted by this Overture, which might be set on foot as a mere device to stagger the French Treaty, and to keep his Majesty from declaring himself opposite to Spain, in the business of Cleves and Juliers, which still remained uncompounded; nevertheless, he might be pleased, for a while, to suspend the conclusion of the Match with France, and entertain this motion; and to
this end he desired from him, not a formal Commission to treat, but only a private Instruction for his Direction and Warrant.
Gondomar manages the Treaty on the spaniards part.
Such remote Conferences made way for that solemn slow-paced treaty of the many years following, wherein the advantage lay on the Spaniards side, who were indeed very formal and specious in it, but no way vehement and vigorous, if we might suppose them in any fort real: But the King of England having a prevalent inclination this Way, when he was once drawn in, and elevated with hope, was so set upon it, that he would grant all things possible, rather than break it off, and was impatient of dissembling his own eagerness: The business was mainly carried on by Conde Gondomar, who was exquisitely framed for it, and by facetious Ways, taking the King in his own humour, prevailed mightily.
The King removes all blocks that ly in the Way of this Darling-Design, and studies all the Ways of rendring himself acceptable to Spain.
The English Navy neglected; The Cautionary Towns rendred to the Hollander.
The Wall of this Island, the English Navy, once the strongest of all Christendom, now lies at Road unarmed, and fit for ruine: Gondomar [as was the common voice] bearing the King in hand, that the furnishing of it would breed suspicion in the King his Master, and avert his mind from this Alliance: Moreover, the Town of Flushing, the Castle of Ramakins in Zealand, and Brill in Holland, which were held by way of caution from the United Provinces, to insure their dependency upon England, the King resolved to render up, as being merely cautionary, and none of his Propriety: he rid his hands of those Places to prevent Requests and Propositions from the King of Spain, who claimed the Propriety in them, and Gondomar put hard for them, being accounted the Keys of the Low Countrys: Such was the Kings care and contrivance to keep Faith with those Confederates, and not offend Spain: And to render this a politick action, it was urged, That the advantage of those Holds was countervailed by the vast expence in keeping them. Howbeit, the power of the English Interest in that State was by this means cut off, and taken away; and the alienation between King James and the United Provinces, which appeared in latter times, and was nourished by Bernevelt, the Head of the Arminian Faction, and a Pensioner of Spain, is now encreased by the discovery and observation of these late Spanish compliances.
The Spaniard proceeds not sincerely in the Treaty.
But the King of Spain and his Ministers had given but slender proof of any great affection, yea, or of sincere intention, and upright dealing in this great affair. For Sir John Digby received certain articles in matter of Religion, after a Consultation had with their Divines, which appeared very unworthy, and were utterly rejected by him: Yet afterwards upon a private Conference between him, and some others to whom the Cause had been committed, a Qualification was therein conceived, though not delivered as a matter there approved. And the same speeches after his return into England, proceeded between him and Gondomar, and were brought to that issue, that the King thought fit to acquaint a select number of his Council therewith, who having heard the report of the former proceeding, delivered their opinion, That they found very probable ground for him to enter into a publick Treaty, with as much assurance of good success, as in such a case might be expected. Whereupon Sir John Digby, by Commission under the Great Seal, was authorised to treat and conclude the Marriage; and because
the matter of Religion was in chief debate, those qualified articles that were brought out of Spain, were sent back, signed with the King's hand, who added something to them by way of clearer explanation: They were to this effect:
Articles of Religion agreed upon between the Kings of England and Spain.
That the Pope's Dispensation be first obtained by the mere act of the King of Spain.
That the Children of this Marriage be not constrained in matter of Religion, nor their Title prejudiced in case they prove Catholicks.
That the Infanta's Family, being Strangers, may be Catholicks, and shall have a decent place appointed for all Divine Service, according to the use of the Church of Rome; and the Ecclesiasticks and Religious Persons may wear their proper Habits.
That the Marriage shall be celebrated in Spain by a Procurator, according to the Instructions of the Council of Trent; and after the Infanta's arrival in England, such a Solemnization shall be used, as may make the Marriage valid, according to the Laws of this Kingdom.
That she shall have a competent number of Chaplains, and a Confessor, being Strangers, one whereof shall have power to govern the Family in Religious matters.
In the allowing of these articles, the King thus exprest himself: "Seeing this Marriage is to be with a Lady of a different Religion from Us, it becometh Us to be tender; as on the one part to give them all satisfaction convenient; so on the other, to admit nothing that may blemish our Conscience, or detract from the Religion here established.
The people of England a verse from the Match: The Catholicks desirous of it.
The People of England having yet in memory the intended Cruelty of 88. and hating the Popish Religion, generally loathed this Match, and would have bought it off at the dearest rate; and what they durst, opposed it by speeches, counsels, wishes, prayers; but if any one spake lowder than his fellows, he was soon put to silence, disgrac'd, and cross'd in Court-Preferments; when as in Spain and Flanders, Books were penn'd, and Pictures printed to disgrace the King and State: For which the English Ambassadors sought Satisfaction, but in vain. The Roman Catholicks desired the Match above measure, hoping for a moderation of Fines and Laws, perhaps a Toleration, yea, a total Restauration of their Religion; for they gained more and more Indulgence by the long-spun treaty: The articles of Religion were long hammered upon the Spanish Anvil, enlarged and multiplied by new Demands without end.
Gondomar contrives the death of Sir Walter Rawleigh, an Enemy of Spain.
The Conde Gondomar, an active subtil Instrument, to serve his Masters ends, neglected no occasion tending thereunto, which he mainly shewed in the particular of Sir Walter Rawleigh, wherein he put forth all his strength to destroy him, being one of the last Sea-Commanders then living, bred under Queen Elizabeth, and by her flesh'd in Spanish Bloud and ruine. He did first under-work his Voyage to Guienna, which seemed to threaten loss and danger to the spreading power of Spain in the West-Indies; and after his return with misfortune, he pursued him to death. In the beginning of the King's Reign, this Gentleman, with others, was arraigned and condemned for treason; 'twas a dark kind of treason, and the vail is still upon it. The King had ground enough to shew mercy, which some of that condemned party obtained. After many
years imprisonment, Sir Water Rawleigh, desirous of liberty and action, propounded an American Voyage, upon the assurance of gaining a Mine of Gold in Guienna. The King hearkned to him, and gave him power to set forth Ships and Men for that service; but commanded him upon his Allegiance, to give under his hand, the number of his Men, the burden and strength of his Ships, together with the Country and River which he was to enter. All this was done, and came so timely to Gondomar's knowledge, that advertisement was sent to Spain, and thence to the Indies, before this English Fleet departed out of the Thames. The Action proved unfortunate, and the Mine was inaccessible: the Spaniards at St. Thomas opposed their passage up the River, and this engaged them to assault the Town, which they took, sacked, and burnt. Gondomar hereat incensed, with a violent importunity demanded the reparation of this wrong: And the Spanish Faction urged, that this irruption might make a breach both of the Match and Peace with Spain. The kings fears kindled his wrath; he disavowed the action, and to prevent the like for the future, put forth a severe Proclamation. Hereupon the storm of Passion ceased, and Rawleigh knowing nothing, but that he might appear in England with safety, put in at Plimouth, and was no sooner landed, but, by secret intimation, understanding his danger, sought to escape beyond-Sea, but was taken in the attempt, brought to London, and recommitted to the Tower; and at length his life was offered up a Sacrifice for Spain; but not upon such grounds as the Ambassador had designed; for he desired a Judgment upon the pretended breach of Peace, that by this occasion he might slily gain from the English an acknowledgment of his Master's Right in those Places and hereafter both stop their mouths, and quench their heat and valour. But the late Voyage was not brought in question, only his former condemnation was revived; his Arraignment at Winchester many years before was now laid open, and he at the Kings Bench demanded, why Execution should not be done upon him according to the Sentence therein pronounced. Rawleigh answered, "That the " Kings late Commission gave him a new life and vigour: For he that " hath power over the lives of others, ought to be Master of his own. This Plea was not accepted, but the former Judgment took place, and accordingly he lost his Head upon a Scaffold erected in the Old Palace at at Westminster.
A War begins in Germany.
While Spain and England were thus closing, the fire brake out in Germany between the States and Princes Protestant, and the House of Austria: These commotions involved and drew along the affairs of most Christian Princes, especially of the two Potent Kings now in Treaty. The Catholick Cause, and the Lot of the House of Austria, engaged the King of Spain, who was the strongest Branch of that Stock. King James must needs be drawn in, both by common and particular Interest; the Religion which he professed, and the State of his Son in Law, the Elector Palatine, who became the principal part in those Wars, and the most unfortunate. It was an high business to the whole Christian World, and the issue of it had main dependance upon the king of England, being the Mightiest Prince of the Protestant Profession. But this Kings procedings were wholly governed by the unhappy Spanish Treaty.
Both Parties, Protestant and Catholicks, grow jealous, and each enter in co League; The Emperor Matthias adepts his Cousin German Ferdinand.
The Clouds gather thick in the German Sky; jealousies and discontents arise between the Catholicks and the Evangelicks, or Lutherans of the Confession of Ausburge. Both Parties draw into Confederacies, and hold Assemblies, the one seeking by the advantage of power to incroach
and get ground, the other to stand the ground, and hold their own. The potency of the House of Austria, a House devoted to the Persecution of the Reformed Religion, became formidable. The old Emperor Matthias declared his Cousin German, the Archduke Ferdinand, to be his adopted Son and Successor, and caused him to be chosen and crowned king of Bohemia and Hungary; yet reserving to himself the sole exercise of Kingly power during his life.
For joy of this Adoption, the Catholicks keep a Jubilee, and the Protestants another in memory of Luther.
The Jesuits triumph in their hopes of King Ferdinand, the Pope exhorted the Catholicks to keep a day of Jubilee, and to implore aid of God for the Churches high occasions. To answer this Festival, the Elector of Saxony called to mind, that it was then the Hundredth year compleat, since Martin Luther opposed the Popes Indulgences, which was the first beginning of Protestant Reformation. Whereupon he ordained a Solemn Feast of three days of Thanksgiving, and for Prayer to God, to maintain in peace the purity of the Word, and the right Administration of the Sacraments. The Professors of the Universities of Lipsick and Wittemberg, the Imperial Towns of Frankford, Worms, and Noremburg, yea, the Calvinists also observed the same days of Jubilee against the Romish Church; and much Gold and Silver was cast abroad in memory of Luther, whom they called Blessed.
In these times the Emperor wrote Letters, both to the Elector Palatine, and to the Protestant Provinces, and States of the Empire then assembled at Hilbrun, advising them to acquiesce in what was done touching the designation of his adopted Son to the Empire, to observe the Golden Bull, (the Magna Charta of the Empire) and the matter of it concerning the Electoral Bonds, and to dissolve their League. The Protestants in their Answer acknowledged the good-will of the Emperor their Chief, and shewed, that the Catholicks had oppressed them, contrary to the Pacification; and having fought redress in vain, they were compelled to use means of preserving Publick Tranquillity, according to the Laws. That their League and Union, consisting only of Protestant Germans, was a known practice in the Empire, and not against the Golden Bull, and tended not to a separation from his Imperial Majesty; but the Catholicks made their League with Strangers, and declared a Stranger Chief over them.
An Assembly of the Protestants and States of Bohemia at Prague.
The Count of Thurne, and other Defenders Evangelick, with the Estates of Bohemia, assembled at Prague, to advise of publick safety, and conservation of Privileges. The Emperor required his Council held at the Castle of Prague, to oppose and hinder this Assembly, which he said was called to raise Sedition, and to plot against his Person and Government. Nevertheless in all their Publick Worship the Evangelicks prayed to God to confound the Emperors Enemies, and to grant him long to live and reign over them in Peace and Justice.
The first occasion of the troubles of Bohemia.
The Bohemian Troubles took their first rise from the breach of the Edict of Peace concerning Religion, and the Accord made by the Emperor Rodolph, whereby the Protestants retained the free exercise of their Religion, enjoyed their Temples, Colledges, Tithes, Patronages, Places of Burial, and the like; and had liberty to build new Temples, and power to choose Defenders to secure those Rights, and to regulate what should be of service in their Churches. Now the stop of building certain Churches on Lands within the Lordships of the Catholick Clergy, (in which places the Evangelicks conceived a Right to build) was the special grievance and cause of breach.
A Riot committed by the Protestants in the Castle of Prague.
On the twenty third of May, the chief of the Evangelicks went armed into the Castle of Prague,, entred into the Council-Chamber, and opened their Grievances; but inraged by opposition, threw Slabata the Chief Justice, and Smesantius one of the Council, and Fabritius the Secretary, from an high Window into the Castle Ditch; others of the Council temporising in this tumult, and seeming to accord with their demands, were peaceably conducted to their own houses. Hereupon the Assembly took advice to settle the Town and Castle of Prague with new Guards; likewise to appease the People, and to take an Oath of Fidelity. They chose Directors, Governors, and Counsellors Provincial to govern affairs of State, and to consult of raising Forces against the enemies of God and the King, and the Edicts of his Imperial Majesty. They banished the Jesuits throughout all Bohemia: Moreover to defend their own cause, and to give an account of their late proceedings, and present posture, a Declaration was drawn up, and sent, with Letters, to the Estates of Moravia, Silesia, and Lusatia, and to all the Princes and States, their Allies, throughout the Empire, with request of aid in case of need. They declare to this effect:
The Protestants put forth a Declaration.
That they had indured infinite Injuries and Afflictions, by certain Officers, Ecclesiastick and Civil, and by the Jesuits above all others, who sought to bring them under the poke of Popery, reviled them with the names of Hereticks, heaved them out of places of Dignity, provoked the Magistrates to pursue them with Fire and Sword: that their Ministers were banished, and their Charges given to Roman Catholicks. The Senators of Prague, who were Evangelicks, were evil intreated, and divers persons persecuted for Religion, under Pretence of Civil Dffences. And whereas in case of difference touching the Agreement and Edit of peace, the Estates of both Parties were to hear and judge; their Enemies procured Commands from the Emperour to bear them down before a due hearing: Their lawful Meetings to advise and seek redress, were declared to be manifest Sedition and Rebellion, and themselves threatned with loss of Estates and Lives.
The Emperor disgusted with the declaration.
This Declaration they sent likewise to the Emperour, with a submissive Letter, asserting their own Fidelity, and praying for the removal of those evil Counsellors, that threaten so much danger to his Majesty, and his Kingdoms. The Emperor herewith was no way pacified, but charged them with an evil design, required them to lay down Arms, and to make no more Levies, but to live in peace as becometh faithful Subjects: Upon which terms he promised to disband his own Soldiers, to forgive what was past, and to protect all that will obey him.
He publishes a Manifesto.
This prevailed nothing, but the breach grows wider. The Emperor published a Manifesto in Answer to the Apology of the Bohemian States, and wrote Letters to the Electors, Princes, and States of the Empire, with high Aggravations of the violence offered at Prague to his principal Officers, against Divine and Humane Rights, the Constitutions of the Kingdom, and the Customs of all Nations, without hearing, without summoning, without any form of Process; yea, without giving a moment of time to Repent, or make Confession, or receive the Sacrament, which is never denied to the worst offenders.
Both Parties arm.
Forthwith a pernicious War, and all Confusion breaks out. The Emperor raised Forces under the conduct of divers Commanders, of whom the chief were Count de Buquoy, and Count d'Ampiere. The Evangelicks raise two Armies under Count de Thorne, and Count Mansfelt. Moravia, Silesia, and Lusatia, with all the Estates Protestant, Germans, and Neighbours of Bohemia, (very few excepted) assist the Evangelicks with Counsel, Men and Money: Likewise the Prince of Orange, and the States of the United Provinces, Promised to aid them with their Forces. The Electors and Princes Protestant favouring the Bohemians, whose Country the Imperialists destroy with Fire and Sword, persuade the Emperour to stop the rage of Civil War, the Success whereof is doubtful, and the end ever miserable. The Emperour propounded an Arbitration of these Differences by the Elector of Mentz, and the Duke of Bavaria, Princes Catholicks; and by the Electors Palatine and of Saxony, Princes Protestants; and Pilsen should be the Place of Treaty: The Evangelicks consent to the Arbitration, but dislike the place, where the people were wholly Catholicks, and followed the Emperor's Party; besides, the Directors had designed the besieging of it. New Actions of War made the overtures of peace more difficult: Several Armies were now raising throughout Bohemia, and the neighbouring Provinces: As yet the Elector of Saxony stood Neutral; the Duke of Bavaria cast in his lot with the Emperor, whose Estate was then every where embroiled.
A Comet appears at this time.
At this time there appeared a Comet, which gave occasion of much discourse to all sorts of men; amongst others, a learned (fn. *) Knight, Our Country-man, confidently and boldly a affirmed, [That such persons were but abusers, and did but flatter Greatness, who gave their verdict, That that Comet was effectual, as some would have it, or signal, as others judge it, only to Africa, whereby they laid it far enough from England: When this Knight out of the consideration of the space of the Zodiack, which this Comet measured, the inclination of his sword and blade, and to what place both the head and tail became vertical, together with other secrets.] Said, That not only all Europe, to the Elevation of Fifty two Degrees, was liable to its threatnings, but England especially; yea, that Person, besides, in whose fortune we are all no less embarked, than the Passenger with the Ship is in the Pilot that guided the same; the truth whereof, said he, a few Years will manifest to all men.
And it was observed by Dr.Bainbridge, a famour Astronomer, that toward the Declination of it, the eleventh of December it past over London in the Morning, and so hasted more Northwards, even as far as the Orcades.
King James engages not in these troubles, flattering himself with the Spaniards feeming forwardness to effect the Match.
Amidst these distractions, the House of Austria made no small improvement of their Interest in the King of Great Britain, who in the hot pursuit of the Spanish Match, was earnest to oblige them. And the Spaniards made shew, that, on their part, nothing under Heaven was more desired, than this Alliance; and in their Discourses magnified the King, Queen, and Prince of England. For the state of their affairs did press them hard, if not to close really, yet at least to fain a pressing towards it. For the French administered cause of discontent; the truce with the United Provinces was near expiring; but above all, they took to heart the Bohemian War, and resolved to set the main stock upon it: Wherefore the King of Spain gave commandment, that his treasure should be gathered together for the Infanta's vast Portion, being no less than Two Millions, and gave hopes of the payment of half a Million beforehand,
as was desired, and with himself all dispatches seemed to pass freely. But his Ministers gave not the same satisfaction, and proceeded so slackly in the business, that they were suspected either not to intend it at all, or not so soon as was pretended. Besides, the wiser here observed, and repined, that all difficulties, hazards, and odious passages, must rest on the English side, which Spain did little value. That King James did that to gratify the Spaniard, which rendred him disgusted by his Subjects, but if favour were granted to any Subject of his by the King of Spain, it was not without design to engage him in his own Service. Which resentments may be collected from a Letter, written by a great Minister of State, to Mr. Cottington, his Majesty's then Agent in Spain; which, for clearer satisfaction, you have here at large.
A Letter from a great Minister of State to Mr.Cottington.
Good Mr. Cottington,I doubt not, but that before these come to your hands, you will have heard of the receipt of all your former Letters: These are in answer of your last of the Eighth of October, wherein you advertise of the arrival of the Conde Gondomar at Lerma, and of his entertainment by that Duke. It seemeth unto us here in England, that he hath gone but very slowly in his journey; and divers (seeing how long time be hath spent in the way) do make conjecture, That it proceeded from the small affection that he judgeth to be there, towards the effecting of the main business; saying; If the Ambassador were assured, that his Master did so really desire the speedy effecting thereof, as is pretended, he would have made more haste homeward; and that it hath not been sincerely intended, but merely used by that State as an amusement to entertain and busie his Majesty withal, and for the gaining of time for their own ends; and this is muttered here by very many, but, I hope, we shall, ere long, receive such an account from thence of their proceedings, as will give sufficient satisfaction. For my own part, I must confess, I am not yet well persuaded of their intentions: for, if there be either Honour, Religion, or moral Honesty in them, the Protestations and Professions which I have so often heard them make, and you likewise daily advertise hither, are sufficient to persuade a man, that will not judge them worse than Infidels, to expect sincere dealing in the business; and whensoever I shall perceive that they go about to do otherwise, I must confess my self to have been deceived, as I shall ever be on the like terms, while I deal with inmost care; but withal, I shall judge them the most unworthy and perfidious people of the World, and the more, for that his Majesty hath given them so many testimonies of his sincere intentions toward them, which he daily continueth, as now of late, by the causing Sir Walter Rawleigh to be put to death, chiefly for the giving them satisfaction: Whereof his Majesty commanded me to advertise you, and concerning whom, you shall by the next receive a Declaration, shewing the motives which induced his Majesty to recal his mercy, through which he had lived this many years a condemned man. In the mean time. I think it fit, that to the Duke of Lerma, the Confessor, and the Secretary of State, you do represent his Majesty's real manner of proceeding with that King and State; and how for the advancing of the great business, he hath endeavoured to satisfy them in all things, letting them see how in many actions of late, of that nature, his Majesty hath strained upon the affections of his people, and especially in this last concerning Sir Walter Rawleigh, who died with a great deal of courage and constancy; and at his death moved the common sort of people to much remorse, who all attributed his death to the desire his Majesty had to satisfy Spain.
Further, you may let them know, how able a man Sir Walter Rawleigh was to have done his Majesty service, if he should have been pleased to employ
him; yet to give them content, he hath not spared him, when by preserving him; he might have given great satisfaction to his Subjects, and had, at command, upon all occasions, as useful a Man, as served any Prince in Christendom: And on the contrary, the King of Spain is not pleased to do any thing, which may be so inconvenient unto him, as to lessen the affections of his people, or to procure so much as murmuring or distraction amongst them: And therefore it is to be expected, that, on his part, they answer his Majesty, at least with sincere and real proceeding, since that is all they are put to, the difficulties and hazards being indeed on his Majesty's side And truly, I should think it fit, that not by way of commination, but, as it were, out of zeal to the Peace and Amity betwixt these two Crowns, you did intimate to the Duke and the other Ministers, how impossible you held it to have peace long continued betwixt their Majesties; if in this business, wherein so much hath been professed, there should be found any indirectness. But herein you must be cautious and temperate; for as on the one side, you and I well know, that this style most persuades with them, so on the other side, the decency and buen termine that is to be observed betwixt great Princes, will hardly admit of Threats or Revenge for a wooing Language. But this, I know, falleth into so discreet a hand, that I little fear the handsom carriage of it. And I hope, that before these Letters arrive with you, we shall hear from you, in such a style, that this advice of mine shall be of no use. I pray you be very earnest with the Conde Gondomar, that he will not forget to negotiate the liberty of Mr. Mole, from whom, I hope, (now my Lord Ross is dead) for that which you and I know, it will not be so difficult to prevail. Row may put him in mind, how when Father Baldwill's liberty was granted unto him, although he could not absolutely promise Mr. Mole's release, yet be then faithfully protested, he would use the mediation of the Duke of Lerma, and of the King's Confessor, and of that King, if need were; and that he would try the best friends he had for the procurement of his enlargement, wherein you may desire him to deal effectually, for that there is great expectance that be should proceed honourably and really therein. I my self likewise will use all means I can for his relief; for it is a thing which is very much desired here, and would give a great deal of satisfaction.
As touching Osulivare, it is very fit that you let them know, that the report of the honour they did him, hath come unto his Majesty's ears, and that although they will alledge, that in the time of Hostility betwixt England and Spain, it may be he did them many services, and may then have deserved well at their hands, for which they have just cause to reward him; yet since by his Majesty's happy coming to these Crowns, those differences have had an end, and that there is a perfect League and Amity betwixt them, his Majesty cannot chuse but dislike, that they should bestow upon him any Title or Dignity, which only or properly belongeth unto him towards his own Subjects; that therefore he would be glad that they would forbear to confer any such Titulary Honours upon any of his Subjects without his privity. This you shall do well to insist upon, so that they may understand, that his Majesty is very sensible, that they should endeavour to make the Irish have any kind of dependence on that State.
Nov. 17; Queen Anne dies.
Queen Anne died this year at Hampton-Court, and was thence brought to her Palace at Denmark-house in the Strand. The common people, who were great admirers of Princes, were of Opinion, that the Blazing-Star rather betokened the death of that Queen, than that cruel and bloody War, which shortly after happen'd in Bohemia, and other parts of Germany.