Edward VI
July 1551

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Institute of Historical Research

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William B. Turnbull (editor)

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1861

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140-157

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'Edward VI: July 1551', Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Edward VI: 1547-1553 (1861), pp. 140-157. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=70330 Date accessed: 23 October 2014.


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Contents

July 1551

July 2.
Greenwich.
399. The Council to the Marquis of Northampton and his colleagues. Have received their letter of the 26th June. Commend their diligence and refer to instructions sent herewith, which is conveyed by Sir William Cobham, who is now well rested. [Two pages. Draft.]
July 2.
Greenwich.
400. Third instructions from King Edward VI. and the Council to the Marquis of Northampton and his colleagues. They shall ask 400,000 crowns, and may agree to take 200,000, with the transportation at charges of the French King, rather than break off the treaty. [Six pages. Draft.]
Eod. die.Copy of the preceding in the Letter-Book of Sir John Masone, who thus annotates it: "Upon these instructions the conclusion ensued." [Two pages.]
July 3.
Brussels.
401. Sir Thomas Chamberlain to the Council. Details a conversation which he had this evening with the French Ambassador in relation to the ceremony used by the Marquis of Northampton in investing the French King with the Order of the Garter, and the treaty of marriage between King Edward and the Princess Elizabeth, god-child of his father King Henry VIII., now only seven years of age, which is concluded, and the Marquis on the eve of returning. The Emperor is not expected here for two months, although one of the Council a few days since said that he was to leave Augsburg for this place on the 10th inst. It is reported that the Turk does nothing as yet in Transylvania, and that the inhabitants of that country are treating upon articles to be wholly at the devotion of the King of the Romans. The Prince of Spain has not yet embarked, and it is now said he will take shipping at Spezzia, beside Leghorn, under the Duke of Florence, for that at Genoa they have but little mind at this time to him and his train. The States of Brabant are here assembled. The Duke of Arschot has been slain by one of his own gentlemen through folly. The Prince of Orange now marries the daughter of Count Buren. Hears that four or five ships of war have left Zealand, said to be for the conducting of the herring fleet. Still great military preparations are being made. [Four pages. Partly in cipher, deciphered.]
July 7.
Augsburg.
402. Dr. Wotton and Sir Richard Morysine to the same. On Thursday last the Bishop of Rome sent hither in post his Treasurer, the Archbishop of Monte Politian [Pulciano]; a man, for his wit and diligence, much in his favour, and not like to come but of some great errand. Next morning he had audience of the Emperor a large hour and more, and since then has been sundry times with D'Arras; but matters of importance are managed here so secretly, that guess as people may, little else can be learnt but the name of a comer and when he arrives. But the position of the individual, and the fact that wars require more money than a Bishop newly come to his office can have, gives them to understand that there is little left in the coffers at home, when Treasurers thus post so far abroad. Yet it is said the Bishop beseeches the Emperor not to go farther from Italy as things stand, and the Turk's army is looked for every day. It was reported that the Emperor lent the Bishop not long since 200,000 crowns, but not in such haste as he had not sureties in Rome bound for the money. If all was then delivered, and now is almost spent, the recovery of Parma will cost him more than his predecessors paid for its purchase. Some think that the Emperor. having some of the Bishop's strong fortresses in gage, will not stick to borrow for him more than in his time he will be able to repay; and will lend him such captains and soldiers as are like enough to keep for the Emperor what they recover in the Bishop's wages. If France can but keep Parma this summer from him, there is much chance that he may lose Bologna and other towns ere Parma be gotten again. The world is a witness of the Bishop's lightness, all men knowing that he can be French ere night, be he never so much Imperial at noon. The Germans have set him out in a garment all full of eagles on the outside, and full of fleurs-de-lis in the inside. The lining being much nigher his heart than the external eagles, which have their wings so spread and so ready to the flight, that the Bishop is like enough to see them fly, if France bring him where plenty of game is. But hitherto, however pourtrayed, he keeps his garments close before, and wears in sight nothing but eagles. Don Diego, Signor Rodolpho Baglione, and Signor Ascanio Colonna have gone to Castro, to see if any of the stolen treasure is there to be recovered. Diego has with him as many Spaniards as can be spared out of Sienna and Naples. Rumours were spread on the arrival of the last courier that Castro had surrendered; but those reports have not been confirmed and the truth questioned, the castle being very strong, and able to hold out any force a good season. If it be indeed given up, men think that Don Diego and the Spaniards having already taken so many pains, will take a few more to seek out this hidden treasure—better still hidden than found out by these spaniels. If no money is found, Diego may make it be brought to pass that some of his Spaniards may be keepers of Castro; and then who shall keep the keepers? It is to-day reported that Don Ferrante has forced Colorno to surrender after a battery of seven or eight hours, and has also taken Finale, a castle belonging to the Duke of Ferrara, between Ferrara and Modena. Men stick not to say that the French King is too slow in sending his men to Italy the other side hitherto being far too big for his to offer to cope with them. Horatio and Strozzi are fain to keep within Mirandola. If the Grisons and Swiss come not soon, the French side will lose a good piece of their stomachs, and yet hardly find whereupon to feed. If Castro be gone the King may, when he lusteth, lay upon Avignon, and make Duke Horatio lord thereof; for though the name be less, there is a good deal of gain in the change. If the Bishop begins now to lack money, and the Emperor to huck at the lending, they think France may come time enough. Signor Giovan Baptista di Monte has gone with his men to Bologna, to see that all be safe there; his wound, by hasty healing, is less whole than when it was first hurt. He feels pains, and is not without some peril. His soldiers are said to be commanded by one Alessandro Vitelli, a man both skilful and courageous, who has been at Mirandola once or twice to offer battle to Strozzi; but want of men, not lack of stomach, makes Strozzi a town's man. The French here say that their King has a number of Grisons on the way, who will be in Italy much sooner than the landsknechts commanded by Baron Zesnicke, who linger on the way, and have not so much as made their musters, being so kept without money that 50 of them shall not now need to go into Italy to be slain. They have been committing robberies, and some have been slain in the act, others beheaded, and others in prison ready for the axe when convicted. The people of Lansburg [Landsperg], whose villages they have been rifling, behead instead of hang them, because they are soldiers of the Emperor, thus giving honour where life may not be spared. The Duke of Florence is the busier, because Pietro Strozzi, his greatest enemy, is in the field, and is the more willing to aid the Bishop, because the French King has married the sister of the Duke of Florence that was, who died slain, without brother or daughter left behind him, he base born, and this the daughter of Laurentius Medicis gotten in lawful marriage. Merchants' letters report that 10 of the Turk's galleys encountered so violent a storm that four of them sank, and the remaining six are so shattered that they can hardly be brought where they may be repaired. But even if 10 be lost, the rest cannot be matched by any number here that are ready to go against them. One having lately asked Mons. D'Arras if they were full 150 galleys, as reported, "They are," saith he, "the devil give them evil speed! within a very little of 200." The Prince is yet scarce on the sea, or if he is, he embarks but to-day, or did yesterday. Maximilian goes with him to Spain to fetch his lady and wife to Bohemia. Whether he go or not, there is equal peril from the Turk. A report that one of the ships laden with gold from Peru is, by mishap, burnt on the way; the Imperialists say it is not one of those which conveys the Emperor's part, but one of those that the merchants' millions be in; and that the Emperor has for his part but a million of gold at this voyage. [Four pages and a half.]
July 9.
Venice.
403. Peter Vannes to the Council. Letters to the Seigniory from Constantinople of the 6th ult., mention that the Turkish galleys, in number 112, had sailed from thence on the 23d of May. Of these, seven were appointed for the keeping of the Archipelago, and the General sailed with a sealed commission, not to be opened until he should reach certain places named to him. Since these letters the Seigniory had heard from their General at Corfu, of date 30th June, that the Turkish fleet, augmented by other smaller vessels to about 130, had visited Zante, and conducted themselves in a most friendly manner, having issued a proclamation that no one should show any hostility to the Venetians on pain of impalement. They had again sailed, but their destination is not known. By letters from Mirandola of the 2d inst., it is understood that Don Fernando, with 200 horse, had gone to reconnoitre the town and castle of Colorno, a place of some importance, within 12 miles of Parma, kept by the troops of Duke Octavio. About this town 2,000 Spaniards were encamped, who had twice tried to scale the walls, but were repulsed with the loss of 60 men. At the same time some horsemen came from Parma to Colorno, and took a captain and 10 Spaniards prisoners. Wherefore Don Fernando, seeing that such attempts were fruitless, sent thither seven pieces of ordnance, and the battering of the town, as they have since heard, commenced on the 3d inst. This continued so briskly, that those in the castle, about 130 in number, were unable to resist, and surrendered on condition of their lives being spared. The town being thus occupied by the Spaniards, all the soldiers were spoiled, and their captain, Signor Amerigo Antenori, a Florentine, formerly the King's servant at Boulogne, was put to his ransom for 10,000 crowns. The Imperialists are supposed now to have gone to besiege the castles of Fontenella and Terricella, near Parma. On the 5th inst. the Bishop of Rome's army had defeated Pietro Strozzi's troops, and taken possession of some strong entrenchments two miles from Mirandola. Sipier and Pietro Strozzi have gone to Parma with 1,500 foot and 300 horse; the rest of their force, being as many more, have gone to Mirandola. These proceedings induce a belief that the French King will not attempt any great enterprise in Italy this year, and all think that he will little prevail against the Emperor, without a large and puissant army set forth with diligence. Letters from the Emperor's Court of the 27th ult. state that on the 10th inst. 4,000 Almains and 1,000 horse were to muster there and be sent to Italy, and that 4,000 more are to be raised when occasion shall require them. "The Bishop of Rome is reckoned here to be a man of very heady mind, sudden and unadvised in his determinations, and begins to find himself aggrieved, and complaining that all promises made on the Emperor's part unto him be not observed. On the other side, Don Fernando demandeth on him great sums of money for the harm, damage, and great charges sustained for the defending of his right. The which money as he is not able to disburse, so many one thinketh he shall be constrained at one time or other to forego some of his towns, under the pretence of suretyship for the same money to be paid ad Calendas Græcas, and that shortly he to be in that case that shall wish the French King's friendship. This is the opinion of certain wise men." [Three pages.] Annexed,
403. I. "The duplicate of the advertisements countersigned in the Council's letter," being the information detailed in the preceding letter. [Italian. Two pages.]
July 11.
Brussels.
404. Sir Thomas Chamberlain to the Council. Had received their letters of the 28th ult. on the 9th. On the same day Skyperus returned from Zealand, and has been visited by the Council, because of his inability to go to them. What he has done there Chamberlain cannot learn. The arrival and entertainment of the Marquis of Northampton at the French Court has been much talked of here, and nothing at all liked. The common people talk much thereof and of the marriage, which perhaps may divert some of the Emperor's purposes, and make him a better neighbour. Has heard nothing of the Lady Mary's chaplain; if he does, now knows how to answer him. Neither has he heard more of Bucholt's complaint, which the President said bare neither head nor tail. If he should go to their Lordships, which is unlikely, there is in Chamberlain's house in London sufficient quittance under his hand and seal to declare that he has received 16,000 or 20,000 guilders more than he ought to have had, although he should be allowed for three months' service, having indeed done no service at all. Mons. de Bushot, the Emperor's master of the horse, arrived on Wednesday; cannot yet learn his news or the cause of his errand. There is a mutiny in the Bishop of Liege's land, arising from the circumstance that about four years ago the Bishop's Chancellor practised with France, whereupon the Emperor confiscated his promotions and goods, and made one of the brothers of the Marquis of Berghes coadjutor, with right of succession, to the Bishop, which is misliked by the people, who have no great devotion either to him or the Bishop, but would be under the French King. The Chancellor resides in France, continuing this practice, and the Bishop has retired to one of his castles, having written to the Emperor thereof. If the mutiny continues, it is thought that the Bishop will surrender to the Emperor for a pension, as the Bishop of Utrecht was fain to do 12 or 14 years ago. For some months the Emperor has had two or three troops of horse hovering thereabouts, and divers cannon and other pieces have passed in that direction towards Luxembourg, which men had thought should have turned their noses to the walls of Liege, by the way. Understands that the Estates sit for devising to redeem a rent upon the Emperor's domains, which his Majesty made about four years ago, and to appoint learned men to go to the Council, with other things necessary for the country. [Five pages.]
July 14.
Nuremberg.
405. Sir Richard Morysine to the Council. After this long inquiry, standing, as his trust is, upon his despatch hence (most ready to return, most unwilling to tarry), be thought it good, as did Mr. Wotton, that he should consume seven or eight days in viewing Nuremberg, Ingoldstadt, and other cities while he had an opportunity for doing so. He absented himself from Augsburg the readier that his service was not needed there at the time, and Wotton would attend to any business. Hopes they will take this his little gadding in good part, as he had not used it when full forced thereunto. He is but a green Ambassador scarce well weighed; Wotton has served out his years and may be warden of his occupation. Nuremberg is one of the fairest and best governed cities he has seen; the people much more civil and more honestly appareled than the Germans are in any place where it has been his luck to come. Shortly after his arrival there came to his inn two senators, grave and well-learned persons, who welcomed him in the name of the Senate, praying to accept their poor present as a token of their good will and benevolence towards the King. Their present was two long vessels full of fish, pikes, trouts, and he wot not what. Besides honest citizens, there came with them 15 serjeants of the town, every serjeant bringing with him two long-necked pots, he is sure a gallon a-piece; so he had wine and fish in plenty. The two senators dined with him: they were men of good entertainment, brought up in France and Italy, doctors, and worthy their names. After taking his thanks to the Senate, they returned with orders to escort him over the town. They did so; showing him their artillery, which is very fair; and their store of corn, which is incredible for the plenty and the years thereof. He saw a house 360 feet long, of six stories on each side, and on every story above 2,000 quarters of corn, not one grain of which that hath not been there upwards of 200 years, as they swore unto him and their writings testify. He has sent to Mr. Cecil wheat of that age, and peason that have been kept above 100 years. They have 18 of these houses; so much plenty that their poverty never feeleth any dearth, the price within a shilling a quarter being always one as concerning the poor. After he had been there two days the children of two men who had been banished— the one for manslaughter, the other for speaking foul words to one of the magistrates—besought his intercession. Had requested the Senate for them, and his request was granted for sake of his Majesty, for whom these men and their children will pray during their lives. Since that other supplications have been brought to him for some banished for advoutry and others for wilful murder, but he has declined, considering the Senate had already granted him enough. Suggests that the Council should solicit a short letter of some 10 or 12 lines from his Majesty to the Senate, thanking them for their courtesy to his Ambassador. Finds great favour borne to his Majesty's noble virtues in all places. It is reported concerning Magdeburg, that three Electors, the Palsgrave, and Bishops of Cologne and Treves, meet at Mentz, being desired by the Emperor to take to them the Bishop of Mentz, and travail with those of Magdeburg by all possible means to bring the matter to some good pass. By leaving all to the content of these four Electors, the Emperor would seem not to mean to have too many irons in the fire at once. Has heard from Augsburg that a post had arrived from France, when the French Ambassador had speedy access to the Emperor, and stated to him that although the Emperor had sent such supply of troops to Italy, his master was aware that he did so merely to aid the Bishop, whom he might not see unaided, and for no other purpose, and that he was resolved utterly to conserve amity with the French King. That though he had sent into Piedmont 12 ensigns of Gascons who had served him at Boulogne, they were only sent there in case any unlooked for occasions should happen, and he was much sorry that the Bishop of Rome had given them both such matter of stir and trouble. The Emperor had replied that he had done what he could to breed a quietness to all parts, and that he would do so still, glad if it may take place. Heard on leaving Augsburg that there was some discord between Pietro Strozzi and the Count of Mirandola. Hears that Duke Octavio and his wife are both sore sick, men much doubting lest poison have bred their disease. This their sickness may work some alteration. The Emperor shows himself very lusty, and has been twice a-hunting this week. Beseeches them to bear with this his present desire to see things, which else he were like never to see; years and weight of body will make him fitter for home than for travel hereafter. Trusts his task is done, his stint is passed, this that he has in hand being once well ended. [Five pages.]
July 17.
Nantes.
406. The Marquis of Northampton and his colleagues to the Council. On Saturday the (fn. 1) inst. had received their letters of 30th June by Sir William Cobham. Next day the King arrived, and on Monday they had conference with the Constable and the French Commissioners, who were anxious to get matters terminated; "concluding that the time went away apace, and that the King must perforce out of hand enter his journey towards Blois or else to Fontainebleau, there to appoint the Queen to her chamber, who had so long gone about with her belly as it was high time to look thereunto; for the which purpose he would in any wise depart the next Wednesday." Much discussion ensued. The French would not consent to more than their original proposition of 200,000 crowns; and to this the English Commissioners at last acceded. Thereafter some differences arose as to the relative value of French and English money and the repayment of the dower in the event of his Majesty predeceasing without issue by the Princess; but these were finally arranged and "the books of this treaty be now a-penning." Immediately on the conclusion of the conference the King departed towards Angers, about 50 English miles off, where he will be on Saturday, and on Sunday they trust to be there to make an end of their business and take leave. The Marquis has all this time been entertained very lovingly, and has had still his chamber in the Court, and two messes of meat bountifully furnished, with as much gentle handling as can be devised, the particular report whereof is committed to Mr. Henry Sydney, the bearer of this despatch. To prevent erroneous reports, they have thought fit to apprize the Emperor's Ambassador that in their proceedings they have had due regard to the ancient amity between the two houses. [Eleven pages.]
Eod. die.Copy of the preceding in Sir John Masone's Letter-Book. [Eight pages and a half.]
July 17.
Nantes.
407. Sir John Masone to Sir William Herbert, master of the horse. Will perceive by their common letters that they have concluded a more honourable bargain, all things duly weighed, than has yet been heretofore. The Lord Marquis has so used himself at all times during this ambassade with such grave and temperate wisdom, as to give great likelihood of him in time to come. Albeit at all times Masone had of him an opinion as of a noble man right well furnished with sundry good qualities, and likely to prove to a great perfection; yet never durst he till this time promise himself so much of the Marquis as he has found since his coming hither. With God's assistance, he is like to prove such a one as in this corrupt time they stand much in need of. Parma is assieged by the armies of the Emperor and Bishop of Rome, to the number of 26,000. The French have in Mirandola and its vicinity 15,000 or 16,000. They have lately had a great defeat, in which St. Pierre, one of the notablest of the French King's captains, was slain. Fontanello, another notable captain, is hurt to death, and Pietro Strozzi stricken with a harquebuse, but not very dangerously. Louis Alemanni, steward of the Queen's house, is sent to Genoa to endeavour to excite a revolt there, and put into the head of Andrew Doria that the Emperor intends to seize his galleys and make himself master of the town. Poulin is despatched to Turkey to expedite the coming of the Turk's army. Andelot is gone to Switzerland to see how many men he can raise if need be. Thanks him for granting his request touching Herbert's house; he and his wife desire to be commended to Lady Herbert. [Two pages. Conway Papers.]
July 17.
Nantes.
408. The Marquis of Northampton to Cecil. The inclosed packet is from a Scot in the French Court, who seems to bear good will to the English, and has written to some of his friends to apprize the Marquis from time to time of what happens in Scotland. Requests Cecil to read them, and if he thinks good to forward them to Berwick for delivery. [Half a page.]
July 18.
Venice.
409. Peter Vannes to the Council. On the 12th instant had received their letter of the 16th ult., dated from Greenwich. Thanks their Lordships for their good will towards him, and felicitates them on the good estate of his Majesty and the realm. Had communicated the contents to the Seigniory, who received them in very loving part, and said that their Ambassador in England had "advertised them in most ample manner in such wise as the virtues in so young and noble a prince, being far above his age and any worldly expectation, do only proceed of the infinite mercy of God, who only is to be thanked as the giver of all goodness." "The said Ambassador, as I perceive by them, had largely written with what gravity and attention the King's Majesty most nobly accompanied gave them audience; and how wittily his own self, as though he had been these 20 years exercised in worldly affairs, divided the said Ambassadors' sayings in parts, making answer to every one of them; in so much that the whole Seigniory, with a great admiration and rejoicing, allowed and confirmed my saying with a serene hope and trust that hereafter, crescentibus annis, they shall have a firm and assured friendship of so noble and godly a Prince." Recommends them to let the Ambassador have some knowledge that they are aware how worthily he has written of the King and the realm. While the French are retired to Parma and Mirandola, Don Fernando, with 2,000 or 3,000 men, goes to take certain holds about Parma of no great importance. Concerning the report that some Swiss were to come to Italy in the French King's name, and pass through a portion of the Venetian territories, Don Fernando had signified to the Seigniory that whereas being the Emperor's servant, and bound to do his best for the advancement of his master's affairs, if he should encounter the said Swiss in their country they must not impute it to any unfriendliness. The Seigniory reply, that being on amicable terms with the Emperor and the French King, and entirely neutral, they cannot refuse the French to pass through their country, or to supply them with provisions on their march, they paying honestly for what they take; and if Don Fernando should take any such authority within their dominions (as they think he will not), they will devise such remedies as shall be thought most expedient. Of these matters they have written to the Emperor, and have put 2,000 men in garrison about Bergamo and other places on their confines most requiring defence, making, nevertheless, divers other pretences. Several Italians here wish and look for the French King withdrawing his obedience from the Church of Rome, or at least from the Bishop there, being by him with so many injuries provoked. Verily and generally the said Bishop's doings be blamed and judged only to be a direct way to his destruction howsoever the gain goes. Has been to visit Cardinal Tournon, a man both grave and witty, who is here at present. The Cardinal takes it very unkind, that after the French King, his master, had gently asked for his departing, the Bishop of Rome should have prescribed to him to sojourn in Venice, saying that great timidity and unadvised hastiness in determination of things causes the Bishop to do as he doth. He greatly rejoices in the friendship between England and France; inquired much of the noblemen of England and of Lord Warwick with divers communications in the time of his Admiralty; and at Vannes' departing would needs for the King's honour accompany him to the stair-head. The greater number of the landsknechts sent by the Emperor into Italy take their journey by Milan, a way towards Piedmont, a place as well by reason of titles as for provision of victuals most ready for the beginning of war when any such shall earnestly begin. John de Salerno, formerly a captain in Boulogne and a pensioner of the King, has of late been slain with a harquebuse by the Bishop of Rome's means. Concerning the precedency, &c., shall order himself with God's grace according to their Lordships' commandments therein. Requests to know their pleasure as to his going for five or six weeks to Lucca, where the decayment of his poor things there doth chiefly provoke him; and if he shall be licensed for that season thither, that they will give letters of credence to the Seigniory there. Sends herewith divers advertisements as well of the matters of Italy as news of the Turk's army, as most part thereof is contained herein. It is recently written from Rome that the Turk's army have arrived in a place named Otranto, not far from Calabria. Incloses a letter from Mr. Barnes, son of the King's Majesty's auditor, concerning Horsmonden and Winslow. [Five pages.] Annexed,
409. I. Private note autograph of Vannes, "touching Mr. Degyon his case." (fn. 2) Transagardus, a young gentleman of Padua, by virtue of a special privilege granted to his family by the Emperor Sigismund, has conferred the degree of Doctor of Divinity upon two Englishmen there, named George Dudgeon and Hugo Turnbull, who refused to take the oath of allegiance to the Bishop of Rome, "for the danger that else at home should incur in it." Turnbull is very studious in divinity and in divers other sciences, and he and Dudgeon keep much company together. He has several young gentlemen studying with him, some in civil law and some in humanity, and, as far as can be seen by them, honestly brought up. Dudgeon has with him one Herbert and Saint Clow [Sinclair ?] He has been very sick of a strange disease in his ribs, and not yet better, and intends in the latering of the year to return to England, where, after Vannes' judgment, learning of all sorts is to be had at Cambridge and Oxford as plentifully as here, and with as good manner, saving for the sight of countries and obtaining of language. If he can get to the knowledge of the specialties of the oath in the Emperor Sigismund's privilege, he will send the same to their Lordships. [Three pages.]
409. II. Letter from William Barnes to Vannes, dated from Sienna, June 30, 1551. Does not wish to defend Horsmonden in his naughtiness and untruth, although Mr. Arnold and he, at Horsmonden's earnest request, seeming very sorry for his misuses, and desirous to return home and to come to his answer, did promise so to advertise him in that they might, how he was taken in his and their country, as that such advice were not prejudicial to the same or dangerous unto themselves. And for his aid in this his vehemently, and to the sword's point, affirmed truth, they gave him, considering his extreme necessity, two crowns between them, not thinking it evil bestowed, if, according to his promise, bound with oaths at his departure, he seeks to clear himself and to come to his answer. Here at Sienna has sprung up a new matter between Winslade [Winslow] the traitor, who by the Cardinal's means is placed here for a soldier, and another Englishman named Richard Knight, sometime serving in Boulogne under Captain Lytton, and now also a soldier here. This Winslade, as he is of a very traitorous heart to his country, is in the daily habit of speaking evil of the King's Majesty and the Council, calling them Lutherans, and saying there is no justice, with such like; which Knight hearing, and being impelled by natural loyalty, and also because Winslade had spoken falsely by him behind his back, defied him, gave him the lie, and in maintenance of his just quarrel (as the order is) cast him his glove; which he receiving, would not since that time demand the camp as his part had been. Wherefore Knight has sought the camp of him. Arnold and Barnes have sought to farther his suit with Don Diego, who would fain have agreed them, but, as Knight will not condescend, had meanwhile ordered a truce for four days. This expires to-night, but camp he thinks will not be granted, as according to Don Diego his commission extends not so far. [Three pages.]
409. III. "Diversi avisi da piu bande." The General having sent a frigate to look for the Turk's fleet, it had accidently run down four pinnaces, which sank with all on board; but it was unknown whether these belonged to the Turk's squadron or to the Moors. Other affairs of the Turks. Pietro Strozzi had retired being unable to relieve Colorno, which had fallen into the hands of Don Fernando prior to his arrival there. More details of the proceedings relative to Parma and Bologna. M. Monluc is here on his way from Rome, where, with considerable difficulty, he had obtained the archbishopric of Bordeaux, and expects to leave shortly for France. [Italian. Two pages.]
July 19.
Angers.
410. Treaty of marriage between King Edward VI. and Elizabeth, daughter of Henry II., King of France. [Twenty pages. Latin. Copy in Sir John Masone's Letter-Book. Printed by Rymer, Vol. xv., p. 273, edition of 1712.]
Imperfect copy of the preceding in General Treaty-Book, i. p. 167.
Another imperfect copy, ibid. ii. p. 84.
Another imperfect copy. [Fourteen pages.]
Abstract and copy of the same. [Five pages.] The abstracts in English.
July 20.
Angers.
411. The Marquis of Northampton and his colleagues to the Council. By the King's appointment arrived here on the evening of Saturday the 18th inst. Next morning very early the treaty was signed and sealed. About nine o'clock they were sent for, when Sir William Pickering was presented as Ambassador-Resident, and Sir John Masone and the rest took leave. Touching the restitution of the Scottish gentlemen, the King would do his best therein. His Majesty informed them of the defeat of the Emperor's and the Pope's troops, and that "now he was able to say boldly Parma was his; adding, that spite of both the armies of the enemies, such corn as grew about the town was gathered and brought in, so as the same was now victualled in such sort as it was able to tarry the malice of the enemies for a great time." Incloses their answer to the demand of the Scottish Queen. The Marquis intends to begin his journey homeward to-morrow morning. The Constable is created Duc de Montmorency and Peer of France. Have informed the Emperor's Ambassador of their proceedings; suggest similar communication by their Lordships to the Imperial Resident in England. [Three pages. Copy in Sir John Masone's Letter-Book.]
July 20.
Beaufort.
412. Henry II., King of France, to King Edward VI. Recredentials of the Marquis of Northampton and his colleagues, and expressive of his Majesty's satisfaction at the conclusion of the treaty. [Countersigned by De l'Aubespine. Broadside. French.]
July 20.
Beaufort.
413. Same to same. Re-credentials of Sir John Masone, approving of his conduct while Ambassador, and expressive of his Majesty's pleasure at the appointment of Sir William Pickering as successor. [Countersigned by De l'Aubespine. Broadside. French.]
July 20.414. Inventory of silver and gilt plate delivered to Sir William Pickering on entering upon his duties as Ambassador-Resident in France, amounting to 2,697 ounces. [Two pages.]
Check copy of the preceding. [Two pages. Indorsed by Cecil.]
July 21.
Augsburg.
415. Dr. Wotton and Sir Richard Morysine to the Council. Letters from Italy do much disagree; some say that the Bishop, having spent with his treasure a good piece of his credit, waxeth weary of war; others that his men never made better skirmishes than they do now. In such contradictory reports, they are glad to receive from Mr. Vannes a packet of letters, which they trust will convey to their Lordships authentic intelligence of these Italian stirs, the Turk's army, and other occurrents in his vicinity. Camillo Orsino and Alessandro Vitelli are said to do what they can to make the peasants of Mirandola as weary of the abode of their French guests as they were glad of their coming. The Bishop's band is fully as able to keep the field as the French are to defend the town, and is much about Mirandola, considering it good policy towards settling matters to keep Octavio and the French as far from each other as possible. Lately they fell to burning the house of Sigismondo Tenzano, a captain of the French part, and sacked some villages belonging to Mirandola, which called forth a remonstrance from M. de Thermes, who sent to Orsino and Vitelli, saying that if they had orders from the Bishop to burn any part of Mirandola, they did well to obey their master; but he begged to remind him that Mirandola was not Parma, and no part of it belonged to Octavio, but had long been the property of the French King, with whom, if the Bishop meant to war, his men then might stoutly follow that they had so lustily begun; and he thought that the burning of vile cottages about Mirandola would elsewhere set fair palaces afire, if they did not forthwith leave off. They replied, that they merely retaliated the injuries done to the Bishop's tenants upon Bologna by Pietro Strozzi; and if Strozzi's soldiers were sent out of Mirandola, they would eftsoons go their way, having come not to harm Mirandola, but to see that Mirandola did no harm to them. M. de Thermes will remove none of his soldiers, wherefore Camillo and Vitelli mean to tarry where they are. Strozzi is said to have dismissed some of his band, finding them too few to keep the field, and too many to be fed within the towns. Notwithstanding they write from Italy that about the 5th inst. Strozzi had his soldiers abroad more then two miles from Mirandola, knowing that the Bishop's men lay not far off from them; but the truth is, that he went where his soldiers were skirmishing with the Bishop's as good as three hours' space, and at last got into their trenches under the walls of Mirandola, having hurt a good number of their adversaries. After this, it is said, Sipier and Strozzi, with 1,500 foot and 300 horse, went to Parma, and would have put Frenchmen into the citadel; but Octavio would not allow it, content that they should all be truly sworn to serve the French King there. This must needs breed suspicion on both sides. Certain friars who have fled from Parma say that the Duke has disarmed the inhabitants, forbidding them under pain of death to come at any time to the walls or to talk with any soldiers in the night. In this he is thought to do amiss, to mistrust strangers and after not to trust his own; for if there be cause to mistrust both, it is high time to think any conditions of peace better than war. It may be friars doing this, as they are wont to do in the rest; that is, say that may best serve their master, and not that that is most true. They say wine will not last till new come, and that provender for the horses is wanting. Howsoever it may be in Parma, Mirandola is well victualled, the inhabitants being forced to lay much corn in the great church of Mary Magdalen. Letters say that Parma has enough for this year. There are rumours that Ferrante complains of a sciatica, and beseeches the Emperor that the Marquis of Marignano, or some other, may take the charge, as his pain will not suffer him to travail longer; and they say here that he loves not to fight but when he may himself make the match. The 12,000 Gascons come into Piedmont, with the other 8,000 reported to be on their way thither, are able to make a man feel the pain of a sciatica a good while before the sciatica comes. There is a murmuring in this Court that now the French King has concluded with the English, he is coming to Paris, and so to Lyons; meaning either a full falling out with the Bishop, or an open breach with the Emperor. Already in France he is said to have proclaimed war against the former. It is farther said that Mons. Raimond, lately French Ambassador with the Turk, left Marseilles seven or eight days ago with two galleys to meet the Turk's army. A friend of theirs has this day received letters which state that part of the Turk's navy has now entered the port of Telamona under the promontory of Hercules, belonging to Sienna, and part are about Ostia, which leads to Rome. He could land in no place, either where he should be better welcome, or where he might with greater help do more harm. The Bishop has either fled or removed to Viterbo; removed, if the Turk be not come; fled, if his galleys be at Ostia. The landsknechts which were appointed to Parma are now said to go towards Naples. Signor Giovanni Castaldo writes from Hungary that the King of the Romans is almost at a good point with the Vaivode's late wife and queen, and that she makes great entreaty to Castaldo to come where she may commune with him. But he thinks, under present circumstances, it is not good for him to go with an army, or safe to go with a few, so there are but shows of agreement hitherto. If the Turk comes by land the Queen will none accord; if he comes not, and she be forced to allow that she cannot will, it may be, she will accept such offers as she must. She has sent Castaldo a silver cup, with many old coins in it. A Turkish shower marreth all this fair weather. [Five pages.]
July 24.
Brussels.
416. Sir Thomas Chamberlain to the Council. Has this day received a closed letter from the Queen to the rulers of Antwerp, which the President informs him contains commands to let all English ships depart when they will. This letter he has sent straight in post to the merchants to put in execution out of hand. [One page.]
July 24.
Venice.
417. Peter Vannes to same. Since he wrote to them on the 18th, news have come from the Emperor's camp that M. d'Andelot and Skyperus, with other gentlemen, 60 celates, and a good number of harquebuters a horseback, having left Parma to go to San Segondo, a castle belonging to Duke Octavio, encountered in an ambush a large number of Imperialists, and after long fighting were all taken prisoners, with the exception of about 25 who were slain. On hearing this Pietro Strozzi went with 200 horse to attempt a rescue, but he also having been received with another imbushment, was defeated with the loss of many of his company. Duke Horatio, with upwards of 200 horse and sundry foot, proceeding from Mirandola towards Parma, had been waylaid and attacked in a pass by Alessandro Vitelli, chief captain of the Pope's army, who routed them with the loss of several prisoners; but Duke Horatio contrived to escape by the help of his horse, which at that time did him very good service. Various officers and others here, who have been lately in the French King's service, say that the Frenchmen lack both provision, men, and good order, to do any good against the Papists' and Imperialists' arms. 400 horsemen have come to Don Fernando within the last few days, coming from towards Milan, and troops of landsknechts daily come from Germany thitherward. Parma and Mirandola are said to be barely supplied. As the Imperialists and Papists are strong in the field and lord of the victuals, it will be hard for the French to raise any great army here, unless a way were devised to divert the Emperor's strength out of these parts otherways. [Two pages.] Annexed,
417. I. "Advertisements written in English in the Council's letter," to which are added further news. Letters from Rome of the 18th mention that Anthony Doria going to Africa with 15 galleys laden with munitions, victuals, and Spanish soldiers, had been overtaken at night by a great storm, when believing they were on the broad ocean, they found themselves driven on the Island of Lampedusa, where eight of the vessels, with all their cargo and the majority of those on board, were lost. The rest, having with great difficulty resisted the storm, reached Africa safely. The same letters say that advices from France of the 1st inst. state that the King was resolved to send to Italy 27,000 French, Gascons, and Picards, with a large number of cavalry and 15,000 Swiss, and that M. de Thermes was to have the command of all this army. If this is true it will light such a fire in Italy as will with difficulty be extinguished. [Italian. Three pages.]
July 25.
Venice.
418. Peter Vannes to Francis Yaxley. [One page. Having been torn perpendicularly, and one half only remaining, the subject of this letter cannot be made out.]
July 28.
Venice.
419. Same to the Council. Since his letter of the 24th some disagreements have chanced between Don Fernando and the Seigniory; the former having demanded, if there should be occasion hereafter, to be permitted to do an exploit of arms against the French within their dominion and jurisdiction. Also that he might station a company of soldiers in their countries upon the confines of the Grisons, to impede the passage of any troops in the French King's name; and farther, that they should not allow the French King to levy men in any part of their territories. All this the Seigniory have boldly denied to him, preserving most strict neutrality. Since the last discomfiture of Duke Horatio's band going from Mirandola to Parma, a number of infantry remaining in a fort there were suffered without hurt to depart. The Bishop of Rome's army have made two forts near Mirandola for besieging the same, and have already planted some ordnance there; but many think, unless he can do injury to the walls and houses, the battery will little prosper, by reason that the ditches around the town are very big and deep. Don Fernando being much diseased of a sciatica has retired to Piacenza. Incloses news from Naples and Rome of the Turk's army; also copy of a letter from Anthony Doria concerning the loss which he has had of nine galleys, men, and munitions from tempests (both missing). [One page and a half.]
July 28.
Augsburg.
420. Dr. Wotton and Sir Richard Morysine to the Council. The long looked for Turkish navy is now in the Straits of Scylla and Charybdis, bringing no mean terror to those who have passed, or shall pass by. D'Arras says there are 90 galleys, with other vessels; but others that there are upwards of 130 galleys, besides ships of carriage. The Court here sets a better countenance on it than might be supposed, saying that when Barbarossa, another manner of captain than Rustan Bassa's brother, was last in these parts with a far larger power and better skilled men, he went his way with no great harm done. Others that know what counsel Dragut Rey can give the Turk's General, think the army and men big enough to make the greatest hereaway full afraid; and when it is considered that the French are also, doubtless, bound by covenants to be doing as fast as the other, they stick not to say that the Emperor shall have more to do than he can well overcome. They have two months to be doing; if they can get any new haven to harbour in this winter, they are like to tarry in it, in case time do not serve to get that may be their own. Toulon, not far from Marseilles, is said to be already in order for them; but if the Bassa is as ready to hearken to mischievous advices as Dragut is ready to give them, it is supposed they have time enough to provide their own lodging ere winter force them to leave the seas. Of late the Emperor has had better luck on land than on sea. Ferrante has, at sundry skirmishes, taken various Frenchmen, as D'Andelot, the Constable's nephew, M. Sipier, Conte di Col' Alto, Conte d'Etienne, Captain Corso, and others of good families;—Horatio, while others were hard at it, with great difficulty recovering Parma. It is thought that the Constable will be pricked with the taking of his well-beloved nephew, and that he will shortly see Ferrante better matched. This good chance has been much appalled by a post from Genoa, that arrived on Saturday last the 25th inst., bringing news that eight vessels sent by the Emperor to succour Africa have all been lost by tempest; their captain, Antonio Doria, escaping almost alone, his own galley having perished with the others. They were all well manned with Italians, and provided with artillery. The arrival of the Turk's army and this unlucky loss have bred as great dump among the Imperialists, as stirred up talk and courage to the French. Because mishaps love to come together, a messenger has arrived from the King of the Romans, beseeching the Emperor's aid out of hand, else it will come when it cannot serve. Castaldo's great promises are suddenly fallen to decay and every one is likely to prove vain; for the Turk has already sent 60,000 horse towards Transylvania, and Petrovitz, fellow-governor with Fra Georgio, has 13,000 horse ready to join the Turk against the King of the Romans. The Emperor makes 15 ensigns, intending in all haste to send them to help his brother; but new men will come too late, if the old are discomfited before they can arrive. Castaldo writes that he will stop the passages; but considering the disparity of numbers and the many ways of access, his friends reckon that he will do better to keep himself than to keep the straits. It is said that the French King has lately sent as his Ambassador to Genoa, one Louis Alemanni, a Florentine, who being banished his country by the Emperor, at this time serves France with better will. He came there in a galley, which, on his landing, he immediately sent off again. There were troubles in Genoa, and some are in prison, and others banished, for practices in hand. Part of Alemanni's commission was to require the city of Genoa to provide victuals for the Turk's army against it should pass by them. They would pay for what victuals they took, and if they were not victualled for their money as friends, they would come as enemies. The Genoese, it is said, will neither have to do with the Turk nor with victualling his galleys, and to-day it was reported that they send away the Emperor's Ambassador, meaning to be lookers on, and to have to do neither with the Emperor nor France. The King of Denmark and the Duke of Brunswick levy troops. They two are like to try it, by fire and sword, whether the Holy Ghost will that the King's youngest brother be Bishop of Bremen, or a son of the Duke. The matter is this: Some time since, by consent of the Bishop, the chapter chose the King's youngest brother to be coadjutor to the Bishop of Bremen. The Duke, angry that such a lump of living has fallen from his family, has been so long in hand with his brother the Bishop, that he would now gladly undo as much as by the chapter and his consent has been done in this matter. The Bishop knows that the King's brother is a very earnest Protestant, and therefore repents of his facility, and would gladly gratify his own brother and benefit his nephew. The strife, therefore, lies between the King's brother and the Duke's son. The Emperor has sent to Denmark and used great entreaty in persuading him to make no new stirs in Germany, like enough thinking there are too many there already; and he has commanded the Duke sub pœna banni not to meddle in the matter; but the thing is too weighty to be lightly given over. The city and chapter show all their favour to the King's brother. The Emperor has his cumbers on all sides, and begins to look to his friends for aid, as appears by the conversation of D' Arras with Wotton. His son, the Prince, arrived in Spain on the 11th inst., and Andrew Doria returned on the 25th. Those of Magdeburg be still, as they have been, lusty; and will yield to no one thing that they have hitherto stuck in. [Four pages.]
July 28.
Citadel of Thaun.
421. Philip-Francis Count-Palatine and Dr. Mount to the Council. On the 11th of June Mount had written to them of the friendly feeling expressed by Frederick the Elector-Palatine during their conference at Strasburg. Since then the Prince-Palatine and he had met by appointment, when the Prince informed him of the Elector's great affection and sentiments of amity towards the King and the Council, which he desired should be communicated to them by the Prince and Mount. The Elector, of all the other princes of the Empire at the present time, is the worthiest and best, and by virtue of his prudence and long experience, gifted with more fore sight of events than most people. The vain hope and weariness of deferred promise of acquiring the kingdom of Denmark seems to lead him to seek foreign advice. But in this he is likely to attempt nothing except by the intervention of mutual friends. [Latin. One Page.]
July 29.
Brussels.
422. Sir Thomas Chamberlain to the Council. Having heard nothing farther from Antwerp as to the ships, supposes there be no more stay. Letters state that almost all Transylvania is at the King of the Romans' devotion. Hears that Duke Octavio either mislikes his bargain with the French King, or trusteth not much unto him, for of late he has refused to receive Pietro Strozzi's troops into the castle of Parma, although all these soldiers have made oath to the French King. Some say, that on the 12th inst. the French King declared war against the Bishop of Rome and all that would assist him, and is sending to Italy 10,000 Swiss, 3,000 Gascons, and 2,000 horse. The Emperor has also sent a good number of men out of Germany into Italy. Skiperus, impotent as he is, is every day either with the Councillors or they with him, and Mons. de Bure amongst them, consulting, as it is thought, either about naval preparations or fortifying the sea-coast. It is said that several Frenchmen have lately been taken in Holland, going from place to place viewing the strength thereof. The Prince of Spain sailed from Genoa on the 6th inst. Heard from the French Ambassador yesterday that the Marquis of Northampton and the other Commissioners had taken leave of the French King on the 16th inst. [Two pages.]
July 30.
Strasburg.
423. Dr. Mount to Secretaries Sir William Petre and Sir (fn. 3) William Cecil. Refers to his letter to the Council of 11th June, and the joint letter by the Prince-Palatine and him of 28th inst., regarding the friendly feelings of the Elector-Palatine. Sees no reason for doubting his sincerity, since, in addition to his natural kindliness of disposition, two principal causes he thinks may be assigned for this good will of the Elector. The first of these is this: the Elector long ago had large promises of having the Kingdom of Denmark as dowry of his wife Dorothea, the eldest child of King Christian; and as he now sees that this hope is deferred, and the Emperor, from whom he looked for assistance in procuring this dowered kingdom, is too much occupied at present (and it is probable his wife urges her aged husband to have the matter settled quickly), therefore Mount thinks he may desire his Majesty's interest for obtaining something out of his long expectations; and because he has no children by his wife (nor by reason of his advanced years is likely to have any), he may very wisely wish to surrender what he has in right of his wife for a pecuniary consideration. Thinks the other cause may be his grateful recollection of the magnificent pension formerly bestowed on Duke Philip, his fraternal nephew, by King Henry VIII., and his belief, that as he not only in dignity and honour, but in deeds, far excels Philip, he may not be considered unworthy of his Majesty's grace and favour. Thinks this friendship should be fostered by honourable and kindly expressions, until Germany shall enjoy a clearer atmosphere. Magdeburg is still besieged, but it is hoped that an honourable peace will be concluded soon, for all Saxony, and especially the neighbouring places, is much oppressed and exhausted by this war. There is nothing new from Switzerland; from this part of Germany volunteer soldiers secretly go to France, the Emperor in vain forbidding any German soldier to serve under foreign Princes. [Latin. One page.]
Aug. 4.
Augsburg.
424. Dr. Wotton and Sir Richard Morysine to the Council. Either news come not so thick, or they are kept much more secret than heretofore. Perhaps little or nothing has been done recently, as the Imperialists and soldiers of the Bishop are lords of the field, the French at last being taught not to be too busy until either they are more, or their enemies fewer. Here is a plain still, "an husht;" no noise of anything done of either side. Some say the Bishop has sent again into France, to see if the broil may yet be taken up; but the continuance of the jar is so provided for, that Octavio is not likely to be brought to any agreement. It is reported that the Turk's navy is gone to Africa: on their way they set upon a town in Sicily, called l'Agosta Nova; no strong thing, and therefore won the sooner. The Spaniards who kept the castle are slain, and the inhabitants either killed or carried off prisoners. Whether they have left any garrison there is unknown. The Viceroy there has long entreated the Emperor to fortify it. Some think the Turks will go to Malta; others to Tripoli, a strong place, not far from Malta, Africa, or Zerbi. Men talk according to their bias; some imagining that there is conference between France and the Turk, the one having no army on the land to succour sea-beaten men, and the other going about enterprises of his own farther off. Others think the Turk came too soon, and has advice to be doing elsewhere till work is made readier to his hand. It has lately been rumoured here that the French should practise to get Avesnes in Hainault by treason. Two days since the French Ambassador had access to the Emperor; they were loud, and some of the Chamber think it was about this matter. After this talk, the Ambassador forthwith despatched a servant in post to the French King. Letters from Rome mention that the French King gathers for Italy 27,000 foot, under command of Mons. de Thermes, as shall more plainly appear by the inclosure. The French Ambassador has letters from his master mentioning the marriage concluded between the King and the daughter of France, with commission to signify not only that to the Emperor, but whatsoever else told may serve practices. Think the Emperor did much more look to hear by them how things went than by the French Ambassador. Though the time be past for telling him these news, yet they cannot want time to make the Council's excuse, which perhaps will much better content him than unpleasant news told. "For this Court so frowneth at the towardness of this affinity, that we do not think they mean to dance at the day of the marriage." Trust Mr. Vannes' letters come in season. The Emperor is said to be going towards Flanders; but they must see him a good part of his way, ere they can think he mindeth to do as is said. [Two pages.] Inclosure,
424. I. "From Rome, 18th July 1551." Letters from Otranto mention that the Turkish navy took in water at Porto Cesareo, near Otranto, and then sailed for the Straits of Messina, perhaps for the enterprise of Africa. Antonio Doria having sailed on the 3d inst. with 15 galleys, with men and provisions, for Africa, from the island of Gozza, was overtaken during the night by a tempest of wind and rain, which drove him on the Island of Lampedusa, where eight of the galleys sank. Of these, three belonged to Doria, viz., La Capitanea, La Speranza, and L'Amicitia; two to the Marquis of Terranova, one to the Lord of Monaco, one to Sicily, and one to Captain Cicada. They say that a great number of the soldiers are lost, the rest saved. From France on the 1st inst. they write that the King collects for Italy 27,000 foot, of whom M. de Thermes is General. M. D'Aumale will command 15,000 foot, consisting of French, Gascons, and Picards; M. D'Andelot, 15,000 Swiss; M. de Sattiglione, 1,500 men-at-arms, and 2,000 light horse. Pietri Strozzi will command the Italian infantry, and Duke Horatio the cavalry. Duke Octavio has given up the fortress entirely to the French, and goes into France. Yesterday Signor Astorre Baglione was released, and it seems that Signor Adriano, his brother, has been liberated in exchange for the Prince of Macedonia, whom the Parmese had captured. [Italian. One page.]

Footnotes

1 Blank in original, but may be supplied by 11th.
2 See letter from the Council of 16th June, antea.
3 Sic, but Cecil was not knighted till 11th October following.