Mary
September 1556

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Institute of Historical Research

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William B. Turnbull (editor)

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1861

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246-260

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'Mary: September 1556', Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Mary: 1553-1558 (1861), pp. 246-260. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=70436 Date accessed: 21 October 2014.


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September 1556

Sept. 4.
Mantua.
528. Margaret, Duchess Dowager of Mantua, to same. Takes the opportunity of the visit of her son's Ambassador, to offer her respects to her Majesty. [Italian. Half a page.]
Sept. 5.
Rome.
529. Intelligence from Rome. 1. On 25th Aug. the Duke of Alva went out of Naples to go to Gaeta, commanding 25 pieces of artillery to be placed at the arch of San Germano where the assembly is; 20 ensigns of foot close to the bridge of Como; 20 ensigns of foot and horse on the confines, and 38 gallies to Spezzia to levy some companies of Spaniards and Austrians and transport them into the kingdom. A spy whom he sent to take the plan of Fossinone was recognized and captured, and Giulio Orsini had the fortifications shown to him and permitted him to return to the Duke and tell what he had seen. There are 10,000 foot here; the fortification of Borgo is finished and that of Rome diligently looked to. Anagni, Fossinone, Paliano, Veletri, and Tivoli are provided with good forts. Cardinal Caraffa is expected to-morrow with 2,000 Gascons, with Strozzi, Lansac, Monluc and many French gentlemen who will mount horse here. It is said that the Cardinal is well furnished by the King with 100,000 crowns ready money, 300,000 more having been remitted to Venice; and that the King is unwilling to abandon the Pope and this see, wherefore at his arrival it will be known if there is to be peace or war. Cardinal St. Jacomo does not fail to oppose valiantly his Holiness and seek to procure peace, seeing that the war and the troubles make neither for the Pope nor the Emperor. Duke Octavio has summoned here a seigniory to give account of the convention (accordo) to the Pope and to demand the placet, but he has not yet had it. It is understood that his Holiness is not very well pleased with this accordo, the Duke having acted in it without his licence or knowledge; and he said to Cardinal St. Angelo on Sunday he would endeavour to walk in the right way, that he would manage it like a son and would not embroil himself with his brothers. And he has said in private that Piacenza was the occasion of the death of Pier Luigi, that Parma would cause Pope Paul to die of grief, and that Parma and Piacenza will be the ruin of the house of Farnese. Two companies of horse of Duke Octavio and one of Count Cæsar Raspone entered Rome yesterday.
2. As he wrote, news arrived by the last courier of the truth of the matter of the Farnese, as communicated by the secretaries of the Duke, and the Cardinal Farnese; and Cardinal St. Angelo the following day was with his Holiness excusing himself for not having known it, and was graciously received by the Pope, who nevertheless said to him that he should take care not to have himself mixed up with it. Another time he said many strong and significant words against them; and it was said that he had sent troops to Castro. In truth the matter is thus undecided. It was said that the Count of Santafiore also had been to Castro by command of the Duke of Florence; if he has been, it was to see the place. Thus it is supposed the management of the "accordo" may be matter of greater speculation. Signor Pietro da l'Offredo, who came in the name of the Duke of Alva with a letter to his Holiness and another to the College, will leave to night, with little resolved, and perhaps also little satisfied in any part. It is understood that the Imperialists are already in the field, and so much in advance that they are already at the frontiers with 15,000 infantry, and 3,000 cavalry; some of them have reached a place called Ponte Corvo, and others the neighbourhood of Tagliacozzo, and Domenico di Massimi, who is among the number and has a company, has not been useless hitherto; he has advanced and made great booty of cattle, the larger portion belonging to his own father, but he has nevertheless not spared that of others. Thus matters keep on the point of breaking, and if not already broken, "pensate quel che gli manchi." Here in Rome are in all 20,000 infantry and 800 horse, which the other day were joined by 100 from Mirandola, and yesterday evening came in the 2,000 infantry of the state of Urbino with 100 horse under Signor Aurelio Fregoso. It is two days since captains for 6,000 infantry were sent off, and though matters are come to such close terms, these speculators will have it that war cannot take place, so disadvantageous does it appear to them for both sides. Nothing is wanting in the fortifications of the city. The intendants have discovered that the Castle of St. Angelo is a very feeble fortress; they have therefore made certain provision of other counter-forts so that there shall be another castle, and they can thus defend the former securely. It is a fine and necessary undertaking. It follows they will make safe the Borgo Lauarandosi without sparing men or expense. In the rest of the States of the Church works are being carried on. Yesterday it was resolved to level the nunnery of San Sisto, within the gate of San Sebastiano. The Neapolitans have been most strictly commanded by the Duke of Alva to return into the kingdom; all obey and are departing. Thirty-four Imperial gallies were seen to pass the sea at a distance; these are said to be going to Genoa to take up Prince Doria, and help Orano in Africa, which is besieged by Dragut. And by this, it being certain that Cardinal Caraffa had reached Corsica, they dispatched certain frigates to him of which he was apprized. He is expected daily and hourly, and already they have ordered the cavalry to Ostia and some companies. The Bishop of Pola arrived yesterday; he came by land. Yesterday there was a Consistory, and the Pope spoke strongly against the Duke of Alva: among other things, said, that as he never knew any valorous enterprise done by him as a commander, he had no need to fear in the least what forces he might have; and abused him heartily. His Holiness, not content with what he said against the Duke of Alva, wished the Emperor and his son also to have their share, even worse than infidels. He lamented much over some Cardinals who were appointed to negotiate some settlement at the coming of the Count di San Valentino, Il Decano, Morone, Carpi, and Saraceno, who had acted negligently and determined nothing; these, he said, showed little affection to the Holy See. He added that he gave licence to all to speak freely; so that Pacheco and St. Jacomo have taken heart at this and decided to go to-day to him with the intention of making a final attempt. The Pope has ordered a Congregation to be called on one of these days, and freedom of speech is permitted. Should means of peace be found, it will be seen if Cardinals are made quickly and in numbers. [Italian. Five pages.]
Sept. 7.
Padua.
530. Peter Vannes to Sir William Petre. Though on Saturday last, the 5th inst., he advertised the Lords of the Council of the small occurrences known here, yet having now the opportunity of an extraordinary courier dispatched by the Emperor's Ambassador, writes a few lines, inclosing a copy of the Duke of Alva's letter to the Pope, although he supposes it has come to Petre's hand long ago. This day arrived a gentleman from the Emperor and the Duke of Alva to the Seigniory, with a letter from the Emperor, and from thence to divers other Princes and Potentates of Italy, for the entertaining of friendship, to declare divers great injuries, wrongs, and contumelies of the Pope against the Emperor and the King, and to prove to the world that the mischief happening in Christendom will proceed only from the Pope's misbehaviour towards them, who are thereby provoked by all means (no other remedy being possible) to uphold and defend all their possessions, having delayed to do this for reverence sake and hope of amendment, and all in vain. Learns from the Emperor's Ambassador that the Duke of Alva is moving from Naples to Gaeta along the sea for expedition, and thence to the camp, where it is supposed that he is now arrived. The camp contains very nearly the number of horse and foot, captains, and artillery, that Vannes has formerly written, besides 2,000 Spaniards coming from Milan, and 5,000 landsknechts out of Germany. This company once united and the Duke of Florence on the other side, it is not likely that all these preparations will be dissolved in vain. The agreement of Duke Octavio with the King being well embraced and lovingly nourished, is reckoned by wise men likely to serve the King in many respects and to prove a bulwark on that side to the Duchy of Milan. It will ensue from this that the Duke of Ferrara, who would have been appointed General Captain in Italy of the French King and the Pope, having to disburse on sureties, pledges, and assignments, as well on the French King's side as on the Pope's, with Cervia and Ravenna, about 900,000 crowns towards the war of Tuscany, Romagna, or elsewhere, being in hope to get, by the French King's means, Parma out of the hands of Duke Octavio with the Duchy of Borbonie [Bourbon] in recompence, will, if he keep to the truth, being much disappointed by this agreement, more advisedly look upon himself before he disburses so great a sum of ready money or takes such an enterprise in hand. Some think that the Pope and the French King would be content, partly with fair words and partly with brave demonstrations, to entertain the Imperialists until the beginning of next year, in order, meanwhile, the better to fortify and furnish their towns and leave as much money as they could, expecting, by that time, to be the stronger by the coming of the Turk's gallies for the French King's help. [Three pages. Indorsed by Petre.] Inclosing,
530. I. Copy letter from the Duke of Alva to the Pope. Naples, 21st August 1556. Has received the brief brought him by Domenico del Nero, and heard from him that which on the part of his Holiness he said by word of mouth, which in effect was intended to justify the aggravations against the Emperor, which the Duke commanded to be represented to his Holiness by Count St. Valentino. Since the reply is insufficient to excuse the facts, it has not appeared necessary to him to make any further answer, especially as since then the Pope has been doing things more prejudicial and which clearly show his will and intention, and why he wishes the Duke to lay down his arms without any offer of security on his own part for the possessions of the Emperor, which is the only reason that could be offered. It has appeared to the Duke that it would be best to send with this letter Pietro da L'Offredo, a Neapolitan gentleman, to lay before the Pope what the Duke has given him to understand by other letters, namely, that the Emperor and King Philip, the true defenders of the Apostolic See, up to the present time have supported and ignored many offences of the Pope, who from the commencement of his pontificate has oppressed, persecuted, imprisoned, and deprived the servants and friends of the Emperor, and having since solicited and importuned Princes and Potentates of Christendom to enter into a league with him to the injury of the states, lordships, and kingdoms of their Majesties, causing their couriers to be robbed, taking and opening the packets of their servants, a thing which is only accustomed to be done to an enemy. The Pope has further favoured and advanced delinquents and rebels against their Majesties, putting them in positions wherein they are able to cause disturbances in their states and kingdoms. Further, the Pope has introduced foreigners into the States of the Church, which gives rise to the conjecture that he has the intention of occupying this kingdom; and this is confirmed by the fact that he has raised foot and horse, and sent a good part of them to the confines. He has had imprisoned and cruelly tormented Giovan. Anto. de Tassis, master of the post, depriving him of the office that their Majesties and their predecessors have always been accustomed to hold in Rome; he has also imprisoned Garcilasso della Vega, a subject of the Emperor, envoy to him. He has held language publicly on many occasions to the prejudice of their Majesties, such as is by no means consistent with decorum or the fatherly love of the Supreme Pontiff. All this and more their Majesties have tolerated rather for respect to the Holy See and the public good than from any other reason, hoping that the Pope would recollect himself and take a better path than, for the sake of aggrandizing his own relatives, to disturb the peace of Christendom and the Holy See, especially as in these times so full of heresies and dangerous opinions it would be more proper to try to eradicate them than to offend their Majesties without any cause. But seeing that the matter proceeds so rapidly, and that the Pope has permitted the Procurator and Fiscal Advocate of the Holy See in his presence to make a most unjust and rash demand that his kingdom should be taken from the King, the Duke's master, himself agreeing to and confirming it, and remarking that he would bide his time, and seeing that in the admonition writ issued against Ascanio della Cornia he calls the Emperor an enemy of the Holy See, and has publicly used very shameful expressions against their Majesties, to the Count de S. Valentino, clearly showing his dissatisfaction with the truce concluded, so useful and necessary to all Christendom, and that he is not contented with advancing his relatives with the good will of the Emperor, as proved before his elevation, when in the time of the reports from Naples he did not fail to advise Paul III. to invade the kingdom and persuaded him not to lose the opportunity: now matters being as they are, and it being clear that nothing can be looked for but the loss of the character, states, and kingdoms of the Emperor, and the Pope having reduced him to such extremity, that if the most obedient son were so oppressed by his father he could not but defend himself, the Duke being unable to fail in the obligation laid upon him as minister of his master of states in Italy will be forced to provide for their defence, depriving the Pope of the power of annoying them in the best manner he can; and being desirous of the quiet of Christendom and the peace of Italy, and by reason of the reverence which he knows their Majesties have towards the Holy See, he for the last time supplicates the Pope to consider the infinite troubles and scourges with which it has pleased God to afflict Christianity, the innumerable miseries arising out of war, and like a good pastor to lay aside his hatred, and the thought of annoying their Majesties and their possessions, and receive with affection the King, his master, who, following in the steps of his father, has always offered, and now again offers, his person and his entire force to the service of the Holy See; and, God having granted the remedy of the truce, not to disturb the benefit vouchsafed to Christendom, but give security to the Emperor neither to offend nor cause him to be offended in his possessions, his Majesty not pretending to any interest from the Pope nor demanding an atom of the Holy See, both their Majesties solely desiring to be in safety. Declares that if the Pope will not without delay agree to do all that is here asked, the Duke will undertake the defence of the Emperor, and all the consequent misery will be upon the soul and conscience of his Holiness. Shall take it as a great favour if the Pope will communicate the whole contents of this letter to the Sacred College. Hopes for a favourable result, in which case all will obey his Holiness. [Italian. Six pages.]
Sept. 8.
Sienna.
531. The Abbess and Nuns of the Benedictine Order of All Saints of Sienna to Queen Mary. Declare the bad condition of the city by reason of the wars. For a whole year their community, consisting of 100 persons, have subsisted on the charity of the Cardinal of Burgos. Their convent, which was situated without the walls of the city, had, for fear of its being occupied by the enemy, been levelled to the ground, entailing a loss of more than 15,000 crowns, and all their substance. A small and unhealthy temporary abode in the city had been provided for them by Cardinal Mignanelli; but they have no means of their own, and the public necessities will not admit of their receiving any compensation, for building another convent. They therefore implore her Majesty's assistance. [Italian. Two pages and a quarter.]
Sept. 12.
Padua.
532. Peter Vannes to Sir William Petre. Commences his letter with a copy of that from the Duke of Alva to the Pope, inclosed in the previous one to Petre of 7th September, and adds as a postscript:—
By a courier dispatched from Rome to the Seigniory here understands that the war is broken or at the point of breaking, and that Signor Ascanio Della Cornia and other captains have already entered the States of the Church and disparcled certain of the Pope's men and taken the captain prisoner, as well as divers of the men. Thinks that within two days he shall have too many things to write of in this matter. The Pope, as occasion serves, openly and secretly speaks of the Emperor and the King "cum tanta indignitate that ego horresco referens" and remits the rehearsal to the Queen's and King's ministers and agents, to whom all these things and many more are not unknown. Gertain other captains of the Imperialists have watched for the most part of the cattle of Rome, to the number of 6,000, on their way home, which were wont to be fed in the mountains of Abrucho [Abruzzi] all the summer, and in the winter to be turned into the country of Rome, and taken them to their use. The beginning of this war is easy to be conjectured; prays God to send a short and good end. The Duke of Alva has sent a letter of justification like to the above to the College of Cardinals and all the world. [Six pages.]
Sept. 12.
Rome.
533. Intelligence from Rome. The Imperial forces have entered the States of the Church and penetrated as far as Anagni, defeating some of the Papal troops, and have taken Trentacoste near Camerino. To-day they are said to be battering Anagni; its capture is doubtful. Those within the town have sent for Signor Torquato Conte with 800 men, as the place is no better provided than the others were. The enemy are said to number 12,000 to 15,000 infantry, some say 10,000; but there are about 6,000 Spaniards and Ultramontanes, 1,000 horse, 500 men-at-arms, 20 pieces of heavy artillery, pontoons, ladders, &c. With all these, they continually assert their willingness to desist, provided that the Pope will assure them that he will not injure the Emperor's possessions. Pompeo Colonna, the son of Camillo, has taken the abbacy of Subiaco, which belonged to his uncle, with about 600 men, and the Count of Sarno, with about 100 horse, has come to Monte Fortino and sent to the Pope to say that he has come to let his Holiness be aware that the Duke of Alva desired to desist from the enterprise, provided his Holiness would assure his King that he would not annoy him. Thus matters stand. Of the 24,000 soldiers had in pay by the Pope scarcely 10,000 remain, and everything is unprovided. Monluc and Sig. Aurelio Fregoso went last night to Veletri, wherefore does not know, unless it be to see how the troops there are disposed, and if it be possible from that coast to push on towards Fondi to make a diversion. The Count of Popoli is in the Abruzzi with horse and foot. In Tuscany the 7,000 or 15,000 troops raised at the instance of the Duke of Alva are at Piombino, awaiting the army. Those come from Lombardy are said to be at Spezzia for embarkation, and the fleet to be gone thither to take them up. For all this peace is sought to be made, and to-day there was a report it had been concluded, because yesterday San Jacomo with his Holiness and Pacheco with Caraffa were nearly at the point, and because of the Duke of Alva's offer. Nothing by the return of Caraffa is seen to induce a belief that the French are in earnest, but in the opinion of all, rather to the contrary. Matters do not proceed very favourably with Signor Camillo, who is nearly deserted. If Anagni be taken, it may be said that the enemy are at the gates of Rome. The Pope, desiring to secure Parma, has sent thither Monsignor di Pola, and letters to the Duchess his mother and the Keeper there to have it consigned. It is understood that the Imperialists appoint governors to the places which they take, with witnesses and notaries in name of the College. [Italian. One page and a half.]
Sept. 16.
Camp at Anagni.
534. The Duke of Alva to Pope Paul IV. Takes the opportunity of Fra Tomaso Manrique being here to beseech his Holiness will be pleased to adopt some good measure for extinguishing the present heats. Remains here for his reply to the propositions to be made. Any error in his communication must be attributed to zeal in the service of his master, and to no want of respect towards his Holiness. [Italian. Copy. Half a page.]
Sept. 16.
Camp at Anagni.
535. Same to Cardinal Bellai. Has received with much pleasure the Cardinal's letter of the 13th inst., which informs him that that which he is doing might be a great displeasure to the Sacred College, because it is his intention to serve it and do that which is agreeable to it with all respect, as the King his master, whose wish it is, has commanded him. Will inform them of the intention with which he administers the oath, which the College has lamented over with the Cardinal, to the end that if he does not know how to regulate his actions in conformity with his intention, the College may prescribe him the castigation which it shall appear to them he merits, which he is most certain will be administered with greater clemency than the punishment that would be inflicted on him by his Majesty, when he learned that the Duke had offended in any matter those whom his Majesty holds in such respect. By what he has written to the Sacred College and previously to the Pope, the Cardinal and the College will have understood the causes of their arriving at the position in which they now stand and the end for which he proceeded to take the existing measures, which are to secure to his Majesty's states exemption from attack and injury as long the Pope lives; wherefore it is necessary to keep the lands that may be occupied under the protection of his Majesty, with a firm determination that all shall be restored to the Holy See as soon as these inconveniencies shall cease; and knowing that if his Holiness should fail [or die] no consultation would be necessary with the King to make the restitution, and in such case to the Sacred College or that which governs the Church and to which obedience is due until the new creation of a Pope, he has desired that from the present until that time this fealty may be made, in order that without further directions the lands so occupied may know what in such case they have to do, and this distinctly, if they wish to secure it on the part of the King. Is certain that the Cardinal and the College will see that the servant of the King cannot err intentionally in the smallest matter against the College, and although the matter may appear to them otherwise, shall in all things so conduct himself, because he will never fail in obedience and service to them, being certain that they will never command him to do anything whereby the security intended could be impeded, and he will not hesitate to beseech them to sue the Pope to acknowledge the King for the good son he has always been, and ever will be while his Holiness will consider him such, whence will follow service to God, and quiet and increase to the Apostolic See. [Copy. Italian. Two pages.]
Sept. 17.
Rome.
536. Sir Edward Carne to King Philip and Queen Mary. On the 7th, Cardinal Caraffa arrived here from France, and brought with him seven ensigns of Gascons, with whom also came Pietro Strozzi, Mons. Monluc, Mons. Lansac, and the captain of the French gallies. He is said to have brought a large sum of money from the French King, and harness for 300 horsemen gravis armaturœ, with saddles and all their furniture, except horses, which are to be provided here. Thinks they will not be found here yet, since as many of the Cardinal's horses as would serve have been taken for that purpose. The Pope has very few horsemen. On the Cardinal's arrival he described all the Pope's men of war, and found nothing to the purpose. Where he was thought to have 22,000 he had not 9,000, besides being so deficient in all necessaries for war that all think he is unable to defend himself. On the 6th news arrived that the Duke of Alva had invaded the lands of the Church, and taken Ponte di Corvo and Frosilone. On this the Pope summoned a congregation of the Cardinals, declaring to them this invasion, and that matters had gone too far to admit of further speaking of peace. The same evening he caused to be apprehended Signor Pyrrho (sic) l'Offredo, who brought the letters from the Duke of Alva to his Holiness and the College, of which copies were sent with Carne's letter to her Majesty of the 5th. L'Offredo is still a prisoner in Castle St. Angelo. On the 8th the Marquis de Saria's secretary was arrested and brought to Torre de Nova, and, he hears, was compelled by force of torture to deliver to the Pope the cipher which he used in writing to his Majesty: but he is now at liberty. The Duke has taken Veroli, Separano, Banco, Frascati, Palestrina, Zagarnolo, Alatri, and Anagni. The latter stood out for some time; its captain, Signor Quadrato was sore wounded, and the soldiers fled. The Duke's army is said to be not 20 miles hence; and if it comes here, as surely expected, will have but small resistance, as the citizens mind not to defend the city. The Pope draws his force to the Burgo, which is well fortified and whither the people remove all their goods. To-day was a congregation of all the Romans in the Capitol before Cardinal Caraffa, who was there to know the citizens' mind. Hears that they demanded of the Pope 8,000 men with provisions for them, and they would undertake to defend the city. This the Cardinal granted, but thereof, as he can learn, no man here has any hope. With consent of the Pope the Cardinal de Sancto Jacobo sent the Proctor-General of the Black Friars to the Duke of Alva to have some good appointment. He returned last midnight, and this morning the Cardinal informed Carne that he has good hope of such appointment. Little resistance to speak of is made to the Duke's army anywhere. For defence of the Burgo the Pope places more reliance upon the Gascons than he does upon the Italians; so there is like to be much misery unless God put it in the Pope's head to come to some reasonable appointment, for he is said to be marvellous stiff in his proceedings. As many of both sexes who could, have fled from the town. Is desired by Cardinal Pacheco to commend him most humbly to her Majesty. [Three pages.]
Sept. 18.
Padua.
537. Peter Vannes to Queen Mary. Being at Padua, for avoiding the plague at present reigning in Venice, received letters from the Council written by her command containing an account of the prosperous successes vouchsafed to her over her enemies. When they were received was at dinner with the Emperor's Ambassador and divers other noblemen, and declared them with all the particularities at length as they were written, and as he thought would stand with her Majesty's honour. Sees by conferences with divers noblemen the gladness conceived by reason of her prosperous affairs. The advertisements translated into Italian he will to-morrow send to the Seigniory. The King's affairs at Naples begin to prosper; all that is conquered by them is put in safety to the use of the Church and government of the whole College of Cardinals. The Pope's soldiers in the confines flee from their holds before they see their enemies in the face; yet the Duke of Alva offers to withdraw his army whenever the Pope will put him in assurance for the King's realms, as by a bill inclosed, which he has no leisure to translate into English, her Majesty will be more amply advertised. The Earl of Devonshire died little more than an hour ago. He has, for avoiding all kind of suspicion from himself, been leading a more solitary life than needed, saving the company of certain Venetian gentlemen, among whom he was made much of. About three weeks ago, for his recreation, he happened to go to Lio, a piece of an island six miles from Venice, to see his hawk fly upon a waste; there he was suddenly overtaken by a great tempest of wind and rain, so that he could not return to Venice by his gondola, but was forced to take a searcher's boat, which had arrived there by chance, and so got to Venice, "being body and legs very thinly clothed, refusing to change them with any warmer garment." About five days after, as he told Vannes, he had a fall on the stairs of his house, but feeling well and suffering no pain, came hither. To avoid the tediousness of the water and save horses he took the worst way and came by "a certain waggons called coches, very shaking and uneasy to my judgment," arriving on a Saturday night. Hearing of his coming went to visit him next day and found him very weak. After that he grew daily worse and worse, avoiding friends' visitations as a speech molest to him, and drew himself to the counsel of two of the best physicians here, and entered into a continual great hot ague, some time more vehement than at another. He was always diligently attended. Has charged his servants in her Majesty's name to take a true inventory of the small moveables he had, and especially that all writings or letters that he had here or at Venice shall be put in assurance to await the royal commands. Is about to see the order of his burial with as much sparing and as much honour as can be done, for the merchants in whom, by her Majesty's command, he had a credit of 3,000 or 4,000 crowns, are not yet willing to disburse without a sufficient discharge of Lord Devonshire's hand, the doing whereof is past. Will see him buried as well as he can, though (beseeches her Majesty not to be miscontent with him) he is next door to go a begging. Blames for it only his own evil chance and the occupation of the Council, which is such that they have no leisure to put her in remembrance of him. The Earl died, he thinks, a very good Christian man, for after Vannes had exhorted him to take his communion and the rite of the Church as a thing most necessary, by means of which God gives His people bodily and ghostly comfort, he answered by broken words that he was well content so to do, and in token thereof, "and in repentance of his sin, he lift up his eyes and knocked himself upon the breast, and after I had suffered him to pause a good while, I caused the sacraments to be brought, and after the priest's godly exhortation he forced himself to receive the blessed communion; but his tongue had so stopt his mouth, and his teeth so cloven together, that in nowise he could receive that same. And after this sort this gentleman is gone, as I do not doubt, to God His mercy." Since the Earl's coming hither he communicated to Vannes that it had been reported to him that some had said that he was "better French than English," and if he recovered he would try the quarrel with his sword, if he found the "misreporter." Advised him to regard no such light words. Beseeches her Majesty to command the payment of the Earl's funeral expenses, and to extend her charity to his servants, about 10 in number, masterless, moneyless, not able to live here nor come home without her help. [Four pages.]
Sept. 19.
Rome.
538. Intelligence from Rome. On Monday the heads of districts were assembled to make some preparations for guarding the walls, but hearing that Anagni still held out, they retired to the Capitol without doing anything. Next morning news came that the Imperialists had taken Anagni. The tidings spread, but were not believed, until corroborated by the intelligence that the city after standing three assaults, and repelling the enemy, had at length agreed to surrender for want of munition and artillery, their defence having been made with harquebuses. Signor Torquato resolved to burn what provision of grain and wine they had, and also set fire to some houses near the gate, it was said, to put those of Paliano on their guard. The soldiers were disarmed; the Imperialists entered at night and began the sack, but the Duke of Alva made them stop, and restore all they had taken to the owners. These news have removed all intention on part of the Romans to take to the field, for they had hoped that the enemy would have occupied themselves until the Pope had made forts and provision; every one is so alarmed that nothing is attended to, except the removing of property; safety is sought in the residences of the Imperial and Portuguese Ambassadors and Signor Camillo Colonna; the Minerva has been appointed for the ladies, and the majority have left Rome. Cardinal San Jacomo does his utmost for peace, and prevailed with the Pope to send to the Duke one of his friars, who returned with answer that he was willing to send to his Holiness a person authorized to treat for peace. The Pope made him wait without longer than usual, and after the Cardinals had retired called him in, but what passed is not known. However, in Rome they say the war will go on, and the Pope ceases not his maledictions of the Duke, still keeps up his courage, and says he will rather be cut in 1,000 pieces than do anything unworthy of his dignity. It does not appear that the capture of Anagni was notified to him; but Cardinal Carpi informed him, and when he heard it it seemed che si remettesse un poco, and in consequence of the excitement in the city, the same friar was again sent to the Duke at eight o'clock, with letters of safe-conduct for whomsoever his Excellence might choose to send. The friar has now returned, and brings for reply that the Duke will send two persons. This day, Thursday, at 20 o'clock, a rumour arose that the enemy had taken the Latin Gate and entered; whereupon men ran to arms, and there was consequently much confusion; but little readiness was seen in the people, and the chiefs of the districts (Capi Rioni) ran to the walls, but with few followers. Among the rest, the poor women and all other ranks, such a terrible panic spread that people gave themselves up for lost. This lasted for some time, until it was discovered that it was a device of the Duke, who had dined at San Paolo, ("mangiato a S. Paolo,") and rode rapidly in at that gate with a few light horse, as if in flight, and all in order that he might see if the people were on their guard. This panic has caused many more to resolve to leave the city, and nothing is to be seen but people hurrying to and fro with boxes and goods. The same day Cardinal Caraffa went to the Capitol, and showed to the Romans that they might ask what they wished, and moreover offered to act, speak, and remain with them in Rome. They demanded 8,000 infantry, paid in Rome, artillery, and such munitions as Alexander Colonna, their General, should require, with provision for the children and heirs of such as should expose themselves for defence of the city. The Cardinal replied that he would not fail, and that the Marquis of Montebello would appear with a larger force than they sought. They added their desire to speak to the Pope, and that his Holiness should be made to comprehend point by point the consequences of the war, and the Cardinal was requested to take up his residence at St. Mark's. This evening Santo Jacomo being detained by the Pope, his Holiness appointed Cardinals Santo Jacomo, Caraffa, Trani, and Pisa to negotiate for him on this peace; but it is not likely to follow, because being not only necessary but enforced, the Imperialists may perceive their own advantages so clearly, that they will probably make such extravagant demands that it is not likely the Pope will accede, but would call such a martyrdom, since he has frequently said, that to be martyred in the service of God remains as his last consolation. Notes the probable effects of an occupation of the city by the Imperialists. Yesterday the Duke of Paliano, Caraffa, and Camillo Monlun were with his Holiness, and remained very late; and it is understood it was resolved to give the Romans what they demanded, as to-day some artillery has been ordered to the walls. A company of horse, too, is ordered out, it being known by means of a spy that a number of horse had approached Marino, Grotta Ferrata, and like places. Lest it seem strange (as he has already written that the Pope was paying 24,000 infantry) that they find themselves so alarmed, informs his correspondent that pay has indeed been distributed among that number, but it is reported that the Duke has taken over to himself 12,000; thus they are left with the half; 5,000 are out of Rome divided amongst Veletri, Paliano, Sermoneta, and Vicovaro; the rest, including the Gascons, they have in Rome, his Excellency perhaps judging that peace would not follow, and that therefore it would be advantageous to have these men to spare, or from some other design. This, however, has not been sufficient for the Cardinal, who has grieved much, and has told him with high words that it has been a mistake; that he has expended too much on so large a number of men. Two days since Signor Hieronimo della Rovere, a gentleman of the King's sent by him, arrived. King Philip had sent him to the King of France to beseech him to be mediator with the Pope in the matter of peace, showing that he desired it much. It is said that offers have been made to the Pope of Swiss and of 200 men-at-arms whenever these desire to molest him. It is believed that King Philip has given the Duke of Alva to understand the same thing, who, being come to this necessity, might perhaps be agreeable to some good resolution. The Pope sent for Cardinal Montepulciano, who came speedily, and has been twice with his Holiness. He further summoned Crispo, but he has sent to excuse himself. The Bishop of Pola has been in Parma, and returned in the name of his Holiness; and the Commendone is coming to Venice: believes that neither will produce much fruit. The Romans, pressed to give some money, have imposed a toll of two crowns on each robbia of corn for 25 days, a hardship which everybody bears, and it is feared it may last during the war; it is money which can be raised easily. The Father returned late; with him came, in the name of the Duke, Francesco Pacecho, a Spaniard, a man of credit, and the Secretary of his Excellency; they have not yet gone to the Pope, and are staying with Cardinal Santo Jacomo. It cannot be discovered what they bring; perhaps in the writer's next letter it will be communicated. Since he has understood that the Imperialists and the Papal troops are alarmed, he has written the occurrences in the city. Has been to-day with a great Cardinal, who is not, however, a supporter of the side of the Pope and his actions, and desires peace with all his heart. He told the writer that the affairs of Rome are not in so great straits as is commonly said; and he speaks from communication with Mons. di Motula and like persons. He says, first, that the Imperial army is not now more in number than 12,000 infantry, 200 men-at-arms, and 1,000 light horse; that the infantry, except the Spaniards, are all rabble, and the light cavalry all sorry jades, and this from the testimony of Signor Torquato, who says that if an expedition had been made in time to provide Anagni with certain things, he could have held out a long while. He says that the enemy are going to reconnoitre Veletri, Paliano, Vicovaro, and Sermoneta. Veletri was seen just now by Mons. de Monluc; the site pleased him, and the preparations which had been made with the presence of 2,500 infantry within, which would animate them to hold it so long as they had means of living. In Paliano there are 1,500 infantry, in Sermoneta 700, in Vicovaro 300. Peace is not despaired of, and it is believed that all the difficulty will lie in accommodating the affairs of Paliano; the Imperialists will not have it belong to the Duke, the Pope will not have it belong to Marco Colonna. There has been no creation of Cardinals and none is talked of; it would be if peace were to be made; if not no Imperial perhaps would be created. The Pope will wait to see how the war goes, and, waiting as long as he can get aid, it is thought he will make a number at once. It is said they have no need of money, because there are 300,000 crowns in Venice, and 100,000 in the castle. The Duke of Alva, hearing of the destruction of the Chiesa del Popolo, has, like a devout man, written with his own hand a note to the Pope, promising him, on the faith of a peer, that he will come to Rome in such a manner that it shall not be molested by even the shot of an arquebuse. [Italian. Nine pages.]
Sept. 22.
Rome.
539. Sir Edward Carne to Sir William Petre. Of the occurrents here had written to her Majesty on the 5th, and to both their Majesties on the 17th, trusting that the King is in England. The Duke of Alva is at Anagni, but the greater part of his army is so near Rome that it is expected in little more than a day. There is great fear that the city will be sacked. Cannot tell how he shall escape, but trusts that they will not meddle with him, and is comforted by hearing that the Duke has shown great clemency to all men in such places as he has invaded. There will be small resistance, but the Pope will do what he may. Begs Petre will help that he may have his diets paid, that he may be able to have necessaries, which he fears will be very scant here. [One page.]
Sept. 26.
Rome.
540. Same to King Philip and Queen Mary. His letters of the 22d should have been well on in their way, had the post been licensed to depart sooner. Cardinals de Sancto Jacobo and Caraffa, who had been appointed to meet the Duke of Alva at an abbey 12 miles hence for the purpose of treating of peace, were hovering and going Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday, but at last the Pope willed that Caraffa should not go, fearing, as it is said, lest he should be stayed by the Duke. Some say that meanwhile news were received from the French King, which was the cause of the Cardinal being stayed, so that at this time the peace is failed. On the 23d the Count de Petigliano arrived with 100 horse, which he thinks were not past three score, and the Count was made Chief Captain of all the Pope's artillery and ordnance. Yesterday arrived 700 Grisons from Montalcino. The city is made very strong and hard to be taken: thinks there are in it 6,000 or 7,000 men of war, of which 5,000 or 6,000 are thought to be French. The Duke of Alva's army is said to be reinforced by 5,000 or 6,000 soldiers from Lombardy: he has taken Neptuno and the whole country between Rome and Naples, except Veletri, Paliano, and Terracina. Some Englishmen here received letters from Venice on the 23d, mentioning that the Earl of Devon had departed to God on the 18th; his sickness was a hot ague that held him 14 days before he died. On the 23d a proclamation was issued here commanding all Romans who had fled for fear of the war to return within five days on pain of death and confiscation of their goods. There is much business here. This morning the horsemen who went on the scout last night brought in some Spaniards who had been taken by the horse of Veletri. The Pope has sent Sig. Adriano de Balionibus to be joined with the Duke of Soma, Captain in Veletri, lest the latter durst not abide the adventure of the siege there, being a banished man from Naples; but it is thought that he will abide the adventure. Has much difficulty in sending his letters, the posts being stayed here. There are three Englishmen here at present, one Lambert, a London merchant, and two young gentlemen of the names of Windham and Rugge, who say they came to see Rome. [Two pages and a quarter.]
Sept. 26.
Ghent.
541. Emanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy, to Queen Mary. Acknowledges her Majesty's letter relative to the return of the bearer, Mr. Anthony Hussey [Governor of the English merchants at Antwerp and agent in Flanders], to whom he gives these credentials. [French. One page.]


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August 1556