East Indies
February 1626

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Institute of Historical Research

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W. Noel Sainsbury (editor)

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1884

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144-166

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'East Indies: February 1626', Calendar of State Papers Colonial, East Indies, China and Persia, Volume 6: 1625-1629 (1884), pp. 144-166. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=71254 Date accessed: 21 October 2014.


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February 1626

Feb. 1–3.251. Court Minutes of the East India Company. Jeremiah Sambrooke admitted into Lanman's place as chief accountant at a yearly salary of 200 marks from Christmas last. Edward Fynes, his assistant, at a salary of 80l. on condition he forsake all other employment, whose place for the canvas, &c. was imposed upon Thos. Rilston, notwithstanding his other employment as under accountant, and his salary increased to 100 nobles a year. About freight of Giles James' calicoes, worth about 190l. Leatt and Warner appoined to look into the attendance of the Auditors and desired to keep a check of all the other clerks. Accounts, &c. of Henry Darrell, deceased, to be examined.
Feb. 3 Offer by Misselden upon his return into Holland, of his services if the Company conceived anything material for him to impart to the King in their affairs, he having been entrusted by his Majesty with the business of Merchant Adventurers; resolved to leave the dispute with the Dutch in the hands of his Majesty, for that they are evidently resolved to drive the English out of the Indies, and to export corn thither contrary to agreement, which things the Governor had notified to Lord Conway. Resolved to gratify Misselden with 50l., though many thought it should be 100l. Contract with Giles James to be perused, and accounts of his wages cast up by Sambrooke, after which the Court will give order for payment. George Purefey to receive 60l., part of wages of his brother John, according to former agreement. Wm. Pierce, commended by Captain Browne, entertained master in the William at 5l. per month. The table emerald, offered to the Company and valued by Peter Van Lore to be richly worth 400l., to be bought if it may be had for that sum. Noremborough (Nuremberg?) jewels to be bought and sent to the King of Acheen. Captain Moreton to be continued in the Exchange. 6 pp. [Ct. Min. Bk. VIII. 251–256.]
Feb. 4.
Plymouth.
252. Capt. John Pennington to the Duke of Buckingham. Arrival of two East India ships, a Fleming into Plymouth, and the Star of London into Dartmouth, both having brought Persian Ambassadors. Extract. [Dom., Chas. I., Vol. XX., No. 25. Cal, p. 247.]
Feb. 4.
Plymouth.
253. Sir Ferdinando Gorges to Sec. Lord Conway. A Hollander lately arrived out of the Indies. Remember some years since there was an order for staying any that should come out of those parts, but not knowing how things have been accorded between the merchants, perceiving there have been many treaties and mutual respects between his Majesty and the States, and being loth to give occasion of distaste, has forborne to execute that order until he receives further directions. Has written to the Governor of the East India Company to the same effect, and intends to forbear expressing anything to the Commanders of the ship till they are upon point of departure. 1 p. [Dom., Chas. I., Vol. XX., No. 31., Cal. p. 248.]
Feb. 6.254. Court Minutes of the East India Company. Letters read brought home in the Star, newly arrived from Surat. Consideration about dispeeding away of the Surat fleet; ordered that two Commissioners be nominated to each ship, viz., Bell and Spurstowe for the William, Mun and Martin for the Blessing, Kerby and Job Harby for the Morris, Cordell and Clement Harby for the Discovery, Abdi and Mustard for the Expedition. To use their best endeavours to dispeed away the ships that no time be lost. Also the Exchange and Christopher to be sent as soon as possible from Gravesend. 1½ pp. [Ct. Min. Bk. VIII. 257–258.]
Feb. 6.
Batavia.
255. Henrie Hawley, President, and Joseph Cockram, Ric. Bix, and Geo. Muschamp, factors, to the East India Company. The Moon, Ruby, and Discovery were dispeeded 8th Feb. last for London with letters, invoices, and bills of Jading in each ship, particularising all passages of business from the departure of the Royal Anne until that day. Same day news received of the death of Christopher Bogan, chief in Jambi. Letters from thence advertised that King's expectance of the. Achinder's forces to invade him, wherein he required our assistance; but was answered in a modest dilatory manner, and Jonas Colbach, who was chosen chief there, was dispeeded in the Coaster with a present and instructions to satisfy the King. Praws with pepper for Lagundy intercepted by the Dutch at their station of Bessee; which like kings of India they carry with a presumptuous insolence. A well sunk within our verge, and at 16 feet pure fresh water found, which strengthened their opinion of a hopeful plantation [at Lagundy]. Wm. Bell and the King of Pundo sent to the Pengran of Bantam with the commendation of the high priest of Maroh for their better access; they returned to Lagundy, but spake not with the Pengran, though certain gentlemen were sent to know the cause of their coming, who brought back answer to their letter, which was conveyed with solemnity to the Pengran, and their present carried in a public manner under a canopy, but how accepted may be gathered from the Pengran's written answer being, after the Java manner, brief in these few words, "the captain of the English may freely come to buy pepper, and remain here as in former time; let him therefore come without delay." Hearing that the Pengran expected their coming, Wm. Bell since dead, and no man else qualified to perform this duty, the King of Pundo was again sent with a letter written in the Malayan tongue to give satisfaction for their deferred stay, but with no present to which the Pengran vouchsafed an answer; and so this matter ceased for want of men, for they were grown so weak that hardly were they able to man the least pinnace in the roads; which they were forced to dissemble from the Javans and Sumatra, of whom by kind usage they had drawn great concourse to the island. Had destined the Bull to be prepared for a voyage to Masulipatam, but found she required too much work; therefore set their hopes upon the Reformation. On 12th March dispeeded the Diamond for Japara to fetch boards, planks, &c.; but hardly had 14 days passed when the Bull's men fell sick and died daily; then the Reformation's men died by five, six, or more in a day; in a short time the Bails men all died but the Master and one more who were dangerously sick, and in the Reformation the Master and all the men Jay at God's mercy; were forced to relieve them by blacks, and hale the ships to the open bay, where they rode like wrecks without other help than some few to comfort their sick, for more from the other ships might not be spared. The contagion was so pestilent that their blood being licked by dog or cat caused them to swell, burst, and die; it was more moderate on shore, and was least on the ships in the open bay, though they also were daily visited. On 15th March letters were brought by Sir Hendricksen Sarl, the Dutch agent, from Acheen and Masulipatam, and copies from England by the Royal James and fleet safely arrived at Surat. These from Acheen and Masulipatam will show the janglings and distractions there, and those from Surat their progress in business. Received also and answered a letter from the General at Batavia. The Diamond returned on 11th April with planks, &c. also slaves and 44 Chinamen which were with no small charge procured, and who all fell sick, and 10 or 12 died. The Governor of Japara commended Coja Babba, the sub-Governor, sent in the Diamond by the Great Materam for Masulipatam, but Coja Babba was so alarmed at the spectacle of their lamentable state that he importuned his return to Japara; therefore manned the pinnace Hose with a weak crew and dispeeded him, who died immediately after his landing at Japara. Thinking the mortality was occasioned not by the pestiferous air or soil, nor by any noxious tree, but by surfeit and the wet monsoon enacted orders for government, building and cleansing the trees to get more air; wanted no provisions of fresh victual, could at pleasure command neighbours to fish and fetch anything needed, and the island itself furnished deer. On 12th April took general view of all people, as follows:—
On shore40 English in health,58 do. sick;5 Portuguese
In the Charles32 " "10 "sick
In the Roebuck16 " "2 "
In the Bull2 " "8 "
In the Reformation23 " "14 "12 "
In the Abigail8 " "3 "
In the Rose7 " "2"5"
Total1289722
Feb. 6.The Diamond then at Japara; Japan soldiers included for English. About 17 blacks in perfect health; one third of the English accounted healthy were crazy, whereof many died. Letters brought from Japan by Hendricksen Sarl to certify the small possibility of recovering debts there. Letters sent by him to London, Surat, Masulipatam, and Acheen. When the Diamond's men fell sick it was resolved to send John Gonninge in the Abigail to solicit Dutch assistance, so General Carpentier generously resolved to send help from Batavia, and 30 Dutchmen and 30 blacks were put aboard the Abigail for Lagundy until a greater ship with more men might be prepared. The Abigail arrived on 10th May; the Dutchmen employed on every ship, the blacks on land; and on 16th a Dutch ship arrived with 70 blacks and 40 Dutch, besides the ship's company of 120. The sick and all things of importance being voided from the shore the President, Council, merchants, and soldiers embarked on 23rd May, committing the small things of worth left to the tuition of a competent guard. The Dutch Commander Verholt showed his care and courtesy in all things in his power, but himself sickened, with many of his men, which hastened the burning of the [English] bamboo houses by a day or two; they durst not hazard a longer stay, fearing the fierceness of the infection, for 110 of the Dutch had sickened, whereof many since dead. On 29th May set sail the Charles, Bull, Reformation, Roebuck, Diamond, and Abigail; the junks Welcome and Macassar incurably rotten, were tired, and the Dutch ship Fortune, with her Commander dangerously sick, hastened home. The next day sighted the pinnace Spy from Surat, and on 31st anchored off Hector Island, and sent shallop to Batavia to signify approach of the Royal James, and that two Dutch ships had been lost at sea from Surat; also to relate that eight strong Portugese galleons were well beaten afore Ormuz by four English and four Dutch, with the loss of 60 English and Dutch, but upwards of 500 Portugese. Anchored in Batavia on 31st May. John Gonninge, in extremity of sickness and neglected by his keepers, was found drowned in our own ground in the river. But little question made of this disaster (only visitors viewed the corpse, and with a favourable censure allowed him Christian burial). By his will and writings it will appear how he was troubled in mind. Cannot but add, for the comfort of his friends, that if his life might have been redeemed with the loss of so much money it had been a happy match for our honourable employers, for he was a hopeful young man as many the like will not be had, and daily improved beyond expectation. Resolved to gratify the Dutch for their aid given at Lagundy; to give unto the vulgar, about 350 men, a competency in money and to commanders and captains in some other kind at more leisure. 1st June, the President, Council and murchants left lodgings aboard, and took boat to replant themselves in our house in Batavia. The Dutch General had made great preparation to receive them at the castle, but they rested private till the 3rd, and then went with all the chiefs to visit and thank the Dutch General. Arrival of the frigate Simon and Jude. Resolved to offer to reconcile former discourtesies with the Dutch, which begat a most friendly answer, the General refusing all manner of requital for their assistance; wherefore resolved to enlarge gratuities to Dutch commanders and captains, and as a memorial seal to so solemn a reconciliation to remember the General with a gold chain, in return for which he gave gold chains to the President, to Joseph Cockram, and to Richard Bix, which weighed together, were of value to that delivered to him. Arrival of the Royal James 10th June, Capt. Weddell, commander, with George Muschamp, merchant, who though intended for Masulipatam, was prevailed upon to remain here, and was elected one of their Council. Were unable, for want of men, to lend Capt. Weddell assistance of shipping, but accommodated him with two long field pieces and powder. On 6th August, the Royal James with the Spy, reladen with cloves and 100,000 ryals of 8, sailed for Surat, in company with three Dutch ships, to encounter enemies at Ormuz. On 16th pinnace Rose returned full laden with planks, provisions from Japan, and some slaves and Chinamen. Sent by the Royal James, by the way of Persia, two letters enlarging more fully on these matters, also a copy since sent by Dutch ships 2nd Sept. Made a motion to the General concerning our scanted proportion of ground, which being well received, bought a new building adjoining, built as a college for the sustaining of widows and orphans and the breeding of youth, for 20,000 ryals of 8, "which accounted a great courtesy and not to be compassed by us for double that money," with power to sell at pleasure except to foreigners. Their old house is utterly decayed, and could not hold half their provisions though packed like herrings in bamboo houses. The new building is within its verge half as much more ground as was our old dwelling-house 216 ft. by 30 ft., two stories, and the roof high; the two ends, both above and below, are converted to offices, the middle part to warehouses, and the uppermost cockloft to an armoury and to stow light provisions. There are also brick sheds upwards of 300 ft. long. If brought to the bar to answer, first, for leaving Lagundy, the climate may be a good excuse, and their own weakness, and for coming to Batavia, their weakness and the danger of going among infidels. But for building and buying these are the reasons: Former opinions indeed are in no sort changed; Dutch projects are utterly to extirpate them, wherein if they fail they must of necessity confound themselves. But if his gracious Majesty would vouchsafe his favour resolutely to right all wrongs it would undoubtedly soon turn the stream and make their residence and conjunction here happy in all things whereby they might rule like monarchs in abundance, for an ocean of wealth is in India, which in these former difficulties is made the most miserable trade in the world. Yet even though this redress be hapeless, still there was necessity for buying and building here, to obtain houseroom and ground sufficient for the precious store of provisions, which was before lacking. And remove when we will, there cannot be storehouses built for two years at least, at which time these warehouses will yield far more money than they stand you in. Moreover the Dutch willingly would put off cleanly their wrangling stratagems if they knew how, as by their conformity in every motion appeareth, only things formerly referred to Europe have been earned with so high a hand in these parts that willingly in those they would not yield until from thence by mandate. Meantime will reform the most important points for trade, and maintain love, which is as much desired by them as by us, having felt our want when we were at Lagundy, for their Burghery was grown so miserable that the Company were forced to sustain them. It was therefore necessary to remove, though to a people who seek our subversion, and to a place in situation convenient, but in government a hell, for laws take place no longer than they serve their turn, and their execution is as the persons are favoured; the exactions are intolerable, and extortion is held commendable; nations that seek trade are so overawed with tyrannies that they durst not look on any but themselves either to buy or sell. "Might these miseries be considered in Europe, and were they faithful, just, and could forget their sly advantages for particular ends, which hath its root in Europe, then with good reason might we account our conjunction happy both in respect of security, trade, and in every circumstance that can be conjectured to make our nations glorious." For India affords a superfluity for both, and all things are better secured and far more easily achieved by both together. Arguments that this redress and agreement may come to pass if their plantation consists of merchants privileged to follow these inland trades, and not of rude multitudes "nuzled" up in wickedness, who will not work but live by hook or by crook, though it cost the cutting of throats, for traders will be far more damnified by Dutch tolls and excise than their Company will be helped; these exactions are contrary to the 28th Article, and no less repugnant to the rest of the Treaty which assigneth the trade of India to the two Companies alone; and their tolls can in no sort avail them as would the trade of India plainly prosecuted and without a petty competitorship contrary to the articles of the Treaty of 1619. Vain therefore are these conceits of plantation, more vain to think that a petty impost can parallel hereditary trading, and most vain is the undertaking of these projects oppugning the Articles, whereby they draw upon themselves needless hatred throughout all India, and in exacting those imposts and excises give a precedent to all those princes most prejudicial to their own incomings, and easily prevented if by their own example not approved. But to maintain trade in its full beauty is (1) to encroach no more than a secure residence; (2) to maintain amity with all that conform themselves to reason; and (3) to keep the China traders to some selected place for trade, not suffering them to intercept all the trades of India, but only to accommodate the Hollanders with a small excise of no value in comparison with the loss of trade through the Chinamen struggling to and fro to trade. Next it is necessary to speak of the place planted viz., their kingdom of Jacatra, which is fertile and of much moment, but to the Dutch a burden; natives have abandoned all parts heretofore inhabited, and from a paradise it is become a wilderness; the Europeans are lazy and besotted in this intended plantation, and think only of raising taxes, not considering that they must, themselves chiefly pay them. Their opinion is that one rendezvous or chief residence in the south parts of India is sufficient. Some few forts on remote islands of importance may be afforded, coasting trades need no fortifications, and all will be better secured if with continual intercourse and quick trading they may be often visited as well for supplies as to prevent enemies. Our return and residence is free upon the same grounds as formerly, by virtue of the Tractate 1619. Will not neglect to be intent upon some other place commodious for plantation, but must wait for the Company's advice out of England and their own recovery from weakness. Meanwhile are finishing the building and raising a brick wall round their ground, and fitting every office with convenience. Letter received from factory at Jambi to Geo. Bruen, advising that Abdy and ten more dissolute rakehells stole away from the Coaster, taking muskets, swords, provisions, and the ship's boat; captured a Chinese junk, which was retaken by a Dutch freemen to Siam, killing two English and the junk sent to Batavia. The King of Jambi exasperated against our people, imprisoned our merchants and seized their goods, but soon released them, and paid 5,000 ryals for the goods; have written to the King "about this violence done to your servants," but must attend with patience. Arrival of the London August 23rd; 36 of the common men dead and upwards of 80 sick; unexpected loss in her cargo through connivance of such as are put in trust. Most of the workmen and soldiers sent in the Royal James were lost in fight at Ormuz; most of those sent in the London arrived, but since by disorders are dead, as are those in the Swallow; smiths all dead; of armourers only John Speed and a boy alive; most other workmen dead or incapable. This is not remissness of government, but the new comers dreaming of nothing but sack and sugar plums in India are with much difficulty brought to obedience; with larger supplies of artizans, might ease ourselves of all drones, retaining only the most fit, in every rank there is disorder requiring amendment. The civil and orderly demeanour of merchants sent out are no small comfort, and promise to guide well your weighty affairs in India for the honour of your country. Imparted to the Dutch such passages of the London's letter as sprang from the Amboyna business, and gave them the books concerning it, but with professions of friendship and regret, modestly excusing the communication of "so unpleasant a duty." Relying much on the cloth trade of Masulipatam, dispeeded thither the Rose with 21 English and 12 blacks, laden with money, cloves, sandal wood, alum, and polished coral; 14 days after she was met in the Straits of Malacca in good plight. Arrival on 25th Aug. of Harman Van Speult at Amboyna, the soldiers in arms fired volleys of small shot at his landing, which were answered with, great ordnance "with all other rites for magnificence." Proposal of the Dutch to send three of the South Sea ships to join the fleet at Ormuz, if the English would likewise increase that force; to which "frivolous demand" we replied that the will was not lacking, but it was impossible, the London's crew being too weak; that we had incited our friends at Surat to use care to parallel the Dutch fleet, which they would do so far as it lay in their power. By mere accident it came to their knowledge that Van Speult was going General in these ships; remonstrated to the Dutch General and Council, setting forth the charges against him in the Amboyna business, and to send him while this matter was yet pending in Europe between his Majesty and the States would be an indignity against his Majesty. Yet they dispeeded him on Sept. 4th in triumphant manner, so on the 9th presented a protest against this, excusing that act by necessity imposed, "which the Dutch seemed well enough to relish." Arrival of the Dutch ship Cammell, pretended they had no word but of merchandizing affairs, to which gave such credit as was fit for so unlikely a fable. Conspiracy of Henry Parker, master's mate, and six others, to purloin muskets, shot, powder, victuals, and other necessaries, sail to Malacca and join the Portuguese; but were apprehended, and tried by a jury of 12 men, three were acquitted, and Parker and the others found guilty, and on the 2nd Sept. Parker hanged on board the Charles till he was dead, the others reprieved, but put out of office and turned before the mast. Arrival of the Hart from Macassar with rice, arrack, sandal wood, turtle-shells, cloves, &c., also slaves and Chinamen designed for Lagundy, and two deserters from the Coaster who were condemned, but afterwards pardoned. Letters received from factory at Masulipatam relating differences among themselves; wrote thither per the Dutch, 14th Sept. Proposals of the Dutch to fit out four ships for Jambi either to help that King against the King of Acheen, or to divert the latter from invading Jambi, and demand that the English would help. The Charles fitted for Jambi, and agreed to pay a fit moiety of the charge, according to the 3rd, 12th, and 15th Articles, whereunto the Dutch assented. Proceeded in friendly conference about our late troubles in Jambi about the China junk, and how that trade might be most profitable if a friendly agreement were come to. On 22nd Sept. dispeeded the Charles for Jambi with moneys and cloth, and in letters to the King, and factories by Thos. Harris and Wm. Webb urged restitution of our goods seized. The Simon and Jude dispeeded 13th Oct., for Japara, with goods and moneys for the factory, and to bring back boards and planks for careening the Reformation, Hart, and other ships. Two Dutch ships sailed on 15th Oct., supposed to have been chiefly hastened for a second satisfaction in the Amboyna business, since new examinations have been taken. Some suspected to have given them copies disgraced, "a jealous conscience needeth no other accuser." Have taken some mean pepper from Lagundy, yet will yield good profit by the Chinamen if not used to stop a gap in our ships for London. Question of taking straggler's pepper at high prices, and of opening Bantam trade deferred in expectance of orders out of Europe answering complaints by the Exchange and Elizabeth. Arrival of the Eagle from Surat on 31st Oct., she had touched at Jambi and informed the factors and King that the King of Acheen had abandoned his project of invasion, yet did the Dutch persist in their designs with the King of Jambi. The Eagle's letters show the ill agreements in that factory; have examined John Coward, accused in those letters, and find his errors trivial, so have given him employment and respited censure till further examination. Arrival of the Simon and Jude from Japara, laden with boards, planks, and provisions; also of a Dutch ship from Manilla, which after a long fight with Spanish ships parted without victory to either. Dutch ship arrived from Taywan, in Formosa Island, richly laden with Chinese commodities which are assuredly at easy rates, said Chinese being hungry for trade. The haven at Taywan is barred, many die there, more from surfeit of strong drinks than from the climate. The Chinese abound in strong drinks, which is the bane of all India, yet the idol most adored. Sundry ships arrived from Siam, lading mostly rice provided by the Dutch to supply wants during this restraint upon Java, for the Materam is still armed against the Serebayer and other adjacent islands, and likely to prevail. John Head, carpenter, sent out last year to the King of Siam, is detained another year. Dec. 5th, the Charles arrived from Jambi laden with pepper, whereof about 100 tons needful to remove is reladen into the Hart, whereto is added about 200 tons out of the Eagle, and a remainder of last year out of the Bull. Letters by the Charles show how the restitution of goods seized at Jambi by that King has been prosecuted; also the perfidious competition of the Dutch to disgrace us, or at least to draw us into half the charge of their expedition thither, according to the manner of Bantam, which were a glorious employment for their rotten ships could they so fasten it as they desire, and to animate the King against this Company. By letters received by a Dutch ship our people's former jangling is sprung to a plain accusation against Henry Sill; have sequestred all writings and goods belonging to Sill, but deferred further examination, he being now very sick, until he be either amended or ended. Communicated to the Dutch General in full Council the complaints from Jambi, by Jonas Colbach, of the conduct of the Dutch since the arrival of their four ships; but their apology tended to a tedious dispute to no purpose. Told them that though they might lawfully of their own accord defend the trade, yet might they not capitulate for particular accommodations, but all capitulations ought to be for the benefit of both Companies; prepared in writing a peremptory answer, which was read, and copies delivered to them. Here follow the "Capitulation of the King of Jambi by the Minister for the Company of the United Netherlands, in Oct. and Nov. 1625." "Answered by the President and Council of the Company of the Merchants of London trading to the East Indies in presence of Pieter de Carpentier, Governor General, and his Council." They then demanded whether our trade in Jambi was taken from us, or what hurt we had received by this capitulation. Arguments used on both sides. After which we entered into all friendly communication, and they invited us to dinner. They confessed that no advantageous device might appropriate to the deviser any priority, that all India must be free to both Companies, with reservation only of condign charges, and that such charges, if not here agreed to, should be referred to Europe. That this might not fall to the ground we conceived a draft as our private opinions for protection in these parts. Here follow copy of said draft, also letter from President Hawley to General Carpentier, dated Batavia, 17th Dec. 1625, transmitting same. On same day arrived the Dutch ship Tertolen with news that King James was dead and Prince Charles proclaimed, Count Maurice of Nassau dead, and the Rabbi Coon, sick and waiting for the next fleet. Requested conference with the General and Council about Jambi, which was respited; and on the motion being renewed they said they hourly expected a ship from Jambi with Skunst, their chief factor there, whose presence they desired before the conference. Finding the chief factor did not arrive we made no haste to dispeed the Roebuck, and not intending any more to solicit the meeting left it wholly to the Dutch; but they showed no disposition to dispeed their ships for Holland before holding conference, this letter therefore proceeds to other matters. Considerations for support of trade. The infinite charges in these parts made far more heavy by ignorance and the ill dispositions of those entrusted. These inconveniences will never be removed till ample and intermissive trading gives plentiful choice of all sorts; the greatest care needed in choice of discreet agents, especially of chief agents of worth and commendable carriage who may draw the goats from the sheep. Now perforce must make a virtue of necessity and places of trust must be committed to "such as we will not term according to desert." The number of all sorts is so few that though they have lately laid up the Diamond and the Bull, rather to support the rest than for dire necessity, yet are they in no sort able to maintain their reputation and trade. Remark on the bane, the charge, and the happiness of trade. Things of sufficiency must be provided, and the present abuses both in price and goodness of articles be prevented. Every "shim" must not be shipped as a skilled workman; ship Commanders should have no more power than is convenient for their place; pursers and their mates to be of approved education, and, though young, more hopeful than the most sent, who make a faction for their own ends and deceive the Company; officers should be sober and well demeaned, and common sailors youth hopeful in growth, for the ancienter sort are so odious as is not to be repeated. All these bring infinite charge, yet in provident care is much moderated, for things well done are twice done. It would even be a gain to make an addition to the salary of one sufficient artsman in each ship, binding him to instruct all youth in the same ship. "Thus for every sore is found a salve, and the massive charge of India is easily cured, for here is gain abundantly, which the discreet and provident may find at pleasure if supplied with means and materials to propagate their endeavours." If, therefore, this trade be kept in action with plentiful supplies, every factory can do five times as much as it does now with the same number of persons. Thus will the Company's honour and awe be advanced and every one will participate in the expedition of a speedy return. But if the Dutch band against you and you band against them, all is nothing, and it were far better to sit under our own vine with a morsel of bread than undertake this great charge and undergo these many dangers. India affords superfluity for both, and in both is our sole security to prevent the King of Spain from "redeeming these Indian treasures." Beseech the Company to consider these things, first, to furnish every material for trades support without intermission, and (2) to lay a foundation, with the Dutch as the nature of the cause requireth. If this be done there will be a multitude of profitable returns from these parts hitherto obscured, and those we know will be far more easily obtained with larger advantages. It will then follow that these inland trades will raise far more benefit than your returns into Europe, and your returns for Europe double what they now do. Bantam pepper is calculated as it hath been at 5,000 tons yearly, half whereof will be purchased with Surat and Coromandel commodities with its advantage two for one, the other half with ready money; Jambi pepper 3,000 tons on the same conditions or with less ready money, for commodities vend there more plentifully. Coromandel commodities, as steel, cloth, gumlac, saltpetre, are sufficient for these parts and likewise for Europe; one third will be purchased, cloves, mace, nuts, sandal wood, turtle shells, alum, lead, with other English commodities at advantage, and two thirds, or haply less, with ready money. Of the cloves, mace, nuts, sandal wood, and turtle shells of Amboyna, Moluccas, Banda, and Macassar more than half can be purchased with Surat and Coromandel cloth, rice, and other Indian commodities, the rest with ready money. The trade of China, now likely to settle at Taywan, in Formosa, will devour more than all Europe can minister; it will furnish wrought and raw silk in abundance and many necessary commodities for all parts of India, to be bought with pepper, spices, and sandal wood of these parts, also with silver of Japan, and probably with European commodities, especially woollen cloths, for the greatest part of the China empire stretcheth unto the cold climate and is defended by infinite troops of soldiers, whose necessities require more than we can guess. The trade of Japan takes more China silk than all Europe doth Persian silk, Siamese deerskins, and varnish, pepper and spices, and English woollen cloth and lead in great quantities, all paid for in silver and bar plate. Other commodities Japan affordeth none, but victuals as good as Europe can yield. The trade of Siam is chiefly with Japanese silver, also a little Coromandel cloth and pepper and spices. It affords many precious drugs, deerskins, varnish, and lead for Japan, also tin at a low rate, and abundance of victual at lower prices than can be imagined. If English and Dutch by a peaceable agreement endeavour to keep the Chinese to their constant mart town and prevent them straggling upon Java and Sumatra to forestall the pepper there and glut them with commodities, this trade will richly discount all charges and in three years will return three for one and we presume to say will be sufficient to give employment to 40 ships. The danger of mortality is not due to climate, but to distempers of the body which are described, especially hot drinks. The climate is indeed a paradise compared to our muddy climate in Europe, and to the temperate is very healthy. India may not be deemed a bugbear, as some vainly suppose, for it is so contrary to the common received opinion that in any part of the earth it were possible for men to live always, it is in India. If the only obstacle to the trade of India be the faithless and advantageous dealings of the Dutch, our sole refuge for support must be sought from our most gracious Sovereign himself, who easily may redress that which their superiors of Holland will not rectify. But if his Majesty will not seriously take your cause to heart and prosecute the wrongs done to the Company, so the Dutch be beaten out of their Machiavellian policy, you must, then expect neither commodity nor trade in India. Request the Company to repair their decayed honour in India by the best means they may; the natives are willing to retain an honourable opinion of the English, which might be better preserved if we were able to maintain our rights. But alas ! what needeth any other head-breaking to set these differences in frame save only our gracious Sovereign's countenance, for we well know the Articles of 1619 are all sufficient, plain, and clear. Arguments showing how the traffic is assigned by this Treaty and the presumptuous attempts of the Dutch to usurp sovereignty and appropriate trade. As to the state of the shipping, the Diamond and Bull laid up as aforesaid; the Charles and Hart repaired and sheathed sufficiently for their voyage; the London lately come out needeth nothing; the Reformation completely repaired and sheathed; the Eagle much decayed with her Surat and Red Sea voyage and requiring sheathing; the Roebuck able to proceed for Jambi; the Coaster wants repairing; the Abigail in a mean state and must be sheathed; the Swallow to be new masted; the Rose, and the Simon and Jude to be made serviceable in every part had we means to perform it: all these except the London to be new rigged for the most part, which will be a great consumption of cordage, cables especially, which are much needed. Advice of defects in ship-building, Supplies of stores and provisions needed already mentioned; also the want of artisans. Supplies of European clothing are much needed; a pair of shoes worth ten shillings here. The Danish ship before mentioned as having left two men at Macassar driven ashore and lost. Our intended factory at Podicera for paintings intercepted; have written to Masulipatam for advice for a supply of those sorts of cloth; when reinforced with men will plant a factory, for the paintings of those parts and Tanjore arc of more use than the cloth of Masulipatam. Our trade at Masulipatam lies there also bleeding, chiefly by wicked devices of governors tolerated by their weak-spirited King, and partly aggravated by disagreements between us and the Dutch. Will move the Dutch that some good order be taken for removing the inconveniences of those governors, but the Dutch are full of business and with the cause of Amboyna are mightily troubled. They still dance in a net and think to brave if out with devices, for their stomachs are too great to yield, howsoever all the world doth condemn them, they still suffer Capt. Towerson's head to stand upon the gallows there. Sundry men's wages augmented upon good considerations, yet were deceived in some, especially in Wm, Langton, late master carpenter, who since his death every one can detect as worth less than nothing. Have chosen in his place Brute Greade, chief carpenter of the London, and augmented his wages to 4l. per month. Have caused this factory's purser to keep general books for all purser's affairs in India, which at the year's end shall be sent in one volume to London. Charges against John Dunne, deceased, late purser in the Roebuck, respecting a bale laden for Macassar; in this matter Richard King, then purser of the Ruby, now gone home in the Moon, should be examined. Edward Salter, purser of the Hart, in like manner debtor for 15 sacks of pepper. Claim of John Elliott, sailor, for wages. The master of the Swallow and his purser Kingston have run themselves into a labyrinth of jangling implacable, which is like to come to the hearing of the Company. Ambitious ignorance draws many Commanders into a world of errors, and the ill dispositions of unnurtured pursers make things worse; suggest a remedy, and how the saddle may be set upon the right horse. Thus do you plant and we prune, but so many are the obstacles of India that if we connive at petty passages in our power to reform, conceive them, we beseech you, to be matters of necessity. Capt. Fowkes, Ensign Hill, and sundry artizans sent home at their own desire, there being no present employment for them. Have culled out of the small complement of men here into the ships now sailing as many slugs of low rank and ill members as may conveniently be put in them for the voyage, and have laden in them superfluous ordnance and needless brass shivers, also some tools to show the abuses of those intrusted to provide tools, all so bad that, had not some artizans tools of their own, all work might stand. Complain of the abuse of idle and unnecessary members who come out plentifully in every ship as Commanders' attendants, and give money to Commanders to ship them, and that some Commanders also unship those shipped by the Company and ship idlers in their places. Cannot completely advise upon the state of Taywan and the Chinese trade, for the Dutch are so reserved that no silk or other Chinese commodity is to be seen. This trade is wondrous hopeful, for many Indian commodities will vend there, and the wares of those parts are requested in all parts of India, especially their silks, wherefore the more opposition to be expected from the Dutch. The Dutch may gloss with some glorious colour their advantageous expeditions to Macao and their straggling at Pescadores, but the event shows their purpose was to gain for themselves the trade of China. Complain that, notwithstanding the Chinese have ever desired to trade with us, and that in 1623 they sent two Ambassadors hither, the Dutch hath hitherto kept that rich trade from us. Desire that this matter be apprehended as one of great consequence, for it appears to them that thereon depends not only the main trade of India with that huge monarchy of China, but the trade of Persia will be maimed, the Chinese silk being far better and better cheap than the Persian. Moreover English manufactures must decay, for the cheap stuffs and silk of China will utterly extirpate them, and the whole advantage will go to the Hollanders, which in few years must of necessity disable us for all things save only to follow the plough tail. If his Majesty and the State do not dally, but enforce the Articles of 1619, then were no part of India comparable to this southern residence, and soon would the seamen's clamor be turned into praises. It is the want of employments and lying still in this sink of sin and hell of extortions and expenses that maketh unwillingness in all seamen for this voyage, and no place but Jambi is the scarecrow, which also were eased by intermissive trade. It has been usual in this place, in respect of scarcity of victuals, to tie our people to their bare allowance of salt beef and rice with arrack, but finding the arrack to be sophisticated with ratsbane, lime, and other pestilent materials only to make it heady, and Batavia affording better victuals as roots, herbs and other provisions, have allowed instead of arrack 6d. per day in money to each mess, with a further allowance of one ryal of 8 to each mess per week, whereby an infinite waste is avoided, for what with the vainglory of the Commanders (who cut large thongs from other mens' hides), and the folly of factors, the expense in all voyages was unreasonable, but now is stinted to this ryal per week. The material recommended for defending ships against the piercing water-worm is found unserviceable, being glassy and brittle it cracks and peels; will make the best use of what is already sent, but wish no more dispeeded. Thus, as for a magnificent building that consists of many pieces and parts, we present each particle for your own polishing, that by you it may be made glorious in profits and in order for the world's wonder. We may advise and devise, and in a labyrinth of difficulties pick up a stone here and there fit for the working, but by yourselves each must be placed, and with the countenance of our most gracious Sovereign all must be established or in a moment it will ruin and fall to the ground. The necessity of government must be remembered, and governors provided who are endued with gravity and understanding; extraordinary judgment and vigilance are required, for the Dutch are wily, and the heathen but politic; the Dutch must be paralleled in order if not in state. It is in the highest degree expedient that the President may know his place and his power and be in musical harmony with his Council. A leak discovered in the Bull, so have moored her for the present. The Diamond is destined to end her days as a careening 'ship. Have established in all the ships the Company's late order respecting the division of fees for registers between pursers and mates. By letter received from Macassar in October last, are advised of 100 bahars of cloves already bought and 60 more daily expected; they therefore wish speedy supplies of cloth, money, and ships, as well for the progress of trade as for their security against Spanish galleys. Desire the Company to conceive how ill fitted we are to relieve them. Stand in the like case at Japara, where cloth would vend and pepper might be procured, but we cannot man our shipping and our cash is grown low. Advertise the Company on behalf of this factory's purser, Samuel Clay, lately deceased, of the sly practices of John Rogers, late purser in the Diamond, by which Banks, a sailor, obtained 100l. and then got license to pass in the Royal James for Surat; the wages of Rogers and Banks ought to be stopped, and an example made of their villany. Rogers is to take his passage in these ships. Have sent in these ships all Portuguese prisoners remaining in India, divers have been delivered to their own countrymen; their usage hath been as our own people, and they have well deserved it. Most of them have been in service since 1622, but never had any wages; have assured them that at their arrival they will be allowed maintenance, and will with convenient speed be sent to their own country. Are the rather induced to send them to England that they may not divulge our weakness in these parts, especially now that there is enmity between England and Spain; one of them hath for three years commanded the blacks in this factory, and hath gained a reasonable estate, the rest are assuredly poor Cannot procure a copy of the agreement between the Dutch and Chinese at Pescadores; the vulgar relation is that after the Dutch had fortified with much toil and loss of men, they were often admonished to depart, the place being in the confines of and belonging to China. As long as any hope remained they stood upon their pantoufles, but the Emperor was incensed and appointed an army of 30,000 men to assault them and weed them out. It was at last agreed that the Dutch might have their rendezvous at Taywan, the Chinese to furnish them there with four large junks yearly of Chinchin silk and other commodities. Willingly would the Dutch have restrained the Chinese from trade with all other nations, but the Chinese refused it. If furnished for all occasions, will essay admittance into Taywan, well knowing the Articles of 1619 will bear it, and will not be denied save by force. Complaint of [Geo.] Muschamp of a certificate in the book of Consultations dated Septr. 23rd, 1623. John Lloyd, a sailor employed at Macassar, is much diseased and not likely to recover. Arrival of a Chinese junk with luggage for Java, 13 parcels of silk stuff, and many eating provisions presented by the Noqueda or chief. Had no need of the rice sent by Henry Short from Macassar to Lagundy and brought here by Giovanni Maria Moretti, an Italian, so licensed him to sell it in the open market, and to make voyage to Siam; he made known he was entertained in the Dutch service, and had their commission to make prize of all their enemies. By those enemies forsooth must be understood all China junks not bound hither, and whosoever else intend trade at Macassar or to the eastward of it; that he should wear only the Dutch flag in harbour, but at sea might put out what flag he pleased. The next day we required that the Italian and his junk should be stayed; promises put off till at last (according to club law) they told us plainly he should go. Joseph Cockram and Ric. Bix sent to the General to communicate the evil passages of their Court. The earnestness of the Dutch to hinder all manner of trade to Macassar and their endeavours to incense the natives and King of Macassar against us which we have endeavoured to prevent, and if we can light upon the Italian, and he has abused our Sovereign's colours with robberies, we will assuredly hang him. More China junks expected; upwards of 100 have gone this year for Manilla from China, mostly richly laden with silk, silk stuffs, and other commodities. Arrival of messengers from the King of Ternate, the Dutch say to ask aid against Tidore and the Spanish faction; but the messengers themselves say to demand satisfaction for 16,000 clove trees cut down by the Dutch in Loho and Cambello to frustrate us of those cloves. They cast the fact wholly upon Governor Speult's rashness. Thos. Taylor, deserving the favour extended to him, has been employed in writing and copying, wherein his sufficiency is well known and his diligence to be approved of; have warned him that debauched living is not fit for Christians amongst heathen, and doubt not but that he will turn over a new leaf. Arrival of the Coaster from Jambi; her letters show the damaging and implacable dissensions in that factory through the peevish indiscretion of an improvident principal; Henry Sill, is only to be blamed for giving way too much to a madman's power. The accusations against him first of vainglory and prodigality appear to be nought else but the affection of the people showing their love at his parting to send him feastings, to grace him with plays as the manner is, and to present him with gifts. Second the suspicion how he gathered his estate, and how he was able to clear himself for certain moneys in bags sealed with the Company's seal, is here explained. Will take into consideration the great advantages all factors have made by saving of custom, though it be wholly without danger to the Company. The last "faile" laid unto Sill on the complaint of Colbach in reference to notes and acquittances given by Sill after Christopher Bogan's death to dealers with Bogan, is also explained. Cannot well judge this "strange complaint" till Colbach's arrival here. Purpose that Thomas Harris shall take Colbach's place [as chief at Jambi] and that Richard Croft who was sent hither from Jambi as a malefactor return in the Roebuck as second. Have examined his cause, and find he might have used more temperance, though Colbach exceeded the bounds of discretion, but in very deed his fault, if in the handling of a discreet principal, had been nothing at all. Contrary to expectation the Coaster did not bring the perfected accounts from Jambi; an imperfect journal of Christ. Bogan, deceased, was sent, by which he seems to be indebted 7,000 ryals to the Company. Claim against Samuel Clay, this factory's purser, lately dead, the matter referred; but after examination, the President and Council much differing in opinion, the President determined to refer it to our honourable employers, not doubting but that without respect either to the quick or dead you will do that which is according to equity. This accident by different opinions will seem strange, but has no taint of faction, spleen, or prejudice, as one heart and one hand in all things that concern your honor's affairs, we are and will be linked together. This relation also lays open the difficulty of gaming and its dangerous consequences, which we have tried to suppress and as we suppose is newly crept in among us. It is prohibited with severe restrictions, and it shall be our care to look after with more vigilance. The Master of misrule is dead, and some other occasions removed. Have sent some samples of China silks; the prices. Divers other stuffs are to sell, but at such prices as are usual in these parts, therefore not for our buying. The body of our late President, Richard Fursland, not yet removed from our garden to the Dutch church, to which he left a legacy, for want of ornaments fitting his place and repute, which we expected from his survivors, who seem rather needlessly to urge the gathering in of his estate than to remember the duties for the dead. His tomb is decently erected with brick at the Company's charge. By letters received from the Dutch agent in Japan, perceive small hope of receiving any Japan debts; nothing is to be expected unless by mere accident. Though want of workmen is exceeding great, yet some are sent home before their time, eaters, but no workers, nor indeed are to be reputed capable of any manner of title for service, for they are always drunk or crop-sick . . . . [The four next pages of this letter are wanting.] Lastly, Mr. Rynde, our preacher, is the conclusive passenger of note who hath lovingly this last Sabbath included us in his hearty prayers. He hath lived amongst us peacefully without any touch of spleen or faction. His function he hath ever observed conformably, and his life no way deserving public reproach though not free from imbecilities, as in all of us might be wished a bettering. Have thus in this year's progress tracked and traced through the ocean of the Company's affairs assurances of fidelity with our best endeavours. Postscript. Though the strangeness between the Dutch and us hindered public ceremonies at these ships parting, yet it was thought fit that Cockram before embarking should go to the fort to take leave of the [Dutch] General and Council, accordingly he went to the fort when prayer was ended and was entertained by them with far more than ordinary respect, who manifested their hearty affection as if no dregs of former discontent remained, but as minds new moulded, and with much earnestness desired that we might live together like brethren, which on their part they solemnly vowed, and was entertained by Cockram with like kindness. We invited the President, Council, and all of note under our roof to dinner the next day, where their entertainment was with much kindness and a reconciled desire as much expressed as tongue could utter. This atonement appeared not alone in the General's person, but every one in the Council expressed it with many protestations personally for himself with much zeal and affection, and Sir [Jacques] Specx in particular, for as he hath been most in suspect so was his apology doubled above the rest. Conceive this motion to be sincere and will take good effect; for the General is judicious and of no treacherous disposition as heretofore suspected. Find the contrary, he is very fervent in his Company's affairs, and therein hath been a greater opposite to us as matters were carried than was approved. You need not wish a better in his place, for his judgment and respect of honor will assuredly guide him the right way. Indorsed, "A great letter from Jacatra, 6 February 1625[-6], No. 41. The general letter of anno 1624 is a large one bound in folio in vellum." Mutilated by damp, some portions illegible. 49½ pp. [OC., Vol. XI., No. 1217.]
Feb. 8.256. Court Minutes of the East India Company. Popillion nominated by the Governor as a fit man to be employed for valuing jewels which the Company have occasion to buy. Discourse concerning the subsidy for their wrecked pepper; Garway advised as a farmer of the revenue, that it be agreed upon between the farmers and the Company rather than be put to the determination of the Barons of the Exchequer. Committee appointed to meet Sir John Wolstenhome and Henry Garway to treat and compose this business. Concerning the employment of Brownlow as a prime factor in the Indies, the Court minded very fairly to put him off than to entertain him; to confer with Clement Harby and Skinner before an absolute answer be given. The Governor gave notice of a report which had passed from some of the Committees that the Company had no stock remaining at Surat, which cast an aspersion upon the whole Committee, and therefore the Governor intended very shortly to call a General Court to clear this untrue suggestion and give contentment to the generality. About sending 60,000 ryals of eight to Lagundy, some of opinion to lessen the proportion, and to send part for Surat; others advised to hold up the former proportion and to provide also for Surat; but considering the difficulty in making provision of foreign coin in silver by reason of the wars now with Spain, from whence they are supplied, it was agreed that only 40,000 ryals be sent to Lagundy, and the other 20,000 to be reserved for Surat. Committee to attend his Majesty this day to acquaint him with the arrival of the Persian Ambassador, and to remember the Company's petition for making provision of foreign gold in lieu of foreign silver. Account of Giles James to be examined. 3pp. [Ct. Min. Bk. VIII. 258–261.]
Feb. 9.
The Hague.
257. Dudley Carleton to (Sir Dudley Carleton ?). Arrival of two ships from Surat richly laden; one already in the Texel bringing a Persian Ambassador, who yet remains at Amsterdam, expecting the rest of his train, which was in the other ship, as yet somewhere upon the coast of England, being an English ship arrived likewise with another Ambassador to his Majesty. What his business may be (he being said to be of extraordinary rank with the Persian and much in the government) cannot be learned, only he has let fall that he is to treat of trade, but that this is one of the least points he is to propose. If he has anything to treat against the Spaniard these men are likely to hearken, but if against the Turk it will be another matter. [Extract Holland Corresp.]
Feb. 10–13.258. Court Minutes of the East India Company. Ordered that the Court books be searched concerning what hath passed between the Company and George Ball, deceased; and that Tichbourne, the Company's solicitor, be spoken with to prosecute the suit against said Ball's executors. Committee appointed to desire my Lord Chamberlain's favour to receive the Persian Ambassador, arrived in the Star, with some ceremonies extraordinary. Venn and Browne to buy as many cloths as they can this day; 50 barrels of indigo to be sent with the first opportunity to Mr. Barlow to Amsterdam. 20,000 lb. weight of elephant's teeth, now come from Amsterdam, to be put aboard the Morris and weighed. Martyn and Abdi desired to treat with the Turkey merchants on the Exchange, and borrow 40 ton of lead from aboard the Sampson until the Hull ships arrive. Sherburne, the Company's secretary, willed to attend Sir Henry Marten about the letters of marque for their ships. The wrecked pepper, for which 15d. per lb. is offered, to be put to sale by the candle. Desire of Tichbourne, that Lamprey's book be produced to counsel; and order given that the Accountants be at the trial to illustrate the particulars of the said account. Bell to provide 300 perpetuanoes to be sent in the Surat fleet. Renewed suit of Dorrell for the estate of his brother, Henry Dorrell, deceased.
Minutes of a Court of Sales. List of goods sold, consisting of Bezoar stones, cinnamon, rice, pepper dust and light, stony and stalky pepper, with names of purchasers and the prices.
Feb. 13.—Ordered that 25 barrels of indigo be sent to Amsterdam upon the Company's account Petition of Christian Burred that her husband be released from a bargain to deliver 200 loads of planks at Blackwall Yard, which he is not able to perform through long sickness; opinion that she should forbear till her husband recover, and then the Company expected the performance of the bargain. A true account to be kept of the expenses laid out for the Persian Ambassador. 220 cloths bought, and yet there rest in the hall 25 more, ordered that they be forthwith bought. About the purchase of lead out the Sampson; information of some Welsh lead in town, but this Mountney disliked "because it was of a more brittle eager sort than the other." Old unserviceable iron ordnance at Deptford to be sold. 4½ pp. [Ct. Min. Bk. VIII. 262–266.]
Feb. 13.
The Hague.
259. Dudley Carleton to Sec. Lord Conway. To the same effect as No. 257. Presumes his Lordship knows already the subject of the Persian embassage, another Ambassador being gone to England, who setting forth at the same time should seem to have the same instructions. [Extract Holland Corresp.]
Feb. 15–17.260. Court Minutes of the East India Company. That the Countess of Warwick had willingly condescended to pleasure the Company with the loan of her house for the entertainment of the Persian Ambassador gratis betwixt this and Lady Day next, but if for any longer time she would expect rent; ordered that an inventory be taken of such goods and household stuff as the Countess lends to the Company upon this occasion. 6l. to be paid to Norgate for his pains in writing and limning the three letters to the Kings of Siam, Bantam, and Macassar; also 3l. to Trumbull and 20s. to his clerks for procuring the warrant for license to transport 30,000l. in foreign gold in this fleet. Diversity of opinions concerning the fitness of Brownlow to be a servant of the Company; whether to accept or refuse him referred till next Court. As to the rice bought at the last Court of Sales by Blunt, it being contrary to orders that any servant of the Company buy directly or indirectly any of the Company's commodities on forfeiture not only of the bargain, but of their places, resolved to resume this bargain of rice, and debated whether Blunt should be suspended; the Deputy having the casting voice concluded to give him only an admonition for this time, on condition that he should reap no benefit of said bargain. Account of John Bladwell to be examined and audited. The table emerald to be bought, according to a former order, at, the rate of 400l. Committee appointed to have the care of managing the entertainment of the Persian Ambassador. Carved work and wainscot in the cabins of old ships to be taken out and not sold with the hull, but retained for use in other ships. 2l. 14s. to be paid for "mending of a hurt" done to Alderman Freeman's ship the Mayflower by a shot from the Blessing accidentally fired by a boy. Information of Tichbourne concerning the business of Bait and Lamprey's trial. A small chest to be bought for keeping such writings in as concern the Company's law business. Proposal to have the seven ships go together, to encounter the Portuguese carracks; but by reason of their late setting forth the Portuguese will be passed by, and therefore no hope this year to do any good in that kind. The Exchange and Christopher to be presently dispeeded, and to go in company to the Cape; thence the Exchange should go to Lagundy and the Christopher to Surat to give news of the coming of four great ships about Christmas; she may also unlade her money at Surat and give advice of money coming in the fleet, whereby the factors may be encouraged to engage their credits for such commodities as may be a means to lade home a ship more this year; also she may unlade her English provisions at Surat, and there take in fresh provisions for Lagundy, and help to defend against the Portuguese any ship that may be come from Lagundy to Surat to lade for England. All which may be done only with the loss of about two months' time to the obtaining of her intended port. Lagundy.
Feb. 17.—Examination of the business of Giles James; his good services remembered, yet considering his private trade, ordered that he pay 100 marks penalty and for freight of his goods, conceiving this to be necessary for example's sake, interest on his wages to be paid only for the last three years; he was dissatisfied and demanded interest for the whole seven years, and desired that he might take advice of counsel herein, which was willingly consented unto. Ordered that Kirby contract for 40 oxen or thereabouts. William Burt propounded as a fit man for a prime factor; Stroud desired to inform himself of Burt's abilities. The Secretary ordered to attend the Attorney General concerning the false allegations of Francis Grove concerning the Moon's wrecked pepper. Ordered that Jane Sherman have two months of her husband's wages. Ralph Hanson appointed treasurer in the business of the entertainment of the Persian Ambassador, to have 100l. 9 pp. [Ct. Min. Bk. VIII. 267–275.]
[Feb. 18.]261. Sir Robert Sherley to [the Duke of Buckingham.] Relying wholly on his Grace's favour for the dispatch of the business he came for makes bold to importune his Lordship, in regard of the time of year fit for his journey, the present commodity of shipping and the long time he has waited for his Majesty's resolution, to assist him in obtaining the same, for his Majesty's honour, and his discharge to the King of Persia, whose servant he is. Indorsed by Edward Nicholas, "R. 18 Feb. 1625 [–6]. Sir Robert Sherley for leave to be gone" ¾ p. (East Indies, Vol. IV., No. 2.)
Feb. 20–25.262. Court Minutes of the East India Company. Surgeons' chests and medicines, both physical and surgical, provided for the Exchange and Christopher to be examined by the Masters and Wardens of the Surgeons and Apothecaries. Resolved that all cloths for Surat and Persia be imbaled in lead; some of opinion to pack only the outermost bales in lead, but it was considered that lead vends to as good profit as cloth, and safest to continue the old course. Order of the Court that payment of 2d. in the pound in time past should not be urged from them that refused it, confirmed with further direction that especial care be had of the poor in this particular. Ordered that the quantity of biscuit for the Surat fleet be lessened, considering that as good bread and far better cheap may be provided there. The bread rooms of the Expedition to be plated notwithstanding that plates are much dearer than formerly Blore proposed as master for the Expedition; 20 or 30 tons of goods to be taken in by the Blessing at Blackwall, since the wind will not permit her to fall down to Erith. The Christopher to be sent immediately from the Cape to Surat, with 40,000 ryals of eight and the jewels now in readiness. 20 tons more of tin to be bought for sale in Persia, where it will vend at a good constant price agreed upon; also 200 Suffolk cloths and some black to be sent to Persia. Giles James produced the opinion of two lawyers that he ought to have interest of his wages for the four first years as well as for the three last; Stone's opinion to be taken. Twelve petitions read, for the place of porter of the house void by the death of William Horsey, married men excluded by virtue of a former order, Robins chosen. Wages of Richard Andrews late purser of the William.
Feb. 22.—Complaints of divers that took out goods to transport and sold them in Town, notwithstanding the order of the general Court of August 29th, 1623, imposing a penalty of 5l. upon every bag of pepper and 20 per cent upon other goods so taken out to be shipped and sold as aforesaid; ordered that the fine be placed against each teveral account. Complaint of Gooking, that his warrant had been saken away to discount and delivered to one Stoughton, who had sold the pepper to Smith, a grocer; and that Smith had removed the pepper without either discounting to the Company or giving security. Washbourne and Cowley sent for, to render a reason of the business, being both aged men it was advised that a younger man be joined with them for the Exchange cellar, and the Auditors were ordered to prick over the warehouse books together with the warrants and to report their proceeding on Wednesday next. Ordered that 20 tons of tin already provided be shipped in the Discovery. Business of Giles James; ordered that he be paid interest for the seven years. Concerning the employment of Wm. Burt, he demanded 250l. per annum, but after conference with a committee, was content to stay five years in the Indies and a sixth year if cause shall require, at 200l. per annum, to receive one-third in the Indies and two-thirds to remain in the Company's hands till three years expired, and to forbear all private trade.
Feb. 24.—Committee appointed to dispatch the Exchange and Christopher on Monday morning. Warrant to free the Company from impost on the Moon's pepper referred by the Lord Treasurer to the Farmers of the Custom House. Thomas Colt acknowledged receipt, of pepper, but alleged he bought it of Robt. Colt of Maldon in Essex, referred to Thomas Chauncey. Rastell requested to assist in the purchase of eight suites of hangings for Surat. Directions to proceed against Capt. Hall for errors and breaches of covenants and commissions. Complaint of Giles James against Sambrooke about exchange of 200l. received in the country. Examination of Capt. Hall concerning a bale of silk, the receipt of his wages in the Indies and his private trade; ordered to make a true note of his goods and his bond to be put in suit as formerly resolved. Offer of Garway to buy five or six hundred barrels of indigo at 3s. thought reasonable to demand 3s. 3d. but resolved to decide nothing till the Governor be present. William Burt entertained at 200l. per annum for six years; to forbear all private trade and hinder it in others; 1,000 barrels of indigo bought by Henry Garway at 3s. 2d. per lb.
Feb. 25.—Ordered that the Morris go with the Exchange and Christopher, and be laden and sent to the Downs as soon as may be; but that neither of those two ships stay for her; also that the Exchange have 10 chests of money, the Christopher six, and the Morris six; and that half the quicksilver be put aboard the Morris. Carleton to have 40 barrels of indigo at 4s. per lb., to sell in town Clarke to have 10 barrels to ship for Hamburg at 4s. per lb., and 40 bags of pepper unscreened at 15d. per lb. 14 pp. [Ct. Min. Bk. VIII 276—290]
Feb. 27.
Whitehall Palace.
263. King Charles to the States General of the Netherlands. They cannot but remember the complaints made to his honoured father by his faithful subjects the East India merchants, not only of extortions upon their ships and goods, but also of horrible cruelties and murders perpetrated on their persons by the States' subjects in those parts; which differences his late Majesty endeavoured to reconcile in a friendly manner, on account of the sincere affection he had (with his predecessors) for the honour and prosperity of their State, and because it was believed that these insolences were committed by the merchants whom love of gain often transports), and were not approved by the States, from whom prompt justice was required. But this not being obtained, it was forthwith resolved that their ships going to the Indies should be arrested; to avoid which they meanwhile accorded that the Governor and those who assisted in the criminal sentence against his Majesty's subjects should be brought to Europe to justify themselves; that Mareschalk, one of the judges, then in their provinces, should be detained prisoner till the others arrived; and that Petersen Coen (accused to be the instigator of these cruelties) should not be permitted to return there. Upon which appearance of just intentions and a Treaty then being made, his Majesty arrested the reprisals and gave 18 months' time for the formalities used in justice in their State. In which his Majesty hoped that in consideration of the advantage to both parties of good accord, they would have anticipated the term fixed, and therefore knowing not how to give credence to the advice he has received of the design to send Coen out, contrary to their order and the remonstrance of his Ambassador, but to avoid the ills that may arise if they do him such an affront, his Majesty prays them to have a care in this matter as well of his honour as their own. French. 2 pp. [Corresp. Holland.]
Feb. 27, 28.264. Court Minutes of the East India Company. 50 pigs of lead to be sent aboard the Blessing, and five chests of coral aboard the Exchange. Complaints against John Sayers, steward, and Nicholas Grent, steward's mate of the Discovery, for absenting themselves; ordered that upon pain of being dismissed they give better attendance. Examination of Sayers, late steward in the Blessing, as to goods belonging to Captain Hall landed at Stilly. Gratuity to the bearer of letters from the Star. Examination of Arthur Suffield, purser, and Lawrence Henley, purser's mate of the Blessing, concerning Captain Hall's private trade. The Court not satisfied with their answer, ordered that certain interrogations be drawn out, whereunto Suffield and Henley should answer before the Town Clerk upon oath. Complaint of Suffield against Hall for abusing him the whole voyage and striking and kicking him. Hall denied the charge and signified his desire to refer the differences between the Company and himself to their own censure; but it was ordered that the action against him be pursued. Mr. Treasurer Stone being sick and Bateman a Parliament man, ordered that Warner assist in the Treasury. Ordered that the Morris be made ready with all convenient speed, the amber and half the quicksilver to be sent in her, and the rest of her lading to be cloth.
Feb. 28.—Ordered that Giles James have his bond delivered up to be cancelled. Desire of Capt. Hall that the Court forbear prosecuting the suit against him, for he willingly submitted himself; ordered that he be not arrested until further orders. Payment ordered for powder bought from Denmark, and for 74l. 17s. to Wm. Towerson. John Lemprier submitted himself to the Court, and was willed to present his submission in writing. 4¼ pp. [Ct. Min. Bk. VIII. 290–294.]