Elizabeth
January 1559, 21-30

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Institute of Historical Research

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Joseph Stevenson (editor)

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1863

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96-110

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'Elizabeth: January 1559, 21-30', Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 1: 1558-1559 (1863), pp. 96-110. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=71730 Date accessed: 30 August 2014.


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January 1559, 21-30

Jan. 21.
B. M. Harl. 169. 27.
256. Proceedings of Privy Council.
Westminster, 21 Jan. 1558.—Present: the Lords Great Seal, Treasurer, and Steward; the Earls of Shrewsbury and Bedford; the Lord Admiral, Mr. Treasurer, Comptroller, Mr. Mr. Vice-Chamberlain, Mr. Secretary, Mr. Cave, Mr. Mason, Mr. Sackevill.
A letter to Sir James Crofte, Knt., signifying unto him that Cuthbert Vaughan is returned to his charge; and for that it appeareth that the said Vaughan wants divers of his band, he is allowed for 53, who appear in a schedule sent herewith signed by Mr. Brend, which matter he is willed to impart to Mr. Treasurer of Berwick. It is also written unto him that the said Vaughan has received imprest for his own entertainment, and the soldiers the sum of 200l., to be hereafter defalked upon his two next payments by the Treasurer, with whom, for his better remembrance, he is willed to leave these letters, and to declare unto him that the entertainment of the said 53 is appointed to begin the 19th of this present inclusive, and to allow the said Captain Vaughan his entertainment all the time of his absence, the late proclamation notwithstanding.
Jan. 21.
R.O. 27 V. 69.
257. Another copy of the above.
Modern transcript.
Jan. 22.258. The Bishop of Ely and Dr. Wotton to Cecil.
The Commissioners not yet having departed, the Bishop of Ely had ascertained from the Bishop of Arras that it was not yet fixed when they should, although it was reported that they would leave on the 20th. The Bishop of Arras would have showed him the cause of it, but being sent for to the King he had no leisure to do so. Two days afterwards they sent again, but were answered that it was not yet agreed upon. On Saturday the 21st inst., one of the King's secretaries, Courteville (who had been present at all the meetings at Cercamp, for the French Commissioners had the Bishop of Limoges, called Bassefontayne, ever with them, who was not in commission, and therefore sat behind them), arrived and said that the King here, finding Casteau in Cambresis meet for the assembly, had prepared there lodgings for the Commissioners; but that, owing to the too late delivery of certain letters to the Cardinal of Lorraine and the Constable, they, hearing nothing of the change from Cercamp to Cateau, had proceeded to the former place, but as soon as they heard they would return to Cambresis, but could not be there at the day appointed. The Bishop of Orleans, Laubespine, and the Bishop of Limoges, would be at Guise on the 24th inst.
The King of France had despatched Courteville to know on what day the Constable and the Cardinal would arrive at Cambresis, so as his Commissioners should be there also at that time. The order for suspension of arms is to be prolonged to the 10th Feb. Courteville came to the Bishop of Ely and Dr. Wotton on horseback, and having done his errand departed to bed that night to Notre Dame de Haulx. As soon as the Commissioners should depart for Casteau the writers would follow. They again mention the importance of sending the Earl of Arundel, or some other great noble, to be chief of their commission.—Bruxelles, 22 Jan. 1558. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 3.
Jan. 22.
R. O. Forbes, 1. 77. Fœd. xv. 511.
259. Treaty of Cateau Cambresis.
Commission of Henry II., authorizing Charles, Cardinal of Lorraine; Anne, Duke de Montmorency; Jacques d'Albon, Sire de Saint Andreé, Johan de Morvillier, Bishop of Orleans, and Claude de l'Aubespine, Sr. de Haulterive, to treat with the Commissioners and deputies of the Queen of England, respecting peace.—Paris, 22 Jan. 1558. Signed: Henry,— Bourdin.
Orig. on vellum, with seal. Fr.
Jan. 22.
B.M. Cal. E.V. 58 b.
260. Another copy of the above.
Jan. 22.
B. M. Sloane, 4134. 215.
261. Another copy of the above.
Forbes' transcript.
Jan. 22.
R. O. Keith, 1. 364.
262. Sir Henry Percy to [Sir Thomas Parry?].
Has conferred with the Duke of Shattelyarye, otherwise called the Governor of Scotland, whom he finds much desirous of the amity of England, with a great multitude of the nobility of Scotland. In the course of this conference he declared to him as follows:
1. Pointed out to him what injury he was like to receive for his title of the crown by the marriage with France. To this the Duke answered that he would take no damage so long as the title was not present in his hand, and that when it devolved upon him, his friends would defend it against the French King, and he trusted to have the Queen's favour in the same.
2. Declared that by means of the fortresses which the Scots had suffered the French to possess, they were not able to resist them, but lived under their thraldom, nor durst they attempt anything against them. To this the Duke answered that in the event of a war the French could not maintain those fortresses, would in a short time be weary of keeping them, and would be glad to have a safe conduct to depart; and principally, if the Queen would assist the nobility of Scotland, they would either render them up or be forced to leave every fort in their hands.
3. Declared that he could not understand how it were possible for the Queen to assist them of Scotland, considering the wars lately levied by the French, who are a daily annoyance unto our realm, and likely to oppress Scotland and put it to ruin. The Duke confessed that these wars between the two realms were begun by the Queen Dowager of Scotland and some of her nobility, who partly for recompence, partly for mere flattery, provoked her to that folly, but (said he) they were not supported by the chief nobility; "as for example, at our last army, which should have been for the winning of Wark, you understood and know it very well, although the Queen, in the pain of our allegiance, had commanded us to come to the frontier, which we could not of duty have denied, and then coming thither to the frontier it was proposed unto us that we should attempt the winning of Wark and the invasion of England, which at that time we knew very well ye were not provided nor furnished for us. Yet answered we, the whole nobility, that to defend our country we were there, and would spend our lives; but for the attempting of anything in England, or invasion of the country, we would not do, not understanding by whom or for what cause the wars were begun. Whereupon our Queen dispersed her camp in great choler and pertly against her honour. Therefore may ye see what minds we have of ourselves to do you of England any annoyance; and since that time ye know we have not attempted anything towards your realm."
4. Although the writer had no authority to debate of these weighty affairs, yet he suggested that it were a goodly matter to have assured friendship between their two realms, considering in what subjection England was by the marriage with the King of Spain, which entangled it in wars, and that Scotland at this period is not avoided of the like inconvenience. It were a good matter, he said, that the Scots might be clearly out of the subjection of France and to live as they had done heretofore as a realm for themselves. The Duke answered that they would gladly this inconvenience which they of Scotland were in, were amended, yet it was not in their power. "As for the Christian amity ye would were betwixt our realms, you may be assured that ye be no more desirous to have an amity, peace, and quietness, betwixt these realms, than we be. Therefore if it can be devised by what means to set a tranquillity betwixt our two realms, I and all my friends shall be as much bent thereunto as if I were a subject of England."
5. The writer said, "My lord, seeing God hath sent a true and Christian religion amongst you, as now the same I doubt not but shall take effect with us, how could it be better for the maintenance of God's Word to join with us of England, and we with you, in such sort that if the French King, who is of the contrary, would attempt anything prejudicial to our realm, or go about to bring your realm in such subjection that of yourselves you could neither command nor direct, that then we should be so confederated together that his force were not able to attain anything that unto us should not seem well." The Duke answered "Sir Henry Percy, this is the first time that I have spoken with you, but it is not the first conference that hath been between us by message. . . . I will speak my fancy plainly unto you. Ye shall perceive that if I should attempt anything against our Queen of Scotland, now being heir, it were not possible that I should prevail, although I have many friends, and moreover it should be a great hindrance to me."
Wherefore the Duke said that he would promise (1) that there should be no war, by his means, between England and Scotland; (2) if the French King should force the Scots to make any invasion of England, it should not be done to his contentation; (3) if any attempt be intended to be made either upon Berwick or England, it shall be certified to the English, "and if you invade us, the French King having any power in Scotland, we should be glad to do our endeavour that you may have advantage of them;" and (4) if an abstinence be taken between England and Scotland, the French King shall not be able to break it.
The Duke desired "the maintenance of the Word of God, which he supposeth shall by the Queen be set forth." Also, for the safeguard of his honour, that his friendship and goodwill might be made known only to one. Doubts not the Queen will be acquainted with this letter. Would have himself written to the Queen, "if that it had not been the lack of uniform writing that is in me, who have never written to any so high and mighty princess."
His espials "which be sundry," have of late had many conferences with the Scots; they desire an abstinence, "as ye shall perceive by this letter sent unto you and Sir William Cicell."—Norham Castle, 22 Jan. 1558.
Orig. Signature torn off. Endd. by Cecil: 21 Jan., Sir Henry Percy, 1558, Scotland. Pp. 4.
Jan. 22.
B. M. Calig. B.X. 5.
263. Another copy of the above.
Without sig. or add.
Jan. 23.
R.O.
264. Lord Eure to the Lords of the Council.
Sir James Crofte (who had arrived here this afternoon at 4 o'clock,) informed him that he had received at the Court a letter from the Queen licensing him to come up to Court, for which he offers his thanks, and also another letter appointing Sir J. Crofte to act as his deputy in his absence; both of which letters, together with another directed to himself, were lost by the way. Before he departs he solicits a warrant for so doing, and also authority for Sir James Crofte to supply his place.— Berwick, 23 Jan. 1558. Signed.
Endd. Pp. 2.
Jan 24.
R. O.
265. The Emperor Ferdinand to the Queen.
Recommends to her his faithful and chosen Georgius, Count von Helffenstain and Baron von Gundlfingen, one of his councillors and his lieutenant in the upper provinces of Austria, who will signify to her certain matters with which he is charged.—Augusta Vendelicorum. 24 Jan 1559. Signed: Ferdinand, —M. Singkhmoser.
Orig. Add. Endd.: 24 Jan. 1558. Lat. broadside.
Jan. 24.
R.O. 171. B. ii. 3. 4.
266. Another copy of the above.
Modern transcript.
Jan. 24.
B. M. Galba, B. xi. 182.
267. Another copy of the above.
24 Jan.
B. M. Sloane, 4142. 2.
268. Another copy of the above.
Forbes' transcript.
Jan. 24.
R.O.
269. Sir H. Percy to [Sir T. Parry] and Cecil.
Having been importuned to make an abstinence with the Scots, whereby a final peace should follow, sends his servant to declare the sum of the matter.
1. This peace is motioned by the means of the Dowager of Scotland and M. Docell, and proceeds from the French King, who fears greatly that we should enter into such a perfect amity with the King of Spain that we should assist him in all his affairs.
2. The Scottish nobility would have the peace, they having been nothing willing to the beginning of these wars; and they trust that if we were but in league again they would not break it again for any procurement of the French King.
3. "Moreover, the young laird of Lethington, being Chief Secretary to the Dowager of Scotland, and one of her Privy Council and in great estimation with her, desireth no more but that there were an abstinence taken of one month, to the end he might but once talk with the Council of England, and specially with you, Sir Wm. Cecil, whom he is most desirous to speak withal. This man is as much my lawful friend as can be, and a man both godly true in his doings and of a good religion. But I desire you not to trust my judgment foranempst so weighty a cause as this is."
4. When he objected to them that the peace was not possible because the fortress of Aymouth had been built contrary to the treaty, against the terms of the last truce, they promised that in the event of a peace it should be demolished. Cannot discourse the whole talk they had, but has instructed the bearer sufficiently. For God's sake desires that they will not make him the author of this motion. The friendship he has formed with him provokes him to let him know these advertisements.
Besides this matter has written to the Earl of Northumberland for the stay of the 1,000 footmen who should now have "commed" to the borders, the horsemen of Scotland having refused to serve any longer, in consequence of not being paid. The bearer (whom he trusts they will despatch home speedily) will inform them of the annoyances done to this realm since the beginning of the Queen's reign, and of the last misfortune that had occurred.—Norham Castle, 24 Jan. 1558.
P.S.—Requests that the Controller will inform him whether he is to proceed any further in regard to this other letter. Signed.
Orig. Add.: To the Right Worshipful . . . . Knt., Controller of the Queen's household, and Sir W. Cecil, Knt., Secretary to Her Highness. Endd.: 24 Jan. Sir Henry Percie to Mr. Treasurer and Mr. Secretary, 1558. Pp. 4.
Jan. 25.
R. O.
270. Emanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy, to the Queen.
The King of Spain wrote to the late Queen last April for the restitution, to Johan de Has, of two ships of Holland, which were detained in Cornwall, the said Johan de Has having obtained a safe conduct from him in June 1557. The writer repeats and enforces the application.—Brussels, 25 Jan. 1559. Signed: E. Philibert.
Orig. Add. Endd.: 25 Jan. 1558. Fr. Pp. 3.
Jan. 25.
R. O.
271. Catherine, Duchess of Suffolk, to the Queen.
Prays that the Almighty and ever living God may so endue the Queen with His Spirit that it may be said of her as of His servant David, "He hath found one even after His own heart." All creatures embrace liberty and fly servitude, but man most specially, who feels it most when the liberty of conscience by unlooked for turns falls out. Now is our season, if ever any were, of rejoicing. If the Israelites might joy in their Deborah, how much more we English in our Elizabeth! It is comfort enough to all her subjects that she does the will of Him that has raised her up, spite of His and her enemies. Though the writer has her portion of this gladness equal with the rest, yet can she not choose but increase it with the remembrance of the Queen's gracious goodness towards her in times past, and with hope of continuance of the same in time to come. Prays to the Almighty to answer unto this consolation by giving her a prosperous journey once again presently to see the Queen, to rejoice together with her country folks, and to sing a song to the Lord in her native land.— Crossen, 25 Jan. Signed: K. Suffolk.
Hol. Add. Endd.: 25 Jan. Lady of Suffolk to the Queen. Pp. 3.
Jan. 25.
R. O.
272. Mundt to the Queen.
On the 20th Jan. arrived at Heidelberg, "where the Count Palatin does continually habitat," and on the next day "at eight hours" had audience with the Duke; to whom he exhibited his letters of credence and stated the Queen's desire to keep and maintain the same love and friendship towards the house of the Palatines and the other princes and estates of the Empire as her predecessors Henry VIII. and Edward VI. had shown. After this proposition, made to the Elector in presence of his Chancellor and two of his chief councillors, dinner was prepared, and Mundt sat next the Prince, who after dinner "axed" him the Queen's age, the service in her chapel and the ceremonies of the churches in England; about her intention to marry, her coronation, and Parliament. To these questions he replied (partly out of the proclamation given at Westminster, 27 Dec., and partly by report of others) that she was 25 years of age. At the end of this conference he departed; and after two hours' consultation was brought again in presence of the Elector, when his Chancellor said that the Prince had heard with great joy and comfort her accession to the throne, and that he, and all other princes and estates Protestants, cordially reciprocates her love and amity, the more because she is well affected and addicted, by the singular working of Almighty God, to the true and right doctrine and religion, which he hopes she will set forth and establish, not fearing nor moved by the world, or by any other obstacle or displeasure, calling to memory the proof and experiment of herself, seeing that God has defended and preserved her from so dangerous chances and assaults, and will without doubt be her further protector and defender. The Duke also desired him to repair to the Diet at Augusta and declare the Queen's mind and affection to the other princes and estates, and promised that he would inform his friends of her good feeling. He further required him to signify to her his good will towards her.
Departed from Heidelberg the 23rd Jan. for Augusta, to which it seems the Princes be not lusty to come, and where much time will be lost in differing and referring, and inutile expenses made. The Princes be offended with the slow indiction of this Diet, and so they misdeem that the chief point of this assembly shall be money; they send their Commissioners and do not come themselves.—Rynhausen, 25 Jan. 1559. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Pp. 4.
Jan. 25.
R. O.
273. Mundt to Cecil.
Has written to the Queen what he has proponed to the Elector Palatine, and what His Grace answered. His proceed ings are plain and simple, and peradventure shall not be liked of all men, but he follows the Queen's instructions. Is endeavouring to resuscitate the old love between her and the princes and estates of the Empire, therefore trusts she will be content. Is anxious to follow his instructions so closely that little shall be left to his own discretion. Has received against his will the honours which have been conferred upon him by the Elector Palatine. Desires to be remembered to Mason and his [Cecil's] father-in-law.—Rynhausen, 25 Jan. 1559.
Orig. Hol., with armorial seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil: 25 Jan. 1558. Eng. and Lat. Pp. 2.
Jan. 26.
R. O.
274. Sebastian, King of Portugal, to the Queen.
Sends Dom Joam Pereira to condole with her upon the death of her sister, and to congratulate her upon her own accession to the throne.—26 Jan. 1559. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. Broadside. Portug.
Jan. 26.
B. M. Sloane, 4143. 118 b.
275. Another copy of the above.
Forbes' transcript.
Jan. 26.
R. O.
276. Catherine, Queen of Portugal, to the Queen.
Sends Dom Joam Pereira, a gentleman of the royal household, to condole with her upon the death of her sister, and to congratulate her upon her own accession to the throne.— 26 Jan. 1559. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. Broadside. Portug.
Jan. 26.
B. M. Sloane, 4143. 118.
277. Another copy of the above.
Forbes' transcript.
[Jan. 27.]
R. O.
278. I. Sir W. Petrie to Cecil.
Has again perused his notes taken yesternight, and the treaties, together with the letters of my Lord of Ely and Mr. Wotton, and sees no great matter to be now considered, saving for Calais, the debts, &c.
Thinks best that he [Cecil] make this despatch and write that for these matters they shall be shortly more fully answered, or else he may defer the whole for a few days till he shall see what comes from France. To-morrow in the morning trusts to wait upon him. (fn. 1)
Orig. Hol. Add. Pp. 2.
Jan. 27.
R. O.
279. II. The Queen to the French King.
"For the instructions, we think good to conceive them by way of a short memorial in this or like sort, as followeth:"
1. That she is glad to find by his last letters and the message of Seignor Cavalcant that he continues her friend. She hopes for a speedy conclusion for peace, and thanks him for his assured good mind towards the same.
2. Where he speaks of considering "that the great stay and let of their minds is the matter of Calais," and urges reasons for its retention by him, he is prayed to consider the causes advanced by her for its restoration.
3. That albeit this matter of Calais has in it some difficulties, yet she considers this or any other difficulties may well be disposed and ordered, whereto there shall be no want on her side.
4. Since this sending to and fro spends much time, she thinks best that Commissioners be appointed to meet for a further treaty of conclusion of this matter in some neutral place.
Draft in Petrie's hol. Endd. by Cecil: 27 Jan. Copy of an instruction, but not allowed nor sent. Pp. 4.
Jan. 27.
R. O.
280. Mathias Czitzwicz to Sir Thomas Wroth.
Apologizes for his style, and would write more fully could he write in English. Sends the following news.
1. Here all are persuaded that there will be peace, of which he is informed by good authority, "Deficiente causa principali deficit effectus." The pride of the Spaniards seems somewhat abated; they now call the Germans their relatives and brethren, and denounce all other nations. He knows why. They threaten much evil to England, and he believes that they desire nothing more heartily.
1. Peace between the French and King Philip is treated of at Cambrai. On Feb. 2 the following persons set out for it from this place: the Prince of Egmont ["princeps Acamontis"] (or the Count of Nassau, as he is called) the Duchess of Lorraine the Duke of Alva, Rigomes the Spaniard, the King's Privy Councillor, and the Bishop of Arras. On the part of the French there were the Constable (in whom they have great hope, and openly say that he has promised that there shall be peace), "Hic jubet Plato quiescere,"—also the Cardinal of Lorraine, M. de S. André, and some others whose names he does not know.
3. The Duke of Guise, with 50 ships well manned and provided with heavy guns, is crossing the Straits of Dover on his way to Scotland. Let the English be careful, he knows their danger and warns them of it in all faithful sincerity. The Count Rhingrave went into France a few days ago by post, he will return in three weeks.
4. It is universally reported here that Philip is to marry the Queen of England, if so, they can easily conjecture the result. It is reported that she is unsteady in her religion, which God forbid! If she is, "Woe to your kingdom and its inhabitants! for not only will ye be deserted by the Lord, but also by all Christian princes and the rest of the faithful."
5. King Philip is busy, but very secretly, in hiring 3,000 horse soldiers in Saxony, for what purpose will soon be known. He has also secured the services of Duke Ernest of Brunswick by an annual payment, John George, Duke of Brandenburg, son of the Elector Duke of Brandenburg, Eric, Duke of Brunswick, and Adolph, Duke of Holstein, brother of the King of Denmark. The King of France has on his side the Elector Palatine, Christopher Duke of Wirtemburg, the Landgrave Philip, Duke of Hess, William Duke of Saxony (who is in the French Court), John and Christopher, Dukes of Mecklenburgh [Duces Megopolantes] Philip and Barnimus Dukes of Pomerania. He willingly passes over Augustus, the Duke Elector of Saxony, and many others.
6. The Duke of Savoy is to marry the daughter of the King of France, and the Prince of Orange a daughter of Lorraine. A wonderful metamorphosis!
7. The Emperor Ferdinand is at Augsburg with Albert Duke of Bavaria; few of the other Electors and Princes are there. The Elector Augustus is on his way thither along with the son of the King of Denmark, who is said to be about to marry the Emperor's daughter. The Emperor and his party are planning some mischief against the true Christian religion, but they will not succeed. About this he will write more fully.
8. The Turk has sent a large body of horse into Hungary, and will himself follow in summer.
9. No news from Italy, except that the Pope acts very tyrannically. Will write more fully from Antwerp.—Brussels, 27 Jan. 1559. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add.: Thomæ Gwrotto, equiti aurato. Endd. by Cecil: 27 Jan. 1558. Mathias C. D. Wrotho. Lat. Pp. 4.
Jan 28.
R. O.
281. The Queen to Sir Thomas Gresham.
Out of his balance in hand he shall buy at Antwerp or elsewhere the munitions mentioned in the enclosed schedule. He shall not exceed the prices mentioned in the schedule except upon great necessity.
Draft, endd.: "Minute to Sir Thomas Gresham to provide certain munitions for the war, in Flanders, 28 Jan. 1558." Pp. 2.
Jan. 28.
R. O.
282. Munitions from Flanders.
"A proportion of certain munitions for the wars, to be procured beyond the seas by Thomas Greshem, Esq., the Queen's agent in Flanders," viz., cornpowder, serpentine powder, saltpeter, sulphur, corslets, curriers, hagbuts, matches, dagges, and bowstaves. They are valued at 9,466l. 13s. 4d. Signed: W. Cecil.
Endd. Pp. 2.
Jan. 29.
R. O. Forbes, 1. 30.
283. The Queen to the King of France.
Although the negociations for peace are not so far advanced as were to be desired, yet seeing his increasing good will to wards her, declared by his letter and the beautiful present which the bearer brought her on his last return, she will not halt in the midst of so good journey, but will express herself with frankness.
As to the business. She first thanks him for his courtesy towards her in accepting the way of proceeding suggested by her; she is persuaded that this arises from his sincere desire for peace. She leaves the bearer to convey her reply to what he has proposed on the part of the King, whose splendid present she hesitates to accept if it be offered to her by him as a prince with whom she is at war, and not as from a private personage; thanking him as many times as she has written letters or there are words in this.
Endd. by Cecil: The second letter. Fr.
Jan. 20.
B. M. Sloane, 4134. 123.
284. Another copy of the above.
Forbes' transcript.
Jan. 29.
R. O. Fortes, 1. 31.
285. Negociations with France.
The Queen perceives that the King of France, notwithstanding his letter of amity, yet sends by this bearer, Sir Guido Cavalcant, a message burdened with so many difficulties that she might well think the proceeding herein unlikely to come to a perfect end. She therefore returns this bearer, and prays the King to consider the points following.
i. 1. Whereas he requires her to propose to herself that in demanding the restitution of Calais she demands what is of the domain of the crown of France,—to this she replies that all the world can give testimony that it has been parcel of the crown of England beyond memory of all men; lawfully possessed without scruple or quarrel; yielded and assured to the crown of England by France, not for words or thanks, but for regions and territories of the very inheritance of the Kings of England, thereby possessed and quietly kept by the Kings of France. Whatsoever was moved in any controversy betwixt the Kings of this realm and France, it was never uttered by speech or pretence but that Calais was always knit to the crown of England, and as well and truly possessed of the Kings of this realm as is the city of London.
2 It is further alleged in the message of the said French King that in these late wars his subjects have sustained great losses, and that for these Calais is the contentation. She would have him remember how unwillingly this realm was brought into this war, how difficult it was to break the amity that was so well rooted and left by King Edward; and then consider how unreasonable it is that, because the King of Spain was enemy to France and had done certain hostilities thereupon, therefore to acquit the same, England (the greater part whereof, both of nobility and the people, had no disposition to be at enmity with France) must be robbed of one of her dearest members, and France must thereof make her only comfort and consolation. If France claim it as a recompence for losses, reason would that the recompence should be made by them that have gained, and not by them that have lost.
3. To be plain, the Queen most assuredly sees and finds no one thing so likely to be continually prosecuted with the universal instance of all kind of her people, nobility and men of war, merchants and commonalty, as to have this blot to this nation wiped and taken away, so deep is the same rooted in the hearts of all sorts of age, and daily increases in the very hearts of children and youth.
4. As for the rest of the difficulties moved by the King, they may be easily answered. As to the doubt of the Queen's marriage, which might so be made that Calais might easily come to the King of Spain, the French King may well assure himself that thereof, (besides her natural disposition, being descended by father and mother of mere English blood, and not of Spain, as her sister was,) the whole nation of England would as diligently see to that matter of Calais as they who now detain it.
5. As to the reports made by Spaniards concerning a treaty whereby the realm of England rests bound to them, she (thanked be God) remains a free prince and owner of her crown and people.
ii. For the offer of such a peace as was accorded with King Edward, it is worth her thanks, but pretermits further answer at present and requires that proceedings be taken as follows.
1. The treaty requiring a colloquy among such persons as know the inward minds of their two Majesties, and this to be done with secresy, the final meanings of them both might be remitted to their chief ministers now remaining on that side the seas. The time is changed from what it was before during the reign of the late Queen, when, the King of Spain being her husband, nothing was done on the part of England but with the privity and direction of his ministers; whereas the Queen now, being a free princess, means in this matter to proceed without any participation towards the Spaniards of anything otherwise than as shall be seen for the nature of her matters expedient. (fn. 2)
[Finally, she suggests that he should send authority to his Commissioners to proceed secretly to some end, so that upon his determination the bearer might return. If he does not like that this treaty be discussed where the Commissioners are assembled, she will not refuse some other convenient and honourable place. "In this point is to be remembered by this bearer that by this means of dealing the whole matter must be so ordered as to be made open to the King of Spain."]
Cecil's hol. draft, imperfect at end. Pp. 8.
Jan. 29.
B. M. Calig. E. V. 45.
286. Another copy of the above instructions. [Supplying the portion deficient at the end of the draft in the R.O.]
Jan. 29.
B. M. Sloane, 4134. 125.
287. Another copy of the preceding instructions.
Forbes' transcript.
Jan. 29.
R. O.
288. Negociations with France.
The Queen's answer given to Sir Guido Cavalcanté, to report unto the French King in reply to his last message brought hither by him, to the following effect:—
1. Calais forming the great obstacle to the conclusion of a peace, the Queen requests the French King to specify his reasons for retaining it. He will then see that she has much more just cause to require its restitution than he hath for keeping it. A few months ago it was parcel of the crown of England, and had been obtained for territories given by the Kings of this realm to the crown of France.
2. If the King will send authority to his Commissioners to proceed to some good final end herein, in such secret manner as shall be thought to him meet, then the said bearer might return to Her Majesty, who might follow the like order.
Draft, corrected by Cecil, who has added the whole of the second clause. Apparently imperfect in the middle by the loss of a leaf. Endd.: Copia 2 instruct. G. Caval. ad R. Gall. from the Queen. Pp. 4.
Jan. 30.
R. O.
289. Sir James Croft to Cecil.
Has this day received the Queen's several letters to Lord Ewre and himself. As Lord Ewre will not leave till the Treasurer has arrived to account with his Lordship, the writer will remain as an assistant. The town is very quiet and the bands well furnished; the country is in more weakness and the enemies is no great pride; for this light they have not attempted anything against the English. As far as he can guess, all parties are weary of the wars, and hears that his neighbours are desirous of peace, as Mr. Percy has informed Cecil. If any abstinence should be taken, our chief care should be Berwick, wherein none of the garrison should be diminished; but in Northumberland the horsemen there (the most part being Northumberland men) might be cassed, and thereby a good piece of charge saved. Wishes that it might be brought to pass that the Scotch would rase Aymouth, as the borders would then be in good case, and by the last treaty it was agreed that none of the "pesys" lately made in Scotland and rased by us should be again fortified. Has not of himself sought to understand the minds of the Scots touching peace, as the way begun by Mr. Percy was sufficient to draw the matter to further communication. Thanks him for excusing him for having entrusted the Queen's letters to his [Croft's] servant, by whom they were lost. Begs that Captain Vaughan be sent down, and also Mr. Brend, knowing how able a man he is for all purposes, and especially to be entrusted with the keys of the town.—Berwick, 30 Jan. 1558. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. Pp. 3.
Jan. 31.
R. O.
290. Albert, Marquis of Brandenburg, to the Queen.
Hearing that she had attained the crown he could not but write to express his congratulations. Prays that God will prosper her to the glory of His Name, the strengthening of His Church, and the progress of evangelical truth. All affirm that she is attached to the purer doctrine of the Gospel and to the extension of the kingdom of Christ. It is believed that she will profess the Confession of Augsburg, since it is based upon scriptural authority.
William Barlo, Bishop of Bath and Wells, (an exile from England for his adherence to the truth of the Gospel,) having visited the writer last year, was entertained by him and supplied with what he needed, and on returning home upon the intelligence of the Queen's accession, is the bearer to her of the present letter. He recommends Barlo as a pious, good, and sincere man, and one who is attached to the Confession of Augsburg.—Regiomonti, 31 Jan. 1559.
Orig. but not signed, with seal of arms. Add. Lat. Pp. 5.
Jan. 31.
R. O. 171 B. ii. 4.
291. Another copy of the above.
Modern transcript.
[Jan.]
R. O.
292. Gresham to Cecil.
Remembrances chiefly respecting certain payments to be made by the Merchants Adventurers and the Merchants Staplers to the Queen, and the procuring of warrants for the like purpose. Points out the advantages of the plan which he has proposed. Requests that his instructions may be made ready against his coming out of the country, in order that he may be beyond the seas by the last of this month. Asks for the settlement of his accounts of money spent in Queen Mary's times.
Orig. Hol. Endd. by Cecil: Mr. Gresham's Remembrances. Pp. 2.
[Jan.]
B. M. Cal. E.V. 46. Forbes, 1. 36.
293. Instructions to the Commissioners in France.
The Queen, at her accession, sent her commission to the Earl of Arundel, the Bishop of Ely, and the Dean of Canterbury, to treat with the French on the matter of peace; but the Earl of Arundel having returned into England, she now sends her Lord Chamberlain with new commissions to join with the Bishop and Dean, and with instructions to the following effect:—
1. The Commissioners in all their doings shall have regard (1) to the conclusion of peace, and (2) that the old amity between England and the house of Burgundy be not impaired. To these two points they shall direct all their doings.
2. As far as they may, without prejudice to the treaty, they shall let the Spanish Commissioners understand that they have specially in charge for the Queen to conclude nothing with the French that may diminish in any point the said old amity.
3. Touching the particulars of the treaties sent over to the Queen about 6 January last, special answers are here given to the several articles in detail.
4. They shall ascertain as speedily as possible the final purpose of the French, and shall from time to time impart to the King of Spain's ministers such part of their proceedings with the French as may seem convenient, without hindrance of the treaty with France, and in such sort as the like goodwill may appear in King Philip towards themselves.
5. If the French will by no means agree to render Calais, they shall not, for all that, break off this treaty with them, but shall entertain them with some other device, without conclusion in that behalf, until they can receive answer from hence again.
Copy. Damaged by fire. Pp. 4.
[Jan.]
B. M. Sloane, 4134. 131.
294. Another copy of the above.
Forbes' transcript.

Footnotes

1 Prefixed to this letter are Petrie's remarks upon the sixth article, recommending the granting of an addition which forbids any new impost or custom to be taken or paid which had not been usually paid for 50 years before.
2 Here ends the copy in the R. O.