Elizabeth
October 1559, 21-25

Sponsor

Institute of Historical Research

Publication

Author

Joseph Stevenson (editor)

Year published

1865

Pages

44-61

Annotate

Comment on this article
Double click anywhere on the text to add an annotation in-line

Citation Show another format:

'Elizabeth: October 1559, 21-25', Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 2: 1559-1560 (1865), pp. 44-61. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=71789 Date accessed: 29 July 2014.


Highlight

(Min 3 characters)

October 1559, 21-25

Oct. 21.
R. O.
104. Challoner to Cecil.
1. Although he wrote lately by Mr. Marshe, yet sends another letter in order that Cecil may hear from him weekly.
2. At Rome the Conclave has not yet resolved, and it is thought that the long contention will breed a schism. Such pasquils as he has seen pass all others in vehement railing on the Pope and Cardinals, but no more than the subject giveth. Cecil has probably long since heard of the death of the Duke of Ferrara. The King Catholic is at or near Toledo. Bernardine Grenado almost despairs that he hears nothing out of England touching the horses bought by him. The Queen having written nothing to him [Challoner] on that matter or any other, appears to heed it little; wishes he had never spoken in it. Here it is supposed he had no order from her to speak for those horses, but only for Grenado. He lies here suspect, so not without danger. Since that refusal, passports for horses have been granted to Priuli and other Italians. Here on every side they "axe" him of our English news, wherein he can say nothing. Daily looks for letters from the Queen or Cecil. Wonders that the advancement of his diets three months beforehand should be refused. All things here are excessively dear; "but ye know Flanders of old, I would ye knew my purse as well."
3. Hears that the citizens of Tryr (alias Treveris) have risen against their Archbishop and shut him forth of the town. He is in arms against them.—Brussels, 21 Oct. 1559.
Orig. Hol. Add., with armorial seal. Endd. Pp. 4.
Oct. 21.
R. O.
105. Another copy of the above.
Challoner's hol. Endd.: 21 Oct. 1559. Sent by the merchants' post. Pp. 3.
Oct. 21.
B. M. Galba, C. 1. 42.
106. Abstract of portion of the above.
Oct. 21.
MS. Hatfield House. Haynes, p. 212. Knox, 1. 440. Keith, 1. 231.
107. The Regent of Scotland to the Lords of the Congregation.
Having received the letter dated Edinburgh, 19th inst., (which appears to come from a Prince to his subjects, rather than from subjects to one that bears authority,) for answer she has sent this bearer Lion Herald, King-at-arms, instructed with her mind, to whom they shall give credence.— Leith, 21 Oct. 1559. Signed.
Copy, by Randolph.
Oct. 21.
B. M. Sloane, 4734. 198.
108. Another copy of the above.
Oct. 21.
B. M. Sloane, 4734. 198 b. Calderw. 1. 537.
109. The Queen Regent of Scotland to the Lords of the Congregation.
Credit sent by Robert Foreman, Lion King-of-arms, to the Lords of the Congregation to the following effect,—
1. None can have authority here except the Queen's daughter and her husband, the writer's son-in-law; and the former acts of the nobility show that they acknowledge no other superiority.
2. He shall require the Duke of Châtellerault to call to mind what he promised to the Queen Regent by words, and to the King by letters, viz., that he would only hearken unto the King, and also work that the Earl of Arran should not join in these tumults.
Oct. 21.3. He shall answer their letters to the effect that she will grant anything which may not resist the piety due to God, nor fight with their duty to their King and Queen. She does not seek the overthrow of their laws and liberties, nor dream of conquering the kingdom by violence, for her daughter possesses it already.
4. Touching the fortifying of Leith, she had attempted nothing that way before they showed that they would shake off the lawful government, strengthen their factions with strong cities, and made league and covenant with her ancient enemies. If it was lawful for them to retain an army at Edinburgh, is it not lawful for her to have a guard about her at Leith for her own defence and safety? Do they show any token that they would have these seditions pacified? Nor are they ignorant that these French had by command of their King been long before despatched out of Scotland, unless the doings of the Lords had been the cause of their delay.
5. If they will offer any honest conditions that they will obey their superiors, she will refuse no means to restore concord and quiet, nor omit anything that may tend to the public commodity. Their King and Queen are equally well affected towards them, who have sent a Knight of the Scallopshell and one of the chief of the ecclesiastical order, namely, La Brosse and the Bishop of Amiens, with letters touching the same; to whom, however, they would vouchsafe neither answer nor hearing.
6. He shall therefore command the Duke, the nobility, and the others to depart in sunder, "or otherwise that they shall not be kept together unless it be by strength of arms." (fn. 1)
Oct. 21.
Sloane, 4737. 110.
110. Another copy of the above.
Oct. 21.
B. M. Sloane, 4734. 199 b. Knox, 1. 444. Calderw. 1. 541.
111. Deprivation of the Queen Regent of Scotland.
1. The nobility, Barons, and Burghs convened to advise upon the affairs of the commonwealth, perceive the enterprised destruction of the same, and the overthrow of the liberty of their native country by means of the Queen Regent, and certain strangers, her Privy Councillors, to proceed little by little even to the uttermost, so that the urgent necessity of the commonwealth may suffer no longer delay. They see also that she, abusing the Queen's commission, has pursued the Barons and Burghs of the realm with strangers, contrary to law; and that first at St. Johnston in the month of May she assembled her army against the town and its inhabitants, and in the month of June invaded the persons of sundry noblemen and Barons convened at St. Andrews for the cause of religion only. She has also laid garrisons in the same month in St. Johnston, through fear of whom great part of the inhabitants fled the town; and at the same time she thrust upon the said town a provost and bailies against all order of elections, as lately she has done in Edinburgh and Jedburgh. Last of all she daily brings in great forces of strangers, whom she has planted in one of the principal ports of the realm. And to furnish her wicked enterprises she has, without the consent of the Council and nobility, coined such base money that the whole realm will be depauperized and all traffic with foreign nations thereby everted. Moreover, she has placed a stranger as keeper of the Great Seal, and further sent it forth of the realm by the said stranger, contrary to the advice of the Council; and has by this means altered the old consuetude of the realm, ever observed by the Sovereigns in their graces and pardons granted to their lieges, by introducing a new and captious style and favour according to the practice of France, tending thereby to draw the said lieges, in time, into a deceivable snare. And, peace being accorded among the Princes, she retains a great army of strangers after command sent by the King of France to retire the same, who, not being paid wages, are laid on the necks of the poor community.
2. Though they have oftimes humbly desired the Regent to redress the said enormities and make the town [of Leith] patent to all the Queen's lieges, she would in nowise grant the same; and when some of their company went in peaceable manner to view the town, there was both great and small munition shot forth at them.
3. Seeing that she refuses all access, and by force intends to suppress the liberties of the commonwealth; so many of the nobility, Barons, and provosts of burghs as are touched with the care of the commonwealth and the lamentable complaints of oppression of the community, in the name of the Queen suspend the commission granted by her to the said Queen Dowager, and discharge all members from her authority henceforth. No coins shall be coined henceforth without the express consent of the Council and nobility, conform to the laws of the realm.
4. This is to be notified and proclaimed by all officers of arms in head burghs within the realm of Scotland.—Edinburgh, 21 Oct. 1559. "By us, the nobility and commons of the Protestants of the Church of Scotland."
Oct. 21.
B. M. Sloane, 4737. 111.
112. Another copy of the above.
Oct. 22.
R. O.
113. The Queen to Adolf, Duke of Holstein.
Thanks him (among other expressions of his good will towards her and her kingdom, to which his Orator gave utterance at his interview,) for the assurance of no less cordiality than had been evinced by either Charles V. or Philip King of Spain. She has expressed herself more fully to his Orator.— 22 Oct. 1559.
Copy, in Ascham's hol. Endd. Lat. Pp. 2.
Oct. 22.
B. M. Reg. 13 B. 121 b.
114. Another copy of the preceding.
Copy in Ascham's hol. Letter-book.
Oct. 22.
R. O.
115. Gresham [to Cecil].
1. Since his last letter has shipped for the Queen certain munitions of war (the particulars whereof are detailed) to the value of 700l., and to-morrow intends to ship others. "The pikes and Collen cleves make a great show upon the crayne, which causeth our ill-willers to speak more than the thing is of importance." Hopes that on their arrival they may be received up at the Tower with all possible security, "for I can assure you there be children that do advertise from thence to the Court here of all things at large." Wishes he could persuade the Queen and Council to make provision of at least 20,000 corslets, 20,000 corriers, 20,000 dags, 20,000 hand-guns, 400,000 weight of saltpetre, and 200,000 weight of brimstone. Does not like the proceedings nor the large talk that the Court has against England. Will declare more of this matter on his return. Desires to know what sum the Queen will adventure from "Handborrow." Has ordered the purchase of 100,000 weight of saltpetre and 100,000 weight of brimstone.
2. Thanks for the good news concerning himself contained in his correspondent's last letter; and hopes the Queen will be persuaded that he has got her double the value thereof. His return will be no small comfort to his poor wife and all his friends. Sent him by Forytewelle his six silver candlesticks. Cannot send, as he had promised, a wolf gown, as in all this town he cannot find two skins to sort with the rest, which will be as fair a wolf gown as was ever made. It is said here that the base money and "dallors" shall be cried down out of hand. "If so be, I am blessed of God that I am quit of this base money that I had lying by me." "So that they may have profit, they care not what becomes of the whole realm besides; assuring you, as they be good members for the common weal, so they be the very worst if they be not looked into." Desires to be recommended to the Lord Keeper of the Great Seal and Mr. Treasurer.—Antwerp, 22 Oct. 1559. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 2.
Oct. 22.
MS. Burton-Constable. Sadler, 1. 509. No. LXXXVII.
116. Randolph to Sadler and Croftes.
1. Has received both their letters, and done as they commanded. Is yet uncertain when he shall come, or who in his company; for Ledington is gone with the Regent to Leith, advised thereto for some good purpose. It was intended that he should have gone to offer the Queen the desire of the nobles to join with her in amity, with request also of her aid. Writes not of common matters, as the bearer can give some account of them. This purpose yet remains. The bearer will report common things. Has seen the platt of Leith, and viewed the same himself as near as he durst, and assures them it is very strong, both by art and situation, and well victualled, but slenderly manned for so large a place. They show themselves stout enough, whatever they think. They have chosen a Council by whose authority all things are done. All men are so bent against her that he sees many must be undone to save some.
2. The Earls of Arran and of Argyll desire to be doing, and Lord Maxwell has no small credit among them. Has spoken with the Earls of Argyll and Glencarne, and the Prior of S. Andrews, only on the present affairs.
3. Because the Regent had caused a proclamation to be set forth, and that many believe she sought more than the pretended cause, the Lords of the Congregation upon Wednesday last have made proclamation to the contrary; a copy whereof he will bring at his coming. They have chosen a Council of these men for all matters of policy. The Duke, the Earls of Arran and Argyll, the Prior of S. Andrews, the Earl of Glencairn, the Lord Ruthven, Lord Boid, Lord Maxwell, Lord Dunn, the Lord of Patarrow, Balnaves, Kirkaldie, and the Provost of Dundee. For matters of religion, the Bishop of Galloway, Knox and Mr. Goodman of England; for whose name it may please them to use a certain cipher. The Earl of Arran brought him to the writer and spoke of him very much in the name of the Lords of the Congregation, to the effect that the Queen should not be offended with the favour he should receive here. He himself is ready to do what he can. The fourth in this matter is Ullock [Willock]. These three last preach daily before the Lords of the Congregation in Edinburgh, exhorting the people to follow Christ.
4. This day, the 21st, after the sermon, Mr. Balnaves came to him to require him to write as follows. That they arrived at Edinburgh on the 18th, and on the 19th wrote to the Regent, (who went the day before to Leith,) that she should cause incontinent the French to depart; and because she would presently give no answer, on the 20th they sent a trumpet to require answer without further delay. As she seeks to protract time, they intend shortly to proclaim her enemy to the Commonwealth; and the Government shall be used by the Council already chosen, whereof the Duke and the Earl of Arran are principal.
5. To maintain this matter they think there should be 3,000 footmen and 300 horse, at the least, for three months, to recover Leith; wherefore it would please their friends, with all possible diligence, to haste thither money for their payment, for at least two months. If this be not speedily answered both themselves and their friends will repent; for good will is in them, but power insufficient. Randolph assures them that the little money he brought has served more than if they had themselves bestowed 5,000l.
6. It is concluded on the 21st inst., by all the Congregation and Barons assembled, that the Regent shall be deposed, and that this shall be proclaimed on Monday the 23rd. All hope of concord is this day taken away, by reason that blood is drawn largely on both sides. Thus much he is charged by Mr. Balnaves to write.
7. This day it was concluded in Council that 3,000 men more should be levied, and they seem so inclined that he thinks the French will soon be expelled.
8. Kirkcaldie has come in haste to require Randolph, from the Lords of the Congregation, to despatch the bearer, and to require a loan of gunpowder out of hand.—22 Oct. 1559. Hora tertia.
Orig. entirely in cipher, deciphered.
Oct. 22.
R. O.
117. Another copy of the above, in Railton's hand.
Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 4.
Oct. 22.
B. M. Calig. B. x. 41.
118. Another copy of the above.
By Cotton's transcriber.
Oct. 23.
R. O.
119. Christopher a Taxis and Bernardus Gafforrus de Parre Bergomensi to the Queen.
Having discovered the art of extracting gold, silver, and antimony from various minerals, and being apprehensive that the secret of their art (which they have acquired at great expense) will be stolen from them should they venture to practise it, they petition her to grant them her protection for its exercise within her realms.—"Vienio," 23 Oct. 1559. Signed.
Orig. in the hol. of Taxis, with seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Lat. Pp. 3.
Oct. 23.
R. O. Knox, 1. 449. Calderw. 1. 545. Keith, 1. 234.
120. The Lords of the Congregation of Scotland to the Queen Dowager.
1. They have received her answer and heard the credit of Lion King-at-arms. Perceiving her evil mind towards them, the glory of God, the commonwealth, and the liberty of their native country, they, in the name of their sovereign Lord and Lady, suspend her commission, being persuaded that her proceedings are contrary to the will of the King and Queen. As the Regent will not acknowledge them as true Barons and lieges, they on their part throw off their allegiance to her. Her commission having been granted by the King and Queen, they as their Council are qualified to annul it. They are determined at the hazard of their lives to set the town at liberty, which she has wrongfully planted with her soldiers and strangers; they require her therefore to withdraw her person therefrom, as they are ready to assault the same by arms. She may cause to depart any Ambassador or lieutenant of the King and Queen, together with all Frenchmen, soldiers, being within the same; as on account of the amity between the two nations they do not desire to hurt them. They give her and them twenty-four hours to remove, and remit her to the protection of God.—Edinburgh, 23 Oct.
Oct. 23.
R. O. Keith, 1. 235. Knox, 1. 451. note.
2. Signed by "The Council having authority unto the next Parliament, elected by common election, of Earls, Lords, and Barons, presently convened at Edinburgh;"—namely,
3. Earls: the Duke of Châtellerault, and with him (fn. 2) the Earl of Arran; the Earls of Argyll and Glencairn.
4. Lords: James of St. Andrews, Ruthven, the Master of Maxwell.
5. Barons: Tullibarne, Lairds of Dunne and Patarrow.
6. The Provost of Dundee for boroughs.
7. "The names of the whole twenty-nine Earls, Lords, and Barons, out of whom the forenamed ten Councillors were chosen."
Copy, in Randolph's hand. Endd. by Cecil: The Protestants of Scotland with the Council established. Pp. 4.
Oct. 23.
B. M. Cal. B. x. 42.
121. Another copy of the above.
By Cotton's transcriber.
Oct. 23.
B. M. Sloane, 4734. 101.
122. Another copy of the same, omitting the signatures.
Oct. 23.
B. M. Sloane, 4737. 112.
123. Another copy of the same, omitting the signatures.
Oct. 23.
B. M. Calig. B. ix. 38. Knox, vi. 86. Wright, 1. 12. Sadler, 1. 680. No. CCV. Keith, 1. 395.
124. Knox to Gregory Raylton.
1. Received his letters long looked for in Edinburgh, this 23rd October. Such a jewel as his other writings specify has lately come to our realm, but it is kept marvellous secret, lest the cold blasts of winter cause the beauty of such May flowers to fade. Thus much his eyes saw and his hands touched,—a trim staff for the Queen, then Regent. The staff was seen [sent] in May in the ship in which he came to Scotland, gorgeously engraved on silver and double gilt, and was shown him in great secresy. Has signified the number and names of his needy brethren to such as are in his [Raylton's] company, and to the man above. (fn. 3) Their number and poverty are now augmented, their relief must be speedily provided for; for some, who daily fed forty in household, cannot now feed two. God comfort them, for their battle is strong!
2. The Queen Regent by public consent of the Lords and Barons is deprived of all authority among them; she and the Frenchmen are proclaimed enemies and traitors to the commonwealth, for being thrice charged to desist from fortifying Leith, they proceeded therewith. This was done this Monday before noon. A great Council, of which the President shall be the Duke, shall occupy the authority. The authority of the French King and Queen is yet received, and shall be in word, until they deny the just requests of the Scots. The English shall shortly hereafter understand these and the whole proceedings from the beginning of the matter, "which we are to set forth in manner of history. The battle is begun sharp enough; God give the issue to His glory and our comfort!"
3. The Queen has yet small advantage. She and they brag "that ye will leave us in the midst of the trouble, and this she hath of her last post, which came by you. My battle to this day hath been very bitter; but if ye frustrate my expectation and the promise that I have made in your name, I regard not how few my dolorous days shall be. What God hath wrought by me in this matter I will not now write. But this I may say, that such offers are refused that more do judge us fools than do praise our constancy." They are determined to assay the uttermost, but first must have 3,000 more soldiers; for if they assault and be repulsed, their enterprise will be in great hazard, and their commons are not able to abide together. Asks for support to be sent as well by money as by men, and that he will be a suitor to their brethren in London to have respect to their necessities.
4. The French ships keep the narrow waters here, which is to the Scotch a great annoyance, and to the French a great relief. They cannot obtain provisions, because all their ships are absent, and (as they fear), stayed, so many as are in France. Requests him to make advertisement as he thinks good, for he [Knox] cannot write to any especial for lack of opportunity, for in twenty-four hours he has not had four or five to natural rest and ease of his wicked carcase. Desires him to remember his last request to his [Knox's] mother, and to say to Mr. George that he [the writer] needs "a good and an assured horse, for a great watch is laid for my apprehension, and large money promised to any that shall kill me; and yet I would hazard to come unto you if I were assured that I might be permitted to open my mouth." Is troubled himself in body and spirit, for the troubles that are present and appear to grow. "I write with sleeping eyes."
5. Asks to be advertised if all things come to his hands close. —23 October 1559. At midnight. J. K.
Orig. Hol. Endd. by Cecil, and with a few marginal notes by him: 23 Oct. 1559. Pp. 4.
Oct. 23.
MS. Burton-Constable.
125. Another copy of the above.
[Oct. 23.]
R. O.
126. Gresham to Cecil.
1. Wrote on the 16th inst., by Forytewelle, the Queen's post at Dover, and since it was a letter of importance sends herewith a duplicate of it. As the Queen owes Lazarus Tucker on 20th Nov. next, 13,687l. 6s. 8d., the writer has taken up of that sum upon interest 11,687l. 6s. 8d., leaving 2,000l., of which he has promised Tucker payment, with the loss of two per cent. for the permission money. In consequence of the breaking of the bargain with the merchants, the permission money is fallen from 6l. to 3l. 10s. and the exchange risen to 22s. which unless he had "prevented it" would have caused the Queen a loss of 10,000l. All things here are in good order.
2. Has received Cecil's letters, of the 13th, containing the Queen's doubts as to whether she should pay her debts presently or take it up for a longer time upon interest. Prefers the latter alternative. Sends a statement of various sums of money which he has taken up upon interest from November 1559 to May 1560, amounting in all, with brokerage and interest, to 51,391l. 16s. 8d. Signed.
Orig. in Gresham's hol. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 3.
Oct. 24.
R. O.
127. Charles, Archduke of Austria, to the Queen.
Several letters from his Chamberlain Caspar Preiner, free Baron in Stubing, addressed to the Emperor, the writer's father, evince the Queen's desire for friendship with the houses of Austria and Burgundy, which also is proved by the honours which she has bestowed upon the said Baron. Following the example of the Emperor, who has despatched to the Queen's Court as his Ambassador there resident, George Count von Helfenstein and free Baron in Gundelfingen, the writer sends the present letter indicative of his desire not only to continue but also to augment the cordiality already existing. Prays her to give credence to the message from himself, which will be delivered to her in Latin by the said Count.—Vienna, 24 Oct. 1559. Signed.
Orig., with armorial seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Lat. Pp. 6.
Oct. 24.
B. M. Nero, B. ix. 95.
128. Another copy of the above.
Copy, by Cotton's transcriber, "ex originali."
Oct. 24.
B. M. Sloane, 4142 20.
129. Another copy of the above.
Forbes' transcript.
Oct. 24.
B. M. Calig. B. ix. 68. Wright, 1. 16. Sadler, 1. 513. No. LXXXIX.
130. Sadler and Croftes to Cecil.
1. Though they have received no advertisement at all by Randolph nor others from the Protestants since their arrival in Edinburgh, yet think it not amiss to occupy the post with such matter as can be got by espials and common bruit.
2. They wrote in their last letters that the Duke and his son with sundry other Lords, as the Prior of St. Andrews, the Earls of Cassels, Glencairn, Monteith, Eglinton, &c., Lords Ruthven and Maxwell, &c., arrived with 5,000 horse at Edinburgh on Wednesday the 18th inst., and after them 4,000 footmen which they have in wages, with many besides, in number altogether above 10,000. On Saturday last the Earl of Argyll arrived there with 5,000; but they will not write it for gospel that their power is so great, although it is said that they are 15,000 or 16,000 men, which is like to be true. They hear nothing new of the Earl of Huntly; some say that his eldest son, Lord Gordon, is at Edinburgh with the Protestants, and the Earl Morton also. It is confirmed by sundry reports that since the arrival of the Protestants at Edinburgh there have been divers hot skirmishes betwixt them and the French, and many slain on both sides. Kircaldie is evil hurt, being shot through the left shoulder with an arquebuss, and a French captain of good reputation slain. The fray being so far entered in blood on both parts, they think it cannot be soon staunched. The Queen has more for her 2,000l. than her father could obtain for 6,000l. They cannot tell if the town of Leith will be assaulted, but he knows the Scotch can climb no walls. They trust within a day or two to be able to advertise him of their doings more certainly. Randolph not having written, they judge he will be the first messenger himself.—Berwick, 24 Oct. 1559. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 2.
Oct. 24.
MS. Burton-Constable.
131. Another copy of the above.
Oct. 24.
MS. Burton-Constable. Sadler, 1. 512. No. LXXXVIII.
132. The Lords of the Congregation to Sadler and Croftes.
By the command of the Congregation they write these lines. This Monday, Oct. 22nd, the Dowager was deprived of authority by consent of all the Lords and Barons here present, her deprivation was openly proclaimed, and she, her French and assistance, were further denounced enemies to their commonwealth. A Council is erected, of which the Duke and the Earl of Arran are chief head; and now having advertised the Queen of these doings, they await her answer and the opinion of Sadler and Croftes, which they beg may come speedily. They must of necessity have more soldiers to the number of 2,000 or 3,000, for the assault of Leith, and they lack money for taking up of them. Further, they stand in need of powder for culverins and harquebuts, which they beg may be sent immediately. Have need of counsel and support. Written at the command of the Lords and the Earl of Arran. —24 Oct. 1559.
Orig. Cipher, deciphered.
Oct. 25.
R. O.
133. Throckmorton to the Queen.
1. Recapitulates the contents of his letter to her of the 7th inst, from Bar-le-Duc. Since then the bruit of D'Aumale going to Scotland is renewed, as well through his solicitation of gentlemen to go with him, as also by his own declaration made to the same that he is appointed to that journey.
Oct. 25.2. On the 23rd, one Captain Croc arrived at the Court from Scotland in post. There is very great expedition used in the getting away out of hand of Martygues, whose men of war are increased to fifteen ensigns and are to be transported from Calais; it is appointed that D'Aumale or the Marquis d'Elbœuf shall follow him in the spring with four ensigns more, of which two shall be Spaniards and the rest Frenchmen and others.
3. The previous information that the French King was about to entertain divers captains of Spain and others to be employed against Scotland is confirmed; with the addition, that the French mean to entertain all the captains who served them in their late wars, besides confirming forthwith all their pensions to such as had any. They have also sent into [Guernsey?] prest money for two ensigns of foot, and five of horse.
4. They use all the means they can for lack of French horse and foot, and rig forth a great navy to the sea; and for better conducting of these matters, and continuing their war against the Scots, they make all the shift they can to get and spare money, in such sort that, having received 25,000,000 francs for one year's revenue, they mind not to expend but 5,000,000 thereof for their ordinary charges, and to lay up the rest. Also they are doing their best to borrow of the merchants upon credit. Having so great revenue, and such subjects as either dare not, or will not, refuse to give whatsoever the Prince asks, it is not unlike but they shall have to serve their turn.
5. The Palsgrave sends one of his sons to serve the King in his Court here, and De Symmer also sends one of his sons for the like purpose. The Duke of Ferrara is dead; his kinsfolk seem to make some countenance of grief, but men here are glad; and they look for his son the young Duke, who has already gone towards Italy, having quit his pension here, and resigned his company of 100 men of arms, whereof one half is granted to the Prince of Mantua, and the rest shall be bestowed upon the Duke of Longueville.
6. On the 11th inst, the old Duchess of Lorraine arrived at Escleron, a village two leagues from S. Dizier, where she was met and received by the King and the Count without any great ceremony. She left her two daughters behind her; whereupon it is said, she minded not at this time to satisfy the expectation of the house of Guise; and it was supposed she made not so great account of their friendship as to leave the old friendship of King Philip and his countries. Notwithstanding, some say that, the matter being moved, the Prince of Joinville was found too young; for which cause (as men loath to let slip any occasion to increase their alliance with the house of Lorraine) they offered in marriage for one of her daughters the Prince of Orange, and for the other the Count d'Eu, son and heir of the Duke of Nevers. It is thought these offers shall rather fail than otherwise. The Duchess on the 18th inst. departed towards Lorraine from Montirauder, a village three leagues from Escleron, taking with her the Duke her son, and the young Duchess. The Duchess of Nevers, sister to the King of Navarre, is dead; and the King and Queen of Navarre are entered again into the train of the Court. On the 22nd the Duchess of Savoy took her leave to follow the Duke her husband to Savoy. The young Landgrave is despatched home, it is said, for some practice for the service of the French King.
7. Mr. Grimstone, who was Comptroller of Calais, and has of a long time been prisoner in the Bastille here, has escaped by a window, with some danger of his life in the descent. Thinks he must have arrived in England ere this, as he can hear nothing what has become of him since.
8. John Baptiste Ruffino, (a gentlemen of Savoy, in good estimation with King Philip, and a servant to the Duke of Savoy, by whom he was sent to the French King, for his own private gain, to show him certain devices,)—has been with Throckmorton, and told him that for the good-will borne to her by his master and himself, he desired to offer information of diverse things for her service, a note of which is enclosed. Amongst other things which Ruffino says he can do, the writer has seen, (and so has Killigrew, Somers, and Jones,) the experience of his mill, which is portable in one's hands; it will grind in an hour with the help of one man only, 20lb. of corn. Ruffino has requested that his desire may be signified to her, which, if she approves, she may notify to the man either by Gresham or by the Ambassador resident with the Duchess of Parma, as he presently goes into Flanders, and will remain for the most part at Antwerp. The French King has rewarded him with 500 crowns, and granted to him and his deputies a privilege of exclusive manufacture for ten years of such instruments, nine in number, as he presented to His Majesty. Thinks some of these meet to be seen by and employed in her service.
9. On the 21st inst. accidentally meeting the Spanish Ambassador, at Villeneuve l'Archeveque, a mile from Volusan, who confirmed to him the Frenchmen's meaning for Scotland, touching such preparation as he previously signified to her, and that for their horse they daily send men of war to Calais in small numbers, such as are discharged from Piedmont, who shall be conveyed as covertly as may be into Scotland. That same evening the Spanish Ambassador brought news to the Court that his master had sent for the Queen, his wife, which is very welcome with them here. Whereupon the Court removes from this to Blois and thence to Châtellerault in Poictou, contrary to previous determination. The King of Spain has deferred making his entry into his cities till the arrival of the Queen, who is conducted by the Queen Mother as far as Bayonne, where she shall be met by the Countess Durenia, a widow, and the Count her son, the Duke Dinfantazgo, and the Cardinal of Burgos, who will thence conduct her to Valladolid, where the King is at present.
Oct. 25.10. The persecution for religion continues here still, and also in Spain. Lately Miranda, Archbishop of Toledo, is taken for a heretic. The Archbishop of Seville and twelve of the most famous and best learned religious men in Spain are likewise apprehended; and the Conte di Nieva, appointed for Viceroy of the Indies, has, with his son, while waiting for the wind to depart, been taken in the ship and carried to prison. They are about to make an ordinance in the Parliament here that all traffic of merchants from England and other places on this side, shall be at Calais, and nowhere else. Is informed that D'Aumale is appointed general of the French army in Scotland, the Marquis D'Elbœuf colonel of the horse, and Martygues colonel of the infantry. [D'Aumale] shall take with him 80,000 crowns.—Paris, 25 Oct. 1559. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. Portions in cipher, deciphered. Pp. 6.
Oct. 25.
R. O. Forbes, 1. 252.
134. Throckmorton to Cecil.
1. Has received one letter from him of the 27 Sept. Cannot learn anything of the French Queen's seal for Scotland, otherwise than what he has written heretofore; which he has had confirmed at the hands of the engraver. For the use thereof he can learn nothing. Has received his last letter of the 1st inst. by Barnaby; who he wishes had stayed somewhat longer, to bring him some certainty for proceedings in Scotland, being driven so near the point, and also knowledge from the Queen as to his coming to her in post. These were the two chiefest things he desired to know and most necessary for the present.
2. He recapitulates his own letters to him of the 7th, 9th, and 10th inst. In his letter of the 10th, (sent by Thomas de Lisle, a goldsmith in S. Martin's,) he enclosed a letter to be sent northward; and signified in the same the information he received from one who of late had spoken with the Marquis D'Albœuf; viz., that the Marquis stated the advantage and commodity they now had for landing their men of war in Scotland under colour of chastising the Scots for their wilfulness in religion, and thereby would be able to prosecute the French Queen's right here, when time was for the purpose; and so to set upon land by that means as many as they would. He said also that when the Scots had been chastised and had smarted well for their folly, those of them who were wise, knowing their purpose and rightful quarrel, would follow the French, and do as they did. The Marquis inquired of England and its situation; and on declation of the said gentleman, confessed that although the landings were not altogether commodious, yet they would begin by land; and whereas England thought to set all on a day, they would keep us well enough from that, and begin petit à petit, as they did in Piedmont, and enlarge their frontiers, and would find means to trouble us; and so willed him to hearken towards the spring, for then he went into Scotland, and then also would help to awake us. He asked likewise what fortifications were upon the borders, at Berwick and Carlisle. Answer was made that they were strong, and that Berwick was newly fortified. The Marquis said that they knew well enough what their fortifications were, and that in six days he would not doubt to win any piece they have, as the French had proof at Calais and elsewhere what Englishmen can do in a defence; and that the French know how to assail to their advantage.
3. Refers him for the present occurrences to his letter to the Queen and the Lords of the Council.—Paris, 25 Oct. 1559. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. Considerable portions in cipher, deciphered. Pp. 3.
Oct. 25.
B. M. Sloane, 4135. 12.
135. Another copy of the above.
Forbes' transcript.
Oct. 25.
B. M. Calig. B. x. 45. Keith, 1. 377. Sadler, 1. 517. No. XCII.
136. Sadler and Croftes to Cecil.
1. Cecil's letter of the 20th they received on the 25th, and on the same day one in cipher from Randolph, which they have deciphered, and sent on to him, begging to hear the Queen's pleasure shortly, that they may answer the request for aid in money. They understand by the messenger who brought the letters, that there have been divers skirmishes between the Protestants and the French, and also nightly alarms given to the French at Leith, and divers hurt and slain on both sides; but Kirkaldy has no such hurt as they wrote of, which arose from another Scotchman being hurt, before which Kirkaldy slew a Frenchman, whereby the Protestants had the first blood, which they take for good luck. The Earl of Huntly remains at home, but his son, they say, is coming to the Protestants with 400 horse; and James Mac Connell, whom the Regent stirred against the Earl of Argyll, is also coming to them with 700 footmen. The Earl Morton lies at his house at Dalkeith, three miles from Edinburgh, and sometimes repairs thither; the Protestants make certain account that he will be theirs. That the writers may know their doings more certainly, they will send Mr. Drury secretly to Edinburgh, to some trusty man, with instructions to view Leith, that he may advise their secret friends how best to attack it. Also they have written to Randolph to inform the Lords of the Congregation of the aid now coming from France with Dampmarten, as they before didabout D'Elbœuf and D'Aumale, when, had they attended to such advice, they would not have suffered Leith to be fortified.
2. And because it appears that some good disposed people have given knowledge to the Regent that Sir James Croftes should conduct the Earl of Arran out of this town, whereof the French Ambassador has complained, it may like him [Cecil] to understand that the Earl did not enter the town. The Duke his father required him [Croftes] to show favour to his son, and to advertise him of his arrival, whereto, to better colour the matter, Croftes answered that if his son came he would have nothing to do with him; which answer, nevertheless, the Earl was privy to. But touching his conveyance, it is true he caused him to be secretly put out of the castle, over the water, at night; where a gentleman, by their appointment, received him and rode with him into Tevydale, and delivered him (about one or two o'clock a.m.) to a Scotch gentleman, his dear friend, who conveyed him to Hamilton. The whole matter was so secretly handled that neither of the two gentlemen are suspected, nor can any tell what way or how he came into Scotland. They suspect one Thomas Claveryng of having reported this to the Regent, farmer of the domain of Norham, dwelling in the castle there, whom they know to be very "quisitive," and who got knowledge of the Earl's passing through Alnwick. He is, some think, a good spy for the Regent, and even if he be not, it were not amiss that he dwelt further from the border, and an honest man in his place at Norham, which is now made a farm hold, employed to profit and not used like a fortress; such disorder is not only herein, but in many other things in this country.—Berwick, 25 Oct. 1559, at midnight. Signed.
Orig. Railton's hol. Pp. 4.
Oct. 25.
MS. Burton-Constable.
137. Another copy of the above.
Oct. 25.
B. M. Calig. B. x. 43. Knox, vi. 89. Keith, 1. 397.
138. Knox to Croftes.
1. Such is their estate that unless present support be provided both he and they will lament; the Scots first, he confesses; but what shall ensue, experience may teach the English.
2. It was once determined that Leith should have been assaulted, and there the matter stands in debate; for some fear the enterprise if they be once repulsed, others are persuaded to put all in the hands of God. The number of their soldiers is few to so great an enterprise; and it were no small discomfort to hazard their nobility, Barons, and gentlemen upon their walls and soldiers. Proclamation is made by the drum for listing more men of war; but partly for lack of money, and partly because men have no will to hazard, they can make no number. Desires him to send both men and money with all possible expedition. When all reasons that may be laid in contrar of his petition are rightly examined, their present estate and the inconvenience which may ensue their overthrow shall swallow and devour them all. France in heart is already at defiance with England, and abides only the opportunity and advantage. The sending of 1,000 or more men can break no league or point of peace with France, for it is free for the English to serve in war any Prince or nation for their wages. "If ye fear that such excuses shall not prevail, ye may declare them rebels to your realm when ye shall be assured that they be in our company." The English pay them wages when they presently lie idle, but they would more profit the Scots within six days than 5,000 will do forty days hereafter. The number of the Scots daily diminishes, and in process they will be compelled to dissever and "skaill," and then the writer never looks to see so many noblemen assemble for that purpose. He speaks his judgment freely. Wrote before for some support to such as without the same are not able to serve, but has received no answer from Croftes. The Laird of Ormeston assists them not in their danger. Leaves the cause to Croftes' judgment, and fears that more will shortly follow.—Edinburgh, 25 Oct. 1559. Signed: John Sinclair.
3. P.S.—It is bruited that France labours with the highest to utterly refuse them; the Queen Dowager has plainly spoken that she knows the means here to frustrate their expectation of support by promise to deliver Calais. "Sir, our simplicity shall appear before God and man." Desires him to answer these rumours. Has opened the letter himself to scribble these few lines. Is charged by the Lords to take pains to visit him "and further above." Asks for Croftes' judgment in that case.
Orig. in Knox's hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil: Knox to Sir James Croftes. Pp. 4.
Oct. 25.
MS. Burton-Constable. Sadler, 1. 515. No. XC.
139. Randolph to Sadler and Croftes.
1. The absence of Lord Lydington has caused the Lords to be very uncertain whom to send on this matter. Some thought Balnaves fittest; Kircaldy stayed that upon the motion of the writer. Now they have resolved to send the Lord of Patarrow. They are in haste, saying that if it were known that England would take part, the whole country would follow. Hitherto they have had good success. The Dowager will go to-morrow to Inchkeith. Many of the French daily steal away; four or five were taken going and hanged. Their diet is very spare, and her friends very few. The Earl of Huntly promises fair; he is expected here very shortly. The Lords heartily wish for some English soldiers. They may do the Earl of Arran much pleasure by sending him "a tergette." Hoped to have sent the proclamation, which is deferred. Will bring in writing a full account of all their doings, at his coming. They will receive a letter from Knox, who made him privy to the same, to whom he [Randolph] opened the state of the country. Their hope is great, and their need of soldiers also.—Edinburgh, 25 Oct. 1559.
2. P. S.—Begs the enclosed may be sent to the Queen. They are open in all their doings.
Orig. The whole in cipher, deciphered.
Oct. 25.
B. M. Calig. B. x. 44.
140. Randolph to Sadler.
1. The absence of the Laird of Lethington has caused the Lords to be most uncertain whom to send in this matter. Some thought Balnaves fittest; Kirkaldy stayed that upon the motion of the writer, resolved now to send in haste the Lord of Pitarrow. Report of the aid of England draws most of the country, and the French daily steal away, though some have been hanged for so going. Huntly is still uncertain, yet he promises fair.
2. The Lords of the Congregation willed him to write to the Council of England these things following. On Monday 22 Oct. the Dowager was deprived of her authority by consent of all the present Lords and Barons, the same proclaimed, and her officers inhibited to execute in her name; she, her French and assistants, denounced enemies to the commonwealth, and a Council erected, whereof the Duke and Arran are chief. They, being desirous to do nothing without advice of the Queen of England and her Council, have sent one to know their pleasure. They crave some present supply of powder and money, for they are forced to raise 2,000 or 3,000 soldiers more for the assault of Leith.
Copy, by Cotton's transcriber, from the original in cipher deciphered.
Oct. 25.
MS. Burton-Constable. Sadler, 1. 516. No. XCI.
141. Sadler and Croftes to Randolph.
His letters of the 22nd inst. reached them on the 25th; the messenger made no great haste. Have despatched his said letters to the Court. But now, to say their opinions, surely all wise men think that the Regent will utterly weary the Lords of the Congregation; and that if they obtain not their wills and expel the French from Leith shortly, the aid coming from France under Damp Martin, (a man of great knowledge, whose brother was slain at Peronne) being 4,000 men, will be able to meet them in the field. On the 20th inst. they were ready to embark at Newhaven. Cannot think that Leith can be made so strong in so short a time, as to be able to abide a sharp assault. If Leith be not taken and the French expelled before the new aid arrive there, it will be too late to go about it afterwards. Send their commendations to the Duke and his son. They have had only one letter from Balnaves since he was here with them. Beg to hear often in this great matter, and to know the part of Huntly and Morton.—25 Oct. 1559.

Footnotes

1 Buchanan has given a translation of this document into Latin, in his History, p. 542, ed. Traj. ad Rhenum, 8vo., 1697.
2 Originally, "in his absence." The alteration is in Randolph's hand, but with a different ink.
3 "Secretary Cecil, I suppose."—Note by Sir W. Scott.