Elizabeth
November 1559, 6-10

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Institute of Historical Research

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Joseph Stevenson (editor)

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1865

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84-100

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'Elizabeth: November 1559, 6-10', Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 2: 1559-1560 (1865), pp. 84-100. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=71792 Date accessed: 24 November 2014.


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November 1559, 6-10

Nov. 6.
R. O.
195. [Challoner to Preyner.]
1. Has heard nothing of his health since his departure, but hopes he is well and enjoys himself. Has inquired of all comers, especially if they were Englishmen, about him, and has received a satisfactory report, to his great pleasure.
2. Nicolas Baron von Polueiller (?) the Emperor's Ambassador with the King of Spain, before his journey into Spain had requested Challoner to remember him to his present correspondent. Will always be happy to hear of his prosperity.
3. P. S.—Had almost forgotten to mention the case of a youth from Augsburg, who lately wrote to him to the effect that Preyner was much annoyed with him [Challoner] because, after he had induced the said youth to leave his parents and friends, he had neglected and abandoned him. If the servant of Schorer made any such complaint against him it was unjustly done, as will appear by letters at home written by the lad's parents and friends from Vienna.
Challoner's corrected draft. Endd.: M. to the Emperor's Ambassador, Pryner, 6 Nov. 1559. Lat. Pp. 4.
Nov. 6.
R. O. Correspondence of Parker, p. 105.
196. Parker, Archbishop elect of Canterbury, to Cecil.
1. They were this other day with the Queen, in whose gracious words they took much comfort, but for the principal cause not fully resolved, whereupon she dismissed them, saying she would speak again with them on Saturday last, if she sent them word, "which Her Highness have done." As the matter is in good towardness, they wish they were called for again to continue their humble supplication to the punishment and stay of the offendcill. Some fear that danger is like shortly to arrive thereof.
2. "God keep us from such visitation as Knockes have attempted in Scotland; the people to be orderers of things."— 6 Nov. Signed: Your Orator, Matth. El. Cant.
Orig. Add. Endd.: 6 Nov. 1559. Pp. 4.
Nov. 6.
MS. Burton-Constable. Sadler, 1. 548. No. CXIII.
197. The Earl of Northumberland to Sadler.
There chanced of late two ships to be run aground between Berwick and Bamborough. Has sent these gentlemen, the bearers, to join with such as he [Sadler] shall send for the viewing of the stuff, and for the sharp punishment of such lewd persons as made spoil of the same.—Warkworth, 6 Nov. 1559. Signed.
Nov. 6.
B. M. Calig. B. x. 47 b. Keith, 1. 383.
198. The Scottish Lords to Sadler.
Through the loss of the 1,000l. sent with the Laird of Ormeston they are brought to that straitness that they cannot keep their men of war together, on whose departure they will be unable to keep this town, and so shall their enterprise be frustrate. Pray him with all diligence to send with the bearer, James Baxter, 1,000l. sterling at the least, by sea, for which they have sent a boat.—Edinburgh, 6 Nov. 1559. Signed: James, James Hamilton, James Saint Andr'.
Orig. P. 1.
Nov. 6.
MS. Burton-Constable. Sadler, 1. 549. No. CXIV.
199. William Drurie to Sadler and Croftes.
His ill success in obtaining post horses by the way, and the rising of the waters, prevented his arriving at Court until Sunday night, when, immediately on his arriving, he waited on Cecil; who favourably heard him, and allowed their [Sadler's and Croftes'] proceedings. Next morning was brought before the Queen, who reviewed the matter again, and allowed it to have such consideration as they themselves would, which speedily shall appear. And being wet and weary, is glad to be rid of their company.—From the Court, 6 Nov. Signed.
Nov. 6.
R. O.
200. Balnaves to Sadler and Croftes.
Notwithstanding he wrote last Friday at length how it chanced to the Lord of Ormeston, and what damage they have through the loss of that money, yet by urgent necessity at the desire of the Lords of Council he is compelled to put Sadler and Croftes again in remembrance to furnish 1,000l. sterling, to be sent to them by the messenger. If this money come not hastily it will be occasion to frustrate all the former enterprise.—Edinburgh, 6 Nov. 1559. Signed: Henry Balnaves, of Halhil.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 2.
Nov. 7.
MS. Burton-Constable. Sadler, 1. 550. No. CXV.
201. Lord Clinton to Sadler.
Having heard that there has been a shipwreck near Berwick, has sent his servant, the bearer, to take order for the goods that are saved, to be gathered together for his use, as incident to his office of the Admiralty.—Westminster, 7 Nov. 1559. Signed.
Nov. 7.
R. O.
202. Proclamation at Berwick.
Proclamation made at Berwick, requiring all persons who have in their possession any of the goods saved out of certain ships lately driven on land on the sea coasts of Northumberland, near the Saltpans and Ross, to give notice thereof to the Governor and Captain of the town.
Draft in Croftes' hol. Endd.: The copy of a proclamation made at Berwick about two Scottish ships drowned in Norththumberland. 1 Eliz. Pp. 2.
Nov. 7.
R. O.
203. Troops for Scotland.
Abstract of the letters of the Rhingrave, respecting the levying of thirty ensigns of foot and 1,000 horse soldiers, and their conveyance into Scotland in forty ships.
Dated by Cecil: 7 Nov. 1559; and endd. by him. Lat. Pp. 2.
Nov. 8.
R. O.
204. The Queen to Gustavus, King of Sweden.
1. Has received his letters dated at Stockholm, 28 July, (fn. 1) delivered by his son, the Duke of Finland, despatched, along with "Steno Erici," upon certain matters.
2. She has heard, at various times, the matters advanced by his son; and doubtless the bearer of this letter, his uncle, (fn. 2) will tell him, at length, what her several answers thereto have been. Although her reply is not what Gustavus might desire, yet she believes he will interpret it with that good will which has pervaded the whole of this correspondence.
3. She willingly confesses that the friendship of Gustavus towards herself has been more conspicuous and greater than she has ever received before her accession to the throne from any other Prince, excepting her own parents. It began in the time of her adversity, consequently it had regard to her person, not her kingdom. She owns the obligation, and will endeavour to repay it in any manner not inconsistent with her other resolutions. Although it does not lead to a marriage, yet it may be productive of much benefit to each of their realms.
4. She has been much pleased with the Duke of Finland, whom she would have highly esteemed even had he not been the son of Gustavus.
5. Since God has embued her mind with such a love of celibacy that she will not willingly suffer herself to be diverted from it, she hopes that the King will urge his son, the Prince, to marry without further delay. She will be delighted to hear of his happiness.
Draft, in Cecil's hol., and endd. by him: 7 Nov. 1559. Pp. 2.
Nov. 8.
R. O.
205. Latin translation of the same letter. Written, by Ascham, upon the same sheet of paper as the following Latin letter.
Copy. Latin. Pp. 2.
Nov. 8.
R. O. 171 B.
206. Another copy of the above.
Modern transcript. Pp. 2.
Nov. 8.
B. M. 13 B. 1. 21.
207. Another copy of the above.
Letter-book. In Ascham's hol. Lat.
Nov. 8.
R. O.
208. The Queen to Eric, King elect of Sweden.
1. Has received his letters, as well as those of the King, his father, dated on last July, conveyed by his brother [the Duke of Finland], who had presented the matter already opened by the Orators of his father [Gustavus]. She thanks him for his good will, which, having originated in her times of difficulty, had respect to her person, not to her kingdoms. She is very anxious to reciprocate these good feelings, and therefore regrets all the more that she cannot do so in the manner he would desire.
2. As to the beautiful and kingly present he had sent her, she regrets that at present she cannot accept it. To do so would be inconsistent with her word and purpose. He will see the prudence hereof upon consideration.
3. She has spoken very fully with his brother upon the whole of this business.
4. If upon any other matter the Prince will give her the opportunity of evincing her regard toward him, he will find that his good opinion has not been misplaced.
5. His brother will tell him more, for whom she has a high regard.—Westminster, 8 Nov. 1559.
Draft in Cecil's hol., and endd.: 7 Nov. 1559. P. 1.
Nov. 8.
R. O.
209. Latin translation of the same letter.
Copy.
Nov. 8.
R. O. 171 B.
210. Another copy of the above.
Modern transcript. Pp. 2.
Nov. 8.
B. M. Cal. B. x. 49. Keith, 1. 384. Sadler, 1. 550. No. CXVI.
211. Sadler and Croftes to Cecil.
1. Received his letters of the 3rd on the 7th; and the day before received those from the Protestants, which are here enclosed; to which they answered they were willing to aid them, if it might be secretly accomplished. Because James Baxter thought it as dangerous by sea as by land, he is returned to them to devise for the more secret accomplishment of the same. They [Sadler and Croftes] have again written to comfort them, being of his opinion that they should be aided, more particularly for the taking of Leith.
2. Now, to answer the points in Cecil's letter, firstly, they agree that the only way to assist the Protestants yet is by money and counsel, until time shall percase enforce him to do more. Having promised them that they shall lack no money, the writers would have it sent immediately, as it will stand the Queen in as good stead as if it were in her coffers; for if matters so fall out that it need not be expended on them, yet can it be defrayed on the garrison. What will suffice is mentioned in Balnaves' letter, which they sent to him [Cecil] that he might thereby see what to send. It must be in French crowns, for if in English coins it would be the sooner suspected whence they have it. The writers already have here 1,200l. of English gold, which they dare not send and cannot change. It must be sent surely, for Overton said if he had not hired men on the way, to ride the stronger, perceiving himself to be dogged by false varlets, he had been robbed.
3. Secondly, they think it not amiss that four or five of those captains he mentioned be suffered to come secretly hither; the Protestants have great lack of them.
4. Thirdly, they have written to them that if they forthwith adventure to attack Leith, the charges will be borne; and besides have advertised them again "if they forslow the time."
5. Fourthly, touching the Earls of Huntly and Morton, the one is wily, and the other simple and fearful. Are told that Huntly arrived at Edinburgh yesternight, but this they have not of certainty. Morton lies aloof, albeit he has by his handwriting bound himself to take part with the Protestants, whom they think he favours more than the Dowager, by whose means he obtained the earldom of Angus, though another had a better title to the same.
6. Lord Erskyn, though he seem neuter and keep the castle indifferent, as his special charge, yet has declared himself for the Protestants at the last alarm at Edinburgh when the Lords were out of the town, and has since been in council with them sundry times.
7. Finally, touching the doubt, if they aid the Protestants, that they have no assurance of them afterwards to England; the writers think there is no fear, for being utterly out of credit with the French, they must adhere to England. If the Queen would manifest herself on their side, she would not require that assurance of them.
8. P. S.—Since (fn. 3) writing this have received certain advertisement by their espials, that on Monday last the French issued out of Leith to the number of 2,000, whereupon, the Congregation also issuing out of Edinburgh, a great skirmish followed, wherein the Congregation was put to the worst and thirty slain and forty taken, and the rest driven back into Edinburgh. The French then retired into Leith. The Congregation determined yesterday between one and two o'clock a.m. to go to Lythco [Linlithgow] (twelve miles off), where they still remain in council, devising what to do. The Queen Dowager and her French are in great triumph at Edinburgh, the greater number of substantial men being fled out of the town with their whole families. What will follow they know not, for the Protestants must study to defend themselves, or else lose their lives and lands. The writers think best that the money be sent thither for their relief, for they think that with aid they are so strong in their own country as that they may be "as long as they list at pike with the French;" and the longer this continue, the surer are the French not to look towards England.—Berwick, 8 Nov. 1559. Signed.
Copy, in Sadler's hol.
Nov. 8.
MS. Burton-Constable.
212. Another copy of the above.
Nov. 8.
MS. Burton-Constable. Sadler, 1. 557. No. CXIX.
213. Sadler to Cecil.
Since last writing he has received the Queen's letter sent by the Earl of Northumberland, that he [Sadler] should supply the wardenry of these Marches during the Earl's absence, wherein he thinks he has great wrong, having neither men, horse, nor money; and having necessarily, in that charge, to entertain many gentlemen. The thieves of Tynedale and Ryddesdale are no better than very rebels and outlaws, and there is no other way to bring them to reason than by force, for which a garrison is necessary, or else a general pardon for all that is passed. Still he will take the charge. Having no lands in that country, nor tenants to keep on horseback, when such are wanted he will be forced to call on the country people, which he trusts the Queen will have in consideration. May he change any of the officers which serve under him or not? for Clavering of Norham (of whom Croftes and he wrote) is chief officer in the Eastern Marches, a man of such corruption, as that he would be loath that he should serve under him.—8 Nov. 1559.
Nov. 8.
MS. Burton-Constable. Sadler, 1. 555. No. CXVIII.
214. Sadler and Croftes to Randolph. (fn. 4)
Have received letters from the Court, by which they have commission to assure the Lords of the Congregation of aid. If they will continue their enterprise they shall lack no money to accomplish the same. The writers perceive that the Queen and Council are sorry that he [Randolph] showed himself at Edinburgh, and think meet he should not come to England for a time. They desire to know the charge of 1,000 footmen and 1,000 horsemen monthly, and if the English gold (such as new royals of 10s. apiece, and crowns of 5s.) may be conveniently sent thither, because they cannot convert them into French crowns.—8 Nov. 1559.
Nov. 8.
MS. Burton-Constable. Sadler, 1. 556. No. CXVIII.
215. Sadler and Croftes to Chatellerault, Arran, Lord James, and Balnaves.
The Congregation by their letters of the 6th inst., by James Baxter, having required 1,000l. and powder (for which they promised to send a boat, which has not been heard of), the writers again signify to them that if they can arrange to have the money and powder secretly conveyed to them, they shall be here ready at all times. They again beg them to consider what advantage it will be to recover Leith before any new succours arrive; assuring them that great preparations are being made for reinforcing it, as they hear from the Court. If they will now adventure it the charges shall be borne, assuring them that if money will help them to accomplish their enterprise, the writers will so provide for them that they shall not lack reasonable furniture thereof. They beg to know what money will suffice, and also how it may be safely and secretly conveyed to them. "You may assure yourselves that no practice of the French can dissever us from you; and therefore if you hear any bruit to the contrary give no credit thereto." If, after taking Leith, the French again invade the country to regain it, means shall be taken to prevent this. "Of these things have we now good commission to make you warranty; and would be glad to confer with some trusty man from you in that behalf, if it were possible." —8 Nov. 1559.
Nov. 8.
MS. Burton-Constable. Sadler, 1. 559. No. CXXI.
216. James Ormeston to Sir John Forster, Thos. Forster, and Roland Forster.
Writes to them, as his assured friends, for advice how to behave himself, for that the force of England is coming to Scotland to aid the Congregation of Scotland against the Queen and Lord Bothwell, whose bailiff he is. They know that his neighbours have him in malice, and will misreport all they can, to cause him and his poor men to be harried. He begs them therefore, if they know of any man who desires to harry him, they would hold it off until they can advertise him thereof, that he may put his goods "by the way." He wishes to know if there be any peril to cause him to thrash his corn and put away his goods. Writes hastily by this bearer; but will show them the matter at more length.—The Moss Tower, 8 Nov. 1559. Signed: James Ormeston, of that ilk.
Add.: To Thomas Forster of Langedderstone, Sir John Forster in Alnwick Abbey, Knt., Roland Forster, captain of Werk Castle, brether.
Nov. 8.
R. O. Sadler, 1. 614. No. CLVIII.
217. Bond for the Appearance of Gerard Charlton.
Bond of John Hall of Otterburn, Lancelot Lysley of Gosforth, and four others, to the Earl of Northumberland and Francis Slingsby, Keeper of Tynedale, in 140l. for the personal appearance of Jarret Charlton of the Howe Hill at Newcastle, on 15 Jan. next.—8 Nov.
Copy, in Railton's hol. P. 1.
Nov. 8.
MS. Burton-Constable.
218. Another copy of the above.
In the handwriting of Sir John Forster.
Nov. 8.
MS. Burton-Constable. Sadler, 1. 561. No. CXXII.
219. Bond for the Appearance of George Hopper.
Bond of William Lord Keith and David Strange to the Earl of Northumberland in the sum of 100l. sterling, for the appearance of George Hopper, a Scotchman, or the said David Strange, at Tynemouth Castle, before next Candlemas Day.— Warkworth, 8 Nov. 1559.
Nov. 9.
R. O.
220. [Challoner to the Queen.]
1. The States of the Low Countries are now assembled in consultation at Brussels upon such matters as the Regent and Council here established have propounded to them by order of the King, who named the same to them before his departure, concerning which they then asked respite. They relate chiefly to the following particulars:
2. A general aid or contribution for the payment of the King's debts and those of his father, in all places, Spain excepted, due as well upon interest as for his garrisons, amounting to above 20,000,000 of crowns. To discharge these, imposts are demanded for a certain number of years; among others, a gabelle upon salt, which is much misliked by the people, who live for the most part upon salt meat. As to the debts, they tender the discharge thereof, but on the other side they call upon the grant of certain things beneficial unto them; and, namely, to be disencumbered of the Spanish garrisons. The Regent gives cold ear to that request, the King having no meeter place to bestow them, and being loath to cass 3,000 old and trained soldiers of his nation, being the culled choice of all the rest. The country, however, is equally unwilling to keep them.
3. As to the Inquisition, a letter was lately read to the States from the King exhorting them, or rather with shortest words of charge pressing them, to the receipt of the Inquisition after the manner of Spain. To this the States of Brabant hitherto have with one voice resisted, alleging that it would be the ruin of their commonwealth, viz., the desolation of Antwerp. They of Flanders are content to accept it.
4. As to the occurrences from Spain there has been such silence, both at Brussels and Antwerp, as turned men to great wonder what it meant. A Breton ship, which lately arrived here from the coast of Spain, made men the more desirous to hear thence; for at one port the said ship would not be suffered to seek land, or to deal with the people of the place, and at another port the alguesil or constable of the town came aboard, searched him for letters, and charged him to depart forthwith.
5. It was reported here that the King was sick, but he thinks it false, for two days ago a courier arrived at Brussels with advice that he was at Segovia towards Toledo. The Inquisition there has been very vehement, and lately at Valladolid four great men, an abbess with four of her nuns, with twenty others were burnt, some of them in iron chains, with long torments, for more terror. Of the matter of Ruy Gomez nothing more is spoken; wherefore he thinks the bruit was vain. The King kept a great court at Valladolid with solemn feasts and triumphs. It is said that now out of hand his new wife repairs into Spain. (fn. 5)
6. Since the death of the Duke of Ferrara his second son attempted to usurp upon his elder brother, and would have prevailed but for the intervention of the Duke of Florence, father-in-law to the elder brother.
7. At Rome the Conclave is yet in great discord, divided into two principal factions, viz., the Cardinals Farnese and Caraffa on the one side in favour of Carpi, and Cardinal Ferrara on the other, with the French band and some of the Imperials joined, in favour of Mantua. It is supposed that Mantua will now prevail, by reason that Carpi of late, in choler, gave the mentito to Cardinal Farnese, his chief stay and factor. This arose through the Cardinal Medeghino, who, practising with the Cardinal of Augsburg, promised that if he were chosen Pope he would assert that the German priests might marry. This being discovered caused great storms among them in the Conclave, whereupon gli Signori Conservatori have abridged their diets to one dish and no more. Pasquils infinite are published, whereof he sends some, the chiefest, herewith. (fn. 6)
6. P. S.—Since writing the above, has been informed that late at Brussels, seeing the States were so unwilling to the acceptance of the Spanish Inquisition, for satisfaction of the King's mind and to terrify the people, has been revived and proclaimed extraordinarily the Ordinance touching heresy and books prohibited, which was put forth in 1556, of which he sends a copy. Within a day or two it is looked that the same shall be proclaimed in this town of Antwerp, with order that it be most straitly put in execution.
7. It was reported here that the Duke of Cleves [by solicitation of his wife and others] (fn. 7) was minded to have generally banished out of his provinces the religion of the Gospel; but having spoken with a friend who had lately come from thence, the writer has been by him informed that it is untrue touching the generality, for those of the "Confession Augustane" are still permitted [the Duke himself inclining to it]. (fn. 8) Anabaptists and Zuringlians are commanded to leave his country. [The report of the contention between the citizens of Trier and the Elector, their Archbishop, is again confirmed.] (fn. 9)
8. Has heard also more particularly of the terrible severity of the Inquisition in Spain, where men are called to account for words of two years past. Of the best sort some are executed, others committed to perpetual prison, their goods and livings confiscated to the King, amounting to an incredible sum. "So zeal is somewhat kindled with the thirst of gold."
9. "There chanced among sundry there executed, that a priest, not bound with chains but ropes only to the stake, half scorched and broiled, through struggling when his bands were burnt asunder, brake from the stake and ran among the press, every man giving way to the poor and miserable spectacle of the carbonade. But being taken again by the ministers of the Justice, and demanded whether he would deny his opinions, he answered constantly, No; and so was eftsones committed to the fire. This accident bred commiseration and murmurs amongst the people there, for no man almost reputeth himself in surety, if the shadow of an inquisitor list to pick a quarrel."
10. The Scottish affairs and the army in France hold these men much suspended of the sequel. A proclamation has of late been set forth commanding the King's servants and subjects to abstain from taking "sold" on either side.
Hol. Draft. Endd.: M. to the Queen's Majesty, ix Nov. 1559. Sent by the ordinary.
Nov. 9.
B. M. Galba, C. 1. 42 b.
221. Abstract of the above letter.
Nov. 9.
MS. Burton-Constable. Sadler, 1. 562. No. CXXIII.
222. The Lord James to Croftes.
In a French ship at Berwick, broken within twenty days, was a coffer, with clothes of a gentleman who married his [Lord James's] sister, who died in France, and the said coffer was marked upon the end, which mark, with the names of the principal clothes, are contained in a certain memorandum, which he caused a gentleman (who is his servant and brother to the deceased) to write; because the said coffer and clothes belong to him. Begs him [Croftes] to see that he have the coffer.—Stirling, 9 Nov. 1559. Signed: Ja. Commendator of Sanctandre.
Orig., with armorial seal. Add.
Nov. 10.
R. O.
223. The Queen to Challoner.
1. Has not written since the time of Granado's going over to buy horses for her, because she had no special matter to impart. Thinks it strange, that in the matter of transportation of a few horses, such difficulty is made. As the Ambassador of the King Catholic here has seemed to take the charge of obtaining it himself, neither she nor her secretary have since the first time written to him. He shall now repair to the Conte de Feria and declare to him her very hearty commendations, to inquire after his health, and congratulate him on the birth of a son, the more as, through it, he shall bear more affection towards England.
2. Informs him of a matter of weight lately came to her knowledge, wherein he shall proceed discretly. One Dardois, a secretary of the Constable of France, carried to the King Catholic in the late King Henry of France's reign, the treaty between those two, ratified in the name of the Dauphin, the present King of France, in the following manner: "Francois, par le grace de Dieu Roi d'Escosse, d'Angleterre, et d'Ireland, Dauphin de Viennoise," etc. Which if it be true he has offered her greater injury than becomes a friend; and in order to be sure hereof, commands him, (if he cannot first come to the knowledge of it otherwise,) of himself to seem to motion it to M. D'Arras, using it in such sort as if he understood it out of France; and, doubting its truth, would gladly understand its meaning. If D'Arras shall show himself strange, or deny it, Challoner may bear him in hand that he means friendly to cover the fault, and show that he is informed assuredly that when the same treaty was thus delivered, that he himself should specially note it, and therefore press him instantly and give him notice thereof. In this proceeding he shall not show that he does it by any direction from home, but first advertise her thereof. Her service is not now so cumbersome as it was in times past.
Draft, in Cecil's hol. Endd.: To Sir Th. Challoner, in Flanders; copy of a letter from the Queen, 10 Nov. 1559. Pp. 4.
Nov. 10.
B. M. Galba, C. 1. 42 b.
224. Abstract from the above.
Nov. 10.
R. O.
225. Challoner to Cecil.
1. Sends him the arms and styles of the new Knights of the Toison in one pamphlet, and also the brief extracts of the original; the several feats held by the Sovereigns of the said Order; the places and names of the Knights successively from the first institution of the same. Likewise, the statutes of the Order, which were first procured by him in Flemish, (he could not get the French); at last by good chance he received one printed in Italian; which with divers other printed books, he thought might be acceptable to him from their argument and rareness, the catalogue whereof he encloses him. Some of these books, (viz., the statutes of the Order of France,) he obtained with difficulty. Is promised divers pedigrees and other things, which he will not mention till recovered. The book of architecture is the newest and best work for modern building that yet he has seen; wishes some of those plates might be imitated at his new transformed house near Stamford.
2. Trusts his mind is not alienated from him, as he [Challoner] has not heard from Cecil for some time. If it be misliked that in his former letters he has aggravated the suspicions conceived over these men, he does not repent having given such admonitions. Advises him to require the Queen to arm and exercise her subjects, as he hopes in his old days to toast a crab by the fire; and otherwise (he writes in plain words to Cecil, whom he trusts,) he cannot put off fear that confidence and security may be beguiled. This strait amity between the two mighty neighbours proceeds to the knot by consummation of the marriage. God knows what they will brew against us! were it not good to have an Oliver for a Rowland? Assures him they count our force nothing, the Scotch much less; they suppose division at home will be both our ruins; and that the French wiliness and tolerance will at length weary them. They judge here again that we have been the covert setters on. Wherefore, whether our parts be in it or not, it is good to look unto it, seeing, as well without cause as with, they impute it to England. "If 13 [the Earl of Arran] could bring his feat about, nihil prius, but if always mora trahit periculum, then what doth it impart in such kind of enterprises, which stand altogether upon celerity?" The writer must condemn the manner of their handling of this their affair, seeing we cannot but choose to have a part in their adventure for the vicinity's sake. And in the meantime if we, as spectators of their doing, should lose the occasion elsewhere of concluding honourable partito for our stay and reputation in the world, wots not what to say or think in it. Hopes the Queen will lose no more time, for non nobis nati sumus sed patriæ.— Antwerp, 10 Nov. 1559. Signed.
Orig. Hol., with armorial seal. Add. Endd. Pp. 5.
Nov. 10.
R. O.
226. Another copy of the above.
Endd. by Chaloner: By the ordinary. Pp. 4.
Nov. 10.
R. O. Forbes, 1. 254.
227. Killigrew and Jones to Cecil.
1. According to the order left by Throckmorton they departed from Paris on the 4th inst., and on the 8th arrived at Blois where was the Court. Since their arrival they have heard as follows:
2. The bruit of the French great preparation towards Scotland continues still, as well for the sending such noblemen and men of war as the Ambassador knows, as also for their disposition to prosecute the matter earnestly. They have divers ships at Calais for the transporting of Martigues and his ensigns forthwith; and at Newhaven there are four great ships rigging forth. (fn. 10) On the 8th inst. Protestant the courier arrived here, who reports that the Frenchmen in Leith are brought to great extremity for want of victuals. For their better provision, such men of war as are ready shall be despatched on 30th inst. in the ships at Calais, and D'Albœuf and Martigues shall conduct them to Scotland.
3. It is said that the King leaves here the 15th inst. for Châtellerault, where he brings the Queen, his sister, and then takes leave of her. The Queen Mother goes now no farther than Poictiers, from whence returning she meets the King, and comes again with him to this town. The Cardinals Caraffa and Farnese are agreed; their discord has stayed the Pope's election and caused much contention among the other Cardinals. The choice has fallen on the Cardinal of Mantua; so as the same do like King Philip, to whom they have despatched a post, for whose return they stay. If the answer be not agreeable to the French, they are like to continue till Easter before they agree upon the election. The Romans will have only an Italian, to whom they will prescribe what authority and jurisdiction he shall have; so there is like to be much ado about the election. Since the departure of the Duke of Ferrara, Count Hercole Tassan, a subject of the Duke, is despatched by him towards Spain. He departed on the 5th inst., and is shortly expected to return.
4. On the 9th inst. a poor man (born in Artois), who came direct from S. Malo's, told them that certain English merchants with two ships were taken by a Frenchman, according to the information here enclosed. What shall they do in the same if it prove true? In the meantime they have written to the merchants a letter, whereof they enclose a copy. This man said that the Frenchmen upon the sea coast were advised to be beforehand, and to take where they saw their commodity, as the wars would break out shortly.
5. Portinary is arrived here to make suit for his going into Italy to see his friends there; he declared that his wife, being an Englishwoman, should go into England to visit her friends, and afterwards return to Paris. The bruit is here that Charles of Austria shall marry the Queen, which does not the best please the French, who hoped the Prince of Sweden's great offers should have been preferred. News thereof also comes out of Italy.
6. Jones, on the 9th inst., visited the King of Spain's Ambassador, who asked him what news he had heard from Scotland. He excused himself by his late arrival. The other showed him that the French used all the means they could for sending men of war thither, and meant to employ their force of Almains in some out place of Scotland, to divert the Scots, to give the Frenchmen greater commodity for landing. He desired to be advertised thereof by Jones to procure his master to keep the matter from extremities. He advised the Queen not openly to break with the French at present, but suffer them to beat themselves with the Scots for a time, and then take her commodity. His reason was because he would not that the French should have just cause to move the King of Spain to bear with them, who (he said) assuredly would not support them, preferring his friendship to England, nor have to do with the Scots. Jones endeavoured to persuade the Ambassador that the matter touched the Spaniards as much as the Queen, to which he agreed, and said they would look to it. At dinner he said there was a rebellion in Ireland for religion, and that the men of the country would not conform themselves. He asked after the ports, tillage, fertility, and manners of the country; to which Jones answered as he thought meet, and set forth the Queen's authority and force there. One Don Hernando, a Spanish gentleman, asked him who was the Queen's Ambassador resident with the King of Spain. Answered that he knew of none, but thought one would be sent shortly.—Blois, 10 Nov. 1559. Signed.
Orig. Portions in cipher deciphered. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 5.
Nov. 10.
B. M. Sloane, 4135. 16.
228. Another copy of the above.
Forbes' transcript.
Nov. 10.
R. O.
229. The Lords of the Congregation to Cecil.
They ask for credence to the young Laird of Lethington, Secretary of Scotland, who has been sent with communications to the English Court. They acknowledge how far every one of them is bound to him for the great favours shown in the furtherance of this their common cause which they have in hands, as also some of them in particular for the benefits received at his hands. Request him to give Lethington his best advice when he shall require it.—Stirling, 10 Nov. 1559. Signed: James, Argyll, Alex. Glencairn, James St. Andrews.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 2.
Nov. 10.
R. O.
230. The Duke of Chatellerault to Cecil.
Has received his letter from Hampton Court, 24 August, containing his friendly advice that he should not neglect this opportunity for doing good to his country; whereof, and for Cecil's gentleness to his son in his passage, the Duke heartily thanks him, and will not fail to follow his good advice. Desires him to thank the Queen for the good service this gentleman did his son, and for many other benefits.— Stirling, 10 Nov. Signed: James.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 2.
Nov. 10.
R. O. Sadler, 1. 563. No. CXXIV.
231. Sadler and Croftes to Cecil.
Hear that the Protestants still consult at Lithquo [Linlithgow]; and that they intend to retain their soldiers in wages, and to levy more men to be revenged on the French. It is like they will send for money from the writers, which they think not good to deny them, and yet would thereupon know the Queen's pleasure.—Berwick, 10 Nov. 1559. Signed.
Orig. Sadler's hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 2.
Nov. 10.
MS. Burton-Constable.
232. Another copy of the preceding.
Nov. 10.
R. O.
233. The Lord James to Sadler and Croftes.
1. Thanks them for favour shown unto the furtherance of the common cause at the hands of the Queen and Council, partly for the cause itself, partly for his own sake, who did oppose himself to the adversary. Refers that to God, whose cause they support.
2. But seeing they have hitherto shown their good mind, he cannot find why they should not continue towards the same cause and himself all one, seeing that neither the cause nor he are altered. Trusts their assistance as heretofore, desiring them to concur with this gentleman.—Stirling, 10 Nov. Signed.
Orig. Add. Pp. 2.
Nov. 10.
R. O. Stevenson's Illustr., p. 75. Tytler, VI. 455.
234. Intelligence out of Scotland.
1. The Earl Bothwell, the Lord Bothwick, the Lord Seaton, (and no other noblemen of Scotland), are with the Queen Dowager and take a plain part with her. All the rest take part with the Governor of Scotland.
2. The Governor, his eldest son, the Earls of Argyll, Huntly, Glencairn, the Lord Revill, the Prior of S. Andrews, the Master of Maxwell, the Lord of Levingston, are made Regents of the realm by the Congregation "until they have a righteous Prince among them." These Regents with their trains arrived at Edinburgh on the 23 October, with 12,000 men, and sat in council there, and deposed the Queen Dowager, because she did not keep promise with them, nor follow the counsel of the nobility.
3. At their coming the Queen Dowager removed to Leith, with 3,000 Frenchmen and 400 Scots.
4. On the last night of October the Earl of Bothwell with twenty-four men met the Lord of Ormeston with seven men, near Haddington, and took from him 6,000 crowns sterling, which he was taking to the Governor, and wounded him so badly in the face with his sword that he is now laid up at his house.
5. On the Governor hearing this he sent his eldest son, the Master of Maxwell, the Prior of S. Andrews, and others, being about 700, to Crighton Castle, Earl Bothwell's chief house, who entered the same and put fifty gunners into it, and lay there on the night of "All Hallen Day," returning on the morrow to Edinburgh.
6. On the same day, after their riding forth, the same was declared to the Queen by a servant of the Bishop of Dumblane; and immediately after about 1,500 French and Scots issued out of Leith, and skirmished with about 200 Scots, who had laid two pieces of great ordnance upon a little hill near Holyrood to shoot at Leith. The French won one of them and the other burst; they then entered and spoiled Canongate up to the port, killing twenty-one Scotchmen and three women, and losing six of their men. Forty of their men at arms rode in at the Port and went almost as far as the Tron, where they were put back by the Governor and his party.
7. During the skirmish two shots were fired at the French from the castle, for which the Queen reproved the Lord Erskine, keeper of the castle, as unjust to the crown of Scotland; who answered that he would shoot at any person who went about to annoy the town of Edinburgh.
8. On the 3rd November the Governor sent his son and the Master of Maxwell with 300 horse to Crichton Castle, who, on their arrival, sent to Earl Bothwell at Borthwick Castle, to ask him to join the Lords, which he refused to do; they then spoiled his castle and carried the spoil and all his evidence to the Governor.
9. On the 4th Nov. the Queen sent to the Lords to move them to quietness, both parties engaging to keep their promises, which they would not agree to, saying they had found her so false and unnatural that they would never trust her again, or have to do with her or France but with the sword.
10. On the 6th Nov. there was another skirmish, when Alexander Haliburton, brother to the tutor of Peticur, one of the best captains in Scotland, and thirty Scots footmen were slain, and divers taken; the French lost seven slain and six taken.
11. The Scottish Lords, seeing that these skirmishes chanced not well with them, and that they were not ready for war, put all their ordnance in Edinburgh Castle, under charge of Lord Erskine, and at midnight of the 6th November removed to Linlithgow, remaining there in council preparing for the war. They will set up a "coyne," saying that they shall coin a good part of their plate for maintenance of the Word of God and the weal of Scotland.
12. About 10 a.m. on the 7th of November, the Queen removed to Edinburgh, where she hath all things at her will. The most part of the inhabitants fled out of the town with bag and baggage before her coming thither, having put great part of their best stuff in the castle for safety.
13. The Bishops of Saint Andrews and Glasgow are with the Queen, and the Bishops of the Out Isles and Galloway are with the Lords and Congregation.
Endd. by Cecil: Information out of Scotland. Pp. 4.
Nov. 10.
B. M. Cal. B. x. 52.
235. Another copy of the above.
Transcript, by Cotton's copyist. Pp. 3.
Nov. 10.
B. M. Galba, C. 1. 42.
236. — to the King of Spain.
Begs him to write to the Pope to prefer Nich. Saunders to a Cardinal's hat, that the English might have a man of credit to solicit their causes.—4 Ides Nov. 1559.
Abstract.

Footnotes

1 The Latin copy reads "26 Julii."
2 The Latin copy here reads, "Steno Erici."
3 D'Oysel to Noailles.
Nov. 12.
MS. Paris, Angl. Reg. xiii. 675. Teulet, 1. 377.
1. The courier Protestant, who set out on 27th ult., would inform him of the arrival of the rebels at Edinburgh, and of their determination to attack Leith. God, however, has defeated their plans, and inflicted two blows upon them. The former was on All Saints Day [1 Nov.] when they brought out of the town two of their largest pieces of artillery, with which they frequently but ineffectually fired into this place. The writer and M. de la Brosse sallied out with between 400 and 500 men, whereupon the gunners retreated, but were pursued so hotly by the French that both sides entered the environs of the town up to the gate, with great loss to the Scotch in killed and prisoners. One of the cannon was taken by the French, the other was found to be burst.
2. On last Monday, 6 inst., 1,200 or 1,300 foot soldiers and the cavalry of the writer again sallied from Leith to intercept the supplies which were being conveyed into Edinburgh, and were met by the Scotch army, which they defeated, leaving 300 dead and wounded and taking 200 prisoners. This so terrified the Duke and his Council that they resolved to withdraw during the night, and this they did in the greatest confusion, leaving behind them the greater part of their artillery, ladders, and other preparations for the siege of Leith.
3. The rebels have retreated to Stirling, where it is thought they will fortify themselves, which the writer hopes may not be the case, for it is strong and well situated. The impression hitherto has been that the case of the French in Scotland was desperate, the writer thinks otherwise. The Scots have been aided by captains from Berwick, named Drury, Somerset, and Ket, or his lieutenant.
4. The money sent by Ormeston was taken on 31 Oct. by the Earl of Bothwell, who had been apprised of its transit. Ormeston had received it from Sadler for the rebels; it was only 1,000l. sterling. The Queen will disavow the fact; he should watch her countenance narrowly when he speaks to her about it, and notice whether she reddens. She has promised the rebels greater help, and even speaks of supplying soldiers, but this the writer doubts. Is expecting the arrival of the Marquis [d'Elbœuf] and his troops, to hammer the iron while it is hol.
This letter was ready when the Queen here permitted M. de Rubey to go into France on his private affairs, to whom the writer refers for further information.— Leith, 12 Nov. 1559.
4 "These were retained, and not delivered."—Note on the original MS.
5 The sentence stood originally thus in the draft: "It is said that before March next the King's new wife repaireth not into Spain." The correction is in Challoner's hand.
6 So far the draft is in the hand of a secretary, corrected by Challoner; the remainder is entirely in his own writing.
7 Cancelled.
8 This clause, and a portion of an unfinished sentence are here struck through.
9 The whole of this paragraph is cancelled.
10 Noailles to the King of France.
Nov. 9.
MS. Paris, Angl. Reg. xiii. 655. Teulet, 1. 367.
1. Having understood that the Queen was alarmed at troops being sent from Normandy into Scotland, on the 3rd inst. he demanded an audience, which was granted on the 5th (being Sunday) in the afternoon. Thinks that this time was fixed in order that he might see the tournament, in which Lord Robert and Hunsdon meet all comers. Eighteen assailants presented themselves, some of whom broke their lances well, whereupon the Queen showed great favour to the two defendants. The Duke of Finland was with her in her gallery, so were the Emperor's Ambassador, the French hostages, and the writer, along with many lords and ladies.
2. Upon his arrival the Queen asked him whether he had any news from France, adding that she expected the immediate arrival of her Ambassador from thence. He said that he had been commanded (by letters written ten or twelve days before) to inform her that reinforcements were about to be sent into Scotland in consequence of the outbreak there. She answered that this was perfectly reasonable, but that it must not be considered strange if she armed likewise, seeing that greater preparations were being made in Normandy than were required for Scotland. She was aware likewise that there were already as many French in Scotland as there were Scots under arms, who scarce amounted to 6,000 or 7,000. He replied that they were 100 to one, for the whole of Scotland was banded together for the expulsion of the French. The jousts then began; and as she would not deprive herself of the pleasure of looking at them, she said she would resume the conversation when she had more leisure.
3. When they were ended and she had dismissed the Duke of Finland and the Emperor's Ambassador, she spoke with the writer in private. He began the conversation. He had been commanded by his master, he said, to request her not to be alarmed at these preparations. The King of France had so few faithful servants in Scotland that it was most necessary to send French troops thither. The Queen Regent was in danger, and had to entrench herself in Leith with a very small number of French. She answered that it was the custom of her realm to arm whenever her neighbours armed, and repeated the remark that things were not so bad in Scotland as to require such large preparations as were being made; that there many other places at the devotion of the Regent, as Dunbar, Inchkeith, and Edinburgh Castle; and that the Queen could pass out of Leith if she pleased.
4. Noailles answered these objections in detail. She was wrong, he said, to doubt the good intention of the French; had it been otherwise he, the writer, would not have been instructed to give her the information he had done. He was sorry to see her incurring such needless expense, and was ready to make oath as to the friendship of his master's intentions towards England. He thought that, knowing the character of the rebels and the danger of the Regent, she would be glad to hear that assistance was about to be sent to her. After all, they amounted to no more than eight ensigns, and the ships carried only the necessary provisions and stores. He knew nothing about Edinburgh Castle, nor whether the Regent had removed from Leith. In the end the Queen admitted that the preparations in France were reasonable and necessary, and requested the writer to thank his master for the message, but not to deem it strange if she put her ships and coasts into a state of preparation, as is the custom of the realm. She spoke at length and fairly.
5. She had written, she said, to the Earl of Northumberland, to the Governor of Berwick, and Sadler, charging them, under pain of her displeasure, to state the truth about the passage of Arran, and they had answered that there was no truth in the statement conveyed by Du Crocq from the Regent, and she believed their assurance. The writer did not think it wise to say more than that time would show. And here the audience ended.—London, 9 Nov. 1559.