Elizabeth
December 1559, 21-25

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Institute of Historical Research

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Joseph Stevenson (editor)

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1865

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208-238

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'Elizabeth: December 1559, 21-25', Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 2: 1559-1560 (1865), pp. 208-238. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=71801 Date accessed: 23 August 2014.


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December 1559, 21-25

Dec. 21.
MS. Burton-Constable. Sadler, 1. 649. No. CLXXXIII.
466. Sadler and Croftes to the Earl of Arran and Lord James.
Are right glad to understand, by the bearer, that Alex. Whitlaw has arrived safely. And because they will have heard all at length Mr. Mailvil from the Laird of Lethington, the writers will only say that the Queen's navy is on the seas, and will be in the Firth with all speed possible, and 4,000 or 5,000 men ready to enter by land. They forward a letter from the Court, sent doubtless from some friend of theirs in France.—21 Dec. 1559.
Dec. 21.
MS. Hatfield House. Haines, p. 213.
467. Noailles to the Queen Dowager. (fn. 1)
1. Since his last letters to her (of the 1st inst. by the herald Roy, and on the 7th by the Sire de Bethun) he has been informed that certain of the Congregation have been very secretly introduced to the Queen here, one of whom is Lord Halton, who was brought from Berwick hither by a gentleman named Teleby [Selby?]. Since then the Secretary Lethington and Melvin have been here endeavouring to obtain help, and have made large offers on the part of the Congregation, and tried to persuade her that unless she assists them she will herself be ruined. Immediately afterwards commissions to raise money were despatched everywhere, and payments not due until after five or six months have been anticipated. The arming of the navy has been pushed on with redoubled vigour, (of which he has written already,) fourteen vessels are only waiting for the wind to proceed to Berwick under Mr. Winter, who is to be Vice-Admiral, while the rest are to remain in the river for its protection and to guard the coasts. The Duke of Norfolk is ready to proceed to the north as Lieutenant-General of the north, and Lord Grey is to supersede the Duke of Northumberland. He has obtained a summary, in French, of the Duke's commission, which is to this effect:—
2. "The hostility of the French to this realm being now notorious, by transporting large forces into Scotland under the pretence of conquering that kingdom, the Queen has determined to provide against the same. Being jealous of Berwick, the chief key of her realm, she sends horse and foot soldiers thither for its protection and that of the borders, under her Lieutenant-General the Duke of Norfolk."
3. Thus it appears that she would make out that those scanty forces sent into Scotland are really intended for the conquest of England, thereby to find a readier pretext for thwarting the just and necessary proceedings of the [French] King, and by the same means to favour the rebels. In confirmation of his opinion the writer has to-day been given to understand by his previous informant that the Queen has just issued 500 commissions to the gentlemen nearest the north, requiring them to levy the greatest possible number of demilances and foot-soldiers, to proceed to Newcastle, where the said Duke will receive them. In these commissions she states that the King's plans point, not at the conquest of Scotland, but towards England, and consequently that she is driven to resist him; and that in order to prevent matters growing worse she must take the initiative. The writer questioned his informant as to the precise time at which these troops were required to be at Newcastle, but he was told that the exact date was left blank, and would be filled up by Cecil himself, but that the month of January was mentioned, and that he imagined it would be towards the end. As the period is so short the writer sends this information by an express messenger, who will also communicate further intelligence. He writes to M. d'Oisel of other matters connected with the above.—London, 21 Dec. 1559. Signed.
4. Late yesterday a Frenchman named Nesbet, (who states that he is connected with the Earl of Lennox,) came to the residence of the writer and said that his master had been informed by Captain Bourdicq [Borthwick] (who lately called on him on his way to Scotland) of the conversation which the writer and the captain had held about the Earl, in which the writer had expressed a wish to see the genealogy of the house of Lennox. The Earl in consequence had sent one, which at the end specified the advantages which he possesses above the house of Arran and its present chiefs. Nesbet also stated that a Scottish gentlemen named Master Gaston had been with the Earl a short time previously to inform him that the Queen Dowager advised him to take advantage of the present convenient season for the prosecution of his affairs, and that the Earl had sent to ask this Queen for the same permission to do so, as he had under her late sister.
5. The writer admitted that he had talked with Bourdicq on the subject, but he did not know why the Earl should have taken the trouble of sending his pedigree. Nesbit said that he was charged to apply to Cecil upon the subject, and that he would inform the writer of the issue. He expressed the anxiety of his master to serve the Queen Dowager against the disloyal and ungrateful house of Arran.
6. When the Earl of Arran was here, the Queen and he made a secret agreement (which was signed by both) to the effect that if she would help him to drive the French out of Scotland and to be crowned King of that realm, he would admit that he held it of her, would pay her a yearly acknowledgment, and deliver up to her Dumbarton, Dumfries, Dunbar, and Inchkeith. Although this is probably true, the writer cannot believe either that the Scottish Lords would accept such articles, or that this Queen would make such a marriage.
Endd. by Cecil.
Dec. 21.
R. O.
468. Nesbit's Examination.
Questions put to Nesbit, with his answers.
1. What was the substance of his message given to him by the Earl of Lennox, his master?
2. Whether was it in writing or no?
3. To how many persons did he communicate the cause of his coming hither?
4. How often went he to the French Ambassador?
5. Who went with him?
6. To whom did he declare his being with the Ambassador?
7. What letters hath he sent into France since he came hither?
8. Whereupon did he and Leche commune at their meeting?
Answers to the above.
1. The Earl of Lennox, having been told by Captain Bortyk that the Ambassador was desirous to have his pedigree, sent it, drawn up in French, by Nesbit; who said that the Earl intended to sue for his living in Scotland, being advertised by his brother, the Bishop of Caithness, being in Scotland, that the time served well because of the dissensions between the Queen Dowager and the Duke of Châtellerault, which Duke was the cause that heretofore he could not obtain his suit at the hands of the Queen Dowager or the Queen. Therefore he begs the Ambassador in his next letter to the Queen Dowager to write, that she may be good and favourable to the Earl's suit. He has been sent to obtain a licence for the Earl to sue for his living, being two earldoms, one of which, that of Angus, comes to him by his wife.
2. The Ambassador said the Earl did well, as two earldoms were not to be lost, beside his title to the crown of Scotland, failing the Queen and issue of her body, and that he would be glad to do him any pleasure he could, since Lord Aubigny, his brother, had married a near kinswoman of his own, Madlle. de la Quelle. Nesbit then asked the Ambassador whether the Earl and Lord Aubigny were on good terms as brethren; Nesbit said they were, but that the Earl had taken a little unkindness, on account of his reporting that the Earl had not been a good brother to him in his need; whereas, when Aubigny was a prisoner in Flanders, he sent two of his men to him, and wrote to a banker at Hamburgh to give him 200 crowns, which he payed over to the Count of Ferys [Feria]. Lord Aubigny would not keep them, thinking it was too little. The Ambassador said that the Earl must bear with him, "he was a good stout gentleman, and not very wise, which was great pity." When he heard that Nesbit knew Captain Borthwick he said "he was like to be a good gentleman, all given of talking of the Scriptures." The Ambassador then invited Nesbit to supper.
3. He has told the occasion of his coming only to Cecil, "my Lord Robert," Lady Clinton, and Lord Paget.
4. This is the only time of his being with the Ambassador, the Earl having ordered him to go only once.
5. Nobody went with him to the French Ambassador.
6. He has declared to no one his being there.
7. He has sent no letters into France since coming hither.
8. Captain Leche came to ask him if the Earl would 'be content of his going to him, as his wife was dead, and he had brought a young child from Germany, where he had sold all his things.
He came to him again to take him to the Prince of Sweden's, to dine with a Scotchman in his service.
Orig., the questions in Cecil's hand, the answers in Nesbit's. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 5.
[Dec. 21.]
R. O.
469. Marriage of Philip II.
1. The Queen with the King of Navarre arrived at this place, Paul [Pau], on the 21st inst. in excellent health, having proceeded hither from Bordeaux with the greatest expedition possible. Great preparations were made for her reception, and she has been nobly entertained. The King and Queen of Navarre have done their part with great magnificence, their house being richly decorated. The "Mâitre des Postes" of Spain arrived here the same day as Her Majesty did, with instructions how she is to conduct herself towards the Spanish nobles by whom she will be met on her arrival. He is also to hasten her departure hence, which will be on the 27th of this month, and on the 29th she will arrive at S. Jehan de Pied de Port. The King has sent only fifty mules without coffers; but the Duke de I'Infantasxo will cause 400 to be sent, for it is affirmed that so many will be required.
2. M. de Lansac is returned from Pampeluna exceedingly gratified with the reception given him by the said Duke, and Cardinal, and astonished at the great pomps. Sends herewith a list of the nobles and knights who are coming to meet Her Majesty. (fn. 2) The place of the meeting is already decided. The said Duke sent his secretary here six days ago to report to him all that occurs. He had neither letters nor any commission to kiss Her Majesty's hands, but it is reported that one of the Duke's sons shall come here for that purpose.
3. Some wooden coffers have been made here in which to place the Queen's wardrobe and other necessaries. At present the weather is beautiful to pass La Port; prays God that it continue, so as to expedite the movements of the Duke and the Cardinal. They have more than 1,000 horses, and 3,000 persons, and expend daily more than 1,200 ducats, besides what the attendant Lords spend, each of whom bears his own charges.
4. Thinks they will reach "La Raye d'Espagne" by 1 January, and will thence proceed to Guadalajara within twenty days, where the Princess of Spain already is preparing all things necessary for the marriage. It is said that the Queen will stay at Guadalajara only eight days, and will thence proceed to Toledo.
Copy. Headed, "Extraict," written in a French hand. Endd.: My Lord Ambassador. Fr. Pp. 2.
Dec. 21.
B. M. Harl. 1926. 28.
470. Musters for Scotland.
"A taxation of 400 men, within the county of Lancaster, to serve the Queen at Berwick under the conduct of Sir John Southworth, Knight, 21 Dec. 1559;" viz.: 300 men and 78 archers.
[Dec. 21.]
B. M. Harl. 1296. 28 b.
471. Musters for Scotland.
"Soldiers appointed to serve the Queen under the conduction of Tho. Butler, Esq., and others, 2 Eliz., 1559;" viz.: 200 soldiers and 267 pioneers.
Dec. 22.
R. O. Forbes, 1. 283.
472. Noailles to D'Oisel.
1. Has been anxious at not having heard from him since the departure of M. de Rubey; especially since many reports are circulated, viz., that a French company sent to take Sir James Hauton in his house, a few miles from Leith, had been defeated; that in trying to surprise Edinburgh Castle the French had been repulsed; and that great part of the ships with soldiers and munitions from France had been lost. Others report that the Queen Regent has seized a castle named Horleston, belonging to one of the chief Protestants; that the castle of Edinburgh has been placed in her hands; and that most of the ships had disembarked their men at Leith, Dunbar, and Eymouth, which caused the garrison of Berwick to fear that they would rebuild the fort there; and that the bad weather had driven some across to Flanders.
2. Should this report about the castle of Edinburgh be true, and it be in the Queen Regent's hands, there will now be little hope of the Congregation driving the French out of Scotland. For this a remedy has been proposed by forcing Leith, which would not be difficult, especially with the assistance of the troops of the Queen of England, taking also Inchkeith, to hold the passage and prevent the descent of the French, so that Edinburgh could not receive succour or provisions. The Lords have no apprehension of Dunbar, which they can easily carry. And further, if they could not take Inchkeith, they would fortify an island lower down, by which they could hold in subjection all above them. If they could take neither, they must be content with being able to land upon the coast. Such are the reports; D'Oisel will know if they are true. It is certain, however, that the vessels ready to start have been charged with large cannon for battery, harquebusses, and other arms, and also harnesses for more than 300 or 400 horses.
3. This Queen always says she has no wish to throw the first stone. Last Sunday, when talking with the hostages and the writer about the peace, she said, "May he who breaks it be cursed." And her Councillors affirm that their levies by land and sea are only for the safety of the kingdom; they being justly alarmed at the great preparations which are being made in France for the subjugation of Scotland. These reasons are not without grounds, so that their intentions may not be more hostile than they say; for these men and arms (which they are sending in fourteen or fifteen ships) may possibly be intended for the forts which were ungarrisoned in Queen Mary's time, in the Thames and all along the coast from Dover to Berwick. He thinks, however, that these are but excuses, and hide their real designs. The Queen has now withdrawn her previous cordiality, and only speaks to them ceremoniously; and all, great and little, estrange themselves in like manner; nor can they obtain redress for the vile insult offered a month ago to the Marquis de Trans. Some of the chief men say that they would rather die than see Scotland entirely subject to France.
4. All these things make him think the worst possible of these men, and that they will light a fire most difficult to put out. May God punish them so that they may long mourn it.
5. Has been assured that the first act of the Duke of Norfolk will be to present himself with all his forces as near the frontiers as possible, to encourage the rebels to take arms, thus assuring them of his assistance; and when he sees them heated he will join them. He has been told that among the Lords who will accompany him are Clinton, Grey, and Hunsdon, a relation to the Queen.
6. The bearer, Jehan Canderes, will give further particulars; he is married, in London, but is servant to M. de Candalle. Begs that he may speedily be sent back with news.—London, 22 Dec. 1559. Signed.
7. P. S.—Throckmorton is still here, his return is a deception. It is certain that he assists in conducting the rebels' practices in Scotland; on the 14th certain persons were seen entering his lodging very early from the Queen's, by water, of whom Ledington was recognized as the principal. Earl Bothwell has cost the Queen 14,000l. Is told that Captain Lif will sail in the vessels. Has despatched his cousin De la Motte to France with this advertisement.
Copy. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 6. Fr.
Dec. 22.
B. M. Sloane, 4135. 74.
473. Another copy of the above.
Forbes' transcript.
[Dec. 22.]
R. O. Sadler, 1. 651. No. CLXXXV.
474. Sadler and Croftes to Cecil.
On the 21st inst. they received his and the Queen's letters of the 16th. They agree with the Queen's determination as to impeaching the French proceedings now in the beginning, which might be over dangerous and difficult to be done hereafter. Herein they give their opinions, viz., that this her determination will be greatly aided by her navy now on the seas, being able to cut off such succours as shall come from France. This must needs be the chief help of this service, for there are not above 3,000 Frenchmen in Scotland at this time, which may easily be dealt withal. Lately there passed by here eleven sails, which were all Scottish merchants and no men of war amongst them. When the Queen's navy arrives in the Frith, it will be able to impeach the entry of any more succours out of France, and the enterprise will be made for the defeat or annoyance of the French already therein. For this purpose they think it not amiss to use the advice of the Lords Protestants in Scotland, to whom, having a convenient messenger, they have written for that purpose. When Wynter arrives on that coast they will confer with him on that behalf.
2. They recommend that to the 4,000 men appointed to repair into Scotland, there be added 1,000 of the garrison of this town when they shall enter into Scotland. Wish that money and victual were provided, so as not to depend on the Scottish victualling; wherein they may be deceived. Carriages must be provided for the ordnance, of which a larger proportion for battery is necessary than is mentioned in Cecil's letters; the same also for victuals, tents, and other necessaries, to continue upon the siege of Leith, as the case shall require.
3. As it is determined to have these 2,000 horsemen, whereof 600 are lances and pistolets, to join with the said 4,000 footmen, they doubt how it shall be possible to feed so many horses in Scotland at this time of the year. This force, coming into a friend's country, must take what they can get for their money, and not by spoil, that the people may see they come for their good and not for their evil.
4. They think the time for sending this power into Scotland must rest much upon the determination of the Lords Protestants for their readiness to come to the field; which should be so resolved that both powers might meet at Edinburgh the same instant; as they think they shall not be able to keep any greater power long together than such as they shall retain in wages. They advise therefore that the English join with them, and begin the siege of Leith at their first assembly at Edinburgh, when their whole power is together. Since the Scotch cannot keep any number of men long together, the Queen, in addition to the charges of her own army, will have to entertain at least 3,000 Scotch footmen and 300 horsemen for as long as will be thought necessary, so money will be the principal stay and furtherance in this matter. Nevertheless order is to be taken with the said Protestants to bring as great a power to the field as they can at their own charges. They trust that before the return of the Lord of Lethington from thence, Cecil will resolve with him as the case requires.
5. P. S.—As he [Croftes] has received no answer from the Queen touching the augmentation of the old garrison's wages here, granted as a benevolence, he has thought it not meet to suffer such a band to decay, and as they cannot live on their old wages, being but a groat a day, (all things being so dear,) he has presumed to continue the said augmentation. In fact, as this town must have a band of horsemen, he sees not but the said benevolence must continue. The schedule of the prices of armour mentioned in the Queen's said letter has not been sent to them.
6. There is a great bruit in Scotland of an army coming out of England to aid the Lords of the Congregation, so much so that the Queen Dowager has practised with Lord Erskine, in charge of Edinburgh Castle, to receive her into the castle in case she cannot withstand against them—which (as they are credibly informed) he has granted her, provided he still be master of his charge. She has said also, that ere the holy days end, she should have succour from France to make up the full number of 6,000 Frenchmen. Signed.
Orig., in Railton's hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil: 22 Dec. 1559. Pp. 5.
Dec. 22.
MS. Burton-Constable.
475. Another copy of the above.—22 Dec. 1559.
Dec. 22.
R.O.
476. Surrender of Calais.
The trial and conviction of Sir Ralph Chamberlain, lieutenant of the castle of Calais, and John Harleston, lieutenant of the castle of Ruisbank, accused of the treasonable surrender of Calais and the Marches to the Duke of Guise and the French, 7 Jan., 4 and 5 Phil. and Mary. Being brought to the bar by the Lieutenant of the Tower, they pleaded Not guilty. Verdict against both, Guilty. Judgment as is usual in cases of high treason, and execution to be had at Tyburn.
Orig. A file of twelve membranes.
Dec. 23.
Herald's College. MS. Talbot Papers, Vol. E. 53.
477. The Lords of the Privy Council to Lord Talbot.
1. The Queen having committed to him a special charge of great importance, tending to the necessary service of the realm, for defence of the same against certain attempts of the French, lately disclosed though not published, and having sent to him a number of particular letters to diverse persons within the county of Derby "of good lyvelod," to will them to send certain horsemen to Newcastle by the day appointed by the Queen, the writers think meet to signify part of their minds for the furtherance of the same service.
2. He shall send for the sheriff and some of the principals in every quarter of the shire, and shall use their help in this service.
3. If some be appointed to find horses for demi-lances, and the horses be not meet for lack of stature, rather than hinder the service, if they can set forth a good strong and well set gelding, though he be not very high, and a man on his back, meet to wear a corslet and shoot a dag, it shall suffice. If the party cannot suddenly provide a corslet, he shall not stay thereupon but send him to Newcastle, where he shall have a good corslet for 30s. and a case of dags upon reasonable price.
4. He may spare persons that are insufficient, and provide some other not assigned but forgotten.
5. He shall assign some one of most discretion to be guide toward Newcastle.
6. If he find any unwilling for the service, he shall advertise them thereof.
7. If any assigned are gone out of the country, leaving his household there, such as have charge of his house shall accomplish the Queen's commandment, though the party be not able to come to Newcastle at the day appointed by four or five days.
8. The Queen will be well pleased if one-third of the whole be furnished as demi-lances, and the rest with strong geldings meet to carry a man with a corslet. Herein he may show himself to do at this present very acceptable service to the whole realm.—Westminster, 23 Dec. 1559. Signed: Bacon, C. S., F. Bedford, Pembroke, E. Clynton, W. Howard, E. Rogers, F. Knollys, W. Cecil, William Petre, N. Wotton, Ry. Sakevyle.
9. P. S.—If any appointed by the Queen to make lances or horses at this time, be by his appointment, already employed in the conducting of footmen out of that shire to Berwick, in that case he shall spare them.
Orig. Add.: To the Lord Talbot, Derby. Endd.: Received 12 Jan. 1559. Pp. 4.
Dec. 23.
MS. Burton-Constable. Sadler, 1. 654. No. CLXXXVI.
478. Cecil to Sadler and Croftes.
1. He trusts Norfolk will be at Royston to-morrow, and Lord Grey soon after. Their ships are on the seas. Winter is coming nigh them. In passing Berwick, that he may know the state of the French navy in the Frith, let them send out a boat with the intelligence. The French are much amazed at this sudden arming, and hover now. The Marquis d'Elbœuf, arriving in Calais, returned to Paris in haste. The whole coasts of France prepare to war. He has no intelligence from them and fears for the loss of Edinburgh Castle. Is almost asleep.—Westminster, midnight, 23 Dec. 1559. Signed.
2. P. S.—They had need give order for leather to glove 100 gauntlets sent.
Orig., with armorial seal. Add.
[Dec. 23.]
R.O.
479. Francis, Duke of Lorrain, to M. la Brosse and the Bishop of Amiens.
After having well considered the causes for which the King has sent the present bearer, they shall expedite his return, which will give the King and Queen great pleasure. They may give entire credence to him. Signed.
Copy. Fr. P. 1.
Dec. 23.
R. O.
480. Gresham to Cecil.
Has shipped, by the grace of God, for the Queen in divers and sundry ships, 23rd Dec., certain munitions of war, the particulars of which are given; and over and above the same has others, specified, which he trusts to ship. "This great shipping will astonne all the Queen's enemies, and divers other, but there is no remedy."
Orig. Hol. Endd. Pp. 3.
Dec. 23.
R.O.
481. The Queen's Debts in Flanders.
"A note of the five bands for money taken up by Sir Thomas Gresham, 23rd Dec. 1559," of Paulus van Dall, Lazarus Tucker, and George Spangenburger.
Gresham's hol., and signed by him. Endd. Pp. 3.
Dec. 24.
MS. Hatfield House. Haynes, 215.
482. Philip II. to Queen Elizabeth.
Has received her letter of the 3rd Oct., in which she congratulates him upon his safe arrival in Spain. Expresses his great goodwill and friendship towards her. Does not approve of her determination, expressed in these same letters, of deferring her marriage, and thinks that it would be better for herself and kingdom, if she would take a consort who might relieve her of those labours which are only fit for men. If she should decide on Charles, Archduke of Austria, Philip's cousin, it would be most pleasing to himself, and beneficial to her kingdom; and he requests that she would hear the writer's Orator upon the subject. Should the matter have affected Philip's only son, he would immediately have set about preparing for his departure; but as it chiefly concerns the Emperor, Philip has written to him upon the subject, in order to avoid all misapprehension.—Toledo, 24 Dec. 1559. Signed: Philippus,—G. Perezius.
Orig. Add. Lat.
Dec. 24.
R. O.
483. The Privy Council to the Queen on the French Designs upon Scotland.
1. The Queen having at sundry times delivered to them the proceedings of the French King and his wife, in sundry points derogatory to her right and title to the crown of England, as well by joining of the said Queen's arms with the arms of Scotland, in open jousts and triumphs, in entries into towns, in plate, tapesseries, clothes of estate and such like, as also by usurping her style and title of England and Ireland, and by having caused certain seals to be engraven, and having taken occasion, under the pretence of appeasing certain disorders in Scotland, to send great force of men of war there, and having prested a great number of Almains to be transported into Scotland, has willed the Privy Council to consider the premises and to give her their advice. They therefore present to her certain Articles which follow, prefixing certain suppositions which they judge very true, whereupon their opinions and advices follow:—
2. They think it verily too true that although the French have made a peace they will keep it no longer than they see time meet for their purpose to break it. This opinion is founded upon the new false pretence made by their Queen to these realms.
3. They think that the French will never while their Queen lives or her issue (if she have any by the French King), cease to advance their title against Elizabeth and the issue which they beseech God shortly to give her.
4. They think that the French mean, after their powers are brought into Scotland, first to conquer it, (which will be neither hard or long to do,) and next, that they and the Scots will invade this realm principally upon the north parts.
5. They think it dangerous for this realm to sustain an open hostility with the power of France in Scotland for the following reasons:—
6. The power of France, not being at war, they confess is great for England to sustain.
7. France has this advantage, they adventure in Scotland but money and men, which they may recover at home; we hazard not only money and men (whereof we see not such store as has been) but also the state of the crown, the realm, and all that depends thereupon, which is too dreadful to think upon.
8. "It is as agreeable to France, being established with a state military, after a year's peace to make war, as it is convenient for this realm, being ordered for peace, after a year's war to make peace."
9. Upon these four suppositions follow certain counsels for the remedy of these dangers:—
10. "We think meet that the honour of Almighty God be principally and before all other things sought, (Quoniam non est consilium contra Dominum,) and for this part that the governance of the Church be better seen unto and established, the state ecclesiastical duly placed, and the care of all things thereto belonging be remitted to the clergy."
11. They can but show their inward and hearty desires and wish for an honourable marriage for the Queen.
12. She should consider what treasure she has, and what she may account to have before this next spring, and except the same shall appear greater than they doubt it will, she should send to Antwerp to "take up a mass" of 200,000l., and also by a sale of a portion of land procure 100,000l. or more. The defence of the whole should move her to spend a part. "This matter of money we esteem as the foundation of all the rest that shall follow."
Dec. 24.
The Privy Council to the Queen.
13. She should send some embassy to King Philip, not only to procure his friendship, but also to understand what she may therein trust unto.
14. She should send to Almain to the Princes Protestants to procure their favour, both to let her have men and also to impeach indirectly the French preparations there.
15. She should send to the King of Denmark to stay him in friendship with her from aiding the French King.
16. The maritime "Stedes" of Almain should be gently used so as the French should not seek any aid of them.
17. The Duke of Finland should be so used that she might have some of his ships in time of war.
18. Good means should be used for the having of frequent good intelligence out of France.
19. These are things external meet to be executed. Their advices for domestic preparations are as follows:—
20. That the Duke of Norfolk should be sent into the north as her Lieutenant-General, to be at Newcastle or thereabouts, and that Lord Grey should be Warden of the East and Middle Marches.
21. That a furniture of victual should be sent to Berwick, sufficient to serve for three months, not only the ordinary there but also for 4,000 or 5,000 footmen, and 1,000 horsemen.
22. That armour, munition, powder, and artillery should be conveyed to Newcastle and Berwick, "meet for the furniture of a battle;" besides a store for the town of Berwick to be sent by sea, with a guard of fourteen or fifteen ships of war.
23. That the charge of the victual, ordnance, and armour should be intrusted to some of the Council expert herein.
24. That a number of footmen (not less than 4,000) and horsemen (not less than 600 or 700) should be levied in the north, and sent to the frontiers, besides the light horsemen of the Borders.
25. As to the following Considerations:—
26. That it is too early in the year for the French to bring into Scotland any great number of horsemen.
27. That the power of the Frenchmen presently there is not so great but that a small army there might defeat them.
28. That if the French are suffered until the spring they are likely both to vanquish the Scots and so to increase in numbers as that they shall invade this realm, and having no other resistance than Berwick (whose weakness is too well known to us) shall drive the Queen's realm to come to battle. —They find that from these Considerations follows a very hard and dangerous question, which, after long and many consultations, they have resolved thus. That she should prepare such a force by land and sea as, with the aid of the Scots which withstand the French for the liberty of their kingdom, may recover the strengths which the French now hold and restore it to the obedience of the Scottish Queen. Many and weighty reasons have been made to forbear this attempt, (as chiefly because the French will enter into war with England, which reason surely brings with it a great number of troubles,) yet seeing whether this attempt be made to expel them out of Scotland, or no, they will not long forbear to make war with England, the English are driven to choose the course which has less danger.
29. Believing that God will have regard to their meaning they declare to her the just grounds of their determinations.
30. They think it most special to provide for the safety of her person.
31. Nature moves them to see to the defence of themselves, their country, and posterity.
32. If they could devise any other way to put over this the French quarrel but for this one year following, (as indeed they see none but only this, if the Scots could hold them occupied for this year with a war in Scotland, which is plainly seen to the writers to be impossible,) they would never advise her to give any occasion of hostility.
33. The French have already begun a war with her by claiming her crown, putting it into their arms and bearing it even as they do Scotland, using the style of England and Ireland as they do of France or Scotland, publishing all these their interests in all open places of the world; and what they can do more until their army be safely in Scotland the writers see not. And when it is there, the French will not diminish their ambition or return their powers by sea into France and Almaine. Upon these grounds the Council concludes it is best to avenge these great wrongs now in time while a small power and treasure may do it.
34. For the particular execution hereof the Duke of Norfolk shall understand the proceedings of the French in Scotland with the Scotchmen, of what power they are, and also understand from the Scotchmen how they are able without any open aid of England to expel the French; and if the same shall appear by the Scotchmen's answers to be feasible (which they have great cause to doubt), then they would that the same should be succoured with secret help from England, without any demonstration of open hostility. But because they have been certainly informed out of Scotland that the Scots cannot expel the French without the manifest aid of England, they then think it necessary that the Duke of Norfolk shall see the Frenchmen expelled with speed. For preventing the sending greater force by the French, they think that fourteen ships of war should enter the Frith and be there, both to hinder the entry of any more French, and to do such exploit upon their ships there as shall seem most profitable.
35. They think that 4,000 footmen and 600 or 700 horsemen (whereof 400 to be furnished with pistolets and the rest with lances) shall be sufficient, (having some succour of the Scots,) which power shall be commanded by Lord Grey. This power within the space of one month shall have the French (being not above 6,000 men in all) at their commandment, and so to deliver Scotland.
36. Since hereof will follow all the hostility that the French can show towards this realm, it is most necessary to put the whole realm in a defensible array. It is most necessary, therefore, that—
37. All the ships be put in good readiness to go to sea on intelligence.
38. All owners of ships be admonished not to go to sea until they be ascertained what the French will do.
39. Portsmouth and the Isle of Wight shall be succoured with men.
40. All the shires upon the sea-coasts be transmitted to the charge of certain lieutenants, and the inhabitants of all parts have regard to their defence.
41. All gentlemen having habitations in any shires nigh the sea side shall resort thither, and may have armour of the Queen upon reasonable prices.
42. The Queen shall appoint a Lieutenant-General about her person, and make a description of an army roial for the preservation of her person.
43. "Nota, in the Council were of this opinion, plainly and directly: the Lord Keeper of the Great Seal, the Marquis of Northampton, the Earl of Pembroke, the Lord Admiral Clinton, the Lord Chamberlain Howard, Mr. Treasurer Parry, Mr. Controller Rogers, Mr. Vice-Chamberlain Knolles, Mr. Secretary Cecil, Mr. Cave, Mr. Petre, Mr. Mason, Mr. Sackville, Mr. Wotton.
44. "Nota, at the first argument there stood doubtful touching any exploit into Scotland, Lord Keeper of the Seal, Lord Treasurer, Mr. Petre, Mr. Mason, Mr Wotton.
45. "Nota, against the exploit, and against any open or costly aiding of the Scots were only the Earl of Arundel, Lord Steward."
Draft, in Cecil's hol. Endd. by him: 24 Dec. 1559. The opinion of the Council. 28 Dec. not allowed by the Queen. Pp. 13.
Dec. 24.
R. O. 171 B.
484. Another copy of the above.
Modern transcript.
Dec. 24.
B. M. Cal. B. ix. 85.
485. English Aid for Scotland.
Answers by the Congregation of Scotland to the Questions proposed by the Privy Council of England.
"Our ratifications and ampliments of your answers unto the questions moved to you by the Council of England."
1. Question. "What probable reasons are there to demonstrate the French purpose towards the conquest of Scotland?"
Answer. The holding of an army in time of peace, the Queen, then Regent, having been required by the nobility and Council to remove the same; the continual augmentation of the said army by France when they are contracting their other expenses; the fortification of Leith, began without the knowledge of the Council or nobility, and continued notwithstanding their letters; the storing of victuals and munition in the same for greater forces; the inbringing of soldiers with their wives, bairns, and instruments for manuring the ground, such as ploughs and such like, and for assaulting strengths, such as mattocks, spades, etc., together with powder and artillery; their urgency to have the castle of Edinburgh, by menacing and fair promises to allure the captains to render it up; and lastly, their plain talking, promising unto themselves the particular living of the Barons of the realm, the Queen Dowager having threatened openly that she could dispone the whole lands of Scotland before she dies.
The following motions seem to them probable to hasten France to enterprise the conquest of Scotland rather at this time than any other. Because they espy the realm to be divided by reason of religion, thinking that one part thereof would be able "to thrall" the other; as was craftily assayed at S. Johnston, at Cowper Moor, and at Edinburgh. Because the Queen Dowager has lately fallen in a desperate malady, after whose death the conquest would be more difficult. Because there is little appearance of succession between their Sovereign and the French King, or yet of long life of both together, they being subject to great infirmities.
If it be objected that the French forces come not for conquest but for stay of rebellion, it may be answered that there was no rebellion either before or after the peace, the Queen Dowager having a sufficient promise of their obedience, they having granted all manner extraordinary charges and unaccustomed taxations, which justly they might have refused. Although the Congregation, ("whom they only allege to be rebels") had been appointed by the Queen Dowager on 22nd July last until 10th Jan., when a parliament was promised for decision in all controversies of religion, and that no innovation should be made in the meantime, yet shortly afterwards arrived a new company from France, which could not be for the repression of rebellion.
2. Question. "What contracts have been made, and to whom, by the French, but that the French Queen may govern Scotland by French ministers and keep their garrisons as well in time of peace as war?"
Answer. "Albeit you have sufficiently alleged the general promises made at the Parliament in Haddington, yet we eke unto the same that it was again renewed by the Queen Dowager at Stirling, 19th Feb. 1553, at which time the regiment was resigned over to her by the Duke." The same was confirmed by the Parliament of Edinburgh, by the late King of France at the contracting of the marriage, and afterwards by the present King, with consent of his curators. The giving of the principal offices unto strangers is a manifest violation of the same, and may not stand with the liberty of the realm. A stranger (M. Ruby) has been admitted to be Chancellor, which gives power to alter their laws, who, without the advice of any Council, changed the styles of the chancellery, and consequently the laws of the realm. Strangers have been placed in forts, garrisons, and in free boroughs, as at S. Johnston and Edinburgh; and provosts and bailies have been thrust in, in plain oppression of the laws. This planting of strangers is prejudicial to the use and conservation of the laws.
3. Question. "How many of the nobility of Scotland have declared themselves openly against the French? Their names, offices, and places of habitation? How many have declared themselves with the French? How many are neutral?"
Answer. To these they think his answer sufficient, and ratify it; "eking" to the first point James Hamilton, Sheriff of Linlithgo; the Laird of Lochleven, Sheriff of Kinross; the towns of Linlithgow, Jedburgh, Glasgow, Dumfries, "Laynrick," Ayr, "Erwyn," Dumbarton, Stirling, Kirkaldy, Kinghorn, Dysart, Pittenween, Anstruther, Crail, Saint Andrews, Cowper, Dunfermling, Saint Johnston, Dundee, Brechin, Montrose, with their inhabitants. "The town of Aberdeen has, by their baillies, lately swyttyt our preachers, and obtained them; so that now there is two of our ministers, Paul Meffan and Adam Herrot, travailing with them in the Evangel. They have already reformed their kirks, destroyed their altars, promised the destruction and abolishment of the dens of idolatry, and quickly to join themselves with us. As touching Leith and Edinburgh, you know the present estate of our brethren of the same."
4. Question. "What number may the Duke and Council make to the fields? What horsemen, armed and unarmed?"
Answer. To the first part he has answered sufficiently, which they ratify, with this augmentation, that the time of winter is heavy, and will diminish the number; "and without the ships be arrived in the Frith before the raising of our armies, the keeping of the east sides of the Frith will stay a great number." If the French take the town and castle of Stirling it will be a great cutting off of the Scottish companies. They cannot be brought together before 10th Jan., but will then be ready.
5. Question. "What number can we bring to the Borders of England? How soon, and by what way?"
Answer. They, with a greater number of horsemen than the French, will meet their friends at "the Peythis," or elsewhere, on ten days warning, from Stirling.
6. Question. "What provision of victuals can we make in Merse and Lothian, to serve for a power marching from Berwick to Edinburgh?"
Answer. It were most sure that they bring victuals until the forces join, and that the ships be in the Frith eight or six days before the army by land march, so that provision be made from the coast of Fife to the ships, since the enemy may burn the victuals and destroy the mills beforehand.
7. Question. "What ships can we make for war and for victuals, and out of what havens? What ports we have for our friends' ships, and what stay of victuals can we make in Fife?"
Answer. They approve the previous answer.
8. Question. "What provision can we make of cattle to draw great ordnance, as four or five cannons? And what things can we provide necessary for the scaling and assaulting of forts?"
Answer. They ratify, as sufficient, the first part of his answer; adding that it were best that the cannon and six pieces of battery be brought by sea and landed at Aberlady or Acheson's Haven; and all draught gear being brought in the ships with them, the oxen shall be provided. Yet if it be thought more sure that the ordnance be carried by land, they will cause oxen to be provided. The stuff for scaling, mining, and such like, must need come from themselves, green wood and broom excepted.
9. Question. "How may the borderers of Scotland be reduced to the service of the realm?"
Answer. The English on the one side should travail with them, as the writers will on the other.
10. Question. "What assurance shall be made of hostages, or such like, to England that the nation of Scotland shall persist in the keeping out of Frenchmen, if the power of England should aid them to expel the French out, and this assurance of hostages not to endure but while the Queen lives?"
Answer. He shall reason with the Council as follows. They persuade themselves that their promise made in God's presence and their handwritings are sufficient hostage. Two reasons move them to think that no pledge nor hostages of men's bodies should be required. (1.) They will never again fall to the tyranny of France, considering they have so plainly entered into war against them, that no promise made, or to be made, by them, can be any assurance of liberty or life. (2.) God has opened their eyes to the bright beams of His Gospel. That they should give hostages, or yet promises, that they shall hold the French out, albeit now they be expelled, they suppose no reasonable man will demand. Although they require that the English either credit their simple promises and writings, or else give to the writers the same security, yet they give him full power to promises hostages in their names, although the English will give them none. "And als howbeit we desire that first ye use thir our reasons for weal of the matter and others whilk the Spirit of God shall suggerate unto you for the present, yet we give you full power to communicate this our free mind and liberal of giving of hostages to sic persons as ye shall think expedient before, for weal of the cause," viz.: (1.) A son of the Duke's, called Claud; (2.) a son of Lord Argyll's father's brother, in respect he has no children nor brother, one excepted, whom also he offers; his father's brother's son is apparent heir of Argyll, failing him and his brother only; (3.) Lord Glencarnes's son, called James Cunningham; (4.) Lord Monteith's son, called George Graham; (5.) Lord Rothes' son and apparent heir, James Leslie; (6.) Lord Ruthven's son, Ard. Ruthven; (7.) Lord James of Saint Andrews' brother uterine, called Robert Douglas; (8.) Lord Boyd's son, Alexander Boyd; (9.) Lord Uchiltree's son, called [blank]; (10.) the Master of Lindsay's son; (11.) the Laird of Tullibardin's son, Andrew Murray; (12.) the Laird of Cunningham Head's son, David Cunningham.
11. Question. "What hope there may be had of the help of Edinburgh Castle towards this common action, and whether any ordnance may be had there to the battery of Leith?"
Answer. "The answer hereto is referred to Robert Melvill to bring."
12. Question. "What power the Queen Dowager has of French and Scots, etc."
Answer. "That is sufficiently answered to by you."
13. Question. "What power has lately arrived?"
Answer. Since his departing 900 or 1,000 have arrived Although some Barons of Lothian, by taking of their houses and themselves, are constrained to sign a bond to fortify the Dowager against England and the Congregation of Scotland, yet the writers have a good hope of them, they once being masters of the field. The French have victuals in great quantity, twenty ships having arrived of late, besides other furnishing, which they take of the country every day. All these ships remain together with four great ships that came with M. d'Elbœuf; one is by east Inchkeith. The pink that he and his household were in was driven out of the Firth by storm on Wednesday 20th inst. and no word of it come as yet on 28th inst. These ships are not to be feared, as they are appointed only to discharge their victuals and men.
14. "These heads and answers unto the questions proponed by the Council we give you full power for us and in our name to answer to the said Council, with power to dilate and amplify the same as far as shall make for the weal of the cause."— Stirling, 24 Dec. 1559. Signed: James, Ard. Argyll, James Stewart, Rothes, Alexander, Archbishop, Commendator of Inchaffray, John Monteith, Patrick Ruthven, Wm. Tullibardin, John Halyburton. (fn. 3)
15. "This is the true transcript and very copy of the Instructions sent by Robert Melvill from the Council to you. And we thought expedient for meeting of all adventures to send the same to you, which you may use in case that other be delayed. Kinghorn, 28th Dec., in haste, by you assured in God, James Hamilton, James Stewart." (fn. 4)
Orig., in a Scottish hand. Pp. 11.
Dec. 25.
MS. Burton-Constable Sadler, 1. 655. No. CLXXXVII.
486. James Stuart of Curdonald to the Earl of Lennox.
Last time the Earl's servant Nesbit came to Scotland the writer advertised him of the best remedy for his Lordship's affairs in that country, to which he has received no reply. And now is the time when he can come to his own with honour, besides the great revenge that he may have of his enemies. Offers his services, and asks to be recommended to his Lady's grace and Lord Darneley.—Leith, this [y]uillday, 1559. Signed.
Endd.: 10 Jan. 1559.
Dec. 25.
R. O.
487. The Queen to Christopher Munt.
1. Accepts in very good part his doings, and allows in him his weekly advertisements to her or Cecil. Means shortly to send some special servant of her own to communicate, what she cannot presently write, to the Princes of Almaine being of the Augustan Confession in religion. Charges him to repair to the Palsgrave and to the Duke of Wurtemberg, being of that sort the next Princes to the place where he now is, (fn. 5) and signify that she is most thankful for the continuance of their affection towards her, which they signify by their frequent letters and messages.
2. She thinks, though they be far off, that they are not ignorant of the great preparations which the French make to invade England by colour of conquering of Scotland, which also they oppress very dishonourably, and therewith seek the ruin and extirpation of all the nobility and gentry, and principally of all such as have showed them to understand the knowledge and light of the Gospel. She therefore trusts the said Princes (to whom this quarrel for the preservation of the knowledge of the Gospel belongs,) will not in this raging time of the French, neglect that which they may do for the help hereof, who knowing their own condition, can best devise by what means they may help to refrain this fury of the French. For their satisfaction he shall receive from her Secretary a plain declaration of the French proceedings in Scotland, to be communicated to them and others.
Dec. 25.3. Understanding that he received no reward from her for his long abode at Augsburg this last summer during the long Diet there, she has ordered her agent, Thomas Gresham, to send him by exchange in reward the sum of [blank]. She prays him to continue his carefulness in impeaching all such attempts as he may perceive not only against her and her realm, but also against the universal profession of the Gospel of Jesus Christ. Wherefore, if the Princes Protestant there have such regard as hitherto in former times they have had, she hopes France shall not take any great advantage in his doings. "This sufficeth to a wise man."
Draft, in Cecil's hol. Endd. by him: 25 Dec. 1559. A letter to Christopher Mont. Pp. 4.
Dec. 25.
R. O.
488. Francis II., King of France, to the Queen.
Having heard of the severe illness of his mother-in-law, the Queen Regent of Scotland, and desiring to know how she is, he has sent the bearer of this letter, the Sieur de la Marque, to inquire respecting her present condition, and requests that his journey to and from Scotland may be facilitated.—Blois, 25 Dec. 1559. Signed: Francoys,—Delaubespine.
Orig., with seal. Add. Broadside.
Dec. 25.
R. O.
489. Francis II., King of France, to the Queen Regent of Scotland.
1. Being anxious to know the state of her health he has despatched the present bearer, the Sieur de la Marque, with instructions simply to go and return. Requests credence for him.—Blois, 25 Dec. 1559.
2. P. S.—[In the King's own hand.] He will not be happy till he hears a better report of her health. She will not find better physicians than her daughter and himself. Signed.
Copy. Fr. Broadside.
Dec. 25.
R. O.
490. Francis II., King of France, to M. d'Oysel. (fn. 6)
La Marque, the bearer, is despatched with the sole object of obtaining intelligence respecting the health of the Queen Regent. Requests that credence may be given to his statements.—Blois, 25 Dec. Signed.
Copy. Fr. P. 1.
Dec. 25.
R. O.
491. Francis II., King of France, to M. de la Brosse.
Has sent La Marque, the bearer, upon business which he himself will communicate. Requests that credence may be given him.—25 Dec. Signed.
Copy. Fr.
Dec. 25.
B. M. Add. MS. 24024. 3.
492. Francis II., to M. de Noailles.
He will know from De la Marque the occasion of his despatch, and asks that he may immediately have a passport for his speedy going and returning. He may be believed as entirely as the writer himself.—Blois, 25 Dec. 1559. Signed: Francoys,—Delaubespine.
Orig. Add. Fr. P. 1.
Dec. 25.
R. O.
493. The Duke of Guise to M. d'Oysel.
La Marque, the bearer, will tell all that otherwise the Duke would have written. He is despatched solely to obtain information respecting the health of the Queen Regent.—25 Dec. Signed.
Copy. Fr.
[Dec. 25.]
R. O.
494. Instructions to Christopher Munt.
1. Having served Henry VIII. and Edward VI. as their agent in Germany faithfully, the Queen retained him as her agent in those parts for these purposes:—
2. To repair to the Diet at Augsburg to learn what shall be done there, and to advertise her both of that and of all occurrences worthy of her knowledge.
3. To use the best means possible, as well at this Diet as at all other times, to revive and maintain amity and friendship with all those Princes and States that have borne good-will to her deceased father and brother, and mean to continue the same towards herself.
4. To repair to the Palsgrave, the Duke of Wurtemberg, the Princes of Almaine, and to the rest of the Princes of the Augustan Confession in religion, and deliver to them her letters of credit, signifying that she took in most thankful part the continuance of their affection towards her, which they have by their frequent letters signified to her. These Princes, though afar off, are not ignorant of the great preparations which the French make to invade England under colour of conquering Scotland, which is very dishonourably oppressed, and seeks the ruin and extirpation of such of the nobility and gentry as understand the knowledge and light of the Gospel. The Queen doubts not that those Princes will use their utmost to stop the rage of the French King.
Williamson's transcript. Endd.: 1559. Pp. 4.
[Dec. 25.]
B. M. Calig. B. viii. 130.
495. Instructions to Challoner.
1. The French proceedings occasioning her to send an Ambassador to the King of Spain, she licenses him to return home, meaning to use him to be resident there. He shall therefore declare to the Duchess of Parma that the Queen has determined to send an Ambassador to the King of Spain to impart to him such of the French doings as concern both Monarchs, and especially the King's dominions in the Low Countries. Fearing the retardation of the Ambassador, she has otherwise informed him of these matters by letter. She trusts that he and his counsellors will consider them, and she directs Challoner to communicate them to the Duchess.
2. When she made peace with the French King last year she intended to keep it, in order that the country might recover from its losses, though she knew the hollowness of the French promises and is not surprised at their present demonstrations. She thought lack of treasure would have compelled them to be quiet; but they are led by the ambitious house of Guise, of whom she complains for taking her arms and titles, and making warlike preparations in Almaine and other places, which they pretend are against Scotland, but are evidently against England.
3. Her subjects commit themselves to the protection of the Spanish King against the French aggressions in Scotland and England. She has only interfered in Scottish affairs to promote peace and keep down the French. They being, however, determined to invade Scotland, she has resolved to check them by putting her realm in as good a state of defence as she can, both by sea and land.
4. Challoner is to show that her preparations are only defensive; and that, if she could get assurance of security and that the French would not invade Scotland, she would be most glad not to interfere. He is to inform the Bishop of Arras, Count Egmont, the Prince of Orange and other nobles of his recall and appointment to the Court of Spain, and of the appointment of Thomas Gresham as his successor, and to request the Duchess and the Bishop of Arras to give Gresham credit.
5. He is again to urge upon them that the assumption of the English arms by the Dauphin is a proof of intended hostility; and that the French would most likely make war on England without provocation, especially as after their easy conquest of Scotland they would not be likely to return with all their powers without doing anythlng.
6. Finally, if he sees a friendly disposition in any, he is to induce them to urge the King to take the side of England and remind him of the friendship between his father and the Queen's. They should also consider, before it is too late, the inconvenience which might happen to the Low Countries if the power of Scotland were added to that of France.
Draft, corrected by Cecil. Pp. 5.
Dec. 25.
Galba, C. 1. 45.
496. Another copy of the above.
By Cotton's transcriber. Slightly injured by fire. Pp. 4.
Dec. 25.
R. O.
497. Instructions to the Duke of Norfolk, sent into the North.
"Instructions given by the Queen to Thomas, Duke of Norfolk, Earl Marshal of England, Lieutenant-General for Her Majesty in the north.—25 Dec. 1559."
1. He shall understand all the force, footmen and horsemen, armour and weapon, within his commission. He shall deliver her letters missives to each of the nobility resident within his charge, requiring them to attend upon him, to whom he shall impart the occasions of his coming hither, viz., for defence of that part of the realm against the French.
2. The substance of his service shall rest upon these two points; (1.) To see that that part of the realm be kept in good peace; and, (2.) To put the force thereof in readiness to serve for the defence of the same.
3. The preparations of the French for war are so great, their malicious demeanours against the crown of England so manifest, their likelihood of a speedy conquest of Scotland so apparent, that she is driven of mere necessity for the preservation of her realm to awake out of her dream of peace and to hasten to put her northern frontiers and town of Berwick in a state of defence. And for this purpose is the Duke's presence at this time to be specially used.
4. He shall endeavour to divert and dissever the conjunction of the power of France from that of Scotland, or else to abide the time and prepare an army for the defence of them both. Yet she will briefly inform him what has here been thought convenient.
5. It is thought necessary that he shall repair to Newcastle, and that Lord Grey, being Warden of the East and Middle Marches, shall also go down with him to his charge. He shall then obtain all the intelligence he can out of Scotland of the French proceedings there; of their strength in all sorts, both by land and sea; of the neutrals, and specially such as are adversaries to the French. Much he may learn by Sir R. Sadler and Sir J. Croftes. He shall order all persons to signify to him the state of their charges, and shall inquire whether all things sent by sea under charge of Mr Winter have arrived; also the state of the 4,000 footmen late sent to the frontier, which shall be committed to the charge of Lord Grey, and the horsemen appointed to be at Newcastle the [blank] of January, whereof two parts shall be armed with corslets and two dagges apiece, like black harness of Almain, otherwise called the Swart-rutters; for which purpose a mass of pistolets and corslets is to be sent to Newcastle to be sold at reasonable prices to the captains. She thinks that these pistolets should not be made common amongst the people here within the land; therefore at the return of the horsemen, such as have dagges of her store shall deliver up the same again. Corslets, lance-staves, corriors, morrions, etc., shall be had for reasonable prices. As for the leading of these horsemen, she has licensed Sir G. Howard, master of the armoury, to serve the same place, and Sir H. Percy to have the charge of the light horsemen. The treasurer shall be the Treasurer of Berwick, and she refers the rest of the officers to his choice. He shall use his discretion in levying the light horsemen.
6. He shall have intelligence of the proceedings of the Scots against the French; how they are able to impeach them of themselves; what force they can bring into the field; upon what comfort of his power; and how long they can continue the same, etc.; and herein he must lay the foundation of what he means to do against the French. For if the aid which the Scots shall be able to give, shall not seem sufficient with this power now to be levied, to expel the French out of Scotland, then must the matter be otherwise coloured, and either at this present forborne, (whereof danger may follow,) or a greater force provided. But if they shall be able to give him the aid of 6,000 or 7,000 men (whereof 2,000 or 3,000 may be horsemen,) the French being no more than 5,000 or 6,000 men, the power of the Scots and English by land and sea shall be able to do an honourable exploit. Herein he shall use good consideration and advice.
7. Finding the exploit against the Frenchmen probable, he shall advertise her thereof; but if in the meantime he sees the matter likely to take good effect he shall not longer impeach the preparations, but provide that the army may be ready to enter as soon as he shall hear from her.
8. Because the foundation of these doings may be laid upon honour and truth, (which she esteems above all worldly things,) he shall write to the Dowager of Scotland, when he is in good readiness with all the preparations, to the effect that the Queen has committed to him (fn. 7) the defence of the north parts of this realm; and therefore, understanding there have lately arrived in Scotland great numbers of men of war, and that more daily follow out of France, which he certainly knows to be derogatory to her title, and which are ready to invade this her realm, he cannot but have good regard thereto, and therefore means to impeach these great forces so prepared, except she will speedily remedy the same, and by withdrawing her army permit that realm to remain in quietness. Of this writing he shall give knowledge to the Duke of Châtellerault, and his company, which stand for defence of the realm, so as they shall not have occasion to mistrust his meaning.
9. Having sent such a message or letter, if it shall plainly appear (which she doubts) that the Queen Dowager will return her force, and permit her daughter's subjects to live in their due freedom from danger of conquest, the Queen will be content to pretermit many injuries. But if the Regent refuse, or so delay or fashion her answer as he shall see lack of good faith, then shall he send the army, under the conduct of Lord Grey, into Scotland. Therefore, before disclosing his meaning, he shall have all things ready for such an exploit, for marching, lodging, victualling, carriages, and resting, either for siege or assault. He will find all things necessary, at Newcastle or Berwick. He shall colour all these preparations with reports that he understands out of Scotland of the French purposes to approach Berwick with some sudden [assault], or to fortify Aymouth, and to invade the realm.
10. He shall not enter in person into Scotland in this first exploit, but be in readiness with an army in case of a defeat by the French, and shall remain near the Borders whilst Lord Grey is in Scotland. Lord Grey shall suffer nothing to be done to give occasion to the Scots to suspect that the English mean any other thing than to help them from the tyranny of the French, and shall forbear spoiling and wasting. He shall give proclamation upon the frontiers that no hostility be showed except occasion be given.
11. She has sent treasure down to Newcastle, in the expenditure of which he shall take care that great gains be not made by evil captains, robbing both the service and the soldiers.
12. His entertainment shall be 5l. (fn. 8) by the day, with an augmentation for this present dear time of 33s. 4d. more by the day. Allows him for his service about himself 100 horsemen, with wages of [blank] for the same.
13. She allows Lord Grey, besides his wardenry, as general of the army, 3l. 6s. 8d. by the day, and 100 horsemen in wages. Authorizes the Duke to assign meet payments to officers and soldiers.
14. His entertainment and Lord Grey's shall begin on the 16th inst., that of their horsemen on the 12 (fn. 9) day before their arrival at Newcastle; and for all others, instead of conduct money he shall allow them their wages for the ten days before their arrival and muster there.
15. She has appointed Valentine Brown, one of her auditors, to have the carriage of her treasure to Newcastle, who, upon the Duke's warrant, will prest such sums as he shall think needful. Money shall also be prested to the Duke and Lord Grey.
16. If letters come to his hands entitled for her affairs or to the Council, he may open them. She excepts all letters addressed to herself, with the clause endorsed signifying that they must be delivered to her own hands.
17. Before sending any power into Scotland for the expelling of the French, he shall cause the Duke and the rest of the Scots who stand against the French for the defence of their country to send to him six pledges, (or, rather than fail or protract time, three,) one of them to be one of the younger sons of the Duke of Châstellerault, and the rest to be sons, or brothers, or heirs of the nobles, to the intents,—
(1.) That the Duke and nobility shall aid the army of England against the French with horsemen and footmen, and with victual, by land and sea, during the time her army is in Scotland.
(2.) That they shall be enemies to all such Scotch or French as shall be enemies against England.
(3.) They shall never assent that the realm of Scotland shall be conquered or otherwise knit to the crown of France than, by the marriage of the Queen and by the laws of the land, it ought to be.
18. He may order that the Scottish hostages may be exchanged from six months to six months, or from four months to four months, whom he shall send severally to the remotest shires of his lieutenancy. If he finds any good disposition in the Scots for the continuance of Scotland from hostility with this realm, he shall accept these conditions. For the time of the continuance of hostages, he shall move that it be during the continuance of the French Queen's life, [or, if that cannot be obtained, during the space of (blank) years,] (fn. 10) and for one year after her life, until further order may be had.
19. She recommends that her people be not wasted with desperate enterprises. Whenever the Earls of Shrewsbury and Derby shall be with him, he shall use their advices, as also those of the Earls of Northumberland, Westmorland, Cumberland, and Rutland, and of the Lords Dacre, Talbot, Evers, and Wharton. She specially recommends Lord Gray, of Wilton, as a man of great knowledge in war and of much activity and hardiness; next to him Sir Ralph Sadler, with Sir G. Howard, Sir H. Percy, Sir James Croftes, and (for civil matters) Sir Thomas Gargrave.
20. The following memoranda then occur,—
To advertise the power of Scotland.
To advertise when this exploit shall be ready.
Carriage horses.
21. He shall make allowance to Sadler for his charges in the office of the wardenry of the East and Middle Marches from the departure of the Earl of Northumberland until the arrival of Lord Grey.
Draft in Cecil's hol., endd. by him: 25 Dec. 1559. Pp. 16.
Dec. 25.
B. M. Calig. B. x. 59.
498. Another copy of the above.
Copy, by Cotton's transcriber. Pp. 12.
[Dec. 25.]
B. M. Calig. B. ix. 83.
499. Secret Instructions [for the Duke of Norfolk].
1. He shall, as he sees occasion, participate such secrets as he has only to such of the Council with him as are most forward in her service. In this part he shall have regard to the Earl of Lennox and the Queen's cousin, his wife; for there is cause to doubt that they may be allured either by the French or such others as favour not her proceedings in religion, to practise some things against the furtherance of such service as is meant should be done in Scotland; taking care that he appear not to have any doubt thereof.
2. In matters of any moment he shall have the assent of two or three of the Council there. In matters of war, he shall have the assent of the Lord Grey, or Sir James Croftes; in civil matters, that of Sir Tho. Gargrave; and generally, in all causes of any weight, that of Sadler. He shall use Lord Grey in all respects, as his credit and estimation shall be maintained, specially among men of war.
3. He shall have regard to such as are hinderers of the Queen's proceedings in religion, for such are no furtherers of her service.
4. He shall inform the Earl of Shrewsbury of the causes of his coming down, and explain why the Queen did not send for him to ask his opinion on the practices of the French.
5. Before making any entry into Scotland, he shall communicate with such of the nobility as are nigh to him, and having propounded to them the danger of England from the coming of the French into Scotland, require therein their opinion and advice.
Pp. 2.
[Dec. 25.]
B. M. R. O.
500. Instructions for Valentine Brown.
Instructions for Valentine Brown as to the expenditure of 16,000l. delivered to him by the Queen to be conveyed to Newcastle.
1. Valentine Brown has at this present 16,000l. delivered to him to be conveyed to Newcastle, of which no part shall be expended upon the garrison now in Berwick, nor upon the fortifications there; but it shall serve specially for the entertainment for the horsemen and footmen lately levied for the expedition in Scotland; of which sum the Treasurer of Berwick shall keep special and several account.
2. Should he take with him any of the bands in Berwick in any exploit to be made into Scotland, he shall take care that thereby the town be not much weakened.
3. In consequence of the archbishopric of York, and the bishoprics of Durham and Carlisle being in her hands not disposed (the two latter she means shortly to dispose), the northern parts lack ecclesiastical governance and teaching. 200l. shall be allowed this year out of the revenues of the bishopric of Durham to maintain four preachers, one about Berwick and the others near Carlisle.
4. As it appears that the service to be done by the Lord Grey will amount to a great charge, the Duke shall help him by the means following:—
(1.) Since the footmen are already levied and the horsemen will shortly be there, no time should be lost.
(2.) Officers of the field shall not be retained in wages until it seem meet to make the entry.
(3.) When officers for the field have certain men in wages, they shall be parcel of the 4,000 footmen or 700 horsemen.
(4.) Such expedition shall be used in this service that (except greater hostility follow by the French) the whole charge may rest upon the entertainment of the garrison at Berwick, and the bands of himself [the Duke], and the Lord Grey.
Draft in Cecil's hol., on the same sheets as the Queen's Instructions to the Duke of Norfolk, No. 497.
Dec. 25.
B. M. Calig. B. x. 72.
501. Another copy of the above.
By Cotton's transcriber. Pp. 3.

Footnotes

1 The Affairs of Scotland.
Dec. 20.
Teulet, 1. 381.
Memoir upon the affairs of Scotland sent by Noailles to Francis II. by M. de la Mothe.
1. The Queen Regent has been exceedingly ill since the departure of Rubey, but is now in good health. The troops last sent to Scotland have arrived. Cecil has confirmed the above two pieces of intelligence, of the latter of which he informed La Mothe on the 11th inst. He also said that part of the fleet (which consisted of forty ships) had touched at Coldingham, another part at Eyemouth, (where it was feared they would rebuild the fort,) and that a tempest had driven some across to Holland and Zealand.
2. On 10th Dec. intelligence reached London that a French company, which had left Leith, to surprise Sir James Armthom [Hamilton?] in his house (twenty miles from Edinburgh) had been met and defeated by the rebels; and that the garrison of Leith, attempting to surprise Edinburgh Castle, had been repulsed, but had taken the castle at Orleston [Ormston], belonging to one of the chief rebels.
3. After their retreat from Edinburgh the rebels have sent to solicit aid from the Queen of England. It was debated before the Council for eight days, and at last decided that she would not meddle with the attempt of the rebels. Some of the leading men of the Council were much displeased that money had been sent; it was stated that the sum was only 1,000l., but the chief Intelligencer of the King of France in England affirms that it amounts to 14,000l., and that he has seen that sum entered in the register.
4. Noailles, having intelligence that some Scotchmen who had come to the Queen of England were concealed in the palace at Westminster, caused them to be watched when they came out. There were only two of them, the one was Lethington, formerly secretary to the Regent of Scotland (who stole out of Leith during the siege to join the rebels) the other was the elder Melvin. They went by boat to the house of Throckmorton, who is now in London. There is here at the same time the Master of the Mint of Edinburgh, and Voilloc [Willock] one of the chief preachers of Scotland. The writer's principal informant gave him to understand that in consequence of the great offers made by Lethington, the Queen had agreed to help them with the forces which she had raised for the protection of her Scottish frontier. She is anxious for the union of the two crowns, and both shall be united under the style of Great Britain. He is persuaded that danger is to be apprehended from her preparations, which will be applied to the help of Scotland. It consists of seventeen large ships belonging to the Queen, which are well provided with artillery and military stores. Six of these are at Gillingham. They carry 3,000 men in all; the Admiral is M. Winter, who is considered brave, venturous, and resolute; the other captains are men of experience. Thirty other ships of war are in preparation, which are paid for, not by the Queen, but by their own captains, who plunder all they can. The seventeen royal ships have been ready some time ago, and will put to sea on the 20th inst., fully manned and victualled. Winter is instructed to seek for M. d'Elbœuf in his passage; not to attack him directly, but to endeavour to provoke him to commence hostilities. On the arrival of the fleet in Scotland they have a design upon Inchkeith. Of these facts the Queen Regent has been informed by a special messenger, and La Mothe has apprised the Marquis. One part of the fleet shall be stationed off the mouth of the Thames to intercept stores sent from France into Scotland; thus the French already in Scotland will soon be starved out. A ship on its way to Scotland, laden with wheat, has been already captured at Dover.
5. There are generally at Berwick and in the neighbourhood 1,400 men ready for action; 500 were sent there a month ago, 1,500 more are now ordered to be despatched, 3,400 in all. The Duke of Norfolk, the Queen's Lieutenant-General, set out on the 15th inst., who, however, does not approve of this rebellion. Lord Grey is Warden of the Marches instead of the Duke of Northumberland. The Earls of Derby, Shrewsbury, and Westmorland, and the other northern Lords, are bound to provide horsemen, which will speedily be ready. On the 12th, 13th, and 14th inst. there were shipped at the Tower a large quantity of artillery and stores in six vessels of six or seven score tons each. The carriages of the guns showed that they were not meant for sea service. No Frenchman was permitted to be near when these munitions were shipped.
6. As for money, since her accession the Queen has been scraping it together from all sides, paying nothing and giving nothing to her people, and spending very little. She has anticipated the payment of 40,000l. or 50,000l. due next May. She has taken money from the Church, which her predecessor refused to touch, but has paid off large debts which Mary contracted in Antwerp. She is not sufficiently rich to begin war. The writer thinks that the Ambassador of the Emperor and the Bishop of Aquila encourage her to do so, and would gladly see her in a position to seek the aid of their masters, which step would further compel her to accept the advances of the Archduke. These two Ambassadors have frequent and private interviews with her, and on the 13th inst. were with her more than three hours in her garden at Westminster at an unusual hour for audience, and on the next day M. de Candalle and the Marquis of Trans, calling on them, found Cecil in their company.
7. The Count Elfenstein, who comes from the Emperor, has arrived within twelve miles of London; he is accompanied by one who will reside at this Court.
8. The writer has been informed from another source that the Queen has much secret intelligence with the Spanish Ambassador, in whom she places great confidence, and who gives her hope that S. Quentin will not be given up until Calais is. When the English were shipping some arms at Antwerp, they were arrested, but were redelivered by the Duchess of Parma. Twenty-five tons of corslets were at this time sent to London. The Bishop informed the writer, when speaking of the rebellion in Scotland, that it would be necessary for Flanders to arm. The Queen is about to send Lord Cobham and Mr. Cave to the Catholic King. The Bishop shows great friendship towards the writer, and has told him (in great secresy) that he has the means of fathoming the intentions of the English, that he knows that the designs of the Queen are not good, and that she favours the Scots. The King of France, however, (he says) need not fear that, the Kings of France and Spain being on such friendly terms; the more especially as the King of Spain hates the Scots cordially, both on account of their rebellion and their religion. He then asked why Throckmorton had come to England? Noailles answered that in his opinion it was to inform the Queen and Council of some discoveries which he had made in France, and to advance his plans there. The Bishop of Aquila told him that his conjectures were correct, for Chautaunay had written to him to beware of Throckmorton, who had gone into England to embroil matters. He had been very mischievous in France, and had been having dealings with the greatest personages.
9. Three or four days after this, when the said De la Mothe went to visit the said Bishop upon the part of Noailles, the Bishop said that the information which he had previously given about Throckmorton had been communicated at the request of the King, his master, who wished to preserve amity and brotherly regard with the French King; for such were his sentiments, whatever might be asserted to the contrary. And on the morning on which La Mothe set out for London he received a message from the Bishop asking him not to "believe every spirit," nor indeed anything to the prejudice of King Philip.
10. Cecil and two others of the Council having dined with the writer, Cecil produced a statement of complaints made by two English captains against the Captain of S. Malo, and of the detention of the Ambassador's servant, although he had sent to Marseilles for his restitution; that the Queen of France bore the English arms; that troops were being sent into Scotland; that in consequence the Queen, his mistress, was compelled to strengthen herself on the Scottish borders. Noailles assured him of the friendship of the King and Queen of France; that he would forward the statement about the ships, that the injury might be redressed; that the Cardinal of Guise had ordered the restitution of Throckmorton's servant; that the arms of England had been quartered with France during the war, upon the death of Queen Mary, and that no complaint had been made in the late treaties for peace; that Elizabeth had been declared illegitimate, and that the Queen of France was next heir to the throne; that if troops were sent into Scotland, the English themselves were the cause of it, for they supported the rebellious Scots, as was proved by the money which had been intercepted. Cecil asked how the French King meant to punish the Scots? Noailles answered that he would write to inquire. Cecil then complained of some Latin verses placed on the gate at Blois. On 11th Dec. Throckmorton had said that these verses were a breach of the peace between France and England. On the 15th inst. Cecil informed La Mothe that Throckmorton was ready to return into France, and was now waiting only on his own private affairs. The Bishop of Aquila had previously said that he knew Throckmorton would be sent elsewhere, however they might speak of his return into France.
11. A naval captain, named Trefforest, who calls himself the brother-in-law of Jehan Ribault, of Havre de Grace, came to London fifteen days ago, and offers to burn the Queen's ships at Gillingham, and to deliver the hostages. Finding, however, that some of the ships had put to sea, and were manned, he declared the plan impracticable. However, he will try something else for the King's service. He appears to be a man of judgment.
12. An English captain, who was formerly in France as lieutenant of Captain Grey, (the same who gave information about the Scotch who were in hiding at Westminster,) and who at this time has the command of 300 men in the Isle of Wight, has offered to the Marquis of Trans and the writer to serve the French King. He is persuaded that the Queen means to help the Scotch, that Berwick is very weak and can easily be taken, and that reinforcements are to be sent to the Isle of Wight. Attempts have been made to seduce Malezard, a French naval officer, a prisoner in London.
13. On 10th inst. some sharp words passed in the Queen's presence between the Duke of Finland and the Ambassador of the Emperor. She is displeased, especially with the Duke. She left him in the presence chamber, where she bade him adieu, and took the Ambassador with her, as if for a private conference.
2 This, or a similar document, is printed in the Négociations sous François II. p. 166.
3 These signatures are copies.
4 These signatures are originals.
5 The draft originally stood thus: "We mean shortly to send to them a special trusty servant of our own, with certain matter to be communicated to them on our part, requisite both for them and us to be considered. And in the meantime we require them most heartily to persist in their former devotion towards us, which we know they bear specially to us for the similitude of our profession of religion, which, as it is to be preferred above all worldly respects, so is it the most surest knot of friendship and amity, being such as it divideth father and son."
6 This and the two following letters are written upon a single page of paper.
7 This Article as originally drawn by Cecil differs so widely from that which he ultimately adopted, that the following portion of it, subsequently cancelled, is here given entire. A few variations are added between brackets. "to signify unto her that we have committed to you the charge of our north part of England, the preservation whereof ye must and will seek, not only from perils present but from such as ye perceive evidently coming. And considering you plainly see that to be true, which hath been all this last summer reported, that she only with the power of France seeketh the conquest of the realm, [and thereby injureth not only her natural daughter, but also the whole nobility and nation of Scotland,] and consequently seeketh and mindeth the like against this realm, as by most manifest arguments, both by their doings in France and by their powers of men newly brought into Scotland, as it appeareth, manifestly to invade this realm, ye are hereby occasioned to have regard thereto and to defend and impeach the same in respect to your charge. And therefore ye do require her that she will speedily give order to return into France that great force of Frenchmen thus prepared against this realm; [which she hath in Scotland ready to conquer it, and therewith means also to invade this country, and permit her daughter's kingdom to be ruled according to the ancient laws thereof, and to the injury of her daughter's rights;] and finally cause all commissions sent out of France with the false usurped style of England by the French King, and all armories containing the arms of France, Scotland, and England, to be openly defaced and cancelled [he must needs declare himself willing to impeach her unlawful enterprises; and if she will please to yield hereto without tract of time, as in reason she ought to do,] which if she will do ye shall promise on your honour, and in our name assure her, that nothing shall be more grateful to us. And ye shall also add this thereto, that ye may not suffer any expense of time in talk hereof, for that her former doings this last summer with the nobility of Scotland be not well reported, but give suspicion; and therefore her deeds [in cassing of her bands] in returning her great force homeward and disannulling these the French must be the best testimonies of her meaning; for the doing whereof ye shall offer [all amicable aid] your furtherance; and for the reducing of any manner of Scottishman to his duty towards his Sovereign Lady and his country, having offended both the same, ye shall assure her and offer to her all your power and force to your uttermost, and shall be glad to bestow your honour in any such a cause. And of these your doings ye shall secretly give knowledge to the Duke and such Scots which do stand in defence of their country."
8 Originally 6l. 13s. 4d.
9 Originally 6, then altered to 13.
10 This passage is cancelled.