Elizabeth
January 1560, 16-20

Sponsor

Institute of Historical Research

Publication

Author

Joseph Stevenson (editor)

Year published

1865

Pages

285-301

Annotate

Comment on this article
Double click anywhere on the text to add an annotation in-line

Citation Show another format:

'Elizabeth: January 1560, 16-20', Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 2: 1559-1560 (1865), pp. 285-301. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=71806 Date accessed: 01 August 2014.


Highlight

(Min 3 characters)

January 1560, 16-20

Jan. 16.
R. O.
585. D. S. [to Croftes.]
The Frenchmen are lying in Kinghorne and the Burnt Island, and purpose to build a fort beside the latter, and are carrying out of Leith both men, victuals, and great munition. The great artillery are put within Inchkeith. Lord Rewen [Ruthven], the Laird of Grange, and Sir James Hamilton. are lying in Kircaldy. Last Friday, as a band of Frenchmen (which was Captain Mill[y]ear's company) was passing to spoil the country, the Laird of Grange defeated them to the number of 300, and many of them slain. The Frenchmen are in great poverty, and get no victuals. The rest of the Lords of the Congregation are lying in Coupar "and are gathered starklye." One of the Count Martigues' ships was taken with six horses, much harness, and many culverins, and a little bark of a Frenchman called Farnande. There was proclaimed at Edinburgh Cross this last Monday a free remission, under the Great Seal of the King of France, to all the Lords of the Congregation to come in to serve the authorities and the Queen, and that all Frenchmen should depart out of Scotland except five ensigns. The Laird of Grange has now under his charge 1,000 horse, and lets never the Frenchmen get rest. So all things prosper well, as it pleases God. "In haste, yours, D. S."
Orig. P. 1.
Jan. 17.
R. O.
586. The Queen Dowager to La Marque.
Has received his letter and is much annoyed to find that he has been arrested while on his way to enquire after her health, by the commands of the King; and still more so that the subjects of this realm have carried themselves so rashly towards their master, thereby adding another to their many faults. She gives him to understand that if the Duke, into whose hands he has fallen, does not within five days give him up to her, together with the whole of his despatches in the same state in which they were when his people received them, he will discover that both here and in France there are means to make him feel it so that he will not forget it as long as he lives.—Edinburgh, 17 Jan. 1559. Signed.
Copy, in Randolph's hol. Fr. Pp. 1.
Jan. 17.
R. O.
587. Negociations in Flanders.
A statement of money "taken up" of Clayes Johnsson and Sebastian Fleachamer, from 17 Jan. 1560 to 27 July 1560, amounting in all, with interest and brokerage, to 9,992l. 3s. 4d.
Endd. by Cecil: 1559, Cold Mart. Pp. 2.
Jan. 18.
R. O.
588. Challoner to Cecil.
1. On his return hither from Antwerp M. d'Arras sent him the packet enclosed more solito. That which the writer sent yesterday he also received by his means. Purposes to give him thanks for his gentle demonstration, "and thereby take some further occasion, &c., as I see cause." The bruit in this Court of war between England and France waxes colder, as may be seen when a dog assailed begins to show his teeth again, and how a prince armed shall soonest live in rest.
2. Sends herewith a bundle of Italian advices. By the news from Constantinople it appears that the Turk shall have his hands full next summer. "Oh that the Emperor at this pinch had the power to recover Hungary!" The Count de Feria with his lady departs hence for Spain on the 20th of the next month, by easy journeys through France. "I would he were gone." Trusts that Sir T. Gresham's letters will make excuse for both their discharge, for not having come to this Court. Understands by him and by Cecil's letters that the Queen accepts his faithful poor goodwill, than which nothing gladder or more grateful could come to him.—Brussels, 18 Jan. 1559. Signed.
3. P. S.—Even now has received a letter from Sir T. Gresham that certain ships "frayght" with munitions are stayed in Zealand. Will to-morrow move the Regent in the matter.—
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 4.
Jan. 18.
R. O.
589. Copy of the above.
Endd. by Challoner: 18 Jan. 1559. Pp. 3.
Jan. 18.
R. O. Forbes, 1. 299.
590. Killigrew and Jones to the Council.
1. The writers yesterday despatched letters to the Lords by two merchants, Robert Frere of Walbrook, London, and William Milles of Bristol. About the 11th inst. an English merchant, named Hugh Barnsby, a currier, dwelling near Temple Bar, arrived here, with one Tallet of Rouen, to sue for a safe-conduct, owing to the rumours he and the English merchants of Rouen had heard of war; and that the Duc d'Aumale's secretary for 100 crowns promised to get him one. His ship was freighted from Newcastle to Newhaven. He remained here three or four days. One Whetill, lately of Calais, is come to this Court from Flanders to serve this King, as he does not favour the Queen's religion; they advised him to beware what he did, and that he should rather go into Italy or Spain than remain among the French.
Jan. 18.2. The Marquis d'Elbœuf, being within sight of Scotland, was constrained by a tempest to return, and arrived at this coast the 15th day after his departure from Calais, with the loss it is said of six or seven of his ships, and is now at Dieppe for repairing and victualling his ships, which will not be ready till the end of this month. He is commanded to depart with all possible speed again northward. Martigues is reported to have arrived in Scotland. A post did not arrive from Scotland on the 9th inst., as signified in their last letters, but was secretly sent from the Marquis to inform the King of his return with his ordnance and artillery saved. This news has so perplexed them here that they have sent for all such noblemen as are men of war, and all knights of the Order; for what cause the writers cannot learn. The cause for sending for Marshal Termes is an accusation against him by M. de Villebon, touching the overthrows at Graveling, which he says was caused by long tarrying of Termes at Dunkirk, and the Marshal asserts if Villebon had remained at Dunkirk, the same had not happened.
3. On the 13th inst. one Boussier, an Italian bishop, is from this King despatched to Rome to acknowledge the obedience of the King to the see; and one Bajas, a Master of the Requests, is also gone on behalf of the Queen Mother. It is said that Monluc or some other shall be sent to the Turk. It is also reported that the Queen's marriage with Charles of Austria is already concluded, which they here dislike; as they do also the coming of the Bishop of Trent and Count Kingstein, the Amassadors from the Emperor, for the demanding of Metz, Toul, and Verdun. The places in Luxemburg to be rendered by the French are given up, and King Philip's ministers have restored Châtelet into the Frenchmen's hands.
4. The Cardinal of Lorraine lately sent secretly a gentleman with a bag full of commissions for persecution to be done about Poictiers, and certain letters, which he carried apart in his bosom; who was met and the letters taken away by four or five men. The Duke d'Aumale is sent for to come to this Court. II Duca Datri, a Neapolitan, is at the Court suing for his pension, as in their service he lost his dukedom.
5. Amongst other devices for sparing charges, on the 13th inst. a post was despatched to the Duke of Savoy to determine upon some reasonable composition to render forthwith to him Turin and other places where they keep garrisons in Piedmont. Instead of the King keeping forty galleys at Marseilles, as he did ordinarily, all shall be discharged except twelve. Letters from Italy state that the Pope minds to call a General Council, and that he will be there present himself. For this purpose he has sent Juliano de Medici to this King and the Queen Mother, and the like to the King of Spain. Cardinal Morone is now set at liberty, and is chief manager of the Pope's affairs. The news of an Ambassador coming from the King of Algiers is confirmed, and the news of the winning of Tripoli is uncertain. Upon the coming of the King of Navarre by Bordeaux, four ships well appointed for the voyage of the Levant are stayed to go into Scotland. It is thought the galleys of Marseilles shall be employed upon the narrow seas this summer.—Blois, 18 Jan. 1559. Signed.
Orig., with armorial seal. Portions in cipher, deciphered. Add. Endd. Pp. 6.
Jan. 18.
R. O. Forbes, 1. 303.
591. Killigrew and Jones to Cecil.
1. On the 10th inst., the writers sent a despatch to Cecil through Flanders advertising him of the coming into England of Count Hannibal. They have since learnt that his surname is De Tiene, born at Venice, nephew to Lodovico De Tiene. A captain about the great Prior asked whether any nobleman in England is able of himself to make war and to levy his own subjects; and was answered that the greatest man was not able of his own authority to levy 300 men to be employed without the Queen's special commandment, and that the meanest subject will not go with his Lord in any quarrel against the Queen. They are assured that Mumes was not at Marseilles.
2. Upon the coming of the Emperor's Ambassadors' "furriers" (fn. 1) here, Throckmorton's lodging was appointed by the Duke of Guise to be viewed for them. At which the writers declared their daily expectation of their Ambassador to the Duke of Guise, and required that they might have their lodging free. He said that they had two lodgings, and needed not two houses in his absence; that the Marshal of the lodging should be spoken to, and they should be treated according to reason. Nevertheless M. de Villebon has the lodging which they kept for Throckmorton; and because he could not have a key of a chamber, he broke it open and removed their private papers to another room. This chamber is for one of M. de Villebon's gentlemen, who triumphed at the matter and reviled their nation. The writers told them that if they used them so they would not only depart, but also have their Ambassadors in England in remembrance. The next day the Marshal of the lodging came to them and would have removed them to another lodging of no greater receipt; but they said they would have none but that which was taken from them. The Marshal said he spake not of himself, but from the mouth of his betters. Yesterday they complained to the Cardinal of the matter, who promised redress.
3. The Cardinal of Medun and M. Gee are dead. The Duke of Guise's son was not christened till yesterday; his godfathers were the King and Duke of Anjou, and his godmother was Madame Margaret, the King's youngest sister. They refer him to their letters to the Council.—Blois, 18 Jan. 1559. Signed.
Jan. 18.4. They sent this selfsame despatch yesterday by two merchants, Robert Frere of Walbrook, and William Milles of Bristol.
5. P. S.—This day the Marshal came to mark the house again which Villebon had taken from Throckmorton. By this the writers see that to serve their turns the Cardinal and the Duke of Guise can dissemble; but if they see men can be contented to bear with their lustiness, they will willingly tread them under foot.
6. These men here were advertised, three weeks ago, that the Queen will break with them, and do provide for it. Nevertheless they take no knowledge of it, but seek to win time to dissemble. Rokindolf and Faukinberg are upon their despatch into Germany to levy men. They have great eye to Portsmouth; and many captains, who looked to be cassed, are now promised to have charge. The Marquis has with him on shipboard sixty pieces of great ordnance to be conveyed into Scotland; of the proceedings whereof there is now little discourse because of the small news which comes from thence.
7. At the receiving of the Queen Catholic at Guadalajara the verse of the xlv. Psalm, were written, "Audi, filia, et vide," etc.; which the French mislike much: judging that they will not have altogether that which they looked for at King Philip's hands by means of his wife. The Emperor's Ambassadors mind to require Marseilles. An Albanois captain is here, named Theodore, who has long served the King and is smally satisfied. If the Queen wishes he will be easily won. The writers becomes daily more and more noted. Catanea, a Calabrese, comes here as Ambassador from the King of Algiers. One Thomas Stewarde, who made so vile reports about the Queen and the Earl of Arran, is hourly upon his despatch into Scotland through England. They here have great confidence of him. It is he who has accused all the Scotsmen here.—Blois, 18 Jan. 1559. Signed.
Orig. Add., with seal. Endd. by Cecil. Portions in cipher, deciphered. Pp. 7.
Jan. 18.
R. O. Haynes, p. 224.
592. Norfolk, Sadler, and Croftes, to Cecil. (fn. 2)
1. Norfolk having received the Queen's and Cecil's letters of the 11th, and being before determined to repair to this town to see the fortifications, upon his arrival here conferred with Sadler and Croftes, from whom he understands that they have learnt from their espials that the French lie in Kinghorn and Burnt island, and are so strait holden in by the Protestants (who have sundry skirmishes with them,) that they dare not go far into Fife, nor yet can they come by any victuals there, but such as is carried over in boats from Leith. The Earl of Arran and Lord James Steward herein sustaining great travail and expenses, have challenged the French to battle, which they refused. Sadler and Croftes have written to comfort them with the arrival of the Queen's ships, and advise them not to hazard any battle without appearance of good advantage, and have offered to relieve their charges with some portion of money if they can devise how they can have it conveyed to them.
2. The writers understand that Martigues has arrived at Leith, and not more than eighty or 100 with him, of his own train and family; after his landing the ship which he arrived in, being in the roads in the Frith, was in the night taken by the Protestants, and carried to St. Andrews or Dundee, or some other port thereabouts. This feat was done by one Andrew Sandes, a merchant who is a great Protestant. In the ship there is plenty of armour, as well as gilt armour, artillery, munition, and powder, and certain jewels; some think there is a great mass of treasure.
3. The writers have not yet heard of Winter nor of the Queen's ships, but upon their arrival they will furnish them with 500 arquebusiers; to the intent at their being in the Frith they may set a good number to join with the Protestants, which would encourage them, and is likely to cause the French to retire again to Leith; or if they intend to fortify on the other side of the water, it may be the means to impeach their purpose. They shall give orders to Winter for the landing of the men according to the Queen's pleasure. At the writing of this Croftes received a letter (enclosed) from one of his espials in Scotland confirming some part of these former advertisements.—Berwick, 18 Jan. 1559. (fn. 3)
3. [P. S.—He has received no answer to a former letter, requesting him [the Secretary] to move the Queen for the appointment of a Sheriff in the county of Durham, for which he recommended Mr. Tempest.]
Orig., in Railton's hol. Add. Endd. Pp. 3.
Jan. 19.
R. O. Sadler, 1. 691. No. CCXV.
593. Arran and the Lord James to Sadler and Croftes. (fn. 4)
1. Being upon their enterprise, the enemies marched forward, which brake the purpose of the writers, and albeit the enemy retired to their camp at Kinghorn, and the writers to theirs at Dysart, yet can the latter find no opportunity for their enterprise at present. The Earl of Huntley sent "in more of commission" to the writers, his cousin the Earl of Sutherland, to offer adjunction and assistance in their action; who, in the first skirmish hazarding himself too far, and was shot in the left arm, and is departed home, and shall cause the Earl of Huntley to perform his promise. They are assured by the ministers of France that the whole Congregations are secretly resolved to take the field within three or four weeks at the furthest, with aid of a Prince of the Court and of the blood royal.
2. The long "tarry" of the English has put all the commons and sundry of the Barons in despair of their aid. If the ships be not hasted, or failing thereof they cause [not] their land host to make a "mynt" [attempt] forwards towards the writers to draw the enemy back from their enterprise, the whole cause will be put in extreme danger. Kircaldie assures them that within these eight days an Englishman, speaking many good languages, came secretly to the Queen Dowager, and was conveyed back secretly by the Laird of Langton.— Dysart, 19 Jan.
3. P. S.—Requests that the other packet may be despatched to the Court.
Copy, in Railton's hol. From the original in cipher, deciphered. Endd. by Cecil: 19 Jan. 1559. Pp. 2.
Jan. 19.
R. O.
594. The Earl of Huntley to Lord Sutherland.
Prays his "cousin" to show his friend that he cause the Englishmen above all things before they come into Scotland to have 2,000 or at least 1,000 bowmen, which shall be the first thing to defeat the French hagbutters. Also that he forbid my Lord of Arran to adventure himself too far in skirmishes, by reason the whole weight of this matter stands on him. Will leave nothing undone for his part.—At Cairntully (?) 19 Jan.
Copy. Endd.: This ticket is the copy of a letter which my Lord of Huntley sent to my Lord of Sutherland since he was hurt; this I send to you that you may know his good mind towards us. Pp. 2.
Jan. 19.
R. O.
595. T. Proctor to his Brother Nicolas Proctor.
1. Has been prevented from writing to him by business, and by letters which he has received from his parent. Perceives by his letter (written in Latin) that he does not think that the writer's previous letter was written by himself, but with the assistance of some one else; but this is not the case. Has shown his letter to William, who does not think much of it, and who sends no letter. Is reading Salust, Cicero De Officiis, and his Episties.—London, 19 Jan. 1559. Signed: T. Procterius.
Lat.
2. P. S.—Will answer the rest of his letter of Dec. 17. First, how orderly he spends his time. In the morning he rises and calls up the children, and helps to make them ready. At 7 they go to school, where they say the first part, or else some rules. That done, they take a lection to construe and parse after dinner, which also they say without book in the morning. When they come home at night he fetches wine and other things necessary, and waits at table till his master has done supper, when he takes a candle and goes up to his book, unto such time as his master goes to bed.
Jan. 16.3. Has not delivered the glass nor the letters to Mr. Horton, who has not come forth of the country yet. Has delivered correspondent's letters to the carriers yesterday. Sends his commendations to his brother Richard. As yet has received none of the gear which he says he would send. Thomas Chastelyn says the ship is not yet come.
Orig. Hol. Add.: Nicholas Proctor, Antwerp. Pp. 2.
Jan. 20.
R. O.
596. The Queen to the King of Spain.
Having promised in her letters of the 14 Dec., sent through France by the Bishop of Aquila, to send Viscount Montague and Sir T. Chamberlain, she accordingly does so.—Westminster, 20 Jan. 1559.
Draft, in Ascham's hol. Endd. Lat. Pp. 2.
Jan. 20.
R. O. 171 B.
597. Another copy of the above.
Modern transcript.
Jan. 20.
R. O.
598. Guido Gianetti to Cecil.
1. To day he will only mention what is known here of matters at Rome. Pope Pius IV. was crowned on the Feast of the Epiphany, and did not expend the usual amount in ceremony, having bestowed the money on hospitals for the poor. About 500 scudi in new coinage of gold and silver were scattered among the people. There was such a crowd to congratulate him that about fifteen men were killed. The Pope has chosen as his principal Councillor Cardinal Morone, the friend of Cardinal Pole, whom his predecessor Paul II. imprisoned as a heretic. The Council is still talked of as a matter uncertain, the Pope having informed the Emperor and the Kings of France and Spain that they should agree chiefly as to the place; but before the three Princes and Germany come to an understanding on this point there will be enough to do. The Pope has conceded the conditional resignation [i Regressi] to churches and benefices, which is not consistent with the reformation of the Church, but certainly with the collection of much money; because the late Pope refused to concede these resignations, therefore the present one has despatched a very large number. Some Cardinals were appointed to deliberate on the affairs of the Emperor relating to the Coronation and on other certain requests of his. The Pope has again set up the tribunal of the Inquisition of Rome only for the causes of the faith, and appointed judges Carpi, Puteo, Paceco, Ara Cœli, Trani, and Alessandrino. The latter was the principal and terrible judge of the Inquisition under the former Pope; and now, learning from Pope Pius that he would allow espionage to be employed in causes of religion, or that certain small matters should be looked into, requested permission to leave on his own business for two or three months, since, in any way, little was to be done by the Inquition; whereupon the Pope with a smile replied that he willingly gave him liberty to depart, not merely for three months, but if he pleased, for ever.
2. Signor Francesco Vargas, the King of Spain's Ambassador, four days before the Coronation urged the same point of the precedency of the Ambassador of Spain over the Ambassador of France, which he had formerly mooted and lost here in Venice. The Pope would have wished to leave the matter in doubt, to the end that he might have written to both Kings, and that the question might be settled amicably between them. But the Bishop of Angoulême, the French Ambassador, persisted in his endeavour to keep possession of the place, asserting that ab antiquo the King of France had ranked before all Kings. The Pope said, that if he pleased not to attend the banquet on the day of his coronation, Vargas also would not go, pretending to be unwell for that day; that Vargas laid stress on the plurality of kingdoms possessed by King Philip, and that he [the Pope] did not wish to decide this controversy, lest he should appear to favour one side more than the other; and words to that effect. Hereupon Angoulême replied that he would by all means go to the banquet, happen what might; that even were he really unwell he should make himself be carried there, and would rather fast a whole year than not be present at that dinner; that he should pay no regard to the suit of Vargas, who was a cavilling and contentious person, and the advocate of lost causes, having been defeated in a like suit at Venice; that France must be allowed to occupy her own place; and that after Vargas had produced reasons grounded on the plurality of kingdoms he would give him his reply; that the Pope could not decide anything on this dispute without offending France, even though he would decide that she should have precedence, because to consider the question doubtful would in itself be an offence; that in such a point France would suffer no injury, but that the Papal pre-eminence would; and that, several Princes of their own will having separated themselves from that Church, care should be had that the King of France was not, contrary to his wish, driven from it.
3. Thereafter Cardinals Tournon and Guise spoke to the Pope, and arranged so that he ordered the French Ambassador to go to the banquet, which he did, but Vargas did not. The latter, at the ceremony of the coronation, sat below the Imperial Ambassador and the French Ambassador, because he, as a Bishop, sat in another part in his place above the other Bishops according to custom. In this manner it was not seen who had the precedence, but he of France was present at the banquet.
4. On another day Signor Vargas had another difference in the Pope's chapel: he took his seat above the Senator of Rome, who is Chief Magistrate of the Roman people, who holds it with great dignity. Whereupon the Pope caused the Senator to take his place above Vargas, who, not relishing this, removed from the right of the Pontifical throne where the Ambassadors sit, and went to the Pope's left, towards the altar, where there is no place for Ambassadors. It is also written of him that he sought to induce the Pope to raise the Abbate Buonromeo, son of a sister of His Holiness, to the dignity of a Cardinal, saying that he could do no greater favour to him, and what was more important to the King of Spain; it appearing that in this way he thought to gain a new Cardinal on the side of Spain. Hereupon His Holiness replied that it was neither for him nor the King of Spain to meddle in such a matter, and that he knew how to look to his nephew's and his own affairs.
5. If the Cardinals in conclave had delayed a little longer in electing a Pope, orders would have arrived from the King to Guise and Tournon, and the other French Cardinals, to leave the Conclave and Rome also for France, in order that they should not be present at the election of their adversary, for such a one above all others they consider Carpi to be. Such is the news from France, where religious animosities grow hotter.—Venice, 20 Jan. 1560. Signed.
Orig. Add., with armorial seal. Endd. Ital. Pp. 4.
Jan. 20.
R. O.
599. La Marque to the Queen Dowager.
Her letter, written in reply to that which he addressed to her from Glasgow, has this day been brought to him. So far from the persons into whose hands he has fallen feeling inclined to retrace their steps, this day after he wrote to her he was taken to the castle of Dumbarton, where he expects to make a long stay if rebellion should continue to prosper. His chief comfort is that she knows where he is imprisoned; he will take his confinement patiently as in the King's service; and it shall not promote the ends of the persons in whose custody he is, nor endamage his interests.—Dumbarton Castle, 20 Jan. 1559. Signed.
Copy, in Randolph's hol. Endd. Fr. Pp. 2.
Jan. 20.
R. O.
600. Admiral Winter to the Duke of Norfolk, Sadler, and Croftes.
1. At his departing from the Court he received instructions from the Queen for the ordering of himself with her fleet, which he sends here enclosed for their inspection. Also, that they may be instructed of his proceedings since his departure from Gillingham, he sends the bearers, Mr. Gorges and Mr. Mallyn, two of the captains, for whom he requests credit, and by whom he hopes to learn what shall be useful for him to understand, and that with speed, as their "roode" here is uncertain.—"From aboard the Queen's ship, riding in Coldingham Bay, 20 Jan. 1559."
2. P. S.—Asks for instructions by the bearers, enclosed in the Duke's letter. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 2.
Jan. 20.
R. O.
601. Journal of Admiral Winter.
1. 1559, 27 Dec., Wednesday, about 9 a.m. the Admiral weighed anchor, riding afore Queenborough in Gillingham Water, and went towards the north. Same day, the wind being S.S.E. between 3 and 4 o'clock, they came to anchor against Goldemore Gate, besides the Nase, off Harwich, "tharte of Walton Hill."
2. 28 Dec., Thursday, about 10 o'clock, weighed and went over the Naze, wind S.S.W. Same day, wind W.S.W. at 4 o'clock p.m. came to anchor in Yarmouth Road.
3. 1560, 4 Jan., Thursday, were forced to let slip their anchors and cables with very much wind at N. and by E. "and were fain to go back again with Orwell-wards afore Harwich." Some of the ships spoiled their masts and remained for repair.
4. 11 Jan., Thursday, at 12 o'clock, wind S. and by E. weighed, and same day at 4 o'clock, struck sail "atharte" Dunwich and laid it "a hullynge" two hours, and so went to sea all night, wind S.
5. 12 Jan., Friday, came to anchor "atharte" Laystock at 10 o'clock, wind W. and by S., and there rode till Saturday 13, at 8 a.m., wind W.S.W., and at 12 o'clock came to anchor at Yarmouth Road, wind W.
6. 14 Jan., Sunday, weighed at 9 a.m., wind S.E., and came as far Flamborough Head.
7. 15 Jan., Monday, at 4 a.m. met the wind N.N.W., by force whereof they returned back and anchored in the Humber, at 4 p.m.
8. 16 Jan., Tuesday, weighed at 11 o'clock a.m., wind S.E. and by S. and came to Flamborough Head. There "the traverse of the weather" was such that they lost all their boats; and there were dispersed, being in number twelve; viz. the Lion, Mr. Winter, Admiral; the Philip and Mary, Mr. Rob. Constable, Vice-Admiral; the Hart, Mr. William Gorge; the Antelope, Mr. Southwick; the Jennet, Mr. Malyne; the New Bark, Mr. Byston; the Greyhound, Mr. Lock. The names of those that are dispersed: the Swallow, Mr. Holstock; the Tiger, Mr. Croker; the Willoughby, Mr. Spencer; the Jarfalcon, Mr. Stoneher; the Falcon, Mr. Hare. The following vessels were left in Yarmouth Road, for the safety of the victuals and munition: the Bull, Mr. Winchester; the Saker, Giles Graye.
9. 18 Jan., Thursday, came to anchor against Bamborough, Castle "atharte" Ferne Island, wind N.W. at 4 p.m. Same night by force of weather, "wind vyring out" at N. by E. they were constrained to go to the sea with the loss of divers anchors and cables.
10. 20 Jan., Saturday, at 11 a.m, came to anchor before Eymouthe, wind S.W. and by W.
Endd. by Raylton. Pp. 3.
[Jan. 20.]
R. O.
602. The Credence of Mr. Spenser.
1. Upon Tuesday last the [Queen's] ships took two ships of war, one hoy and two victuallers; there were in the hoy two demi-culverines, and four smaller brass pieces, and twelve puncheons of powder, furnishing for cart horses, mattocks and shovels, with other necessaries for fortification. There were also three other ships laden with victuals and about sixty Frenchmen in the said ships, which were driven aground. The men were slain and the ships spoiled by the Laird of Grange and his company. There are also tarrying with the [Queen's] ships about sixty soldiers and two captains, who had the charge of the ships of war.
To Mr. Winter.
2. Has received by the hands of Mr. Spenser, the letters which Winter directed to the Duke, in whose absence the writer has perused the same and directed them to his Grace with the rest contained in the packet. Like as Winter gave credit to Mr. Spenser concerning such things as he [Winter] had taken, he shall therein do according to that which Spenser shall inform him. "From me at Berwick, etc."
In Croftes' hol. Endd.: Advices. Pp. 2.
Jan. 20.
R. O. Sadler, 1. 692. No. CCXVI.
603. Sadler and Croftes to the Earl of Arran and the Lord James. (fn. 5)
1. Have received their letters in cipher, by this bearer, of the 15th. Are glad to hear of the "distress" made upon the French by the Scotch horsemen, and the taking of ships with munition. The ships (as they wrote in their last letters) are continually looked for on this coast, and shall be hasted to the Frith with all speed. They pray them [Arran and the Lord James] to stand to the defence of their just cause as they have done, much to their praise and honour.
2. The Laird Brymston sent from Court from Lethington, is this day entered Scotland by Carlisle; and understanding that they will hear from him the good disposition of the Queen towards them, the writers will not trouble them further.—Berwick, 20 Jan. 1559.
3. P. S.—Repeat the advice contained in their last letters, not to hazard any battle unless they find themselves an overparty.
Copy, in Railton's hol. P. 1.
Jan. 20.
R. O. Haynes, p. 225.
604. Norfolk, Sadler, and Croftes, to Cecil. (fn. 6)
1. Upon Thursday night last the Laird Brymstone arrived here with the Queen's letters and his of the 13th, and the answers made by Lethington to such questions as were proponed to him by the Council. As the doings of the writers here must rest much upon the determination of the Protes- tants, and their readiness to join the English in the field, so he will omit nothing in the mean season to put in readiness such force as has before been determined on, and at the least charge.
2. Yesterday the Duke despatched from here the said Laird of Brymston whom (because the passage through Lothian is very difficult), he was forced to send by Carlisle, and also a special man with him to Lord Dacre, who will convey him to the Master of Maxwell. He has requested Brymston to haste hither such of the Scottish nobility as shall come to confer with the writers upon these affairs, until which time the writers can make no certain resolutions of their purposes here. The French lying still in Fife keep the Protestants much occupied, they therefore doubt how they can attend either the sending of their hostages or of others to confer with the writers, nevertheless Brymston has promised to use all speed therein.
3. The Duke has also sent instructions to Lord Dacres to confer with the Master of Maxwell, and to give him good countenance and stay the Borders, according to Cecil's advertisement.
4. Yesterday a herald of arms arrived here, sent out of Scotland by the Dowager, who showed an instruction signed by her complaining of the taking of La Marque, who she supposed to be taken within the bounds of Berwick; whereas the truth is he was taken in Scotland. She also complained of the staying of a French ship in Newcastle, which the Duke answered was a feigned matter. The herald also brought a letter from La Brosse (which he sends herewith) and showed him the Queen's safe-conduct for his passage through England. The Duke answered that he could not hinder men from spreading untrue bruits, whereunto he thought La Brosse was so wise as not to give credit, so he need not doubt but that he might safely use the commodity of his safe-conduct when it should please him, but he could not perceive by the herald that he is about to depart out of Scotland. With these answers he dismissed the herald; who he thinks was sent rather to espy than for any special matter. They hear nothing as yet of Winter, nor of the navy, nor is there any provision for grain arrived, whereof there is great lack.
5. P. S.—There is arrived here one Robert Rosse with a letter in cipher from the Earl of Arran and the Lord James, which he [Cecil] shall receive. The said Robert informed the writers that the said Lords lie with 500 horse, three miles from the French, and sustain much pain, travail, and charge. Hitherto they have held the French so straitly that they dare not wander far from the water side. Their purpose is to take St. Andrews and fortify there, which the said Lords mean to impeach to the uttermost of their power. All their hope is in the aid of the English ships, the sight whereof in the Frith would double their courage and cause a great num ber to rise, that now sit still. They also look for some aid of horsemen from the Duke of Châtellerault, and so they trust to defend themselves and annoy their enemies till the English ships come to their aid. Whereupon Sadler and Croftes have written to encourage them to stand fast, as he will perceive by the copy of their letters. The Duke reminds Cecil of his previous application as to the appointment of Mr. Tempest.—Berwick, 20 Jan. 1559.
6. P. S.—Has not hitherto troubled the Queen nor Cecil with letters. The proportion of the treasure now coming will not last long if the whole garrisons, as well old as new, be therewith defrayed; the old debt amounting to more than the half. Asks Cecil's helping hand herein. (fn. 7)
Orig., in Railton's hol., excepting the P. S. which is in the Duke's. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 4.
Jan. 20.
R. O.
605. The Earl of Arran to Cecil.
1. Has long desired to have advertised him of the state of this country, which he could not do sooner, being "impeschit" by the troubles thereof, and principally in the parts where he is. "The Franchis" whole power has been these fifteen or sixteen days desirous to pass to S. Andrews, and there to fortify; but the Scotch with their small power have stopped until this day their pretence, which has as yet succeeded little to their advantage, for the Scotch have taken by sea two ships in which came M. de Martigues and his company, and next day they took and slew fifty or sixty of their men. Yet their long tarrying in these parts has made the whole country so to weary and be discouraged that they are almost desperate of help from England, seeing the long "tarry" of the ships and army.
2. He sends to the Queen two letters which he received from France by a brother of the Laird of Rothes, who was sent expressly to the writer with the credit thereof; which is, that the faithful people, seeing the cruelty and tyranny of the rulers of the French King, killing and murdering daily the saints of God, have deliberated and determined to put themselves to liberty, and to this end have chosen to their chieftain and conductor one of the greatest Princes of the realm Protestant, who is not suspected: and of this the ministers have assured him as they are faithful men. The beginning of this shall be within three weeks.
3. Lord Huntley sent Lord Sutherland to the writer, desiring "the band," that he might subscribe it, promising (whensoever the English assistance should come) to assist the writer as faithfully as his own father. This promise the Earl of Sutherland has confirmed with his blood; for the Frenchmen hurt him in the arm. Trusts that whensoever the English help comes all things shall be "dressit" as he desires.—Dysart, 20 Jan.
Orig. Entirely in cipher, deciphered. Signed with the badge of a heart pierced through with a barbed and feathered arrow.
Endd. by Cecil: 20 Jan. 1559. Comes Arran. Pp. 3.
Jan. 20.
R. O.
606. The Earl of Arran to Maitland of Lethington.
1. Has long been desirous to have advertised him of their estate, but could not do so sooner, being impeached by troubles, and principally in these parts where they are, the Frenchmen have been these sixteen days past, whose pretence is to pass forward to S. Andrews; but the Scotch with their small power have until this day stopped their enterprise, have taken by sea two ships, in which came M. de Martigues, and on the next day have taken and slain fifty or sixty of their men. Nevertheless their long tarrying in these parts has made the whole country weary and discouraged, being desperate of the help of the ships and army of England. They have lain nightly in their arms, and they are for the most part of the time on horseback, "not only to scrimische them, but also to cut their wiwers [provisions]," which has decreased the number of the Scotch from 800 horsemen that were at the beginning to scarce 200 presently in service. They are within three miles of the enemy, and there they are deliberate to remain so long as they can hold twenty horse together. The enemy has been twice afoot to pass forward on their foresaid enterprise, but has been constrained (the first time after they had marched two miles, the other four,) to return to the place they came from.
2. He sends two letters to the Queen, which were sent to him out of France with the credit by Walter Melvin. The credit is, "that the faithful people of France, seeing the cruelty and tyranny of the rulers of their French King, slaying and murdering daily the saints of God, have chosen themselves one of the greatest Princes of France, and Protestant, to be their chieftain and conductor, and by this means purpose (God willing) to recover the Christian liberty." Of this deliberation the ministers have advised him, as they are faithful men, and that it will begin within three weeks. The "tarry" of the English ships has delayed Lord Huntley, who has sent the Earl of Sutherland, who in his name brought commission to the writer to subscribe the band, assuring him of his firm constancy as any friend, yea, as his own father, desiring to know when England would come in, that he might concur with them and bring with him the whole north of Scotland. On the second day of the Earl's coming he was shot through the arm and in great danger to lose the same, if he be not well cured.—Dysart, 20 Jan. 1559. Signed.
3. P. S.—Desires him to write this letter over again with his own hand, "and show he has deciphered it." Also to send the enclosed two letters to James Ormiston with haste for the furtherance of the matter.
Orig. Hol. Add.: To our traist friend, the young Laird of Lethington. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 4.
[Jan. 20.]
R. O.
607. [Maitland of Lethington?] to . . . . . . . (fn. 8)
1. Omitted the taking of La Marke with the King's and Queen's packets, which contained nothing but credit, but that as largely committed to him as if the King and Queen, the Cardinal and Duke of Guise, had been all present here in proper person. He would confess nothing "to us" of his credit, therefore he is at present in Dumbarton and kept straitly there, for all the Queen Dowager's "bost," which is not small, (fn. 9) as he may know by the copy of the letters sent from her.
2. This day the writer received word that the Laird of Grange's house was not cast down, but the corners burnt and the houses before the gate, and all spoiled. The prisoners which he took of Frenchmen were sent to Dundee. Andrew Sandes desired the Lords to send and see the coffers and "balhuffes" opened which were taken in the ships, but they would not, and sent him word it was all his own if it were 1,000l. (?). Nevertheless he trusts the man will spend all in the common action. He and the rest of Dundee are working forth six or seven ships to keep the Frith.
3. It may be thought strange by their friends that the French are so long unfought with; it is because they are soldiers upon a King's wages, at all times together, who when they see they are at disadvantage, retire them to their strength until our people are "scalit," who, as they know, cannot bide together. If the matter was put to the chance of battle, "our part is in great danger, because of the tynsell of our nobility," who are always the first to put themselves in danger, as appeared well in the last skirmish with them, when the Master of Lindsay and the Laird of Grange both were in danger of their lives, yet God gave them the victory without any scaith, except Thomas Kirkaldy, who was shot through the body with a hackbut, but is in no danger of life nor limb. A gentleman of the Duke's is slain at the racking of a house in which some of the Frenchmen took refuge; the house was burnt and they slain. If at this time they should have "tynt" the said two men, the Master of Lindsay and Grange, it would have been to them more hurt than to the Frenchmen to have "tynt" 1,000 soldiers; in the writers' own opinion it would have been more skaith than to have had all the Frenchmen in Scotland slain.
4. They mind shortly to invade Stirling, if they have no other impediment. The Earl of Argyll passed to his country eight days since, and this day they get word from him that he is evil disposed, but will be here with diligence, if either he may go or ride. They are making in readiness, abiding upon their friends' advertisements, which yet again they pray may be hasted.
Orig. Hol., in a Scottish hand (not Maitland's) and apparently the end of a letter. On the back: Ledington [?] Pp. 2.

Footnotes

1 Foragers; see Cotgrave.
2 Another copy occurs in the Duke of Norfolk's letter-book at Hatfield House.
3 The following postcript, which does not exist in the original in the R. O., is given from the copy at Hatfield House.
4 Another copy of this letter is preserved at Burton-Constable.
5 Another copy is at Burton-Constable.
6 Another copy of this letter is at Hatfield House.
7 This P. S. does not occur in the copy at Hatfield House.
8 Apparently the P. S. to the following letter:—
Jan. 20.
B. M. Cal. B. ix. 99.
Maitland of Lethington to . . . .
1. Understands by the writer's last letters that many Englishmen doubt that the Scots shall not at last be found trusty friends; but, caring only to avoid the present danger make the English to serve the turn, and after being delivered from the French will become enemies as before. For this they allege past experience and a few presumptions, all grounded upon mistrust.
2. In times past the Scots were driven to join with the French by the attempts of the English to conquer their realm. God's providence has now altered the case, yea changed it to "the flat contrary," that the Scots desire the friendship of the English. They see how the French have ever made them serve their turn, and drawn them into a most dangerous war for their own commodity. If the English by their friendly support at this time will declare that not only do they not seek the ruin of Scotland, but will preserve the liberty thereof from strangers, Scotland will never so far trust France as to become reconciled with it and to forego the amity of England. In so doing they would become a prey to the tyranny of France. What nation might help Scotland if they would, or would if they might.?
3. "I pray you consider in like case when, in the days of your Princes Henry VIII. and Edward VI. means were opened of amity betwixt both realms, was not at all times the difference of religion the only stay they were not embraced? Did not the craft of our clergy and power of their adherents subvert the devices of the better sort? But now has God of His mercy removed the block forth of the way; now is not their practise like to take place any more when we are come to a conformity and profess the same religion with you."
4. Is assured that it is truly and sincerely meant on the part of Scotland to continue in perpetual amity with England. There are good means to do it, fit instruments for the purpose, time serves well, the inhabitants of both realms wish it, God has wrought in the people's hearts on both parts a certain still agreement upon it. Prays him not to let the English drive time in consultation whether they will support the Scots, or no. The preparations of France and levying of men in Germany show that England is the mark they shoot at. It is one of their old fetches, making a show to one place to light on another. Remembering Boulogne and Calais let them beware of the third. Scotland offers England the occasion whereby former losses may be repaired.
5. "It shall not be amiss to consider in what case the French be presently. Their estate is not always so calm at home as every man thinketh, and truely it was not their great readiness for war made them to take this matter in hand at this time, but rather a vain trust in their own policy, thinking to have found no resistance. Their opinion has deceived them, and that makes them now amazed." The demand by the empire for the restitution of Metz, Toul, and Verdun may grow to some business.
6. It is not impossible that the Scots may receive conditions of peace, but of this he saw little likelihood. They are no rebels or conspirators; they are defending the rights of their Sovereign and the liberty of her realm against the tyranny of strangers who are attempting a plain conquest, who seek to usurp the chief offices, and to alter and pervert the laws and liberties of the people. They seek nothing but that Scotland may remain, as before, a free realm, ruled by the Queen and her ministers, born men of the same, and that the succession of the crown may remain with the lawful blood. "I would wish that ye and they that are learned should read the two former orations of Demosthenes, called Olynthiacœ, and consider what counsel that wise orator gave to the Athenians, his countrymen, in a like case, which has so great affinity with this cause of ours that every word thereof may be applied to our purpose. There may ye learn of him what advice is to be followed when your neighbour's house is on fire.—St. Andrews, 20 Jan. 1559. Signed, but the signature is defaced.
Orig. Hol. Add.. To my loving friend [defaced] be this delivered at London. Endd.: A letter from Scotland. Pp. 9
9 The remainder of the sentence is an addition by the same hand, but in a different ink.