Elizabeth
April 1560, 6-10

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Institute of Historical Research

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Joseph Stevenson (editor)

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1865

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505-526

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'Elizabeth: April 1560, 6-10', Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 2: 1559-1560 (1865), pp. 505-526. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=71822 Date accessed: 21 October 2014.


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April 1560, 6-10

April 6.
R. O.
952. Throckmorton to the Queen.
1. Having sent letters to her by Florence Diaceto on the 26th, 27th, and 29th of March, he sends this by an express messenger, advertising her of such things as have happened since Diaceto's departure. The Baron of Castelnovo's sentence of three years to the galleys has been revoked, at the pursuit of his adversaries the house of Guise, and at a meeting of the Knights of the Order he was condemned to die, and was beheaded on the 29th, a preacher being also hanged at the same time. The Duke de Nemours, his captor, was by the Knights absolved from keeping his promise of sparing his life. Two other captains have since been beheaded, one was named Mazieres. On the last of March the Prince of Condé's êcuyer was apprehended. It is reported that all who were taken for religion and dismissed shall, for all the pardons granted them, be burned. All the troubles hereabouts are appeased; but in other places things stand in doubtful terms.
2. On the 27th ult. the Chancellor, Olivier, deceased, whose corpse was honoured by the house of Guise and others with the accustomed ceremonies. Morvillier, Bishop of Orleans, has earnestly refused his office, which will be bestowed upon M. l'Hospital, a President of the account.
3. On the 27th March there arrived at the Court one from Scotland, who crossed in a fishing boat from Dunbar to Calais; he told that the Queen Dowager was greatly busied in practising to get Edinburgh Castle into her hands, but offered not as much as may bring it to pass, and that M. de la Brosse was to be sent thence to inform them of the state of Scotland. It will be well not to permit him to pass through England. On the last of March the King departed hence for a house of the Queen Mother's, called Senunceau, where were set up columns, colosses, pyramids, and other shows of antiquity, with the Queen's arms matched with those of France and Scotland.
4. He is informed that the Rhinegrave is levying men in Germany, who will be shipped at Emden. In France likewise all is done that can be in sending men to the sea coast. The Marquis d'Elbœuf is appointed to go into Scotland with twenty ships, with all expedition; he has sent one of his servants to go all along the sea coast and learn all he can, and to pass over with the knowledge thereof, and then to return to him.
5. It being reported here that the Queen's army had entered Scotland, there was much consultation what was to be done with Throckmorton. First they thought good to sequester him, then that it was not requisite so to do till they had revoked their Ambassador; and afterward they judged it necessary for practice sake for their Ambassador to remain, supposing that he with the hostages would do better service for France than Throckmorton by himself could do for England. He trusts that she will look to this if war break out, and that the French shall have small commodity for landing at Dumbarton. It is said that the Admiral of France and M. d'Andelot will presently be employed on the French King's service at sea. For all their fair promises of peace their chief care is how war may be executed, therefore it will be better for the Queen to begin with an advantage. The Count Tende has signified out of Provence that the Duchess of Savoy is very sore sick and not like to escape.
6. The French have taken order to send them despatches from Scotland to their Ambassador in Flanders; he trusts means will be found for intercepting them, and preventing the Ambassadors of the Emperor and King of Spain from helping to convey them.
7. The Ambassador of the King of Algiers here is thought to have commission from the Turk, to whom the French have promised powder and munitions to be conveyed from Marseilles to Algiers, and that they will not aid the King of Spain in his war against Algiers; whereof it may not mislike her to inform the Ambassadors of the Emperor and King of Spain.
8. On the 16th inst. the King enters into Tours. The Duke of Ferrara (because of the troubles in this realm for religion) sends 1,000 harquebusiers, and the Pope 4,000 Italians to guard the King. The Emperor is come to Spires to hold a Diet for consultation about Metz, Toul, and Verdun.
9. This is the time to bring the French to reason, as they are so perplexed that they cannot tell what to do. For three days it was determined that the Marquis d'Elbœuf should have gone forward, but now they do not think that he is strong enough to pass through for fear of the Queen's army.
10. The Cardinal of Lorraine has said that at the time of the marriage of the Queen of Scots and the Dauphin, the Scots nobility were contented that the crown of Scotland should be united to the crown of France for ever, whether she had issue or not, and that it should be kept at St. Denis. The Lords of the Congregation would most likely not confess this.
11. Things are yet in suspicious terms here. The Cardinal of Lorraine, on the 4th inst., riding to his abbey of Marmoutier, a mile from Tours, to set things in order for the King's lodging, was conducted by the French guard armed with pistols.
12. The King has commissioned Marshal Brissac to go into Provence and Dauphiny, and Marshal Termes to go into Normandy, to appease the stirs there.
13. War has been proclaimed between the Turk and the Sophy; the Turk has sent his son with an army against the Sophy, but has revoked him, and appointed him to remain upon the confines of Hungary, and has gone himself in person against the Sophy towards Adrianople. He has also sent 150 galleys for the defence of the Barbary coast.
14. The Venetians have sent Bernardo Navigiero, who was one of the Dieci and in towardness to have been created Doge, and Nicolao de Ponti, to congratulate the King. They have also sent two Ambassadors into Spain. Throckmorton has sent into Brittany to learn the estates of Messieurs de St. Maure and du Pont, and encloses a certificate thereof. There is talk in Brittany that the Duke of Aumale will take shipping at Brest, and the Marquis at Newhaven; things are, however, no readier than they were.—Amboise, 6 April 1560. Signed.
Add. Orig., with seal. Portions in cipher not deciphered. Endd. Pp. 7.
April 6.
R. O.
953. Decipher of the ciphered portions of the above letter. Pp. 4.
April 6.
R. O.
954. Throckmorton to Cecil.
1. Received a letter on the last of March from him by Barnaby, with a printed proclamation in English and French; also a letter from Killigrew, and an intercepted one from the Duke of Guise and the Cardinal of Lorraine to the Queen Regent of Scotland, in cipher, dated the 19th Feb., which he has had deciphered by Somer, and returns written in his own cipher, with which he hath intermeddled divers English words for the better disguising of it.
2. As for the proclamation, Cecil has not said whether he wishes it to be made public, or only to have his advice upon it. If it has already been made public, then they must provide for the worst, and maintain it by the best reasons they can; but if not, it were well to weigh the point of the minority of the King and Queen, for though a Prince of the King's years in England is said to be in minority, in France he has absolute authority to govern, and the Queen is still older.
3. It had been well if the Guises had not been so particularly named as the occasion of these unquietnesses, but that it had run in general terms; as by these means the Queen will have purchased to herself an everlasting enemy in that house, and one which will not fail to work and procure as much mischief as shall lie in their uttermost to be revenged. If she hope for peace and for reconciliation of the Princes again, these men being so pricked will never consent in their hearts; and if they continue still in place the Queen and her ministers can hope for no friendship at their hands.
4. Knows nothing certain of the proceedings in England, or whether the army is at Achinson's Haven.
5. All is full here of bruit of war, and they wonder why he tarries, as they have already consulted what to do with him, at first thinking of sequestrating him, and then of waiting for their Ambassador's return, and lastly thinking that he and the hostages remaining in England can do better service there than he can remaining in France, and that whatever they do to him will be done to their Ambassador. He trusts that Cecil will not let them have liberty to do as they do. It were well if he were revoked out of hand to break up that nest of French ministers at Cecil's elbow, or else other order taken with them. It were better to declare war at once, and thereby take away their means of passing through England to Scotland, and reporting on the forces, than to make war as no war and peace as no peace.
6. The Duke of Guise and the Cardinal of Lorraine in the deciphered letter say that when D'Elbœuf was driven back to Dieppe by the weather, they devised every means of fair words to quiet the Queen and keep her from aiding the Scots, and make her believe that the forces were only sent to reduce the Scots to obedience. That the King made answer that he believed the Queen's arming was only for the safeguard of her realm, and that he dissembled the most he could lest she should perceive that he mistrusted her, and in the meantime covertly to hasten away the Marquis. At the time of writing the letter they were not well advertised of the state of Scotland, for they require to understand the same from their sister by that messenger or some other, upon whom, if he be not already passed, it would be a good service to light. They also tell her to spare no means to get the castle of Edinburgh. They confess themselves that there is nothing so necessary for them in these their doings as to win time.
7. If this had been known in time it would have advanced the Queen's service, and yet it serves well to persuade those who would fain draw back and believe that the French mean to perform their promises.
8. They would have the Queen Dowager advertise her people by publishing of libels. They have written to her to send La Brosse away; and as he has a passport he is to come through England to learn many things there, and advertise the King of the state of Scotland; he ought not to be suffered in any wise to pass no kind of way.
9. Throckmorton desires to know in what towardness they are in Scotland, and whether they are lords of Inchkeith. It will be well to make current the proclamation by means of merchants through Brittany and Normandy, to animate the people more against the house of Guise. They have despatched hence a Scotchman through England named Harvey, with letters and other credits; his letters were good for the Queen's knowledge and his money a good prey for some soldier if it might be caught. To pass without suspicion he will play the good fellow and speak liberally of this country and the worst he can of the French King; his money is hidden in the thigh of his hose.—Amboise, 6 April 1560. Signed.
10. P. S.—Begs that this letter directed to Mr. Killegrew may be sent to him.
Orig., chiefly in cipher, deciphered. Add. Endd. Pp. 7.
April 6.
R. O.
955. Grey and Others to Norfolk.
1. They encamped this day at Restalrig, one mile from Leith. Before he had fully come thither, some Scotch harquebusiers with some Scotch and English light horsemen were in skirmish before Leith. At the same time a trumpeter came from the Dowager with a safe conduct for Croftes and Howard to have access unto her. He therefore thought meet that the skirmish should cease, and commanded his party to retire, and the trumpeter warned the French to do the like.
2. After the departure of Croftes and Howard, hearing some shots, he drew near the French and gave them knowledge by a trumpeter that it was agreed that the skirmish should cease; whereunto a brave answer was made that they were upon their master's ground, and without more warning they discharged fifty or sixty shot at him and a few Scotch Lords in his company, and so compelled them to make the skirmish, in which the English killed or took 100 men, losing a good number hurt and slain, whereof was no man of name but Mr. Knevet, who was shot in the arm. Fernando did notable service.
3. It is likely that the Dowager will come to these points. She will be content to remove part of the French, and to pardon all the Scots who have stirred in this action. She demands to know what security she might have of subjects who had given hostages to a foreign Prince. In the end, she said she would grant so much as Croftes and Howard should think in their consciences sufficient, and she willed the requests to be put in writing against to-morrow. She has granted licence for messengers to go quietly to Berwick. So he thinks to-morrow to send Howard with the Articles, and to declare at more length to the Duke the proceedings with the Dowager. Knowledge has been given her that notwithstanding this communication the English will not omit anything of this business.
4. They ask the Duke to hasten both the footmen and the money, and also Sir Ralph Sadler.—Restalrig, 6 April 1560. Signed: W. Grey, J. Croftes, G. Howard, H. Scrope.
5. P. S.—Painful Mr. Randall must be remembered with the Duke's letter of thanks. Remind him of Tremaine's and Baker's worthy and very valiant service.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 2.
April 6.
R. O. Haynes, p. 278.
956. Norfolk and his Council to Cecil. (fn. 1)
1. Sends herewith such letters as they have from the camp. By one he will perceive Gray's disposition to besiege Edinburgh Castle, which they think not expedient to be attempted, for they consider the Queen would have no such extremity used to the Dowager, she being in the Castle, (fn. 2) and it might be the means to make Lord Erskine an utter enemy (who may be a friend, or at least a neutral), as well as to withdraw the hearts of the Scottish nation from them, when they see them leave the pursuit of the French in Leith and assail the Scots in Edinburgh Castle. Yet Cecil may consider it and advertise here the Queen's pleasure.
2. He will also perceive how Gray and the rest are perplexed at the withdrawing of the navy out of the Firth, which in their opinion ought not to be revoked from thence so long as the army remains in Scotland. They trust that the doubt thereof shall cause them to use the more expedition, whereunto the writers will provoke them by all means they can devise, although they fear that the lack of the battery last despatched from thence may be a hindrance to them. They pray him to haste the treasure, whereof there is great lack. —Berwick, 6 April 1560. Signed: Tho. Norfolk, R. Sadler, F. Leeke.
Orig., in Railton's hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 2.
April 6.
R. O.
957. Randolph to Cecil.
1. As he assures himself that whatsoever he writes to the Duke of Norfolk comes to Cecil's hands, he trusts that he will accept it as though it had been directed to himself alone. The honourable doings of Lord Grey and the contentment of the Queen Dowager at the arrival and proceedings of the English army he leaves to write, saving that he fears her long practice in craft and subtility may prevent or stay the godly and honest purpose in hand. The earnestness of the Duke [Châtellerault] in this cause will best appear by his daily travail and talk. Can testify how much the false report has altered him in body and disquieted his mind. Most unhonourable reports are daily spread against the Queen's honour, and to the shame of those that speak them. Besides the injuries of the usurpation of her title, and the solicitation of many noble men to her opinion, it is not for him to report "what words have passed the Dowager's mouth both in private and open talk of the Queen's doings, life, and behaviour," but he is ready to do so. The Duke here ("as long as his son liveth, at the least") is nothing to be doubted of. As to the Earl of Arran's mind, the adventures in which he daily hazards himself bear witness. The zeal of the rest of the Lords in this godly action and their goodwill to serve the Queen, cannot be shown by his writing sufficiently. The number of friends daily increases; there has lately joined them Lord Ogilvy, a young gentleman earnestly affectioned to the cause, who came well accompanied, and will not diminish one of his number till he see the end of this matter. The Lairds of Dumlanrig, Lochinvar, Garlies, and others are come. The Lord Morton has promised Lord Glencairn and Lethington to join to-morrow; he is very like to bring with him Lord Hume and the Lairds of Fernihurst and Sesford, both whose sons are here present. Thus God has opened the eyes of those that hitherto lay back. Lord Huntley is no changeling. They look daily to hear from him, and the Duke has sent one to bring him away, or that he shall utterly show himself enemy to the cause. His brother, the Bishop of Athens, is here, and assures the Lords daily of his coming. It is thought that many of his friends here, as the Earl of Sutherland and Earl Marshall, will leave him except he faithfully perform his promise made to the Queen and the Lords; "some wise men judge him better lost than found."
2. Is obliged to write this at an unreasonable time of the night without order. As many of the noblemen desire there should be no difference between the English and Scotch, whatsoever is desired of either is liked by the other and executed by both, with such hearty considerance as though variance had never been between them. The Earls of Arran and Argyle, Lord James, the Master of Maxwell, the Laird of Pitarro, and the Tutor of Petcur, with their friends and servants, lodge in the camp. The Duke and the rest lie in the town, as near the other as possible.—Lastorick [Restalrig], 6 April 1560. Signed.
Orig. hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 4.
April 6.
R. O.
958. The Answer of the Council to the Ambassador of Sweden.
The Council having communicated to the Queen the whole substance of his oration of yesterday; she desires them to state that she recognizes the merits and virtues of both the Kings of Sweden, the father and the son, and is ready to assist that realm to the utmost of her power. With regard, however, to the offer of marriage, she has already sufficiently expressed her determination. If the King designate should determine on marrying any other Princess, the Queen will do what she can to further his suit, and is willing to oblige him in any other point except this of matrimony. If there is anything in this reply painful to the King, they beg that he will impute it to inadvertency and the press of public business.
Draft, in Cecil's hol. Endd.: 6 April. Lat. Pp. 4.
April 7.
R. O. Haynes, p. 279.
959. Norfolk and his Council to Cecil. (fn. 3)
1. Yesternight the Bishop of Valence arrived here, with the Queen's letter for his safe conduct to the Queen Dowager. This is difficult for him to accomplish, for the Duke of Châtellerault and the other Lords are now in the field in arms, the Dowager in Edinburgh Castle, and all the French closed in Leith. He showed the Bishop the danger; who declared somewhat hotly that he would not have come hither but at the Queen's desire and for her cause, and not for the Scots' sake. The writer promised to do all he could if the Bishop would adventure. He has resolved to send a man of his own with letters to the Dowager and the Duke, and upon their answers the Bishop will resolve either to go forward or return. Prays Cecil to advertise him of the Queen's pleasure, as it is not meet that the Bishop should abide long in this town.—Berwick, 7 April 1560. Signed: T. Norfolk, R. Sadler, F. Leek.
2. P. S.—Adds for the better satisfaction of the Queen touching the Marquis d'Elbœuf's horses, that when Norfolk was at Berwick his servant Fulmerston wrote to him from Newcastle that there were certain horses there sent from Mr. Winter to the Court, which were taken upon the sea. He was also certified that there was a Frenchman there who claimed, as he said, by the Queen's commission, all Frenchmen's goods that were taken. Norfolk (fearing that if he should see them, it might turn to the Queen's loss) wrote that they should be kept secretly till his coming, when he meant to despatch the Frenchman and the horses afterwards to London. In the mean time came Southaike, captain of one of the Queen's ships, who said that there was no commission to carry the horses further than Newcastle, and that Winter had bought them of Mr. Maline, who took them with a small bark of his own, and that he had appointed three of them to be conveyed to the Earl of Arran and the Laird of Grange, a gennet and a mare to London, and of the rest willed Norfolk to take his choice, who has taken two.
Orig., in Railton's hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 3.
April 7.
R. O. Haynes, p. 279.
960. Norfolk and his Council to Cecil. (fn. 4)
He has received letters from Gray which he sends enclosed. Cecil will perceive thereby the French bravery and the hot skirmishes before Leith, also the conference passed between the Dowager and Croftes and Howard. It seems she would be content to have this matter taken up, and gain time by treaty; if she would accept such reasonable offers as have been made to her, they think the matter might be ended. She seems to doubt what surety can be made unto her of subjects that have given hostages upon a contract made with a foreign Prince. They doubt whether she means to come to any end or good conclusion for the freedom of Scotland, and wish to know the Queen's pleasure therein. At the writing hereof the hostages arrived. Prays him to remember their former request for their better education.—Berwick, 7 April 1560. Signed: Tho. Norfolk, R. Sadler, F. Leeke.
Orig., in Railton's hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 2.
April 7.
R. O.
961. Henry Killigrew to Cecil.
1. Arrived here with the Bishop [of Valence] on the 6th inst. at night. Has delivered the letter for the Duke of Châtellerault from the French Ambassador to the Bishop's man, who is sent to the camp for a safe conduct; till whose return he can write no certainty of the Bishop's going, as he will not go unless the Duke of Norfolk assure him harmless, which he cannot do out of the Queen's dominions. (fn. 5)
2. The writer could not "lenger" his journey as much as he could without evident cause of suspicion. They rode but forty miles a day, whereas the Bishop would have ridden sixty. On the way they spake with no one who might hinder the Queen's service, but on the same day that they arrived at Berwick he met four Frenchmen towards Alnwick, who were taken by the Laird of Grange; they complained to the Bishop that they had been ill used. The Bishop was very desirous to speak secretly with them, but Killigrew made as though his horse would not away from his fellows. He said that the Queen was in the castle of Edinburgh; that they had 300 men in Inchkeith, 200 in Dunbar, and 100 Scottish light horse; all the rest were in Leith, which would keep play a good while unless they were very sorely handled both with the mine and the battery; but the most he doubted was the want of victuals. One of them he spoke with was an old soldier who had served under the Bishop's brother, who when he perceived by the Bishop's countenance that Killigrew was an Englishman, framed his tale thereafter, saying that Leith was nothing strong.
3. By the way the Bishop complained of the Queen's sending him on a pilgrimage in his old days, as he knew he would not be suffered to go into Scotland. He had been advertised by the Spanish Ambassador that the army had commandment to enter Scotland before he left London; he also said that King Philip would take part with the French King and that all English would ere long be forbidden his ports and country. For his treatment by the way the Bishop was right well pleased, but his stay in this town is no small grief to him. The writer spoke to the Duke about the horses that Cecil gave him charge to do.—Berwick, 7 April 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol., with seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 4.
April 7.
R. O.
962. W. Herle to Sir Thomas Parry.
1. In his last letter of March 15 the writer informed Parry of being at Segenberg in pursuit of his principal charge, remaining under colour of merchandise. Is very grateful to Henrick Bantzow, with whom he has been in such familiarity that he can consume few hours out of his company.
2. One day, upon cause of talk ministered to that purpose, Herle fell (as it were incidentally) in discourse of France; to what penury these long wars had brought it, and that the bankers of Lyons had brought their money to Antwerp, fearing perhaps so violent doings. This respect and others, he affirmed, had bred such plenty of money at Antwerp, that men were required to receive their debts presently, which were not due for 12 or 18 months, and the interest was scarcely worth 5 per cent. Expected to see the restoration of Saturn's golden age.
3. Henrick confessed that all this was true, as he was newly come from Antwerp. Herle said that it was no world for such money masters as he and others of the Holstein nobility. He agreed herewith, and said that he had hoped through Herle's means that no small sum should have been employed to the use of the English nation, whom he desired to serve as he did in the Duke of Somerset's time; and this writer falling to the same reckoning again by the information of Joachim Bantzow and Claus van der Wisse, who having had sundry conferences with Herle, stayed him and the rest from any other contract so long that the Feast of Epiphany approached, which is the time that their revenues come in, and when they deliver their money to interest for the year following. Bantzow, however, by the help of the Duke Adolphus, was able to distribute his portion otherwise, but he knows not how the rest of the nobility have sped with their part. Of this Herle seemed not a little to rejoice at his good chance (for colour's sake), declaring that last summer some letters and talk had passed betwixt Joachim Bantzow, Claus van der Wisse, and himself to the said effect, and that he found them not wholly unwilling thereunto; but that the winter coming on, and being called home for other business, did not permit him to use his disposition in pleasing them; but arriving safely at Amsterdam he sent a special messenger, an Englishman, to certify them, who, sailing in a Ditmarsh ship, has not been heard of till this present hour; and Herle, not understanding the mishap, long time attended the answer from them in vain. He further said that he had great affection towards the Holstein gentlemen, and that he doubted not to attempt the merchants once again for 3,000 or 4,000 dollars, giving them good hope that they upon reasonable conditions should receive the same sum presently, whereby the coming of the Epiphany is not to be attended, to their greater gain; wherein they must not hang long in determination, as he must peradventure make a voyage as far as Venice. Henrick Bantzow thanked him, and said that he would write to the others and appoint some place for them to meet Herle, and named the town of Regensburg [Rendsburg] where the nobility assembled on the 30th of March to establish certain new laws among the Ditmarshers in the name of the three Princes. This being the very issue Herle most desired, he remained long without speaking, and then declared that for Bantzow's sake he was content to gratify the request, and to defer his own business till some better opportuity; adding merrily that the thanks he gave him should not excuse him, as he was half a Holsteiner already by good will, and some day might desire to become one wholly by habitation, and then he would not stick to crave greater things.
4. This Henrick Bantzow for wealth and authority is chief of that sort, and a great counsellor to the King of Denmark, which moved Herle principally to seek thither before any other place, knowing their inclinations to be much ruled by him, whereby one way he avoided all note of desire for contriving any bargain, and another way drove him to become a suitor, his instructions charging him not to press it. Through means of the said Henrick nothing is done in the Court of Denmark, but Herle has the knowledge thereof.
5. On Monday last he opened to him under great secresy, what the French King three days before had written to his master; beginning with reminding him of the ancient amity between France and Denmark, and extolling his glorious victory over the rebels of Ditmarsh, omitting no ceremonial gloss which might sound to his praise. The end of his circumstance tended to this, that considering what aid he might give him in reducing the rebels of Scotland, from the position of his country, and the commodity of ships which he had, he trusted that he would not refuse to gratify him in so just a quarrel. This request was but for 1,000 horsemen, with convenient number of ships to transport them to the first port of Scotland; for the charge and necessaries of which voyage himself to supply that abundantly, with ample reward to each according to his quality, promising to restore the Orkneys. He used further persuasions concerning the English, who, he said, were marvellous greedy of dominion, desirous to enlarge the limits of their kingdom, and who were greatly to be suspected if the whole monarchy of Britain came into their hands, as they gave no few significations to desire it, and compass the same under shadow of protecting the Scots from the French tyranny, who he avowed used justice and temperance in all their government. If they once obtained Scotland, Denmark would not be free from their injuries; for the old rancour of Danes and Englishmen, never yet utterly extinguished, would break out again. Wherefore he desires his princely aid in this common cause. To this no answer has yet been made, but Henrick affirms that the King's inclination is in no wise to gratify him herein, yet if anything is concluded Herle shall not fail to understand it. Begs that this may be kept secret; and especially the author's name, as he conjured Herle thereunto before he would make any narration. His next letters shall follow the form of this alphabet, for more secresy if they should be intercepted, having further intended to send a copy of this verbatim to Cecil, by a special messenger to Gresham. All things remain in good quiet here. The soldiers and captains of horse and foot are dispersed in great numbers throughout the country, tearing and blaspheming God that they are not employed, filling all places with tumults and robberies, not sparing to curse the Princes who suffer them to live in such idleness and penury.
6. The writer repaired to Regensburg on the last of March, where, giving place the first and second days to the Ditmarsh affairs, on the third he had conference with them touching his own; to whom, after a brief repetition of what had passed between him and Henrick Bantzow, he offered to be a means to the merchants of London for the taking up on reasonable conditions of the surplus that remained over to them after the Epiphany, though it might rise to the sum of 200,000 or 300,000 dollars, having good hope for the compassing of the same, and to obtain the bond of the city of London, the importance of which he left to their consideration. They are driven to commit their money to those of Hamburg and Lubeck; and therefore are in much dread that if quarrel arose, they would covert that money to the hurt of the owners.
7. He was assured that having known by Henrick Bantzow that which had passed between them at Segeberg, they were much bound to him for his good will, and were marvellously sorry that no such sum of importance now remained as might be a means towards the acquaintance, which of all other they greatly desired. Because when the opinion of his bargain last winter had failed them, every man had provided for himself as he best could. Some piece had been exposed to the Livonians, who had lately lost to the Russ the strong castle of Marienburg by the infidelity of them within; and some other piece to Hamburg and Lubeck, whom they thought not meet to be rashly trusted of much, and the rest was disposed within the land; noting hereby the Duke Adolphus and certain of his gentlemen, who to show the more gorgeousness in England had taken up large sums. This hindered their present purpose, but not so wholly that Herle should take it for a resolute answer, for which they required three or four weeks respite to view what quantity could be gathered together; showing further that two gentlemen not of the simplest sort, Bertram Sessle and Benedict van Amresvild, were absent with the Duke. They told him also of his friend's death, Claus van der Wisse, who was one of their three principals, with whose children they had presently much trouble for the division of their portions. This was the substance of all that was debated, wherewith, though not very well pleased, yet disguising his affections, Herle showed himself content to stay their answer at Hamburg, or to leave sufficient answer for the same at his host's house.
8. Does not think that they will be able to bring together much above 100,000 dollars. Fortune seems to envy this strange case, first: the rare and unexpected chances of war gave impediment; next, the lamentable hap of the poor man who being sent into Holstein was drowned on the way; and lastly the forwardness of the year when he arrived. Dares to promise on his peril to conclude the bargain for Christmas next with these conditions following: 1. The sum shall be 50,000 or 60,000 [dollars] at least. 2. The same to be at the Queen's pleasure how long she shall keep it, giving the yearly interest unless urgent necessity enforce the contrary, whereof she shall have sufficient warning beforehand. 3. The city's bond only shall serve for assurance. 4. For the interest to be in good hope to accord for forty in the [1,000] and less, and not to pay the same ere the end of every year. 5. That one general bond among all the gentlemen shall suffice for the whole sum. 6. Hamburg to be the place for the receipt of the money, from whence is an easy navigation of two days to Orwell water, whither it may be brought in Hamburg bottoms, without dread of war. 7. Not mistrusting to get Antwerp from them as the place for repayment. 8. And to condition to pay them in the fineness of substance, as, if dollars be the payment, the repayment to be made in the like. 9. Touching the assurance and the sealing of the bonds in England, some one of sufficient authority may be sent thither for their part to behold the doing thereof, with whom some other may be returned for the delivery of the writing here, the money once received. 10. For the receipt of the money it shall not be necessary to send Gresham hither, only Richard Clough, or one of his servants. 11. Two considerations remain; one in the mean season to provide certain bullion from Nuremburg; and that such shipping follow for the same as the sixth Article contains. The other is that, the English coin being unredressed at that term, the exchange of the Flemish money will be equal with their current money of England, or rather far better, whereby the Queen using the exchange from Antwerp will be a good gainer that way.
9. If so long a delay in this bargain as till Christmas somewhat displease, yet he thinks that Gresham's bargain serving the first turn, so this may come in good season for the second. Arrived from Regensburg yesterday.—Hamburg, 7 April 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. Pp. 11.
April 8.
R. O.
963. W. Maitland to Cecil.
The Admiral has this day taken in a Flemish ship hid in a barrel of onions, a great packet of letters from France, many of old dates, and others from the Marquis d'Elbœuf of the 18th March. The sum of the whole is that he has advertisement that the King of Spain does not understand the Queen making any trouble with the French King's subjects, and if she does so he will become her enemy. He has promised to furnish 6,000 Spaniards, and commanded the Low Countries to aid D'Elbœuf. D'Elbœuf cannot depart before the army is ready, which will not be for two months, as the merchant ships have all sailed on their traffic. The army, he says, shall be of 10,000 men, as well soldiers as mariners. If the two months are well occupied, they will be too late for their purpose.—The camp before Leith, 8 April 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. Pp. 2.
April 9.
R. O.
964. Eric, King of Sweden, to the Queen.
She is doubtless aware, by the representations of the Duke of Finland, of the anxiety with which the writer awaits an answer to the many letters and messengers which he has sent to her. He now despatches his Chancellor, who will act in conjunction with his resident Ambassador at her Court, Nicolas Burreus, for both of whom he requests credence. He urges her to send a speedy reply.—Stockholm, 1560. Signed: V. M. frater et consanguineus amantissimus, Ericus.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil: 9 April 1560. Lat. Broadside.
April 9.
R. O.
965. Adolphus, Duke of Holstein, to the King of Denmark.
Asks for a safe conduct for Duke John of Finland, the son of Gustavus, King of Sweden, who is returning from England to Sweden.—London, 9 April 1560. Signed.
Copy. Endd. Lat. Pp. 3.
April 9.
R. O.
966. Acknowledgment by Richard Candeller.
Receipt subscribed by Richard Candeller, deputy, in the name of the company of merchant adventurers, stating that he has received from Cecil four acquittances, amounting to the sum of 60,000l.—9 April 1560. Signed.
Copy. P. 1.
April 9.
R. O.
967. Treaty of Cateau Cambresis.
Oath by Francois d'Ailly, Vidame of Amiens, Baron and Seigneur de Pincuigny, De la Bruaye, Rennevalle, and Dours, a hostage sent by Francis II., to the effect that he will observe all that is required by the treaty of 2 April 1559.—Westminster, 9 April 1560. Signed.
Orig., on vellum. Endd. by Cecil. Lat.
April 9.
R. O.
968. Grey and Others to Norfolk.
1. All things of the first battery are almost in such readiness that the English may prepare themselves shortly to approach the town of Leith and plant the battery. They want 2,000 soldiers. Trusts that the defeats have been declared by Sir G. Howard. If the enterprise should be left unachieved, then the Lords of the Congregation will be left as a prey to their enemies; on the other hand against compounding the matter by treaty they find the Scots obstinate, as without the expulsing of all the French and depriving the Regent of her authority they will not accord, and this the Regent will not think reasonable, nor will she treat as long as the contract between the Queen and the Congregation remains in force.
2. Whereas the Dowager agreed yesterday to send knowledge whom she would appoint to commune of the Articles, it chanced that certain Scots horsemen took a trumpeter and a secretary of hers between Leith and Edinburgh, whom they thought had been to confer with M. d'Oysel; whom after they had been stayed a short time they licensed to depart. The writer has had no answer from her according to her promise. If he does not hear from her during the day he will send for plain answer, or will desist from further communing.
3. "I doubt not you will consider deeply whether it be better to attempt these things by force, with excessive charges, the end whereof is uncertain and the success of the whole doubtful, or to compound their matter in such sort as, the great causes being removed, either party may relent in some part of their desires. Which thing I do put in remembrance, in respect of the Queen's honour."
4. The opinion of the Council here is that unless the next battery is better appointed with soldiers and pioneers than the first, they will not be able to win Leith by battery and assault.—At Lestarrick, encamped, 9 April 1560. Signed: Grey, Scrope, Croftes.
5. P. S.—The Dowager has sent a safe conduct for six persons to commune with her upon the Articles delivered to her by the Lords of the Congregation.
Copy, in Railton's hol. Add. Endd. Pp. 3.
April 9.
R. O.
969. W. Maitland to the Duke of Norfolk.
1. Received yesternight his letters with some Articles from the Queen touching the matters of Ireland, which he will communicate to the Earl of Argyll. Cannot be persuaded that the French mean to deal sincerely. Is credibly put in doubt of the continuance of the English army for lack of necessaries. The second battery is not yet come. Men of experience, perceiving the greatness of the piece, begin to think the numbers of men to be few to assay it by battery, and judge that to do it safely would require 20,000 men, and fear that the Queen will wax weary of the expenses of a camp volant. Is not himself of sufficient experience to choose the best, but is assured that no appointment will please his countrymen but such as he thinks the French will never agree to. If all things do not proceed forward conform to the expectations of his countrymen, he will bear the whole blame; and on the other part, as the matter is of such consequence, he does not move the English to any desperate enterprise. They appear to have too few counsellors for so great a matter.
2. Sir Ralph Sadler, upon the sight of things here, might do great profit and help. If he did not think his coming was more than necessary he would not presume to move the Duke in it.—From the camp before Leith, 9 April 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
April 9.
R. O.
970. W. Maitland to Sadler.
1. Writes presently to the Duke the doubts falling out of this cause. The whole in the end falls to one point, the lack of money to continue the Queen's forces there. The mark he always shoots at is the union of these two kingdoms in a perpetual friendship; there is no good to be wrought in this case which does not tend to that fine. His determination always rests in two points; that unless the whole Frenchmen be removed and the government left in the hands of the born men of the land, neither can they be in safety nor yet be able to aid the English, and the Queen would lose all her great charge; and although the French for a short time would keep covenant, yet they would find means to betray a few persons, who being once out of the way, they would think themselves for ever in security.
2. The Queen has proceeded too far now to leave off. The treating has staid a great number of noblemen who were well appointed and determined to join. It is too much for him to keep in the fire on all parts, to entertain the communications and keep his own side in frame, who all mislike it. Is so far proceeded that forwards he must go. Prays Sadler to come.— From the camp, 9 April 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
April 9.
R. O.
971. The Cardinal of Lorraine and Duke of Guise to the Queen Regent.
1. They have received her letter by the sailor who is the bearer of the present despatch, and are sorry to find that she has not been succoured, the more so as her affairs are urgent; no diligence however has been wanting. They have used every means in their power to soften the Queen of England, but without effect; for after the King had done all he could to remove her jealousy and suspicion respecting his troops, he has informed her by his Ambassador, that she could not be permitted to support the Scottish rebels, nor to prejudice the rights of the King and Queen in Scotland. Since that time the Bishop of Valence has been despatched to explain more fully the King's intentions in regard to his subjects.
2. That no good result has been effected is obvious by the Articles which she has sent by her Ambassador; they are so dishonourable that she must have known that they could not possibly be accepted, and so hasten the unmasking of her design, which is assuredly war, and which the writers regard as unavoidable. The only chance is the mission of M. de Glajon, whom the King Catholic has despatched to her; if she is obstinate Spain will help France in all that is required. The former has already agreed to supply the latter with troops and vessels to curb the rebellion. This offer has been accepted; and the Duchess of Parma has already been requested to state what number she can furnish, and to supply the King with as many as he shall require.
3. No time, however, shall be lost in hastening forward the King's army, which consists of such a numerous and wellequipped fleet that it is hoped that the Queen's forces cannot prevent the Regent from being succoured. Unfortunately it will not be ready before the end of July. Everything, however, that care and money can do shall be done to hasten its despatch; nor shall other means be neglected for her aid by money from Flanders and elsewhere. As a beginning they have despatched the present bearer in a small vessel, which they have fitted out at some cost, for he has already had from the King 1,200 francs for coming and 300 crowns for his return. They send by a clerk who accompanies him 6,000 livres, and two barrels of gunpowder, of which they are informed by the letters of D'Oysel and La Brosse that she has need. More may be expected, for they are resolved to lose no opportunity of aiding her, though it may occasion some loss to them.
4. She for her part must do the best she can, and take steps to keep her fortresses well provisioned. The King advises her to act upon the defensive, so do all the generals in France. This is the best attitude in which to meet the ill advised enterprise of the Queen, who they hope will be punished in the end for her folly. The King and all others are delighted to hear that the troops are so devoted.
5. About fifteen or twenty days ago certain wretches attempted to kill the King and the writers; the conspiracy was founded upon religion. Some of the chief authors have been taken and punished. The more they know of the matter the deeper do they find it rooted; it is supported by some great personages, who have been sadly beguiled; for the Lord knows well how to maintain His own cause. It is much the same game as her rebels have been playing; but these began by the sword.—Marmoutier, 9 April 1560. (fn. 6) Signed.
Orig., in the Guise's cipher. Add. Pp. 4.
April 9.
R. O.
972. Another copy of the above in Throckmorton's cipher.
Endd. Pp. 6.
April 9.
R. O.
973. Another copy in Throckmorton's cipher.
Pp. 3.
[April 9.]
R. O.
974. Another copy in Throckmorton's cipher.
Endd.: 8 April 1560. Pp. 4.
April 9.
R. O.
975. A portion of the previous letter in the Guise's cipher.
Endd. Pp. 2.
April 9.
R. O.
976. A portion of the previous letter in French.
Endd. Pp. 4.
April 9.
R. O.
977. Another copy in Throckmorton's cipher.
Endd. Pp. 6.
[April 9.]
R. O.
978. The Articles desired from the Dowager.
1. That the whole number of Frenchmen of war be removed with speed.
2. That they may have place to make suit to the King and Queen for such Articles as are necessary for pacification and perfect government.
Copy. Endd. by Cecil: 9 April 1560. Pp. 2.
April 10.
R. O. Haynes, p. 284.
979. Norfolk and his Council to the Lords of the Council. (fn. 7)
They have received letters from the camp in cipher, which being deciphered they send with others addressed from hence to Cecil, by which it will appear how loath the Scots are to have this matter compounded by treaty, unless the Dowager be deprived of government, and the same left to some of the Scottish nobility, and the whole force of the French removed out of Scotland, without which they think themselves in no surety. They also mention the difficulty of winning Leith without the supply of a greater number of soldiers and pioneers, which can only be at the Queen's charge that such a number of Scots be entertained as may serve the turn, who cannot abide in the field at their own charges. The 2,000 soldiers which should have been here by the 25th March did not all arrive till yesterday; to-morrow they depart towards Lord Gray. When they are all together there will be 8,000 soldiers and 700 pioneers besides horsemen, yet the circuit of Leith is so great and so many soldiers in it (at least 3,500 French and 500 Scots) that that number is not sufficient. Being thus far entered into the matter, if it cannot be ended by treaty for the surety of England and Scotland, the enterprise must not be left unachieved though it be chargeable to the Queen; otherwise either the Lords of Scotland will be left a prey to their enemies or be forced to make their own ways in such sort as they with the French must become both enemies to England.—Berwick, 10 April 1560. Signed: Tho. Norfolk, R. Sadler, F. Leeke.
Orig., in Railton's hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 2.
April 10.
R. O. Haynes, p. 284.
980. Norfolk to Cecil. (fn. 8)
Although they have declared the whole state of things in their general letters, yet the writer plainly tells their conjectures here. The case as it now stands (as by their letters to the Couucil he may perceive,) between the French and them depends upon some communication between the Dowager and the English with the Lords of Scotland, their friends, upon certain articles which Howard brings to Cecil; which requests the Dowager with some qualification may condescend unto. Although they seem to be small, yet, under the colour of seeking amity and peace, they cloak that which may turn the Queen at this time to save a pound, and ere long to spend ten. As long as the Dowager rules with a garrison of French, be it ever so small, they may when their strength is ready and the English unfurnished revenge themselves of those whom the Queen has now taken to her protection. In that case the Queen's honour and the surety of the realm is to be regarded. Either it will come to this pass, or for necessity's sake the Scots will join themselves with the French. He advises that a small charge now do not cast away all that has already been spent. Was fain to have this letter copied out, or else Cecil would scant have read it. Prays him to take it as written to himself only. —Berwick, 10 April 1560. Signed: Tho. Norfolk.
Orig., in Railton's hol., with the exception of the last sentence, which is added by the Duke. Add. by Railton. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
April 10.
R. O.
981. Randolph to Cecil.
1. Since the arrival of the Queen's army some things have passed contrary to the desires and opinions of some who would have wished to have ended this debate with any adventure of their bodies rather than ever have moved any talk of the matter. Having received the Queen's promise they are determined to have no other appointment than that the country should be at liberty, the French expelled, and the league between England and Scotland remain, whereunto they crave her favour. He would be content to end his life with half the praise he has heard of Cecil's doings in this cause.
2. The Earl of Morton appointed the hour to have been with the Lords and subscribed; and by reason the Queen wrote to him that the matter should be concluded in one day, came not. The Laird of Lethington has written, or will write, sufficient of Lord Huntley. The Earl of Arran is ill at ease, and by advice has left the camp and has come to his father at Holyrood. It seems rather care of mind than pain he feels in his body. Encloses the copy of a letter which he drew up for the Earl unto the Duke. Lethington will send the copy of another. He had determined to write to Cecil had he not been prevented by this misfortune. He will write again soon. Never saw man do better than Sir Henry Percy at the first meeting with the enemy.—Holyrood House, 10 April 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 4.
April 10.
R. O.
982. W. Maitland to Cecil.
1. Has received from the Duke of Norfolk, at the Queen's commandment, certain Articles touching the matters of Ireland. Has superficially spoken with the Earl of Argyll, and has found him earnestly bent to bestow his labour, credit, and force in the furtherance thereof. He may be able to serve for Callogh O'Donnel, who of late is contracted to his father's wife. As for James O'Connel, he will study to induce him by gentle means to the Queen's devotion; and if that way will not serve, he either drives him to her or banishes him. Time does not presently serve for these matters, but the Duke will confer with Sir James Croftes, who has good experience in those Ireland matters, and he will then write to the Queen.
2. They are presently in communication with the Dowager, which the whole nation mislikes. It is so far entered in upon the declaration of the Queen's mind by Croftes and Howard that they cannot come out of it. He cannot give advice to the contrary, though it has greatly hindered the cause by staying many neutrals from joining. The friendship of Scotland must be the Queen's recompence for the great charges she has been at, whereof she can never be assured unless the whole force of the French be removed, and the government left in the hands of the born men of the land; two points which can never be obtained by appointment so long as they remain. Many doubt if the matter should be attempted by force. He would wish, if the battery be too hazardous, that the siege by a camp volant were continued. There is now a greater abundance of victuals. If the English army should retire, the purpose for which they came not being attained, he would wish that he had never been a meddler in it. The English think that battery is not feasible, and that the camp volant for lack of money may not continue. Hopes that the English will not now forsake the Scots.—From the camp, 10 April 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 4.
April 10.
R. O.
983. W. Maitland to Killigrew.
Nothing is yet resolved touching the Bishop of Valence, but the writer thinks that he will return whence he came, unless he will adventure himself, as the writer wishes he would. Maitland's care was never greater than at this present. He fears that the English will drive them to an evil appointment. They begin to cast many doubts; the piece, they think, is so great to be besieged that 20,000 men were too few for the purpose, and they fear money shall lack to continue the siege volant. If neither way be taken, then must the Scots either be forsaken of the English, and be in worse case than if they had never meddled, or else receive a disadvantageous appointment. Cannot think that the Queen's Council have so unadvisedly proceeded that they have not foreseen how the charge might be continued for a time. Prays him to consider these things with Sir Ralph Sadler.—The camp before Leith, 10 April 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add.: To my assured good friend Master Killigrew, at Berwick. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.

Footnotes

1 Another copy occurs at Hatfield House, in the Duke's letter-book.
2 The Queen to the Duke of Norfolk.
[April.]
MS. Hatfield House. Haynes, p. 286. Sadler. 1. 719. No. CCXXXVI.
1. She has received his letters of the 6th and 7th inst., with letters from Lord Gray out of Scotland, and allows the advice given by him to Gray, not to intermeddle with the siege of Edinburgh Castle for the causes alleged, as well for the reverence for the Queen's person, and for avoiding offence to the Scots; also the offers made to the Dowager, without losing any time thereby, for the exploit against Leith. As Gray cannot attend to both the martial affairs and a treaty, Sadler should repair to the camp to proceed in the treaty with the best diligence he can. She wishes to have that matter of Scotland accorded, rather by communication, than by force of bloodshed. Sadler shall assure the Dowager in the Queen's name that she means nothing more than the preservation of England, which her daughter challenged, and the continuance of that kingdom in due obedience to the same, to be governed by the laws thereof, without force of arms. If it be objected, as always is, by the French, to colour the remaining of their men of war, that it is done for subduing of rebellion, she is content that covenants shall be made on her part to give aid to the Queen of Scotland for subduing of such as withstand her authority. Of this purpose Sadler shall make the Duke of Châtellerault and his party privy, using their advice, and requiring them to be content. If they have any reason to alter this offer, or part thereof, then Sadler should reform the same according to their opinions, so it may tend to an accord, and not be prejudicial to her realm. In this point Sadler shall use the advice of Gray and Croftes. Divers great causes move the Queen not to reject any probable offers of the Dowager; for if the matter be not ended by force or treaty shortly, it will be harder to be compassed hereafter, which Sadler may show to the Duke and his party.
2. This instruction Norfolk shall deliver by authority of his office, in the Queen's name, to Sadler, signed with his hand, for the warrant of the latter. If any more matter be needful to be committed to him for any other treaty, Norfolk is authorized to do so.
3. As to the hostages which he desired to be brought up, according to their parents' requests, in some University, the Queen thinks it better to have them distributed hereabouts to certain of her Bishops, as of Canterbury, London, and Ely, where they may be safely kept and increase their learning. By Gray's letter of the 6th inst., wherein mention is made of the offers of the Dowager to Croftes and Howard; she likes the good service done by divers gentlemen captains, to whom she doubts not but he has given thanks; and now he is to give them thanks from her expressly.
3 Another copy is at Hatfield House, in the Duke's letter-book, which, however, omits the P.S.
4 Another copy exists at Hatfield House, in the Duke's letter-book.
5 Sadler to Maitland.
1560. April 1.
MS. Burton-Constable. Sadler, 1. 716. No. CCXXXIV.
Sends a letter from Cecil, which the Duke of Norfolk has been bold to open; the proclamations in French and English he may diffuse as he thinks good. The Bishop of Valence is coming to Scotland, therefore Maitland should consider how they will intreat him on his arrival here. Sadler will put him in some fear of his entry into Scotland, the Lords now being in the fields, but if he will needs adventure to go, Sadler's opinion is, that if the Dowager will not remove the French from Scotland, the Duke of Châtellerault may well stay the Bishop as a pledge for his son in France, and use him as they further think convenient. Would have him devise with others, and on receiving their opinions the writer will send the same to Court.—Berwick, 1 April 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol.
6 Throckmorton has here appended the following note, "There is another letter dated at Amboise."
7 Another copy occurs in the Duke's letter-book at Hatfield House.
8 Another copy of this letter occurs in the Duke's letter-book at Hatfield House. It, however, omits the concluding sentence.