Elizabeth
April 1560, 11-15

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Institute of Historical Research

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Joseph Stevenson (editor)

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1865

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526-543

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'Elizabeth: April 1560, 11-15', Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 2: 1559-1560 (1865), pp. 526-543. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=71823 Date accessed: 01 September 2014.


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April 1560, 11-15

April 11.
R. O.
Forbes, 1. 402.
984. The Queen's Answer to the Spanish Ambassador. (fn. 1)
1. Thanks the King Catholic for his friendship, and is glad that he is not bewitched by the enchantments of the French. His proposal for adjoining to the French in Scotland a certain number of his own soldiers, of whom the English could have no suspicion, could not have been found fault with, if what they had pretended were true. They aim at the conquest of this realm. Hopes that her Ambassadors (who arrived at his Court on the 18th ult.,) will by this time have explained matters to him.
2. She is anxious to lay before him a statement of the whole question in dispute. The French have shown their malice by the usurpation of her arms and style, (in June 1559,) which was done at the accession of the house of Guise to power; which was always hostile to England. When the attempt was made to obtain confirmation thereof from Rome, it is well known how the design was thwarted by the influence of the King of Spain. The easiest road to invade England being through Scotland, they have taken occasion of the disputes there between their ministers and the nobility, to send thither numbers of soldiers with artillery and stores. And although the Queen Regent had promised the Duke of Châtellerault and the Earl of Huntley (in August last) that the grievances should be remedied in Parliament, as soon as the nobility had dispersed she threw more soldiers into the kingdom, assembled men at the ports of Picardy and Normandy, and levied troops in Germany. And since every one spoke of the peril of invasion which thus menaced England, the Queen sent a fleet with warlike stores to Berwick, together with a land force to strengthen the Borders. For a long time she feared that the dissensions were feigned, and that both the Scots and the French would join in invading England.
3. It being a long way to Spain, about the middle of last December she asked the Bishop of Aquila to communicate all these things to the King, and to obtain his advice. After New-year's Day the French increased their preparations, collecting all the ships they could for the transport of troops. Considering all these things and the approach of spring, it was determined to demand that the French should evacuate Scotland. They however went on with their preparations and sent De Sevres, who said that he had authority to settle all grievances both with the Scots and English, and who promised a general removal of all causes of complaint. Hereupon a messenger was sent to the Duke of Norfolk, requiring him to abstain from all hostilities against the French, and to tell the Scots to do the like. However the Cardinal of Lorraine told the English Ambassador that De Sevres had exceeded his authority; and in the meantime the Queen Dowager tried to seize the Duke of Châtellerault in Scotland.
4. After some time when a reply was sent by the Bishop of Valence, and he was asked what authority he had, he said that his commission was signed by the King, but not by the Queen, in whose name Scotland is governed. He admitted that it was a blunder, and asked for time to remedy it. Hence it was evident how they sought nothing else but to delay till they should have brought their forces forward. And when the Duke of Norfolk offered the Dowager, if the French were withdrawn, to assist with his forces in subduing the rebels, there was no reply. Upon this Lord Grey was ordered to enter Scotland with his army, and first try to settle matters by negociation, and afterwards by force. Hence may be perceived the false and Gallic dealing of the French, and the moderation of the Queen.
5. In reply to the two proposals made by the Spanish Ambassadors; first, that the King of Spain should assist the King of France in reducing the Scottish rebels to obedience; and secondly, that the English army should be recalled for forty or fifty days; her answer is as follows:
6. On all these accounts mentioned above there is no need of the King of Spain's assistance towards subduing the French King's rebels, as no one denies him just obedience. And even if, whilst the Spaniards were in Scotland, England might be safe, yet at their withdrawal the French would return to their former intentions of invasion. As to the second demand, that her army shall be recalled for forty or fifty days, she does not doubt but that the Spanish Envoys see how full of peril it would be if she agreed to do so.— 11 April 1560.
Draft, in Cecil's hol. Endd. Lat. Pp. 15.
[April 11.]
R. O.
985. Dr. Wotton's Discourse touching the Queen's Interference in Scotland.
1. Seeing King Philip is determined to help the French King to reduce the Scots, (fn. 2) it is to be considered that if the Spaniards land 5,000 or 6,000 men, the Congregation (not being able to stand against them) may join the French; and on the other hand it is to be considered whether the navy is strong enough to keep them out; and in case the navy were overthrown, then the army on land is lost too. If the army should overcome the Spaniards (which would not be without great blood shedding on both sides, the Spaniard being a brave and superb soldier,) in that case, whereas King Philip now says that he intends only to help the French to reduce the Scots, it is most likely that then, for anger, he will fall to open war against England, whereunto he will lack no counsel in Spain when it is known that their countrymen have been beaten. And in case it is thought that this matter might be somewhat remedied by entreating King Philip to seek some other way to pacify it than by sending men into Scotland, it is to be considered that as he is so far hence, and the Queen cannot send by France, it will be so long ere an answer come, that it will be too late to let his navy, which seems well near in areadiness. And though the way through France were open, it is to be feared that he would stand by his promise made to the French King; and so this aid is like to be an occasion of war not only with France but also with Spain. In which case they are like to have little or no help, not even from the Scots, seeing they show themselves so little able or willing to do in a manner anything for their own defence, and though they may trust in the justice of their cause, still it were little wisdom to counsel the Queen to attempt it, if by any other tolerable means it may be avoided.
2. To seek to help it by sending to King Philip seems somewhat late, and he thinks that the Duchess of Parma has not sufficient authority to dispose in this matter; yet it will be well to prove both ways, though some other must be sought for. As for King Philip's request of revoking the army out of Scotland, it has been considered and not liked, yet may the state of things seem somewhat altered from the time when it was taken for certain that the Scots would perform their promise, coming with a great power to the field and continuing there for 30 days; but it was not meant that the English alone should drive the French out and resist the Spaniards when they came. Whether these two unlooked for points, namely, King Philip's assistance, and the nonperformance of their promise by the Scots, give the Queen occasion to alter her former determination, were well to be considered; and in case it should be thought meet to alter anything, then it seems that she has a good colour to do so, as the Scots do not perform their covenants. If it be not thought meet, then there is no other way of avoiding a war with both Princes, but by falling to some agreement with the French; which will not now be so beneficial as it might have been if King Philip had not meddled and the Scots shown themselves strong in the field.
3. The Scots request to be ruled by their own nation and laws, to keep the religion they have received, and that the French be revoked out of Scotland. The Queen would also have the French out of Scotland, for the safeguard of her own realm, and also have some satisfaction for the usurping of her title and arms, and the former treaty confirmed. He does not think that the French King will consent to have there no Lieutenant of his own nation; therefore it might be so made that he should appoint a Lieutenant or Viceroy, who should do nothing in weighty matters but with the consent of six or seven of the nobility who should be appointed by the Congregation, and who should endure till the next Parliament, when a new appointment should be made. As for the religion, which he supposes is the only cause that moves King Philip to stir in this matter, it were well if it could be obtained that those who have already received it, may continue in it, using themselves quietly. As these points touch principally the Scots, if they are content to agree to any easier terms for the French, it were not amiss for the Queen to let them pass.
4. If the removal of the French out of Scotland cannot be obtained, then it is to be considered whether the Queen may agree that as small a number remain as may be, and so few as the Scots will agree to. He cannot see that anything can be done in the matters touching the Queen, seeing the French have made no answer therein; and if they should make any agreement with the Scots, then the Queen will seem to remain at open war with France, if they pretend that she has broken the treaty by sending her forces into Scotland. It is therefore to be considered whether it is expedient to suffer these matters to be agreed between the French and Scots in the manner abovesaid, unless the Queen be also agreed for the confirmation of the last treaty, whereby she will be in like assurance of the French King as she was at the making of the peace. Hearing that even of late the title and arms have been set up in France with great solemnity, it is doubtful whether the French King intends to leave them, in which case it is to be considered what is best for the Queen to do therein. And all things considered, if it is thought meet rather to continue in war, then the words of the Articles are to be considered, whether the Queen is bound to protect the Scots against King Philip or only against France; for if it is only against France, then it is reason that the Scots increase their numbers. It were well to remember the English merchants in Antwerp; for in case King Philip should arrest their goods, then without sending men into Scotland he might make the Queen revoke her forces. When Lord Grey sent Edward Randol, it appears that he looked that the Scots would have been in far greater strength than was appointed by the treaty; and as now they are far under, and will hear of the Spaniards coming, it may make him and his band disdiscouraged.
Orig., in Wotton's hol. Endd. by Cecil: Mr. Wotton's discourse, 1560. Pp. 7.
[April 11.]
R. O.
986. [Wotton to Cecil.]
1. Troubles him with a few other fancies that have come into his head since he sent the other. Philip is ready to hear the complaints of the French, and makes nothing at all of the two complaints against them. Seeing that he was advertised of the usurpation of the title and arms by the French King, and of his evident intention to conquer first Scotland and then England, it is strange that he should promise to aid the French against the Scots without first communicating it to the Queen or to the Scots. He goes about hereby to open the gate for the French conquest of both realms. The ancient amity and the mutual traffic betwixt the King's country and England deserved not that he should make a promise so prejudicial. What right has the French King to tyrannically break his covenants with the Scots? and why should any foreign Prince aid him to oppress them? Like as in the Low Countries they never suffered Spaniards to be lieutenants or bear any office of magistrate there, why should it not he the same in Scotland? By likelihood, King Philip would be ready enough to maintain a good cause against the English when he is so ready to pick this quarrel with them. It were strange if by this sudden promise war should arise between him and England, when his ancestors for so many hundred years have always maintained the amity, whereby has arisen a great part of the greatness of the house of Burgundy.
2. He advises that a bruit be raised in Flanders that the Queen is going to withdraw her army, whereby the Spanish preparations may be lessened; also that a letter be devised as written from the Duke of Norfolk to the Duke of Châtellerault, signifying that Glasion, having heard the causes and reasons of the Scots, said that his master had been far otherwise informed, and that he doubted not but that the Duchess of Parma would stay the sending of the aid until she should hear from the King, and that it was most likely that he would stay it every where, and that the Queen had written to King Philip and the Duchess with such an offer that he will be more ready to aid to drive the French out of Scotland; and to make it appear a true letter there may be another joined to it written in false cipher containing no matter at all; and these letters to be so carried that the bearer be taken by the French or French Scots, and Lord Grey and the Duke advertised of it, lest peradventure the packet should come to their hands indeed and deceive them.
Orig., in Wotton's hol. Pp. 2.
April 11.
R. O.
Forbes, 1. 400.
Keith, 1. 411. (fn. 3)
987. Instructions from Francis II. to the Queen Regent of Scotland.
1. Should the Bishop of Valence reach the Regent of Scotland, she will hear what has passed with the Queen of England, and what are the unjust demands which she and the Scotch rebels make, and from this shall learn what she may hope from England. She will also know from the Bishop what means the King of France has used for quenching the fire raised by the Queen of England, who pretends to be apprehensive of the forces which have passed into Scotland and the Queen Dowager will give up hope of doing anything if De Glaion, sent by the Spanish King, is unsuccessful.
2. And if it appears that they cannot make the Queen of England hear reason, they had better gain some of the rebel Scotch Lords by promise of pardon if they will return to their obedience, according to the instructions given to the said Bishop, who knows the King's mind thereupon. If the said Queen persist in her opinion, the King would wish them then to place themselves on the defensive, awaiting the succour which he will send, hoping to bring the said rebels to reason, without the Queen of England being able to prevent their being punished. The said succour will arrive during June, or by the middle of July at latest. It will consist of vessels from the King of Spain, together with a good body of his subjects, which he offers to the said King, assuring him he will always assist him.
3. As the Queen Regent is on the spot and strongly supported, if she could hold matters in suspense for awhile the King would be well pleased, as he is afraid of mischief arising from the delay of the reinforcements; nevertheless, rather than do a degrading thing, he is willing to wait God's pleasure. Yet to assist the said Regent in the expenses of the war, he has sent her within the last eight days 6,000 livres, with twenty barrels of powder, and now sends by Captain Chapperon 4,000 écus, while waiting till he can assist her with a large sum, which he will send with the forces. And she may rest assured that they will not allow a single occasion to pass without assisting her, and trying to amend things for her good.
4. Further, as the Queen of England has insisted so much with the Bishop of Valence, because he has no powers to promise anything to the rebels, or treat with her on what seems not clear between her and the King of France, a general power is now sent, which the said Regent may use as she shall see good for the kingdom of Scotland. He cannot now send more particular instructions, but refers all to the said Queen Regent and her wise Council.
Copy, by a Scottish hand, large portions in cipher, undeciphered. Fr. Pp. 3.
April 11.
R. O.
988. Copy in English cipher, deciphered.
Endd. by Cecil: 11 April 1560. The Memorial that should have been sent to the Queen Dowager by Chapperon, in ciphers, deciphered. Pp. 4.
April 11.
R. O.
989. Norfolk and his Council to Cecil.
They forward letters from the Laird of Lethington. Has sent Sadler to the camp with the rest of the footmen who this day depart. And because the writer would have certain report of all things in the camp, and also for the leading of the footmen, he sends Sir Francis Leek, and also a band of horsemen under Sir John Forster, with whom Sir Francis shall return.—Berwick, 11 April 1560. Signed: Norfolk, Sadler, F. Leek.
Orig., in Railton's hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
April 11.
R. O.
990. Randolph to Sadler.
Desires him to remember their case, which now lies in balance. It grieves him that so godly a purpose should now quail. Sadler's presence is able to stand them greatly in stead. On this day there meet to commune for the Lords the Lord James, the Master of Maxwell, the Lairds of Petarro and Lethington, Sir James Croftes, and Sir Henry Percy; and for the Dowager, M. d'Oysel, La Brosse, the Bishop of Amiens, Earl Morton, Lord Erskine, and the Bishop of St. Andrews. Advertisement came this morning to the Earl of Arran that if he sent with speed twenty soldiers to Blackness it should be delivered into their hands.—Holyrood House, 11 April 1560. Signed: Tho. Barnabie.
Orig., in Randolph's hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
April 11.
R. O.
991. [Gresham] to Count Mansfeld.
Perceives by the Count's letters of the 1st of March the good-will which he entertains towards the Queen; and has also learnt from John Keck that he was ready to lend her 2,000 gold pieces, on the faith of which he hastened to England, and informed the Queen. She is ready to accept the offer, and desires part to be paid in Antwerp as speedily as possibly, and part in Hamburg. The Queen will further grant him a pension.—Antwerp, 11 April 1560.
Copy. Endd. Lat. Pp. 2.
April 12.
R. O.
992. Throckmorton to the Queen.
1. Wrote to her on the 5th. The cannonier whom he wrote about arrived with letters of great importance from the Queen Dowager, which he was unable to get a sight of. After great practice found means to get the answer of the Duke of Guise and the Cardinal of Lorraine, and encloses a copy written in his own cipher. He recommends Mr. Somer, who deciphered it, to Her Majesty's notice.
2. The principal intent of the letter is to put the Queen Dowager and others into comfort, making them believe that the King of Spain will assist them; which, however, the writer does not credit, but advises her to decipher the matter through the Spanish Ambassador in England and hers in Spain. Seeing the French rest their last refuge in their doings with the Queen on M. de Glayon, it were well to consider what can be done to cause them to be deceived. As by their own confession she has the advantage over them, now is the time to constrain them to come to reason. The cannonier who came from Scotland is named in the letters a mariner, of whose passing to and from they were very glad, as appears by his reward; the writer trusts that hereafter all such passages shall be letted. The bearer is sent to Dieppe to learn what he can, and to inform the Lords of the Council.
3. On the 9th one Gutry or Tranchoy, one of the Scotch guards, and his brother were arrested on suspicion of the late conspiracy, though the day before the Duke of Guise had a long and friendly discourse with him. They were kinsmen of Captain Visieres, for whose apprehension 200 horse were sent out, and 2,000 crowns offered for him dead or alive.
4. On the 11th all the pardons proclaimed with trumpets at Amboise for those who were not active in the conspiracy, were revoked at Tours in the same way. By proclamation the town's people and countrymen are forbidden to go armed during the King's stay at Tours. The house of Guise have been advertised that the conspiracy has not ended. M. Suselle of Anjou, who has 3,000 crowns revenue, lately used stout language against the house of Guise before the King and Queen Mother, saying they did abuse them both, and would do them as much pleasure at length as Charles Martel and Pepin did the Kings, his ancestors.
5. The Cardinal of Lorraine was lately hanged up in effigy in the Place Malbert in Paris and burnt with squibs. The Prince of Condé has departed from the Court, after having high words with the Cardinal of Lorraine. Their meaning here is to give all the courage they can to the Dowager and their men in Scotland, and not to apply themselves to any agreement to the Queen's satisfaction.—Amboise, 12 April 1560. Signed.
Orig. Portions in cipher, deciphered. Add. Endd. Pp. 4.
April 12.
R. O.
993. Another copy of the above.
Portions in cipher. Endd.: The duplicate of a letter sent to the Queen by Stephen Davyes 12 April, and of another sent by Mr. Nicolas Tremayne, 20 April 1560. Incomplete. Pp. 3.
April 12.
R. O.
994. Throckmorton to Cecil.
1. Wrote to him on the 5th inst. by Barnaby, with a copy of the letter sent to the writer to be deciphered. Has used all the means he could to learn the effect of the letter sent from the Dowager of Scotland for answer to the same brought hither by a cannonier. The secresy here was such that Throckmorton could therein do nothing, and therefore has practised to get the answer returned to the said Queen into Scotland, and after some charge to the Queen he has at last secured the very letter containing the same, all written in cipher, which Somer has deciphered, which he sends to Her Majesty. It is dated 9th inst., and will be sent by one David Hume, whom it will be well to let pass quietly to procure an answer thereto. By the decipher he will see in what towardness they are in with their ships, whereof the Lord Admiral and he may learn more certainly. It were well if order were taken for snapping up the powder and money the French send, seeing by their letter how they regard the articles propounded to them, in reporting them to be shameful. He marvels that any man should pass, weighing what they have by sea and land.
2. The Cardinal of Lorraine has been hanged at Paris in effigy. They are greatly afraid lest the garboils here be renewed. The King at the request of the burghers of Tours, makes his entry on the 13th. It is reported out of Italy that the Queen is indisposed to take the advantage of the French, but it is universally judged that she will be constrained thereto. He sends him the passage in Cato's oration in Sallust de Bello Catalinario, (fn. 4) beginning "Dux hostium cum exercitu supra caput est" and so forth, to "apud majores," and hopes that it will not be applicable to their case. He is informed that Harvey, who was sent there to practise, was a monk of Newbottle, who to be the more covert has changed his coat. The house of Guise having knowledge of the proclamations fall into great storms, but for fear of things at home they are in great doubt to make any outward show of discontentation, but speak hault words of the Queen, saying that she appears to have been all the doer in this trouble here, and that Throckmorton has been the minister. It is said that great offers have been made to the Earl of Arran by Gascony, Poitou, Brittany, and Normandy, if he would descend into those parts.
3. Has (fn. 5) written twice to him and begs that he may be liberally informed how things go in Scotland. Think he lacks common charity in leaving him so amazed with the sundry bruits of his doings here.—Amboise, 12 April 1560. Signed.
Orig. The greater portion in cipher, deciphered. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 4.
April 12.
R. O.
995. Another copy of the above.
Orig. The greater portion in cipher. Endd.: The duplicate of the letter sent by Davyes, 12 April 1560.
April 12.
R. O. Haynes, p. 288. Sadler, 1. 721. No. CCXXXVII.
996. Norfolk to Cecil.
Has received the enclosed letters this morning, wherein Cecil may perceive the pensiveness the Scots are in for fear of the good success of this treaty, for which the writer can no ways blame them, touching them so near. What good may come of it in the end he knows not; but in the meantime he is sure it has greatly hindered them in holding those who were determined to take plain part with the Congregation. Trusts the Council will consider how it stands them to bring this enterprise to a good end, and how much cheaper to finish the war now begun than hereafter to begin a new. Perchance in reading these letters Cecil may think the Scots have been put in further fear by the writer than necessary; for indeed, had the Duke been in the camp himself he had been loath to have cast such bones among them. Not being able to assure them of anything until Sir George Howard's return from the Queen, he has sent Sadler and Leeke to content them with fair words.—Berwick, 12 April 1560. Signed.
Orig., in Railton's hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
April 12.
R. O.
997. Instructions for Scotland.
Instructions by the Duke of Norfolk to Sir Ralph Sadler and Sir Francis Leek to be given to Lord Grey.
1. So to use the Congregation in all things that they may find no breach of promise.
2. To proceed in treaty according to the contentment of the Lords of the Congregation, or else with force according to their instructions.
3. To send word whether the unaptness of the ground, the smallness of the batteries, or the lack of men, are the hindrance to taking Leith.
4. To certify in what case Inchkeith stands; and to tell the Admiral that Mr. Harden has a care for his better victualling.
5. To admonish Lord Grey that it is reported that all day long the third part of his footmen, or more, are in Edinburgh.
Copy, in Railton's hol. P. 1.
April 12.
R. O.
998. Henry Killigrew to Cecil.
Until he received this enclosure he was unable to write any more of the Bishop of Valence. Thinks by the return of his man, whom he looks for to-day or to-morrow, they will back to London again. Fears that he will not tarry his master's return, so fain would he be at home again. He never saw man worse contented, and was never so weary of a charge. He trust soon to be rid of him, as he sues to the Duke for horses for his return. The Bishop's opinion is that the Queen will not only drive the French out of Scotland perforce, but also use the Scots afterwards at her pleasure. He greatly laments that of all his embassies he should have to give the worst account of this; but says that he foresaw this ere he left London, and wrote to his master that he should look for no other end to this matter but war.—Berwick, 12 April 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
April 12.
R. O.
999. Gresham to Cecil.
1. Since his letter of the 10th signifying his arrival here, he has taken up the exchange of certain merchants to the sum of 2,501l. 6s. 8d., making Flemish 2,826l. 13s. 7d. He will not move any of the Queen's creditors for a prolongation till he has heard from Cecil, since on the 11th he heard from his factor Candeler that he wished the merchants should repay again 25,000l. In anywise he had better do so, as they have had a very profitable bargain from the Queen; and as they owe her 60,000l., she will let them have 25,000l. to pay at usance, as the exchange goes in Lombard Street, which they cannot well refuse; and as it is at 23s. at the least, it will be a beneficial bargain for her, and advance her credit. Cecil must not pass usance with them till the 20th or 25th May at the furthest, for then ends the payment of the Mart to which the Queen is indebted.
2. This should be done upon the sight of his letter, as it will advance the Queen's credit, and stay the idle talk of some malicious persons who say that she will never be able to pay her debts. Can think of no other way to help this matter. No excuse should be accepted of the merchants. If they say that their money is laid out in goods, he may answer that the show day is on the 22nd of this month, and that he is sure they shall sell the first show day and the second for above 100,000l. Some false knaves of English merchants have done all they can to bring him into danger of the Prince's anger for the conveying of munitions; trusts to be able to send him the parties. Such friends he has among the customers who uttered this matter unto him.
3. All men fear that the Queen and the Lords of the Council will be persuaded by the fair words of the French to make a peace. There is much talk of the going of M. de Glassion into England, and many merchants fear that the King of Spain will take part with the French King. If 40,000l. or 50,000l. be paid on the Bourse, it will assure them all and settle the Queen's credit for ever. Where she passes one penny she will gain three for it, if she stand in such necessity, and thereby set the King of France and Spain beside the saddle for the coming by any more money here. The villain knave the friar is stayed from preaching against the Queen, which is so taken by the commons that if he came abroad he would be slain. They say that the 4,000 Spaniards have made a plain answer to the Regent that they will not serve the French King. The ships in Zealand make all the preparation they can, but as yet have no ordnance; if they be equipped for Scotland, the Queen's ships may with full might turn them back again.—Antwerp, 12 April 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol., with seal. Add. Endd. Pp. 4.
April 12.
R. O.
1000. Memorial for the Queen.
Things necessary for the conservation of the realm in surety and good order.
1. The Council diligently to keep the days of Council, and the matters accorded upon to be distributed amongst them for more expedition.
2. The realm not to be desolated for lack of Bishops, but some to be specially appointed.
3. The realm to be distributed to lieutenants, and 1,000l. or 2,000l. bestowed in arraying and instructing the realm to war.
4. The care to be committed to three or four to provide money, and that therein she trust not too much to fair words.
5. Men of service that have reasonable suits may be well answered, and not discomforted as they are.
6. The navy to be forthwith prepared and all things thereto put in readiness.
7. The Earl of Sussex to depart with speed into Ireland, and accord to be made with him for the manner of governance thereof.
8. To appoint certain of the Council to consider the state of the ordnance and the armoury.
Things to be considered upon the doubt of King Philip's breach with England.
1. To send an express man to Sir Thomas Gresham to confer on the state of the Queen's treasure, powder, and such like.
2. To warn the merchants to foresee to their goods there.
3. To practise with a number of merchants here, how the vent of cloths might be issued into Holstein or other places.
Unfinished draft, in Cecil's hol., and endd. by him: 12 April 1560. Memorial for the Queen. Pp. 3.
April 13.
R. O.
1001. The Duke of Châtellerault and the Council to the Bishop of Valence.
They perceive by his letter that he is sent to the Queen Dowager and requires a sure passage. Though desirous for pacification, neither he or the other noblemen could ever find the French conformable to any good purpose, which has brought about this present extremity. Since the Bishop's despatch from France the Duke has seen letters from the Marquis d'Elbœuf, declaring great preparations of hostility, without mention of any redress, which puts them all in suspicion that nothing else is meant but the subversion of the realm. Therefore the Council cannot agree to grant him passage, whereby their enemies may have intelligence to their annoyance. Nevertheless, if he can make it appear that he has sufficient authority to remove this scourge of men of war hanging over their heads and put the realm in quiet, he shall not only have sure passage, but also be honourably received and well treated.—Holyrood House, 13 April 1560.
Copy by a Scottish hand, endd. by Randolph. Pp. 2.
April 13.
R. O.
1002. The Earl of Arran to the Queen.
Is unable to requite the least part of her gracious goodness to this poor realm. The Council refused the speech of the Bishop of Valence, because (having had sufficient trial of the French practices) they deemed him to have been sent under pretence of friendly communication to stir up more mischief against them. Lest she should be otherwise informed of their meaning than truth is, he is so hardy as thus to write to her, and send withall a copy of the answer which the Bishop received from the Lords of the Council.—Holyrood House, 13 April 1560. Signed: James Hamilton.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
[April 14.]
R. O.
1003. The Count of Mansfelt to the Queen.
Has at the request of Sir Thomas Gresham negociated with sundry wealthy men for a loan, who have lately replied that within two or three months they can let him have 200,000 dollars and by Epiphany as much more, making the total sum of 400,000 dollars. If the Queen can induce the maritime cities to become bond for the debt, she can give them in their turn the securities of the city of London and the Parliament, which the lenders do not consider sufficient. She can the more easily do that, as they are desirous to recover their privileges in England. She will have to give twelve per cent. interest, as it is reported that her agents at Antwerp have promised that sum. If she accepts these conditions she should signify the same as soon as possible, in order that delay and expense may be avoided. Wishes her also to send one of her agents to him with full instructions. He has also good hope of obtaining other considerable sums. The French have been unsuccessful in their attempts at raising money. Desires that the person who may be sent to him may have full power of acting, if any other opportunity of raising money should occur.
Extract. Endd.: A. Articulus extractus ex litteris D. comitis ad R. M. ex Francofordia datis. Lat. Pp. 3.
April 14.
R. O.
1004. Instructions for Hans Keckenn.
Instructions for Hans Keckenn, sent by Volradt, Count of Mansfeld, to treat with the Queen upon the following particulars:—
1. After referring to the Count's previous letter expressive of his willingness to assist her, he shall inform her that France is busily employed in buying horses and levying men, and shall suggest that she should send to the Count a sum of money to be by him expended in securing troops for her service.
2. The Count having been informed by the Queen's correspondent, Francis Solingen, that she needed efficient soldiers, the Count has retained some already, for the security of whose services a retaining fee is now urgently required, as is customary in Germany.
3. France is secretly negociating with the Hanse Towns, and is offering them great advantages. No troops could be conveyed to England from Germany if these negociations should be successful. As the Ambassadors of the Hanse Towns will arrive in London during May next, she might take advantage of the opportunity of treating with them upon this matter.
4. The Count has taken steps in furtherance of the loan to be effected for her through the agency of Gresham. Possibly 100,000 or 200,000 thalers might be raised for her in a month or two, at the rate of 12 per cent. provided the Hanse Towns were to take upon themselves the entire responsibility of the loan; and they in turn might be satisfied with the security of the Queen, the city of London, and the Parliament. As the Hanse Towns are most anxious to recover their former privileges from England, they will probably agree to this arrangement. A delegate with full powers should be sent over to negociate this piece of business.
5. As it becomes daily more and more obvious that Reiffenberg and others are recruiting for France, no time should be lost in securing such troops as she requires.
6. Saxony, Wurtemberg, the Palatinate, Baden, and Hesse have sent delegates to the other Princes of the Confession of Augsburg, secretly urging a conference of all the Protestant States. They wish that certain doubtful points might be settled among themselves. These questions relate not simply to religious matters, but to political also. They would gladly form a league against the Catholic Princes. The Queen is to be invited to participate herein; and of this the Count gives her early notice.
7. He has just ascertained that 300,000 thalers might be raised within four or six weeks on the same security as Gresham had previously offered to the other money lenders. —Frankfort on Maine, 14 April 1560. Signed.
Orig., with seal. Endd. by Cecil. Germ. Pp. 12.
April [14].
R. O.
1005. The Queen to the Duke of Norfolk. (fn. 6)
Has received his letter sent by Sir George Howard, whom she heard at length as to the proceedings of her army in Scotland and his communication with the Dowager. He has also showed her of certain lacks towards the speedy achieving of the exploit. Although his communication was weighty yet it might have been sent in writing without withdrawing him from his charge. She therefore sends him back with speed. (fn. 7) She means to send into Scotland one fully instructed with her pleasure, and wishes that nothing be omitted in the mean season that may tend to good accord either by treaty or otherwise.
Copy. Endd. by Cecil's secretary: [blank] April. Not sent 1560. Pp. 2.
April 14.
R. O.
1006. Henry Killigrew to Cecil.
1. This day the Bishop's man has returned with answer of refusal. In his opinion the French in Scotland deserve to be more quickly used than the Queen has meant hitherto, for faults they have committed since Lord Grey entered into communication with the Dowager. He encloses two letters from Maitland of Lethington; if they can trust in him he sees no doubt in the good sequel of the matter.
2. For sundry respects it seemed good to the Duke, before the Bishop's return to London, that Killigrew should ride to the camp and prove once again what might be done for his audience, and the Bishop desires the same, by this means to win so much time as to hear from Cecil again before anything be resolved whether he shall go or not. Believes that if the difference be to be ended by treaty, no man can do it better than the Bishop. If it should so be ended the Queen would lose all her charges. The Bishop would be content to pardon all things past, and retire all the French save such as were of old appointed to keep Dunbar and Inchkeith; and also would cause the Dowager to call a Parliament, wherein if their party have the most voices, to have religion established as it now is preached, also for such assurance of their persons as they can devise; but for their government to have still a Frenchman joined with them. This much Killigrew learnt under way of protestation that he would not intermeddle in this case unless the Bishop would assure him with many promises and good tokens, which he did, both before the Duke and privately. Therefore he departs to-morrow for the camp, and minds to solicit both the Dowager and the Congregation to hear him, putting forward to the Dowager the Queen's desire to end these troubles by means of the Bishop.—Berwick, Easter Day, at night 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 4.
April 15.
R. O.
1007. Throckmorton to the King of Navarre.
Sends him at the Queen's request a copy of her late proclamation relative to her intended defence of Scotland, which has been printed in French and English in England, and begs him to judge of the truth of her cause.—Amboise, 15 April 1560.
Copy. Endd. Fr. Pp. 2.
April 15.
R. O. Haynes, p. 290. Sadler, 1. 724. No. CCXXXIX.
1008. Norfolk to Cecil. (fn. 8)
1. He has heard nothing from the camp worth advertisement since he sent his last letter. This day he received letters from the Queen and Cecil of the 9th inst., by which he perceives the Queen is willing to accord these matters, for which she wishes Sadler to be sent thither, who has already gone. He is the meetest one she could choose, and best esteemed by the Scots of any Englishman. The writer gave him instructions at his departure according to the Queen's determination, yet now for greater surety he has sent him the articles drawn out of the Queen's letter.
2. This day there past by here twenty-seven or twentyeight sail of ships; they hope it is the ordnance, which will be of great avail to the service.
3. Cecil need not fear any hurt by the Bishop's man, for he went no farther than the Scottish camp. Gives a list of the hostages [as under March 26], (fn. 9) and desires to know how to send them up.—Berwick, 15 April 1560. Signed.
Orig., in Railton's hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 2.
April 15.
R. O.
1009. Randolph to Killigrew.
1. Has digested his melancholy and is clean rid of all passions that before troubled his wit, which were so near spent that for three days continually he listed for nothing so much as to die. Has received Killigrew's letter written upon Good Friday, for which he thanks him. This communication and the arrival of his friend has greatly hindered the cause. Whosoever has any thought other than the utter expelling of the French is esteemed no less the enemy of the cause than if he cut 500 throats. It is now resolved that the Bishop shall not come. He is to mollify the matter with meek words, both with the Bishop and the Queen. Is sorry that he will not have his company. Is not unmindful of Killigrew's private cause, and when Mr. Railton comes he will see what commission he has. Knows not what information he has of their doings, nor wherein they have failed their promise. Never found men more fervent in any cause than they are in this. He cannot too much commend the virtue of three young noblemen, the lives of which pass not twenty-five years. These are the Earls of Arran and Argyll, both under the age of twenty-three, and the Lord James Stewart, quondam Prior of St. Andrews, whose virtue, manhood, valiantness, and stoutness in this cause, he can never sufficiently wonder at. Will do Killigrew's commendations and talk with Tremaine. Is crabbed that he can hear never a word of the . . . . . (fn. 10) Sends commendations to Francis Walsingham.—Written in the Duke's house of Holyrood, the . . . (fn. 11)
2. P. S.—His communication is buried except that it rise again. The French refused to talk or have to do with Lord Maxwell and the Laird of Lethington; they also broke the truce with thirty or forty shot of artillery. It made him merry when Killigrew wrote that they should have no lack of money. Victuals are cheaper in the camp than in Edinburgh, there has been no lack since their arrival. Saw to-day a "yolle" of fresh salmon, two spans long, within one inch, sold for 3d., bought by two soldiers; it did his heart good to see the poor men so merry. The Earl of Huntley has once again promised to be here; the chief friends of the Earl of Morton have left him. "God I trust (Harry) will prosper our cause in despite of their noses that will the contrary." Touching the Prior of St. John's it is to be consulted upon, and shall be furthered with the writer's power.
Orig. Hol. Add: To Henry Killigrew at Berwick. Endd. by Cecil's secretary: April 1560. Pp. 4.

Footnotes

1 The Spanish Ambassador's Declaration to Sir Francis Knollys.
1560. April 8.
MS.
Hatfield House.
Haynes, p. 280.
1. The Ambassador says that King Philip well allows that the Queen has stood upon her guard; to the end that she might have her realm in safety, and out of the danger of the French, and that matters might be so arranged in Scotland that the rebels should be chastised. His master has therefore sent him to be a mediator between the French King and the Queen for a conclusion of peace and reformation of all injuries; but he finding, contrary to his expectations, that the Queen's army has entered Scotland, he cannot proceed according to the tenor of embassage; he therefore requires the Queen to revoke her army or abstain from force for forty or fifty days, until he advertises his master and receives answer in that behalf. His master would not leave the French destitute of his aid to the chastening of the rebels in Scotland, if the Queen takes part with them; unto which request they require speedy answer.
2. The effect of the answer the writer supposes must be, that since the Queen cannot eschew the imminent danger of the French unless they remove their force, or else by force they may be removed; the writer thinks the Queen has done justice in sending her forces into Scotland, and it is not meet to revoke the same, unless the French shall remove their nation that are men of war also from thence, upon due acknowledging by the Scots of their allegiance to their Queen and her husband the French King, which has been offered to the French Ambassadors, and by them thought reasonable. Unless it appears that the French had ruled in Scotland according to compacts made between the two realms, and that the Scots had rebelled, without breach of compacts offered to them, the English hope that the King Catholic will not assist the French to the bondage of the Scots and satisfying of the French, who thereby seek the conquest of this realm.
Draft, by Knollys. Endd. by Cecil.
2 Montague and Chamberlain to the Council.
1560. [April 10.]
MS.
Hatfield House.
Haynes, p. 285.
1. For declaration of their proceedings and the King's answer, they refer to their letter to the Queen, which they send by sea with this express messenger, and also with the King's packet through France. The King is very well disposed to take the honour in compounding all things in this case, and had therein travailed with the French King before their arrival, upon the Bishop of Aquila's advertisement, which serves to good purpose; insomuch that they gather from the Duke of Alva that the French King is already brought to good purpose, the conclusion hanging upon these points. The French King would leave the Queen's title and style, using the arms only in the nether quarter of his wife's arms; he would pardon the Scots of all things past, and leave them to their ancient liberties and government with some personage amongst them; but in respect of alteration of religion he would not endure, neither will this King counsel him thereto. He will be content to revoke his extraordinary power in Scotland, reserving a small garrison for four holds only, that he minds to keep with three or four ensigns in a piece. This King thinks meet to take advantage of the time to treat upon compounding of this matter with all expedition, whilst the tumults in France endure, and for that purpose sends now in post one Garcia Lass to treat with the French King. This King, for greater speed, turns the matter towards their Lordships to be concluded, lest in sending to and fro to him, the opportunity might be lost, and the French King finding his tumults appeased would stand firmer in the matter. This matter shall be chargeable to the Queen, and discredit to themselves. They find here no disposition to rectify the treaties; the meaning whereof they cannot understand.
2. The French King, like as he had proved to have borrowed of this King his ships and Spaniards in Flanders, has also now sent one of his chamber to the King of Portugal, to crave passage for his galleys by his realm, as also to borrow some of his ships only rigged with tackle and ordnance, offering good assurance of merchants for restitution of the same.
3. The French sow here slanderous bruits, imputing the cause of all their tumults to the English as fautors of the Protestant religion, knowing the same best to serve their turn to induce this King to hearken to the matter as the only thing meetest to move him. They think the Council has heard of the risings in Provence. The Pope's Nuncio newly arrived here saw 4,000 or 5,000. Two Ambassadors of the Emperor have very courteously visited the writers, acknowledging the good entertainment received by their master's ministers in England. —Toledo, 10 April 1560. Signed.
Orig. Add.
3 The text in Keith is from the English translation contained in the Cottonian MS., Cal. B. x. 88, where it occurs in the hand of one of Cotton's transcribers. A contemporary copy of the French is to be found in Cal. B. x. 97 b.
4 Cap. 52, opp. 1. 112, ed. Lond. 1820.
5 To the end in Throckmorton's writing.
6 Another copy occurs in the Duke's letter-book at Hatfield House.
7 The Queen to the Duke of Norfolk.
1560. April 14.
Haynes, p. 288.
Sadler, 1. 722.
No. CCXXXVIII.
She has received his letters and the charge sent by Sir George Howard, all of which might have been sent by note; she has returned him speedily with full directions. As she would not have the Scots to mistrust her she desires that the siege should be more earnestly prosecuted, and the treaty less regarded; and the Scots should be informed that she will augment her force by sea and land, lest the French conceive slackness in them. And although this be the outward show, she would not that any reasonable offers of the French for accord should be neglected; and indeed, the more hardly handled the French be in the siege, the better it shall be. As for the two Articles touching the expulsion utterly of all the French, and removing the Dowager from her authority, though she will shortly advertise her opinion, yet now would she have it appear that she will agree no otherwise than for the surety of Scotland. Understanding that she now entertains in Scotland more horsemen than necessary, she would have them take Lord Gray's opinion, and if some may be spared, it may be done, but so discreetly that neither the French should conceive comfort, or the Scots discomfort. Thinking that he may find Lord Gray unwilling, she authorizes him to use plainness with him if need be.
8 Another copy occurs in the Duke's letter-book at Hatfield House.
9 No. 903.
10 Here five words are cancelled with ink.
11 The sentence is unfinished.