Elizabeth
June 1560, 16-20

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Institute of Historical Research

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Joseph Stevenson (editor)

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1865

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118-134

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'Elizabeth: June 1560, 16-20', Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 3: 1560-1561 (1865), pp. 118-134. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=71855 Date accessed: 22 November 2014.


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June 1560, 16-20

June 16.194. Gresham to Parry.
1. Wrote to him on the 13th of the great overthrow of King Philip at Tripoli by the Turks. They now say that the Duke of Medina Cœli has escaped with twelve galleys into Sicily, and some have put into Naples, and many into a narrow gulf where the Turks can do them but little hurt except by famine; it is thought King Philip will not recover such a power of ships in four years. On the 15th he received Parry's of the 10th, with the Queen's warrant for forty last of serpentine and thirty of corryn powder. Has shipped twenty pieces of velvet of pile and half [corn powder] and 300 ells of crimson. The ships have remained twelve days for a fair wind. Is now wholly at his wit's end, for on the 13th the chief searcher (who is all his worker and conveyor of his velvets) told him that an Englishman had informed the Customs that of late many velvets had arrived in London, and that if he made a general search he should have great booty; but in a council of the customers and searchers on the 15th they determined not to search, partly for fear of offending Gresham. On the same day a ship (whose master's name is Thomas Degraves) departed with seven pieces of velvet and four dryvats containing eight score ells of crimson velvets; next tide the other ships were appointed to depart, but the wind was clean against them. If any thing is found, the parties who shipped it must fly the country, as it runs their lives and goods upon. Is promised the name of the Englishman. Begs that order may be taken with Mr. Bloomfield for secresy, as he is assured that nothing comes in that Sir John York and others do not know of by certain of the officers, and they write to their doers here. Mistrusts Sir J. York's factor, named Gardiner, for whom he has refused to transport powder and saltpetre. At his last being in London, Mr. Scriven, Lord Ambrose Dudley's servant, spoke in Sir J. York's behalf for Gresham to help him to convey certain saltpetre and gunpowder, which he refused.
2. The Queen's letter to Paulus van Dall will do much good. The 4,400 Spaniards still remain in garrison. It is true that the Abbot of Salute was appointed by the Bishop of Rome, with the consent of the Emperor and the Kings of Spain and France, to come into England to persuade with the Queen for the subversion of the present state of religion; he is now stayed by reason of the great fear there is for religion in France. People stick not to say that God has placed King Philip in this journey of Tripoli for the great execution that he has done for religion in Spain. The Emperor is very sore sick of a quartan ague; the Duke of Bavaria and certain Papist Bishops are gone to see him. The writer's factor, Richard Clough, wrote on the 1st from Eisenach in Saxony, sixteen Dutch miles from Mansfield, that he intended to be with the Count of Mansfield on the 3rd.
3. On the 15th Arnold Rosenberg, one of the King of Sweden's Councilors, who was in England with the King's son, asked the writer what news he had from England and how the Queen did; whether she was assured to the Earl of Arran, and whether Don Carlos would come into England: to which he replied that the Queen was well, but that he knew nothing of the other matters. Then Rosenberg bursted out that the King of Sweden's eldest son was coming to England with eighty great ships, 10,000 men, and 4,000,000 of gold and silver, to come for the Queen, and showed his picture to Gresham; the Prince is ready to depart by the last of next month. Don Carlos, the Emperor's son, is the best one the Queen can marry, as she will there be allied with all the great Princes of Christendom. "This is the wish of all her friends, Protestants as well as Papists, and whomsoever Her Highness will fancy at his foot will I die." Thanks him for the news of Leith, and the payment of the 10,000l. and the comfortable answer he gave to Gresham's factor, Richard Candler.
4. Has shipped at Hamburg 9,000l. of munitions in three ships, 3,000l. in each, whereof 1,000l. is insured; there are about 3,000 corslets, and the rest of the adventure is in corries, handguns, dags, Cologne cleves, staves, saltpetre, and sulphur. There shall be no more sulphur bought, 150 1,000 weight being bought already. It were well to send three or four ships of war to meet them from the Frith, lest any French ship should meet them.
5. On the 15th there arrived letters from Venice of the 1st, advertising that the Turks have taken and sunk thirty-eight galleys and twenty-seven great ships, and it is judged that the Duke of Medina Cœli is taken or sunk with 5,000 or 6,000 men; likewise there are 8,000 men in the fort, and if the King does not send succours within a month, they must give it up for lack of victuals. Whereas King Philip sent word that he would help the French King in Scotland, now he will be fain to seek succour from the Queen. They say that God has blessed the Queen for her religion, and plagued the other Princes for their papistry and idolatry.
6. Considering the noble army the Queen has by sea and land she need not fear the Kings of Spain or France. Besides this she has her marriage in her hands, with the which she can make peace and war according to her pleasure, "with the which she may make the proudest Prince in all Christendom to stoop and to yield unto that noble carkass of hers, which is here much spoken of of all men to Her Highness's great laud and praise."
7. Whereas the Queen owes 1,000,000 ducats here, King Philip and the French King owe 2,000,000 apiece. Is secretly advertised that the Spanish Ambassador in England has written to the King and the Regent that the Queen must make peace out of hand with the French King as she is so poor of money.
8. There is much talk of the Bishops that are committed to the Tower, wherein the Queen is commended. There is here a Scotchman, Mr. Bewmont, who was at Dieppe on the 10th, who says that the French King has no ships in readiness and lacks both men and money, and that he has need of men about him to defend the great power that is up in France for to subdue the Guises. The Dowager of Scotland died on the 9th.
9. His factor Clough passing through Nassau writes him from Seigen that he found there the Prince of Orange, the Count of Swartzenburg, the Landgrave, and three Earls more, met for the christening of a child of the Count of Assone. Likewise that the marriage of the Palzgrave's son with the Landgrave's youngest daughter, which was appointed for the 8th inst. at Marburg, is put off till twenty days after midsummer by reason of the great scarcity of victuals, and hay and oats, for that there meet most the nobles of Germany with 7,000 or 8,000 horsemen.
10. Encloses a letter for Cecil from Mr. Brickendine, and another from Payne of Middleburgh. Desires him to obtain licence to come home, to render up his accounts, which now amount to 1,000,000 ducats, and also that he will send the bonds of the Queen and the city of London for renewing the old ones.
11. P. S.—Desires him to show Lord Robert Dudley that the Queen's Turkey horse waxes a very fair beast, and he intends to bring it home himself.—Antwerp, 16 June 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 9.
[June 16.]195. Intelligence from Flanders.
Abstract of Gresham's letter to Parry of June 16th, and of Brickentine's letter to Cecil of June 8.
1. Touching the Queen's reward to the Bishop of Osnabruck.
2. Desires information as to his dealings with the two Earls of Friesland.
3. For the Queen's letter to the King of Sweden in behalf of the young Lord of Friesland.
4. Copy of the said letter to be sent to him.
5. That Emden be included among the number of the Steelyards, if the Queen grant the Steelyards their liberties.
6. Whether he shall repair according to his first instructions to the Elector Augustus and the Duke of Saxony.
Endd. Pp. 3.
[June 16.]196. Correspondence with Flanders.
Note of answer to Gresham's letter of the 16th of June.
1. Mr. Bloomfield is ordered to secresy.
2. That York knows about the powder, but henceforth he shall not know.
3. It is possible that Mr. York's man Gardiner has dealt ill here, he understands thereof from Bloomfield.
4. The chief secresy must be well used abroad; henceforth it shall be well kept here.
5. Touching three or four ships, it is hard getting them, besides the enemy is not yet abroad.
6. His return shall be as soon as the Queen has heard from him certainly about Count Mansfeld.
7. There is great towards of accord by treaty with the French; as for Leith it is easy to be taken. This letter is to be conveyed forthwith to Brickendine, to assure him touching the Folkers.
Note of answer to Brickendine's letter of the 8th of June.
1. The Bishop of Osnabruck will desire no pension.
2. Touching the entertainment of the two Earls.
3. There are three sorts of pensions in Germany: Dienst gelt, that is, to serve personally at command of the conductor; manne gelt, a pension given to a man and his heirs; gnade gelt, that is, to use his goodwill, friendship, and council to prevent the proceedings of the enemy and advance his whose pension he receives.
4. Count Christopher will not serve but upon great pension; he had 2,000 crowns from the French King, yet hereof he writes not that he will serve.
5. To give the Queen's favourable letters to the King of Sweden for the young Lords of Friesland that they may quietly repair to their country again with his favour and friendship as they departed into his.
6. That the town of Emden might be made free with the rest of the cities of the Hanse.
7. The Queen will write to the King of Sweden, then to send him a copy that the Lords might see it ere it went.
8. If the town of Emden were made free it would serve the more readily.
9. It were meet to give the two Earls of Friesland the second kind of pension.
10. It were meet to give the Count Christopher the third kind of pension.
Orig., in Parry's hol. Endd.: The Cardinal granted the tithes of Crediton, amounting to the clear yearly value of 115l. 14s. 6d., which the Queen granted to the corporation of Crediton, amounting to 100l. per annum. To pay to a vicar preacher 20l., with an augmentation of 10l. when Exminster shall fall. To a curate 10l. A curate at Lampford 10l. To a schoolmaster 13l. 6s. 8d. Pp. 4.
June 17.197. Montague to Cecil.
1. Cecil's gentle and friendly letters of the 10th, 16th, and 22nd May were received together on the 10th inst. by the courier of the writer, and also the Queen's of the 12th and 23rd, by which it seems that other letters have been sent which have not come, and so he fears it has chanced to some of theirs.
2. Perceiving by the Queen's letter of the 12th his licence of return, it was no small joy unto him, although he would be never weary to serve his Queen and country. Has written at length to the Queen of the manner of their doings upon the receipt of the last letters, to which he refers him. Has taken his leave of the King, and presented Chamberlain, who was favourably received, and who is a meet man in all respects, though he is unfurnished of money or convenient ministers for such a service, which is no small grief to him. It were well he had some meet man that he might use in case of sickness, whereunto he is of late much subjected, and if he is not furnished with money, Cecil must not look to hear how the Queen's service proceeds.
3. On Wednesday Montague intends to take his journey homewards if he can possibly hire horses and mules, and afterwards to use all the expedition he can; how he will be provided of passage he knows not, and therefore had hoped he should have had one of the Queen's to have transported him. Hopes that the Queen is pleased with his good will and faithful travail.—Toledo, 17 June 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol., with armorial seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
June 17.198. The Count Mansfeld's Instructions.
1. The Count thanks the Queen for the kindness with which she received his agent, Hans Keck, who, through Gresham's means, had obtained an audience from her respecting the Count's proposals.
2. As to the affair of the money, she has doubtless understood his proposals from Hans Keck. As for obtaining the loan at less than 12 per cent., he cannot promise this, since he knows that the persons who will advance the money to the Queen can get more for it at Antwerp; nevertheless he will do his utmost to forward her plans. The bonds for the 400,000 and the 300,000 dollars ought to be given by the principal city in England. The Queen, or Gresham, shall hear as speedily as possible if any new points arise.
3. With respect to the silver and copper, the Count must communicate first with his nephews, and will then send the result by Hans Keck. Desires Gresham to inquire of his agent how matters are going on in Germany, and assures him that the Queen might subsidize the "good people" there if necessary. The writer, as a faithful servant of the Queen, considers that the Duke of Saxony should be taken into her service, of the reasons for which Clough can better inform him.—Mansfield, 17 June 1560.
Copy. Fr. Pp. 4.
June 17.199. Another copy of the above.
Endd. Fr. Pp. 4.
June 17.200. Extract of that part of Count Mansfeld's instructions which relates to money matters.—Mansfeld, 17 June 1560.
Copy. Endd. Lat. Pp. 3.
June 17.201. Count Mansfeld to Gresham.
Has written from Frankfort promising the Queen of England a loan of 300,000 dollars, who has agreed to accept it, giving the usual securities and pensions, and desired that the money may be got ready soon. Desires him to see to this, that the Queen may not be disappointed. He will take care that no less security is given than is usually given to the merchants of Antwerp, and that no less than 12 per cent. interest shall be given—Mansfield, 17 June 1560.
Copy. Prefixed is this title: Literæ D. Comitis ad Mercatorem Theodoricum Hut, cum Richardo Gloecken, familiari D. Thomæ a Gresshems, transmissæ. Endd. Lat. Pp. 2.
June 17.202. Payne to Gresham.
Since his last there are come in two great hulks from Cadiz laden with salt and other merchandise of "Yenghemens," and aqua vitœ for the shippers. The hulks bound for Spain and Lisbon tarry before Flushing for a good wind. They say here there are many ships making ready in France to go into Scotland, and note the subtilty of the French sending Ambassadors, to seek peace so as to prolong the time till their ships and galleys are in readiness, and that the French Ambassadors in England are as subtle men as are in France. There are three hulks of 100 and 150 tons lading in Middleburgh with wine, soap, and other Scotchmen's goods for Scotland. Janson, the Burgomaster of Enkhuizen and Admiral of the eight hulks, told him they looked for the Commissioner every day.—Middleburgh, 17 June 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. Pp. 2.
June 17.203. The Lord Keeper [Bacon] to Cecil.
1. Were he in Cecil's place and saw cause to credit the advertisement from France of the mishap of King Philip, the wants of Leith, and the death of the Dowager, he would agree to no end but such as would deliver Scotland clearly rid of the French (the duty of their allegiance saved); but if he perceived cause of doubt in these advertisements, then should their sentence rule him.
2. The Frenchman (whom Cecil ordered should be apprehended) has been committed to the Tower, a lewd man in the writer's judgment. Last night he was at Cecil's house with Lady Cecil, where all things go well forward. Thinks that the privy at the west end is with the least, and is too near the lodgings and an oven and little larder; it would have been better to have offended his eye outward than his nose inward. The writer's young boy Anthony has been very sharply handled with a fever, much to the discomfort of his wife.—17 June 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 2.
June 17.204. The Bishop of Valence and Randan to [the Bishop of Amiens] and Others.
Having been appointed by the French King to arrange an accord with the Queen of England, in a commission in which the persons addressed are named under the authority of the Queen Regent, and hearing of her death at Berwick, they thought good to ask Sir William Cecil and the Dean of Canterbury, the English Deputies, to permit them to come out of Leith to the conference. This they refused, as being contrary to laws of war for the besieged to be allowed to have any communication with their friends. They then proposed that if the accord should not succeed, the Bishop of Amiens should not return into Leith, but should await the issue of the siege in any place they might appoint; which was likewise refused. Permission was, however, granted to advertise him by an open letter, and a suspension of arms till Saturday evening was determined on; which the writers request may be observed by the French. It should be published by them, as it will be in the English camp, and a signal given by a cannon from the castle at 6 o'clock.—Edinburgh, 17 June 1560. Signed: Monluc,—Randan.
Copy. Endd. Fr. Pp. 3.
June 17.205. Suspension of Arms at Leith.
Extract from certain Articles agreed upon between the Deputies of France and England.
1. The said suspension shall last from Monday the 17th till the following Saturday.
2. The English shall not carry on their trenches, or commit any acts of hostility against the French forts.
3. The French shall not leave their forts.
4. The English and Scotch shall not approach their camp nearer to Leith.
5. The French Commissioners shall be at liberty to carry on free negociations during this period.
Draft. Endd.: 17 June 1560. Fr. Pp. 2.
June 17.206. Anonymous to M. d'Oysel. (fn. 1)
The Queen Dowager died on the 11th inst. before 1 o'clock at midnight, which was the 30th day of her sickness. Before M. de Randan and the Bishop of Valence, Secretary Cecil and Dr. Wotton came to Edinburgh two days ago; they neither speak nor suffer any of their company to talk with any Frenchman otherwise than orderly. The instructions of De Randan and the Bishop were in cipher. The English Commissioners would not that the writer should see them, but that he should send them the cipher, which he has not done, but in the end they suffered him to decipher them at their lodging, whereby the writer had means to give them to understand as much as he knew by some about him. It was once agreed by the Queen of England that D'Oysel should be at the negociation, but now she will none of it. The contents and end of the said memorials are of peace, and that no succours are to be looked for before the end of August, weighing the danger wherein things are presently in France, as is contained in one of the memorials to the Dowager with a letter from her brethren; the other is to agree to the razing of Leith, and the sending back of the French, except some garrison in Inchkeith and Dunbar, and to convey thither the artillery and munition of Leith; also that there be nothing touched of the arms nor of the relinquishing of the title that the French Queen bears of England, but that the French King shall take order that she shall leave it.
2. Because the enemy have the King's cipher, if D'Oysel thinks good to give any ciphered advertisement and let the same fall into their hands, they will not miss to decipher it, and finding therein the state of the place such as he pleases to make it, it may be somewhat beneficial to the negociation of the said Randan and the Bishop, who greatly desire to know truly for how long he yet has victuals. Seeing that this bearer may not have means to return, if D'Oysel has victual till the 15 July he is to give token by a fire on St. Anthony's Church, and if till the end of this month by a fire on the Citadel; but if for between both times he is to make two fires, and if the matter go so that he must to it perforce then to make three fires all at once. And to the intent they may be perceived from hence, he is to let them continue for half an hour about midnight.—Edinburgh Castle, 18 June.
Almost entirely in Throckmorton's cipher, and described by him as: The extract of a French letter sent out of Edinburgh to them in Leith in cipher, the 18th June. Pp. 2.
June 17.207. Meynell and Wandisford to the Marquis of Winchester.
By his letter of the 14th May, delivered by Mr. Thornelle, they perceive that it is the Queen's pleasure to preserve the jurisdiction of the county palatine of Durham, and that all the officers shall have their rooms and the seal of the same, and that the Master of the Wards shall have the order of the wards and liveries, and that all writs for inquiries, commissions, etc., shall pass under the seal of the said county. They desire warrant for the making forth of letters patent of any such offices and preferments, and that the names of the officers may be expressed in the warrant. As they are advertised that he has appointed the Sheriff to entertain the Justices of Assize at their coming thither, they desire the renewal of the inclosed patents and commissions for Justices of Assize in eyre [oyer] and terminer and gaol delivery, which they must needs have by next assize. Understand by Mr. Thornelle that Cecil has answered all their letters, by letters addressed to the post of Allerton, nevertheless his letters have not come to their hands.—Durham, 17 June 1560. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. Pp. 3.
June 18.208. The Queen's Debts in Flanders.
Letters patent, securing the repayment of 1,920 florins to George Sticker, merchant of Antwerp, lent by him to Sir Thomas Gresham for the Queen's use.—Greenwich, 18 June 1560. Cancelled. Signed by the Queen.
Orig. Appended is a fragment of the Great Seal of England in white wax. On the back are the signatures of the Privy Council. On parchment.
June 19.209. Cecil to the Queen. (fn. 2)
1. Thinks it his duty to ascertain her privately in some things wherein Dr. Wotton is not acquainted. Her army here is small and truly does worthily, and like good men of war besiege so great a town having many advantages against them. Her pay is more than her numbers, partly by stealing away but chiefly by stealing of captains. She will think him a great enemy to sumptuous apparel that neither can spare his speech against it at London nor at Edinburgh. There is such excess of apparel in certain captains that he fears some carry twenty, some forty soldiers in their hose, both are they so big and so costly. It were mere folly for him to inveigh against these things; the best way is to make a short end thereof. As for fare, none here of any degree ever fared better at home, and in this point pass away the wage of no small number of soldiers. Since his coming he has caused a muster, wherein he thinks the Queen will save at one pay 2,000l. Sir Peter Carew's reports to her are very true, and as touching Croftes, (fn. 3) he is very sorry to find so apparent matter; his neglect of his duty was the especial cause of the loss of the town, and that so evidently that it cannot be denied. Surely Enfield is now wrong, wherefore if it is her pleasure there is no difficulty therein. Here are some greatly perplexed. Although the nobility of Scotland hate the French and are devoted to England, yet some are for one respect and some for another. Many questions are moved to him by certain Lords whereunto he cannot answer.
2. As for making a peace, he thinks they may sooner do it than the Scots would have it. Finds the Laird of Lethington disposed to work all the minds of the nobility to allow anything that she shall determine ; he is of most credit here for his wit, and almost sustains the whole burden of foresight. Next him is the Lord James, who surely is not unlike either in person or qualities to be a King soon. The Earl of Argyll is a goodly gentleman of person and unusually honoured of all Scotland. The Earl of Arran has all his father's honour laid upon him, for his father yields in all things to him.
3. If she had money to maintain a just war, this amity of Scotland would so abase France that her posterity to the third generation would live quietly. Sees that lack thereof will lose that at this time which quadruple so much at another time will not redeem. Beseeches her to pardon his hasty scribbling, as he is overwhelmed with business. Is forced to bear the whole labour. Mr. Wotton is very wise and loves quietness, but this matter requires travail. Hopes that God will direct her to make choice of a husband who will be a father to her posterity, for without it he wishes to himself no posterity.—Edinburgh, 19 June 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol., with armorial seal. Add. Endd. Pp. 3.
June 19.210. Arms and Style of England. (fn. 4)
1. The offers of the French Ambassadors touching Queen Mary's ceasing the use of the arms and style of England.
2. In reply to the English Commissioners' demands for compensation for the usurpation by Queen Mary of the arms and style of England, they have replied that they have no authority to speak about compensation; and they can only promise that the King and Queen, their Sovereigns, will desist from using the arms and style and will forbid their subjects from doing so; and that they will call in all letters in which the arms or style of England are used, and declare that those which are not brought in within six months shall be of none effect.
3. As for those articles which they have not power to agree to, they will send to learn the King's pleasure. With respect to the compensation, they are ready to refer it to the judgment of the King Catholic; and if he does not give his decision within the appointed time, then the right of compensation shall remain with the Queen. In the meantime, they offer to arrange with the English Commissioners for the removal out of Scotland of the forces on both sides, and the number of French who shall remain in Leith and Inchkeith, and also about the demolition of the works at Dunbar. All warlike operations to cease.—Edinburgh, 17 June 1560.
Copy. Endd. Fr. Pp. 2.
June 19.211. Articles proposed to the French Ambassador. (fn. 5)
1. That the French King and Queen shall not only forbear to use the arms of England and prohibit that they shall not from henceforth be joined to those of France and Scotland, but shall proclaim that where there is any work with them on it, the arms shall be erased.
2. They shall not only forbear to use the style and title of England and Ireland in their writings, or otherwise, but shall prohibit it to be used in their dominions; and wheresoever it has been used, it shall be expunged and defaced; and all grants and writings bearing it shall be renewed without it.
3. If they will not accord to these demands, then the Queen will abide by the arbitration of King Philip, to be given within one year.
4. For recompence of the above injuries and as satisfaction for the violation of the treaty of Cambray, she has demanded the instant restitution of Calais; and for that the Deputies of the French King and Queen have no authority to treat thereof, and as it will be a great delay to the reconciliation of amity to abide resolution out of France to be sent to Edinburgh, it is covenanted that the demand be referred to a new treaty at London, and if it be not accorded within the space of three months, then the said Queen and King and Queen will stand to the arbitration of King Philip, so as he give a resolute sentence within one year. If he do this, then the said claim shall stand as it did the day before the treaty began.
Draft, in Cecil's hol. Endd.: 19 June 1560. Copy of the Articles proposed to the French Ambassadors, sent to the Queen by the first despatch; in English. Pp. 4.
June 19.212. Copy of the Articles 1, 2, and 3 of the last entry in French.
Endd. Pp. 3.
June 19.213. Norfolk to Cecil.
1. Wishes that Cecil had better hope of success in his treaty than the writer gathers by any letter he has received as yet. Is glad that Cecil finds the writer's declaration of the whole state there true. There is no man there of whom account is to be made but Sadler for Council matters and Mr. Randolph for warlike affairs. Thinks there is time enough for Cecil to write to the Court to have Lord Wharton placed here by the Queen's directions, which would prevent all misfortunes that might fall. The office yet remains in Sadler's hands, who received it by the Queen's letters, and therefore he would wish the like again to Lord Wharton; would be sorry, having missed Sadler's company so long in Berwick, to miss it also in the field. Hopes that Cecil will moderate whatsoever his rash head writes on the sudden. It is impossible for him to go out of the town before the money arrives, wherefore he wishes Cecil to remember it once again in his letter. The armour is not yet arrived from Newcastle. Sends a packet from the Court herewith. As for the passing of the Scotchmen, he can give no straiter commandment for taking heed of these escaping within his lieutenancy than he has done. It was (as he could gather) the Dowager's Almoner who was convoyed through Northumberland by some of the country. He may chance to know one day who they were.—19 June 1560. Signed.
2. P. S.—The Berwick news is that Croftes will be there within three days, in which case there will be no need to study the appointment of a new captain.
Orig. Hol. Add. by Railton. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
June 19.214. The Marquis of Winchester to Cecil.
Thanks him for his letter and will do his devoir to help him to the end he seeks for, for which purpose he sends to Mr. Brown, the Treasurer of the army, 22,000l. certainly, and more as he trusts. The ships must be paid, for Mr. Gonson [torn] or thereabouts, which will acquit both parts he trusts. Richard Asheton is appointed by the writer to pay 3,000l. to the Treasurer of Berwick for the old garrison, and then there is to be paid more for the [torn] 6,000l., which he will consider as much as he can and provide [torn] July to be at Berwick before the end of the same month above 24,000 or 25,000l., but there are so many other things to pay that it will be hard to make this.—19 June 1560. Signed.
Add. Torn at the outer edge. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
June 19.215. Payne to Gresham.
All the hulks that were bound for Spain and Portugal, and which were riding before Flushing, have come back to the Rammekyns, because the wind is contrary. Has been to Camfer, but there have arrived no ships from Scotland. Yesterday there came in a hoy of Flushing laden with English malt, which came out of a crayer which was sold to a man of Flushing, which had English wool under the malt; the malt was sold for 5l. 5s. the last, and it was worth to the Queen 5l. 15s. Thus they bring over malt and bacon and sell them cheaper than in England, for bacon is sold but for 12s. 6d. the 100, and wool for eighteen guilders the cwt., and in England it is worth 15s. The Commissary and the Spaniards are not yet come. There are ships lading every day with wines for Scotland. There came in this day two hoys from London, who are gone towards Antwerp. There are two ships come with wines of France, who say that they make great preparations in France and look for galleys.—Middleburgh, 19 June 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. Pp. 2.
June 20.216. Johannes Spithovius to Cecil.
Wrote to him on the 2nd March and the 16th May. Recapitulates all the intelligence contained in his last letter rather more fully. Does not think that the King of Denmark will be so rash as to aid the French in subjugating the Scots, although the French Ambassador has been urgent with him to permit his master to have the loan of the Danish fleet to be employed against the Scots. He is exceedingly annoyed with the journey of Duke Adolphus into England. The privileges of the Hanse towns will be considered next week at Othoma [Odensee], in the Isle of Funen; thinks that the fact of some of them obtaining advantages to the exclusion of others will breed dissensions amongst them. The King departed thither on June 17, he often reviews his fleet, which is lying in the Sound near Helsingfors, exceedingly well manned and equipped with artillery. Renews his request for preferment, reminding Cecil that he has faithfully served the Queen for some years.— Copenhagen, 20 June 1560. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. Lat. Pp. 4.
June 20.217. Norfolk to Cecil.
At last the armour is arrived before the haven, and they hope to have it all in the next tide. Fears nothing but the fewness of their number. There shall be no delay found in him. The new reconciliation between Lethington and Croftes seems very true, for he is credibly informed that the Lords of the Congregation and he wrote either to the Queen or some of the Council in his behalf; Hume, who seemed to go for the Earl of Arran's horses, carried the letters. Likes not this sinister dealing in them. Begs him to send his [Cecil's] nephew Julian hither, and he [the writer] will supply him; wishes there were many more such for the purpose. Lord Wharton sends his commendations.—Berwick, 20 June 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. by Railton. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
June 20 & 22.218. Randolph to Killigrew. (fn. 6)
1. Has received his letter of the 12th of June. His news, though otherwise pitiful, was not ungrateful to them, who suspect as many as they think may hinder the cause. On Monday last the treaty began, and will continue until Saturday at 8 p.m. They are certain that one way or other there will presently be an end of this matter. The French necessity is great, their doings hitherto as becomes valiant soldiers ; it will be no small loss to the French King to have so many slain as are like to be if they attend the fury of the black bill.
2. In this time of abstinence divers of the English talk with divers of them with gentle words, and they have eaten and drunken together. Yesterday there met upon the sands the captains of Mount Pelham with divers of theirs, and each brought such victuals as he had in store ; the English brought beef, bacon, capon, chickens, wine, beer, and such stuff as they had. The French (to signify what difference there was between assiegers and assiegees,) brought with them a cold capon roast, a pasty of a baken horse, and six rats well roasted, giving them to understand that that was the best fresh vivers they had, and of such as those they lacked no store. Should himself have been at the banquet; there was at it Vaughan, General of Mount Pelham, Sir Andrew Corbet, and Sir Edward Felton. They departed kindly, whatsoever their meeting shall be.
3. Has had of late a little more credit in the castle. Has received favour at divers ladies' hands. Saw the Dowager's corpse; she lies in a bed covered with a fair fine white sheet, the tester of black satin and the bed stock hanged round about to the ground with the same. All her own servants are at liberty, saving only the bishops and clergy, who are stayed until the Parliament make order with them. Her ordinary continues, her dames continually wait on the corpse, they have not yet received their mourning garments. Scindite corda vestra, non vestimenta, so said the Lady Fleming to him, talking of that matter. Her burial is deferred till the Lords of Parliament are assembled; the first day thereof is decimo Julii. It is determined that she shall have all solemnities meet for so noble a personage, saving such as savour rather of superstition than of Christian piety.
4. It is almost miraculous to see how the Word of God takes place in Scotland. They are better willing to receive discipline than in any country he ever was in. Upon Sunday last, both before noon and after, there were at the sermons that confessed their offences and repented their lives before the congregation. Cecil and Dr. Wotton were present. The Wednesday after three others did the like. They think to see next Sunday Lady Stonehouse, by whom the Bishop of St. Andrews has had (without shame) five or six children, openly repent herself. Affairs here are very troublesome, the nature of men diverse, liberty great, justice slenderly executed in all places. God save them from more discord amongst themselves, when the French are gone. Writes it for a miracle that since the camp arrived there was never quarrel or discord between the English and Scotch that ever blows were given or swords drawn.
5. Wishes to know where Killigrew bestows himself, that he may be the surer what becomes of his writings. Prays him if he repairs into France to have care of his things there that they may shortly be at home. Killigrew's Bishop antiquum obtinet, and has received great honour both by the English and the French, royally banqueted and honourably entertained. Cecil and Dr. Wotton are in health and have visited the works. Desires him to let them know what has become of Sir James. All their hurt men are whole. Lord Grey, Tremaine, and Carew are all in health.—Holyrood, 20 June. Signed: Vostro, Thos. Barnaby. Virtus pro divitiis.
6. P. S.—" The Commissioners cannot agree as yet upon the bargain; the abstinence is broken, the time expired, all men in armour, the swashes sounding, dom drum, &c."— 22nd midnight.
Orig. Hol., with seal. Add. Endd. Pp. 4.

Footnotes

1 Cecil to Petre.
June 21.
Haynes, p. 329.
1. The French and Scotch have not met with their articles, as was appointed this afternoon, the matters requiring long consultation on the Scotch part, and time of translation. To-morrow morning they shall meet; so towards night Cecil shall see somewhat to write. The hardest knot will prove the league betwixt England and Scotland; the French cannot digest it, and if it might be held, it would always trouble their stomachs. If it cannot be as it is, he would gladly know the Queen's pleasure whether they shall break, if they can neither obtain it to stand as it is, nor continued betwixt the Princes and the nobilities; for the words of the instructions of the English Ambassadors are very general in that point, mentioning that if they cannot come to any conditions that are for the surety and liberty of Scotland, then to forbear and certify. If Petre could help them to a plainer explanation of this article it would ease them much, for upon this point the whole will hang. A declaration of the Queen's purpose in this part, whether they shall desist, if they can get no pact whereby the nobility shall be mentioned, or if there be not, an article for the mutual defence of the liberty of either realm. He may do them a pleasure therein, though it come late.
2. He sends an intercepted letter from a French secretary in the castle to the town. If Mr. Hampton can do nothing with it, it should be sent to Mr. Sommer. Cecil would have given 100l. to have had Somer here. Asks Mr. Hampton to take the care to send these letters to Throckmorton.—Edinburgh, 21 June 1560.
Signed. Orig.
2 Cecil and Wotton to the Lords of the Council.
June 19.
Haynes, p. 327.
1. The travails and debates of the writers with these Frenchmen are not much less than theirs of the camp with the French besieged. "We can get nothing but with racking and straining, and we have it inwards; they always will steal it away in penning and writing." By the letters of the writers to the Queen, and by the copies of certain articles passed between them for their entry and suspension of arms, and of the articles offered by the French and not allowed by the writers, their Lordships shall perceive much of their proceedings. How these matters of Scotland will be accorded they know not; this afternoon they meet. On the one part, this matter has so many crooked points in it to accord, considering they deal between a Prince and his subjects, and so subtle a nation, and on the other part the writers knew many causes there before their coming, and perceive more in the army since their coming, to induce them to forbear a war. They cannot understand but that the nobility and gentry, with the common people, do well conceive the fruit of amity betwixt these two realms, and are utterly bent against the French, so as the writers are forced to procure them favour and entertainment. They see that this Council of Scotland may be directed to do anything the Queen commands them; but how long that will endure, God knows.
2. In the matter of redress for usage of the style and arms, they see the French here rest only upon moderation thereof, that the dishonour of the French and their uncles do not so ensue, as they say the English "covet." Although their doings have deserved the same, the writers know not whether the Queen will have them fall into the war, rather than lack their wills in dishonouring them When their Lordships have considered all things there, and if it seems meet, that they shall upon any advantages known to their Lordships, rather break than conclude in that point, or in other like, they can easily do it. And for all doubts, here in camp, if money be sent, and Norfolk comes in, there is no doubt but that the town shall be in his hands within ten days, as Cecil plainly understands. Refers their Lordships to such advertisements as they have made to the Queen, and beseech a speedy and certain answer.—Edinburgh, 19 June 1560. Signed.
3. P. S.—At length they are agreed upon the articles, whereof they cannot send the copy.
Orig.
3 This name is expressed in cipher.
4 Another copy occurs in B. M. Calig. B. x. 95.
5 Parry and Petre to Cecil.
June 12.
Haynes, p. 326.
The Queen (upon some occasions at this time ministered by the French), has commanded the writers to remind him of two things. First, that in his treaty with the French Commissioners touching the injuries done to her by usurping of the titles and arms of her realms, he is not only to provide for the leaving thereof hereafter, so they may be not used; but also, (because their doings are known to the world,) that some satisfaction may follow by the French King's Queen, whereby the Queen's honour and just title and right may appear to the realm by some public demonstration that injury has been done her in this part. The second is for the article of reservation contained in the last treaty with France, and for another article touching any innovation on either side during eight years. Copies of these articles they send him herewith. The said articles are very reasonable and good for both parties; yet, because the French, in those and all other promises, serve the time, and contrary to good faith pretend matters for their purpose when they list, the Queen would be glad if in this treaty he might obtain some fuller exposition, to provide as much as may be by covenant for this. They now excuse their using the Queen's title and arms as no innovation, considering the same was begun to be used by them before the date of that treaty, contrary indeed to the true meaning of the treaty and reason.— Greenwich 12 June 1560. Signed.
Orig.
6 Cecil to Petre.
June 23.
Haynes, p. 332.
1. This day, the French and Scotch Deputies dining at his lodgings, they have proceeded and accorded most of the articles on both parts. The presence of the English prevails much, for the Lords of Scotland would yield almost in no doubtful matter but to content the writers; yet the English do not use any persuasion to discourage them, but they covet peace, and they say their debt is so great to the Queen, that whatsoever is willed in her name they will do it, to the hazard of their lives and lands. These French (to deny certain matters) say that their instructions restrain them, and refer them to the deceased Queen. The English find a great commodity in the Lord James and Ledington, who are content to follow their opinions in anything. The Lord James is a gentleman of great worthiness. After to-morrow they will write more largely. If he were resolved whether, if the French forces were removed by accord, they would either more slowly or quietly accord to other things, Cecil could in one case devise to remove them, and the English also, and thereby abridge charges and at more leisure conclude these matters of Scotland. He fears nothing will move them to finish well with the English, but fear of the loss of their men; yet at present they are content to treat more quietly, for Norfolk cannot yet be ready for lack of treasure. Trusts that Thomas Binkes arrived there this Sunday.—Edinburgh, 23 June 1560.
2. Asks Petrie to let his poor wife know that he is at this present in health. God save the Queen's Majesty. Signed.
Orig.