Elizabeth
July 1560, 6-10

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Institute of Historical Research

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Joseph Stevenson (editor)

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1865

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172-187

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'Elizabeth: July 1560, 6-10', Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 3: 1560-1561 (1865), pp. 172-187. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=71859 Date accessed: 21 October 2014.


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July 1560, 6-10

[July 6.]279. The Queen to Norfolk.
Accepts his long service there [at Berwick], as at his coming he shall further understand. As she means to know the state of his charge in his lieutenancy, and what order were meet to be established at Berwick, he shall repair to her upon receipt of this letter, leaving Berwick in the charge of Sir Francis Leek. He is to do what he can to reduce her charges.
Draft, in Cecil's hol. Endd. Pp. 2.
July 6.
Keith, 1. 296.
280. Articles proposed to the French Commissioners on the Part of the Scots. (fn. 1) (fn. 2)
1. All the French shall be removed save 120 to be stationed in Dunbar and Inchkeith, who are to be amenable to the laws of Scotland; they shall be mustered and paid monthly, and inspected by two Lords of Scotland to see that their numbers are not increased.
2. The fortifications of Leith and Dunbar shall be dismantled, and not rebuilt, and no artillery and munition imported without the consent of the Estates.
3. Debts contracted by the French troops shall be paid.
4. Parliament shall assemble on the 10th July, and its acts shall be valid.
5. No war shall be commenced save with the consent of the Estates.
6. A council of twelve shall be appointed to manage affairs.
7. No strangers shall be employed in offices of law, or as Treasurer, Comptroller, or the like.
8. Amnesty for all things done since 6th March 1558.
9. Any armed assembly exceeding twelve without the order of the Council shall be deemed rebellious.
10. Neither the party of the Congregation nor their adversaries shall reproach one another with anything done since the 6th March 1558.
11. The King and Queen shall not take vengeance for anything done since the 6th March 1558.
12. It shall not be lawful for any nobleman to assemble in arms nor to invite foreign soldiers.
13. Wrongs done to the clergy are to be considered in Parliament, nor is it lawful for any person to hinder their enjoyment of their goods.
14. Any one breaking the treaty to be regarded as a public enemy.
15. The Duke of Châtellerault and other noblemen to be restored to their estates in France. (fn. 3)
Endd. by Cecil.: 6 July 1560. Requests of Scotland to the French King, accorded by the French Ambassadors of Scotland in presence of the Ambassadors of England. This endorsement is cancelled. Fr. Pp. 7.
July 6.
Keith. 1. 291. Foelig;d, xv. 593. Lesley's Hist. of Scotland, 291. ed. 1828.
281. Treaty of Edinburgh. (fn. 4)
1. The present treaty is intended to put an end to all disputes between the Queen of England and the King and Queen of England and Scotland. The Articles are as follows:—
2. The treaty of Cateau Cambresis shall remain in full force.
3. The concord between the Dauphin and Dauphiness and the Queen of England executed at Cambray shall remain in force.
4. All French land and sea forces shall leave Scotland, except the garrisons of Dunbar and Inchkeith, and all warlike preparations shall cease on both sides.
5. Eyemouth shall be dismantled, according to the provisions of the treaty of Cambray, within four days after the commencement of the demolition of Leith.
6. The French King and Queen shall abstain from using the arms and style of the Queen of England, and shall prohibit their subjects from doing the same.
7. A convention shall be held in London to consider the question of compensation for the injuries sustained by the Queen of England in having her arms usurped; and, in case of no agreement being arrived at, Philip King of Spain shall be appointed arbiter.
8. The convention concluded between the French King and Queen and their subjects, shall be observed by both parties.
9. Philip of Spain shall be included in this treaty.
10. This treaty shall be confirmed within sixty days.
11. All the Princes shall swear to keep these Articles inviolate.
Appended are:—
Fœd, xv. 581.1. The commission of Francis and Mary, appointing the Bishops of Valence and Amiens and MM. De la Brosse, D'Oysel, and Randan, their Commissioners to treat for peace. —Dated at Chenonceau, 2 May 1560. Fr.
Fœd, xv. 596.2. The commission of Elizabeth, appointing Cecil, Wotton, Sadler, Percy, and Carew as her Commissioners—Greenwich, 25 May 1560. Lat.
Edinburgh, 6 July 1560. Signed: Monlucius, Episcopus Valentinus, Randan, W. Cecil, N. Wotton.
Orig. on vellum. Endd. Lat. Pp. 6.
July 6.282. Treaty of Edinburgh.
Fœd, xv. 581.1. The articles proposed to the French Commissioners by the Scotch nobility.
2. Appended is the commission of Francis and Mary, appointing the Bishops of Amiens and Valence, and MM. De la Brosse, Randan, and D'Oysel, to negociate the affair.—Dated at Romorentin, 2 June 1560. (fn. 5) —Edinburgh, 6 July 1560. Signed: Monluc, De Valence, Randan. The accuracy of the above transcript from the original is attested by: James Steward, Ruthven, W. Maitland.
Copy. Fr. Pp. 10.
July 6.283. Copy of the above. Signed.
Lat. Pp. 12.
July 6.284. Another copy of the above.
Williamson's transcript. Pp. 8.
July 6.285. Another copy of the above.
Williamson's transcript. Pp. 15.
July 6.286. Another copy of the above.
Lat. Pp. 10.
July 6.287. Another copy of the above, omitting however the Ambassadors' commission and concluding paragraph.
Lat. Pp. 10.
July 6.288. Commencement of the treaty.
Endd. Lat. Pp. 3.
July 6.289. Another copy, with the Articles differently arranged.
Endd. Lat. Pp. 15.
July 6.290. Another draft in Wotton's writing, corrected in places by Cecil, but differing in some points from the treaty as finally settled.
Endd. Lat. Pp. 8.
July 6.291. Another draft, differing in many points from the treaty as finally agreed upon.
Lat. Pp. 15.
July 6.292. 1st, 5th, 9th, and 10th Articles, with the French King's commission to his Ambassadors.
Endd. Lat. Fr. Pp. 4.
July 6.293. Latter part of the 3rd Article, arranging a suspension of hostilities.
Endd. Lat. Pp. 2.
July 6.294. Part of 4th Article, relating to the demolition of the fortifications at Eymouth.
In Cecil's writing. Lat.
July 6.295. Draft of the 5th Article relative to the usurpation of the arms, corrected by Cecil.
Lat. Pp. 3.
July 6.296. Copy of the same Article.
Endd. Lat. Pp. 3.
July 6.297. Draft of the same, in Cecil's autograph.
Lat. P. 1.
July 6.298. Another copy.
Much injured. Lat. Pp. 2.
July 6.299. Another copy.
Much injured. Lat. P. 1.
July 6.300. Another copy of the same Article, varying from that adopted in the treaty.
Endd. Lat. Pp. 3.
July 6.301. Copy of the same, as finally agreed upon.
Endd. Lat. Pp. 2.
July 6.302. Short memoranda in English by Cecil of the different Articles, with commencement of the Article about the usurpation of the arms, in Latin.
Pp. 2.
July 6.303. Draft of Article concerning compensation for the usurpation of the Queen's arms, and of another concerning the convention of Berwick, not inserted in the treaty.
In Cecil's writing. Lat. Pp. 2.
July 6.304. Draft of the 7th Article.
Lat. P. 1.
July 6.305. The Eighth Article, relating to the comprehension of the King of Spain in the said treaty.
In Cecil's handwriting. Lat. P. 1.
July 6.306. Several Articles of the treaty, including two which were ultimately omitted, one about the disbanding of the forces and the other to the effect that the Duke of Châtellerault and other Scotch nobles should be made parties to the treaty.
Lat. Pp. 3.
July 6.307. Draft of Article giving permission to the English to pursue malefactors across the Borders.
In Cecil's handwriting. Lat. P. 1.
July 6.308. Draft of two Articles relative to the detention of hostages in England and the ratification of the treaty by Parliament, which were not introduced into the final copy.
In Cecil's writing. Lat. P. 1.
July 6.309. Three Articles providing that the Scots shall give help to the English, especially in case of a French invasion.
In Cecil's writing. Lat. P. 1.
July 6.310. Draft of another Article in Cecil's writing, binding the Queen of England to protect the Scots from invasion and oppression.
Lat. P. 1.
July 6.311. Treaty of Edinburgh. (fn. 6)
Note of the effect of the principal matters concluded between the Queen's Commissioners and the French in Scotland, 6 July 1560.
It relates to the following particulars:
1. That the French relinquish the use of the arms and style of England.
2. The government of Scotland by a council of twelve.
3. An amnesty for past offences, to be granted to the Scots.
4. No Frenchman to have any office in Scotland.
5. 120 French only to remain in Dunbar and Inchkeith.
6. No munition or victuals to be brought, but from six months to six months.
7. No foreign ships or men of war to be brought in without consent of the Scots.
8. Leith and the new buildings at Dunbar to be demolished.
9. Matters of religion to be passed over in silence.
10. The league between the Queen of England and the Scottish nobility to be passed over.
11. In the said treaty the French King and Queen are by a special clause bound to the Queen of England to perform and keep the said covenants with the Scots.
Endd. Pp. 3.
July 6.312. Demolition of Leith and Dunbar and Removal of the French.
Articles agreed upon as well for the demolition of Leith and the new fortifications made at Dunbar and Inchkeith as of the forts and trenches in the camp, and for the removing of the French forces and retire of the English army out of Scotland.
1. The French shall demolish Leith, and the new fortifications at Dunbar and Inchkeith, in the view of certain English gentlemen.
2. The English forts and trenches to be demolished in the view of certain French gentlemen.
3. The French shall then embark their army and weapons, and such soldiers as shall be transported by sea, for which purpose they shall have vessels appointed to them.
4. Then the English shall have free entry to the town, to embark their munitions and artillery.
5. The French forces which shall not embark shall march with the English army to Newcastle, or some other convenient place for embarkation.
Endd. Pp. 2.
[July 7.]
Stowe's Annals, p. 645, ed. 1631.
313. Proclamation of the Peace of Leith.
1. The Queen and the King and Queen of France and Scotland having accorded upon a reconciliation of peace and amity to be inviolably kept between them, it is commanded that all persons born under their obedience or being in their service forbear all hostilities by sea or land and keep good peace from this time forward.
2. Further it is ordered that no one from Leith shall come into the camp, nor any from the camp go into Leith, except by permission from six gentlemen appointed by both parties for that purpose. (fn. 7)
Draft in Cecil's hol., and endd. by him: Proclamation of the peace. P. 1.
July 7.314. Gresham to Parry.
The writer by his letter of the 4th sent Parry a copy of his letter of the 2nd, containing the proceedings between Count Mansfeld and Clough. Desires to know the Queen's wishes re- speeting the expenditure of the money. 25,000l. laid out in paying part of her debts would much advance her credit, "when neither King Philip, the French King, or the King of Portugal in peace time payeth nothing." His friend A. [Schetz] from Brussels informs him that the 4,400 Spaniards are like to remain in garrison, because the States will not consent to pay any money. The French King has as much to do as he can, and arrests all the ships and fortifies Calais. The writer since his last has shipped fifteen pieces of velvet and 1,000 ells of black damask; all the saltpetre from Germany is in the Queen's hands. To-morrow Daniel Wolfstadt departs for England about the refining the money. Sends him by Candler an emerald worth 266l. 13s. 4d., a table diamond worth 200l., and a pointed diamond worth 50l., which he insures him are "oryent;" Gresham is bound by his bill to return them or pay for them in twenty days.—Antwerp, 7 July 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. Pp. 3.
July 8.
Haynes, p. 354.
315. Cecil and Wotton, to the Queen. (fn. 8)
1. Yesterday peace was here proclaimed, first in Leith in presence of certain English gentlemen and next in the camp in the presence of certain French. It seems welcome to all parts. This day the artillery on both sides is withdrawing to places, from whence it shall be carried to-morrow to be embarked. At present they cannot understand the state of the town, otherwise than thus; the numbers appear to be many, and those which are seen are with all their scarcity of victual very well looking and all very well armed. The French demanded yesterday shipping for 4,000 persons, and the writers think they be not under 3,000 soldiers, which would have been able to have encountered a great number, and would have occasioned the shedding of a great deal of blood.
2. The substance of their accord consists in these points, a reconciliation made and the treaty of Cateau Cambresis reduced to its former strength.
3. All the men of war to be removed save sixty in the Isle here, which serves to no purpose, as the French see and confess; and sixty in Dunbar, whose new fortifications shall be before the army leave Scotland, demolished. The town of Leith to be demolished.
4. All hostile preparations to cease on both parts, and no ship to be transported with men of war "or any warly apparel" out of France or any other place by consent of the French into England, Scotland, or Ireland, nor any from England or Ireland into France.
5. Eymouth shall be demolished before the army comes to Berwick.
6. Next to this the Queen's undoubted right to the crown of England and Ireland is fully acknowledged, with a declaration that no person may use the style or arms thereof but the Queen. Thereupon follows the part for redress and reformation for all things done to the contrary, both in France and Scotland.
7. The writers persisted in demand of Calais, and 500,000 crowns for a recompence. The recompence is referred to a new treaty to be had betwixt them at London; if it be not ended by them within three months, then it is to be referred to King Philip for a twelvemonth, if he does not end it the right and demand is reserved to the Queen.
8. Next this follows the covenant to the Queen for observing of the treaty now accorded betwixt the French and Scots, which Article was as hard to obtain as any; next to it the recognition of the Queen's right to the crown.
9. After this follows ordinary Articles for observation and confirmation of this treaty.
10. This is the sum of their treaty, which with the accord of Scotland, has spent sixteen days, that is from the 16th June to the 3rd of July, and of that time three parts has been spent in according of the matters of Scotland.
11. These are the principal heads of the accords of Scotland. The French shall not send any French soldier, or of any other nation, into Scotland except it be invaded by an army of a strange country, and in that case the French shall send none but by advice of the three Estates.
12. All soldiers shall depart save 120, whereof sixty shall be in the Isle, and sixty in Dunbar, which number shall be mustered and paid by the Lords of Scotland; those soldiers shall be justifiable to the laws of Scotland, whereunto the French men of war here were never subjected. They shall take no victual but for ready money. They shall not receive any succour out of France of victuals or munition but from six months to six months; with other Articles to bridle them, so there be no doubt to fear them. And, saving that the French King's honour is somewhat relieved thereby, they see no likelihood that these will be diminished; the charge will be abridged, the Isle abandoned, and Dunbar committed to some Lord of the land.
13. The French shall not fortify anything in this land but by advice of the three Estates.
14. The whole debts due to the subjects here for victuals taken these two years by D'Oysell and others for use of the French shall be paid.
15. Parliament shall begin on the 10th instant and shall be prorogued till the 20th, because the land cannot be cleared of all men of war before that time.
16. The King and Queen shall never make peace or war here without consent of the three Estates.
17. For governance of this realm, the three Estates shall choose twenty-four, of which the Queen shall choose seven and the Estates five, to make a Council of twelve; without the greater of which number nothing shall be done for the policy. If the Estates find it needful to make the number fourteen, then the Queen shall choose eight and the Estates six. The charges of this Council to be maintained out of the revenues of this crown.
18. The ordinary offices of the realm, either for Justice civil or criminal, or Chancellor, Treasurer, Comptroller and such like, shall be furnished only with subjects of the land; neither shall the office of Treasurer or Comptroller, being now void, be conferred upon any ecclesiastical person.
19. All things done here against the laws shall be discharged, and a law of oblivion shall be established in this Parliament, excepting such as the Estates here shall judge unworthy of this privilege.
20. The three Estates shall order that whosoever levies any force contrary to order of the country, or without consent of the Council, the same shall be pursued as a rebel, so as the King and Queen shall not need to send any strange force to subdue the same.
21. There shall be a general reconciliation of amity amongst the states of the land, without reproof of one to another.
22. The King and Queen shall never make any avenge for anything past, nor depose any person from any office or estate for anything done since the 6th March 1558.
23. A covenant on the Lords' part to keep the realm in tranquillity.
24. All complaints of the deprived clergy shall be heard in this next Parliament and reformation made by the three Estates, which they think will be light enough. In the meantime the ecclesiastical persons shall not be impeached to enjoy their goods. In the end a grant of restitution to the Duke of Châtellerault and his son, and all others of this land, of all their estates and pensions in France. (fn. 9)
25. With this Article they find more part of the Lords here offended, so that they do amongst themselves devise to accord that no Scotchman shall take pension of France. The Earl of Glencairn, who has pension, is as earnest herein as any other.
26. They have briefly repeated the substance of things accorded: they will make better declaration at their return. They pray to see the Queen enjoy the benefit of this peace, which shall augment her honour in the beginning of her reign and as yet in her maidenhood, and finally shall procure the conquest of this Court, that is, the whole hearts and good wills of the nobility and people of this land, which surely is better for England as they guess than the revenue of this crown.
27. Amongst other Articles in this treaty it is accorded that all preparations shall cease, as by the copy of Articles here included shall appear. They have accorded that these Ambassadors here shall signify the same to the Ambassador there resident, who shall attend to agree with the Queen or the Council in what sort and time the same preparations shall cease. This they expedite with more speed, because they do not know in what forwardness the French navy is. They neither would, nor could, accord with these men here by what time both the navies should be disarmed, but have thought best to refer the determination thereof to the Queen with accord of the French Ambassador there.—Edinburgh, 8 July.
Cecil's draft, and endd. by him: 8 July 1560. Letter to the Queen by Sir Peter Caroo. Pp. 7.
July 8.316. Army in Scotland.
Owing to the army in Scotland, being unpaid between 20th June and 8th July, total 8,040l. 16s. 8d., vivers and private entertainment.
Endd. Pp. 2.
July 8.317. Throckmorton to the Privy Council.
1. Though he has signified the state of things here by Hugh Barnesby of 30th June, to the Queen and them, and referred the rest to his report, yet as this bearer Francis Edwards is going into England he would not omit the occasion. Arrived at Paris on the 7th inst. Is credibly informed that two hoys laden with artillery and munitions for ships of war appointed to go from Rouen to Newhaven were suddenly restrained on the 3rd inst.; and, the same being discharged out of the hoys, were with other munition taken out of Rouen, charged into a gabard, (fn. 10) and conveyed he cannot learn whither. The ten hulks stayed for the French King have been discharged, because their mariners would not serve. The most part of the mariners who wrought upon the French King's ships at Brest are returned to Dieppe, for that having brought their work to some towardness they perceived the keels of their ships to be rotten. The Admiral having consulted all the captains for the sea at Newhaven, received answer that the ships were not meet for any enterprise and the men were not willing. It is said that fourteen ships shall be made ready for the war, and among those such as the Marquis D'Elbœuf should have passed withal, which are not yet in order, notwithstanding the men on the coast are yet uncassed and 300 more are arrived. Is informed that the eight ensigns which came from Piedmont, to whom there was three months' pay due, are paid one, and so discharged.
2. On the last of June at night there was a new garboil at Rouen, and some men slain and hurt, for the particularities whereof he refers them to the bearer. Understands no certainty of the French galleys at Marseilles, notwithstanding it is said they are appointed to come about in the narrow seas, and as yet the Grand Prior is not returned. It is thought that, as about Dieppe the people and mariners are so evil satisfied that they dare not trust them, they will convey their ships hence. The bruits of the invalidity of their ships and discharging the hulks and the keeping the men of war undischarged upon the coast, not agreeing together, gives cause to doubt some practice to cause the Queen to disarm and be more inclined to such peace as they desire.
3. Is informed that Anthony, who belonged to M. De Candall, who was once committed to the Tower, is by some of his colleagues called into England to perfect those practices which he took in hand, supposed to be either for burning of ships at Portsmouth or the taking of a plat of some port; he has gone disguised and has shaven his beard. He is appointed, as soon as he shall have wrought anything, to give warning to certain captains of the sea for the doing some sudden exploit. He reports that if he had been put to the torture, he must have said something of himself and the Count Hannibal. Trusts that if he be met withal he may be used accordingly.
4. There is great practice used by the Guises for salving the sores between them and the Constable. The troubles increase, as they may see by the printed matters enclosed. The Duke of Savoy has redeemed his gentlemen taken at Nice out of the Turk's hand for 12,000 crowns; and the Turks arriving at Antibes and other ports of the French King received fresh water and victuals, whereof the Duke of Savoy by his Ambassador resident has complained, of which matter it may like them to inform the King of Spain's Ambassador. There is a bruit that Leith is taken by force, and great extremity shown to the French in passing them all by the sword. Begs to be informed whether it be true or not.
5. The French King is presently at Dampierre, seven leagues from Paris; it is thought he will be at Fontainebleau within eight or ten days. Marshal Brissac is come to the Court from Piedmont; since whose arrival at Paris there has been secret intelligence and sending between the Constable and him. Begs to be excused for not writing to the Queen.— Paris, 8 July 1560. Signed.
Orig. Portions in cipher, deciphered. Add. Endd. Pp. 4.
July 8.
Burgon's Life of Gresham, i. 355.
318. Gresham to Parry.
The bringer of this, Daniel Wolfstat, who made the offer for refining the base money, offers to put in securities in Antwerp or London for the performance of the same. Thinks that the refining the coinage will raise the exchange to 26s. 8d. at least.—Antwerp, 8 July 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. Pp. 2.
[July 8.]
Burgon's Life of Gresham, i. 356.
319. Daniel Volstat's Offer to Gresham.
Has commodity to refine every month 60,000 lbs. of the base money current in England of 3, 4, and 6 oz. fine in the 12 ozs. If the Queen would return such money into fine money of 11 oz. or thereabouts, they will bind themselves to make it also, and deliver weekly the sum of the silver received of her deputies, and to take only for their reward for every 12 oz. fine ¾ oz., and the copper that may be saved. As they will provide all the stuff belonging to the refining, they desire to be assured of the quantity of money to be delivered. Also they must have leave to take to Germany such silver as will remain in the copper after refining, which they will take in part payment of their reward; the rest to be paid every week or month in ready money. They will be content to send one of them into England to declare more at large of this matter. Bastien Solcher, who is with Sir John York, has commission of them to move this matter to the Council, but has not the provision, ability, or bullion to deliver as much. Offer to put in securities for the full doing of this enterprise.—Signed: Daniel Volstat and Co.
Pp. 2.
July 9.320. Cecil to the Queen. (fn. 11)
1. The sight of her most gracious letter written with her own blessed hand raised him up to such a height of comfort that after he perceived the sense thereof, his fall was greater into the deep dungeon of sorrow. Has however that opinion of comfort of her accustomed goodness towards him and of his own clearness of mind and soul to fulfil her contentations, that when it shall appear by their letters how they have proceeded, and when it shall be weighed how honourable and necessary this peace is, and how it could not be made any other way, she will not only allow their doings but think it good hap that they had not her letter before their conclusion. For in breaking off upon the matter of Calais the French Ambassadors would have departed, and the Duke of Norfolk entered; whereupon must within ten days have happened either the loss of the town, to the perpetual dishonour of the realm, or a winning of it by assault, to the effusion of a great deal of Christian blood, or a taking of it by composition; by any of which three ways war would still have remained, and then he sees not by what manner of means Calais would have been obtained, or this peace hereafter made.
2. As for the message brought by Tremayne, God forbid that she should enter into the bottomless pit of expense of her force and treasure, within the French King's own mainland, being a manner of war more dangerous to her than this of the French King in Scotland is to him; for the obedience there is due to his wife and cannot be lost, whilst in France she would have no more to further her but a devotion popular upon matters of religion, wherein the French King (rather than lose his country) would not stick to incline to his people's requests, and so her purposes there could not long last. He meant if the French had continued war to have advised her to entertain the matter of Brittany and Normandy, to have therewith annoyed the French King, but as to have kept any piece there, experience of Boulogne (being in sight of Dover) teaches what to do. And considering that neither is Portsmouth fortified, nor Berwick, most necessary of all other, finished, he thinks it strange to keep Brest or any other of those places longer than of necessity the French would maintain war, which being now ceased, and to her great honour, he thinks it a happy mishap that her letter came not before the conclusion.—9 July 1560.
Draft, in Cecil's hol. Endd. by him: 9 July 1560. Pp. 4.
July 9.321. Cecil and Wotton to the Queen.
1. Her letter of the 3rd instant arrived on the 9th. They are sorry that her pleasure was not with them the day before the letter was written, for on the second they fully concluded; and for so doing they had more causes to move expedition than is convenient to be uttered but to her and the Council, whereof part was not unknown to the Duke of Norfolk. Do not see how this demand of Calais could be anywise obtained, (wherein they have used all the earnestness they could after the receipt of her letter of June 24, by Binks,) both for lack of authority, and specially by the great likelihood gathered from the French Deputies' speech, that rather than the house of Guise would deliver Calais in this minority, they would suffer all the people of the town to perish. They also protested that they dare not enter into speech thereof for loss of their heads, and so she would have remained in war and been never the nearer to have had Calais.
(fn. 12) 2. Prays God to bless her with the fruits of peace, and if they may be so bold to write, with the fruit of her womb.—Edinburgh, 9 July 1560. Signed.
Orig., with armorial seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 2.
July 9.322. Draft of the above.
In Cecil's hol. and endd. by his secretary. Pp. 2.
July 9.323. Cecil to Throckmorton.
Sum of the accord made between the Queen's Commissioners and the French.
1. A reconciliation made, and the treaty of Cambray reduced to its former strength.
2. All men of war to be removed, saving sixty in Inchkeith, and sixty in Dunbar, whose new fortifications shall be demolished before the Queen's army depart from Scotland. (fn. 13)
3. Cecil (fn. 14) forwards the above through the Court, according to his promise in his letter of the 8th by Lignolles. They have much ado to preserve the French here from the fury of the vulgar Scots; the Ambassadors are not without fear, so the English are driven to give them a guard. The matter of religion proceeds here, and has taken a faster root than in England. The league between the Queen and these men remains untouched.—Edinburgh, 9 July 1560. Signed.
Orig. with armorial seal, partly in Cecil's hand. Add. Endd. Pp. 4.
July 10.324. The Privy Council to Cecil and Wotton.
Understand by letters written from Cecil to the Lord Admiral, that the opinion of Winter is that the navy under his charge should, at their coming from Scotland, repair to the Thames, to the intent they might at Gillingham, or some other fit place, be grounded and new trimmed. It is thought meet to be otherwise ordered by the advice and counsel of the best and most expert officers of the Admiralty; and therefore they pray Cecil and Wotton to communicate this matter to the Duke of Norfolk, unto whom they have written herein, that between them they may give order unto Winter to repair with the navy towards Portsmouth, and in his way to waft such merchant ships and other small vessels as shall have the conduction of the French soldiers out of Scotland to France; foreseeing that none of the Queen's ships, nor the Minion, nor Primrose, enter any haven in France, and that none of the said ships pass any farther along the coast of France than Portsmouth, and there abide the Queen's pleasure. And whereas Winter alleges that the Queen's ships stand in such case that they must of necessity be grounded, and supposes it cannot be so well done in any other place as at Gillingham, or some such place in the Thames, the best masters in the Queen's navy are of a contrary opinion, and think there is no ship of the Queen's in Scotland (the Philip and Mary pted) but may as well be grounded in Portsmouth water as in any other place; for which and other respects it is thought meet that they should be brought to Portsmouth.—Greenwich, 10 July 1560. Signed: Pembroke, E. Clynton, W. Howard, F. Knollys, Tho. Parry, William Petre.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 3.
July 10.325. Norfolk to Cecil.
1. Master Carew is arrived and goes presently Londonwards. Berkeley has written requiring the Duke's aid for his delivery; there is no way to help him but with the exchange of Seatone; they say he is but a third brother, and has been taken before, and then did not pay above 300 crowns for his ransom. Berkeley offers 500. There is no man able to do anything with Lord Grey but Cecil herein.
2. The Queen writes to him to place Lord Wharton here, if he should have entered, whom he warned for that office. Asks Cecil what the writer had best advise Wharton unto, and into whose charge he [Norfolk] shall commit the town, as he minds to return to Newcastle as soon as he conveniently may. All the new bands are almost discharged, and a great many gone.—Berwick, 10 July 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. by Railton. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 2.
July 10.326. Peace between England and Scotland.
"These are the heads and articles necessary for the entertainment and continuance of the peace betwixt the realms of Scotland and England."
1. To cause reformation and redress of all attemptates committed since the last peace on either side.
2. That the true men of either realm be allowed to pass freely in the other, but that thieves be compelled to raise safe conducts.
3. Stealing, reif, slaughter and other enormous attempts, to be punished as felony, as if it were done in the realm where the doer dwells.
4. If either realm reset any offender of the other, the same realm and the Warden thereof may be caused to make redress for the offence.
Copy in a Scottish hand. Endd. by Cecil: 10 July 1560. Mr. Maxwell, for order upon the borders. Pp. 2.

Footnotes

1 Another copy occurs in B. M. Calig. B. ix. 126, which supplies two articles omitted in the present document.
2 The French Ambassadors to the Queen Mother of France.
July 9.
MS. Paris. L. Paris, p. 423. Teulet, 1. 605.
1. They have been sent here to negociate a peace while they were not ready for war, and the enemy were so far advanced with their preparations that they promised themselves an easy victory by the 15th inst., which the French were unable to resist. She may hence understand the difficulty of the position in which the writers find themselves, and under what disadvantages they are conducting the negociation. Moreover, the life of the writers is in the hands of the English, and they are 300 leagues from the point at which they could expect advice. They find themselves reduced to this extremity, that of necessity they must either come to peace of some sort or other, or see 4,000 men perish before their eyes, and witness the loss of a realm which could never be recovered without the desolation of that of France.
2. Under these circumstances they have been obliged to make the best terms they could, which, however differently they may be interpreted by others, will receive, they trust, her approbation.—Edinburgh, 9 July 1560.
Fr.
3 The Cottonian copy adds the following Articles :—
16. No other artillery shall be transported out of Scotland than what was sent thither since the death of King Francis.
17. Some persons of quality shall be chosen to repair to the King and Queen, and remonstrate to them concerning religion and other matters in which the Lords Deputies cannot meddle.
4 See B. M. Cal. B. x. 98. Lansd. 141. Nos. 29, 30.
5 The copy in the Fœdera is dated at Chenonceau. 2 May.
6 Cecil and Wotton to the Queen.
July 6.
Haynes, p. 351.
1. After their last letters of 2nd inst., they received l er letters of the 28th ult., brought hither the 3rd inst. in the morning; the contents whereof tending to the liberty of Scotland are so well provided for that she shall be fully satisfied. They had attempted the same manner of proceeding as she understands by their long letter of the 1st inst.
2. They have obtained for her cause an honourable end, compelling the French to acknowledge her right, which they were very hardly brought to do, in open treaty. The writers think they would not have agreed thereto unless the English had borne them in hand, not only that they would break upon that point, but also the world would see manifestly their injurious purposes, which in words they had excused and covered. In the end it was obtained, to their grief and the contentation of the writers.
3. For the surety and liberty of Scotland they have obtained all things requisite, so as the nobility here acknowledge the realm more bound to the Queen than to their Sovereign. In getting of things they have so tempered the matter of granting thereof, that the French King and Queen's honour is as much considered as may be, whereunto the French Ambassadors will confess that the writers were no small helpers, and thank them more for the same than their master's subjects. This country shall be governed by a Council of itself of twelve, who shall be taken out of the twenty-four to be first named in Parliament by the Three Estates; and of the twelve, seven shall be named by the Queen, and five by the Lords of Parliament.
4. All things past since March 1558 shall be forgotten, and be confirmed by Parliament; every man restored to his office in the realm; no Frenchman to have any office within the realm. Only twenty-six soldiers shall remain, that is, twenty-three in Dunbar, and twenty-three in Inchkeith [sic]; those to be mustered monthly and paid by the Council, and justified by the laws of Scotland. No munition nor victual shall be brought into Scotland but from six months to six months, only for these two places, and the numbers of six score. It seems probable that the fort in the Isle shall be demolished, and the charges saved. Also for saving of charges they think Dunbar shall be put in the Scots' hands. They think the French will attempt hereafter by money to make a division here rather than by force, whereof the nobility would (if it were not too suspicious), make an accord in Parliament, that whosoever takes a pension of France shall be accounted enemies to their country. This is the present humour, but a potion of French crowns may alter this.
5. Amongst other things for their surety they have compacted in the Queen's treaty, that no ships come into Scotland with men of war or munition; that the French shall accomplish all their grants to the Scots; which, if they do, the Queen shall have long quietness with Scotland. It has been the most difficult matter in their treaty to obtain a covenant that the French King and Queen will perform their prom ses to their subjects, for therein they say their honour is more touched than in anything else. Next, the Scots shall thereby owe all favours they receive from their King and Queen to her, though they may not say so to the French. To make a cover for this, these Ambassadors were forced by them to take a few good words in a preface to the same article, "and we, content with the kernel, yielded to them the shell to play withal." Many other things are accorded to the Scots, which shall touch the French in honour and redound to the liberty of the country. Two things have been too hot for the French to meddle with, they therefore are passed over. The first is the matter of religion, which is here as freely and more earnestly received than in England. The second is, the accord betwixt the Queen and Scotland, which remains in the same state it was; and it being motioned by the French Ambassadors to have it dissolved, the Scots would not. These two things will much offend the French; if the said treaty should not remain in force, the special points tending to keep Frenchmen out of Scotland are well and assuredly provided for.
6. Yesterday the accord betwixt France and Scotland was protracted till night and at last concluded, and was put in writing this forenoon. The English treaty was ready yesterday on both parts to signing and sealing, and stayed till this day, for they would have all done at one instant. The Articles for the demolition of Leith and removing of the French were yesternight signed, sealed, and delivered, but they shall not be put into execution until the treaty is signed this day. If the writers so conclude they will endeavour to hasten the matter to the dissolving of the army. Cecil has had some care hereof, and has taken order both upon sea and land for the furtherance thereof.
7. After writing this forenoon, they have on all parts signed, sealed, and delivered the treaty that is betwixt them and the French, and betwixt the French and Scots; so they have gone as far as writing can go towards peace. They mean to proclaim it this afternoon, after a little ceremony done to understand the contentation of the town, as though the peace were not concluded, for respect of their two Commissioners; lest the Councillors of the town should upon bravery allege they had no need of this peace, which, if they perceived peace concluded without them, they would do.—From the camp before Leith, 6 July 1560. Signed.
Orig.
7 This clause is marked as if for omission, and it does not occur in the copy printed by Stowe.
8 The original letter is extant at Hatfield House.
9 In the original the names of the Lord James and Mr. Maxwell are included in the number of those who are pensioners to France.
10 Gabarre,—A lighter; the boat whereby ships are loaden or unloaden.— Cotgrave.
11 The Queen to Cecil and Wotton.
July 3.
Haynes p. 342.
1. By her letters of the 24th ult., she signified her pleasure for their proceeding with the French Commissioners in demand for a recompence to her by the French for usurpation of her arms and title. Since that time she is informed that, by standing fast to it now, she can obtain very large recompence, and at this time they would not deny her any which she would require. She lets them know her pleasure therein.
2. If they have concluded with the French Commissioners before receipt of these letters they should not vary in any point agreed unto by them according to her former instructions, but finish all things accordingly. But if they have not concluded, they shall earnestly stick to their former demand to have 500,000 crowns and Calais with the Marches restored to her for recompence for the injuries offered by using her arms and title. These demands she requires them to press by all means, showing the French that without this agreement they must and will break off. If the French will not agree to this demand, she prays them spare to make the offer for the order of the said recompence to the King of Spain; entertaining, nevertheless, this treaty with the French Commissioners, until they advertise her of their doings in this point and thereupon shall have received her resolute answer.
3. She has seen a note of the articles agreed upon between the Lords of Scotland and the French Commissioners, which for the most part she likes very well; but she cannot hide from them that she cannot but mislike the Scottish Lords' desire to have still their entertainments and livings in France, which may cause them for fear of losing those livings to depend more upon the French than shall be good for conservation of the League. Cecil knows her old saying, "Nemo potest servire Deo et Mammonœ." She would be glad of their increase of honour and livings by any means from their Queen, yet she would be sorry if the said Lords should bind themselves to the French, or draw them to forget their promise to her, and surety of their country.—Greenwich, 3 July 2 Eliz.
4. P.S.—Since the writing hereof, the French Ambassador has this afternoon been with her, and demanded passport for a gentleman called Le Sieur De Bueill, who was lately sent from the French Commissioners into France, and returns back again. She, supposing that his sending into France had been to bring some resolution touching the recompence for bearing her arms and using her titles, expected to have heard somewhat of that matter by the Ambassador at this time, but cannot perceive this man had any such thing in charge.
5. She sees the Scots are liberally considered in their demands, and almost nothing refused they asked, but the demands that touch her so near are not so weighed by the French, nor brought to any terms of indifferent recompence. Cecil and Wotton can show them that they looked (and specially by this gentleman), to have had some more reasonable answer touching this recompence than they have made.
Add. Orig.
12 This paragraph is an addition in Cecil's own hand. It does not occur in the draft mentioned in the next number.
13 Cecil then proceeds as in the joint letter of himself and Wotton to the Queen, July 8, No. 315.
14 From this point the letter is in Cecil's hand.