Elizabeth
May 1562, 11-20

Sponsor

Institute of Historical Research

Publication

Author

Joseph Stevenson (editor)

Year published

1867

Pages

26-42

Annotate

Comment on this article
Double click anywhere on the text to add an annotation in-line

Citation Show another format:

'Elizabeth: May 1562, 11-20', Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 5: 1562 (1867), pp. 26-42. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=71911 Date accessed: 23 August 2014.


Highlight

(Min 3 characters)

May 1562, 11-20

May 11.
Challoner to the Queen.
46. Challoner to the Queen.
1. The cause of his not writing for so long a time has been for want of means of despatching the letters into England. At first the winter's stillness gave small matters of importance to trouble her with, yet he has not omitted to inform her and Cecil of occurrences here.
2. Through the broils in France, the ears and minds of this King and Council are occupied in expectation of the sequel. For a long time here was little speech than the King's journey to Aragon, and of his 150 galleys. To the first, like one unwilling he makes the smaller haste, intending to depart from hence next June, and would gladly put it off for this year if it had not been for so many years declared, and now so much set forward with the States of Aragon, that it cannot be well intermitted now. To the second he has so well wrought at the Pope's hands towards the payment of the galleys, that he shall levy yearly 1,200,000 ducats, yet it will be a long time ere such a number of galleys be either assembled or furnished. He earnestly intends the same, so as to be able to defend his own by sea against the Turks, and to invade the coast of Barbary and the Moors, whose force upon the seas increases daily to the damage and fear of Spain. They of Algiers can arm a hundred galleys and foists. He also endeavours to rid the heavy "clagge" of his debts, and to augment his revenues. Lately the writer procured of sundry Italians and Spaniards certain notes of the ordinary and extraordinary revenues levied by the King in his kingdoms and provinces, of which he sends a copy to the Queen; whereby she may make an estimate of his forces, the state of his finances now, and what they will be hereafter, his debts and deductions being once redeemed, which he studies daily to bring about.
3. Upon letters sent hither concerning the tumults in France, as well from M. De Chantonet, the King's Ambassador, as from the rest that cling to the faction of Guise, the Privy Council here has sat for four or five days in long consultations. There was suspicion that these bands raised in France might set upon Navarre or Flanders; for surety whereof the King has sent reinforcements to Fuenterabia and Pampeluna. He repents withdrawing the Spanish garrisons in Flanders, which if they were there again would not so soon be dismissed at the request of those States, considering the demeanour of the people about establishing the new Bishops, which makes the King here careful about it, seeing the Regent and Cardinal Granvele have lately so protested by their letters to the King of the people's humour, joining thereto the dissensions between certain of the nobles there, and the Cardinal, whose authority they bear disdainfully. He sends herewith an extract from a Spanish letter written lately from Brussels, as concerning these matters. On the other part, reputing who are the heads of both factions, the less is feared touching invasion of the King's places, and rather it is considered how the Guisians may be assisted to defeat the others. The King has already offered aid in case of need. They make certain that the Guisians shall prevail, the same as the Cardinal of Ferrara wrote by his late letters to the Duke's Ambassador here, as he told the writer. For cause of those consultations or for other respects, the King this year pretermits on St. George's Day the keeping of the solemnity of the Queen's Order, departing on the vigil to his house called Pardo intending to have gone to Alcala, where his son lieth ill from his hurt. "The case was strange; for on Sunday the 19th ult. the Prince, by occasion of play (others of them secretly saying in hasty following of a wench, daughter to the keeper of the house) (fn. 1) making overmuch haste fell down a pair of stairs, broke his head, had two fits of an ague, which forced his physicians twice to let him blood, and for fear of apostumation to make a larger incision for search, lest the scalp should be crazed. But now he is deemed quit of that danger, like as also of his quartan. Howbeit, the natural imbecility of the Prince (being of such a 'sprewlish' body,) and thereto the tokens that he giveth by the manner of his curious questioning and solemness causeth the father (as I understand from some wise men) to conceive small hope of him, partly fearing lest hereafter he should somewhat take after the humours of the Emperor's mother. (fn. 2) So, whether this be so or not, the King is content to use some piece of the Prince's sickly constitution to another purpose."
4. The writer has learned, and yesterday the French Ambassador told him (by information of letters from the French Ambassador with the Emperor) that ere long two of Maximilian's sons, Rodolph and Ernest, with his second daughter, will be sent hither to be brought up with the Prince. This King persuades with the Emperor of the constitution of the Prince of Spain, who if he should die without other issue of either of their bodies, the succession would devolve to the branch of Maximilian. In such an event, the King would be glad to have the German manner of Maximilian's sons a little trained to know and be known of the Spaniards. The King will work to couple the daughter with King Sebastian of Portugal, with further hope that at the Prince's repair into Flanders to reside there as Regent, a like marriage shall be concluded between him and the eldest sister. That is the outward bark of the proposition, in the pith is a meaning of this King's by pawning those children to be assured of Maximilian's drift, in case the ticklish heads in the Low Countries would offer him any fair play. Either the King or the Prince must next year repair thither, so without this large assurance of good forbearing it is deemed the Prince shall not yet be sent hence. The Emperor gives credit to this motion, being lately much decayed he applies to set an establishment in his things. Lately he was bruised from a fall from his horse whilst hunting. He has also had two victories over the Turks and the Vaivoda.
5. There is great hope that Maximilian, at the assembly of Electors to be held this month, shall be elected King of the Romans. If he accepts the same with the conditions the Electors annex (belike it should concern the affairs of religion) he is (saith the Spaniards) "una gran bestia." The Turk has been dead and revived here three or four times.
6. The Council at Trent (where upwards of 140 Bishops are assembled) hopes that the Protestants of the Augustan Confession will send their doctors thither, as the Emperor has offered to travail to induce them. The Council has granted a safe-conduct to all Protestants.
7. The Duke of Florence's son has been expected here some time. The Duke is about to create an order of religious knights, to be called Cavalieri dell' Ordine di Santo Stephano, who will wear a cross like St. John's, except that the colour will be red. There is a difference betwixt him and the Duke of Ferrara concerning precedence. The Emperor (to whom they referred it) has referred the same to the Princes of Germany. The Moors of Barbary have besieged two fortresses belonging to the King of Portugal, one called Tangiers the other called Mazagran, towards Fiesse [Fez ?].
8. "Having written thus far I further understood that yesterday from Alcala, where the Prince lieth, came word in post to the King that the Prince the night before had sustained an evil fit of an ague, with much pain in his head. The news maketh all this Court heavy, fearing lest the hurt in his head (which was counted past all danger) doth now aposthume inwards; which if it so fall out, your Highness may judge must needs be most perilous. Yesterday was nought but posting of Lords and gentlemen to Alcala. This morning ere daylight the King himself in a coach rode post thither, and the greatest of his Lords and Council followed. I conjecture the danger to be great. Generally the air of Spain is evil for hurts on the head, and Alcala peculiarly noted for one of the worst places. It may be that for some incision to be made to search the hurt to the bottom, the medicins require the assistance of the King's presence. For brief, all folks here are pensive, and good cause why, for toil of importance to them that this chance may consequently draw. Much time will not pass before the one or the other be fully known."— Madrid, 1 May 1562.
9. P. S.—Has detained this letter. "As I wrote, the surgeons in his father's presence on Monday last made larger incision of the hurt place; the King brought Dr. Vesalius (not unknown for his excellent skill) from Madrid with him, whose better learning the Spanish medicins make not account of according to his worthiness, quia figulus odit figulum." "So he came post festum, when the other bunglers not searching the hurt deeply had promised all good hope to the King, and made untimely haste to the healing up of the incision, whereby the bone putrified, as at the second incision in the King's presence appeared, (having discovered so much of the scalp as by a patron thereof here inclosed may appear,) (fn. 3) but yet the hope all that day and the next was great of his recovery. The 3rd hereof the Prince waxed worse, and had that night a sore fit of an ague with a vehement flux, so as on Monday last in the morning (fn. 4) when the surgeons came to dress him, they found his wound in very ill terms, promising great likelihood of his death. The said Monday in the afternoon he was in great pangs and peril, abandoned of all persons as drawing to his end. The King himself was riding away, and sent to prepare his lodging in the monastery of Saint Jeronimo, besides this town. But after the news had been given out here a two hours, the 5th hereof in the morning, that he was dead, so far forth as diverse noblemen wrote from Alcala to provide their mourning apparel, the Prince came again to himself and that morning amended, to the great joy of his father and all this Court. (fn. 5) For though the appearance of the Prince's manners and disposition seemed to denote him to be of a sullen, (fn. 6) cruel mode, much misliked and feared, yet considering he is (fn. 7) the only legitimate son of his father, it maketh them now to tender his loss the more. Yesterday was solemn processions of all sorts of religious for the Prince's health. No certainty can as yet be pronounced of his escape. If he pass the twenty-first day from his first hurt, less is to be feared. As much of the scalp bone as is discovered by the incision will scale away. "It will axe above six weeks space to heal him thoroughly. His hurt is upon the top of his noddle sideways as he slid down the stairs. The King will not depart from him till he be better or worse."—6 May 1562.
10. Now the report goes that the Prince of Condé and the adverse part draw to terms of composition. The siege of Carthagena is no more spoken of.—11 May 1562.
Hol. Draft, with many alterations. Endd. by Challoner: M. to the Queen, 11 May 1562, Monday, late at night, sent by Henry King. Pp. 30.
11. Second P.S.—Has prorogued the despatch of this letter. (fn. 8)
12. (fn. 9) On the 5th and 6th inst. there was some hope of the Princes' amendment. Next day, being Ascension Day, because his face began to swell, his doctors gave him an easy purgation, which wrought upon him fourteen times, overmuch by the half in his constitution to bear it out. The same afternoon the swelling increased, with small fiery pimples called "erisipilæ," which redoubled the doubts of the doctors and heaviness of the King. On Friday the 8th inst. his state impaired, the wound of his head waxing dry. This Saturday the swelling so increased that his eyes were closed up, so that when the King came to visit him he was obliged to lift up his eyelids. The tokens aforesaid, with other notes (as voiding of blood and matter at the ears and nose) signify some "asposthemacion." It might be said that turba rixantium medicorum periit, were not so much as charmers and other empyrical professors, having fame of skill by oils or waters, were left unproved. On Saturday night the King, leaving the Prince for desperate, departed from Alcala, and has come to the monastery hereby of St. Jeronimo, intending (if the Prince dies) to remove to some other more retired. On Sunday morning another post arrived from Alcala with news that after the King's departing the Prince slept for three hours and was somewhat amended, having eaten some meat, so there is hopes again.
13. (fn. 10) Yesterday, being the twenty-first day from the time of the accident, and pronounced by the physicians to be the most dangerous, he not only slept and took sustenance but also the other evil tokens of the wound waxed less. This Monday good report of his amendment was brought by two or three couriers to the King. Twice during twenty-one days he has been on the pit's brink, abandoned of all folks and left for dead, so what may fall forth touching his total recovery or otherwise is doubtful. Will inform the Queen by his next of the success of the rest.
14. On Saturday last M. De Rambouillet came hither in post from the French King, with pretence of visitation.
15. The Ambassadors here have news that the Queen arms to aid the Prince of Condé and his league. He has been asked that question by some and has answered that he has no such information, having indeed small news of affairs at home.
Orig. Draft, chiefly in Challoner's hol. Pp. 4.
May 11.47. The Earl of Rutland to Cecil.
1. Unwillingly complains of the following matter. Complaint having been made to this Council by John Graisbrok against George Palmes for the occupation of the parsonage of Easington, the Court ordered that possession be had of the same with the former lease, made by Archbishop Hethe, and confirmed by the Dean and Chapter, which this Court thought both lawful and reasonable. Nevertheless the Archbishop of York is much offended thereat, and has sent the writer a letter, the like of which he never before received. If the Archbishop makes no advertisement thereof, the writer begs that Cecil will keep this affair to himself.
2. Thanks Cecil for his letters of the 3rd inst., with news from France.—York, 11 May 1562. Signed.
Orig., with armorial seal. Add. Endd. Pp. 3.
May 11.48. Order of the Court.
"The order of the proceedings in the matter between John Graisbrook and George Palmes," respecting the parsonage of Easington.
Copy, signed by Rutland. Endd. Pp. 2.
May 11.49. Randolph to Cecil.
1. Since Cecil looks that St. Colme is come for a full resolution of the Queen's mind touching the interview, the writer sends this letter enclosed, by which he may judge what is like to be, the self same being signified unto him [Randolph] from this Queen by a gentleman of her own.
2. The Queen these eight days past, riding between Falkland and Loch Leven, her horse fell with her, and hurt her arm very sore, and somewhat the right side of her face, for which cause she remained there ever since, but purposes to be in this town on Tuesday or Wednesday, against which time the noblemen are commanded to be here to take full resolution of all things behoveful for this voyage. The King of Sweden's Ambassador upon Saturday was convoyed by the Provost and many merchants from Leith to this town. There arrived seven days past a Frenchman, the same who was in England; it is thought that he will remain here, and the Duke will depart. This man has brought another coin, suspected to be baser than the first that came abroad. The prisoners remain in the castle, but Mr. Gavin Hamilton will be sent to Inchkeith and Bothwell to Dumbarton; Arran to remain where he is.—Edinburgh, 11 May 1562. Signed.
Orig. Hol., with seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
May 11.50. Cecil to Sir Francis Englefield. (fn. 11)
Is sorry that he could not prolong his stay. He may return without peril, but if he shall otherwise determine he will find lack. Writes plainly and friendly.—Westminster, 11 May 1562.
Copy by Peyto.
May 11.51. — to Throckmorton.
1. Has learnt from a Portuguese of their religion, who resides in Rouen, that some days past a Portuguese nobleman has left the Court of France for England, to desire the Queen to revoke the expedition which is to go to the coast of Guinea. He also means, with the assistance of another nobleman (who has long had intelligence in England), to cause the Papists to revolt against the Queen and the true religion. Begs that he will inform the Queen of these things, in order that neither of them may come to effect. A rebellion of the Papists would be very dangerous, as there are those on this side who would assist them by landing 10,000 men.—Rouen, 11 May.
2. P. S.—Desires him to give to the bearer a certificate of the receipt of this letter, and that he will burn it.
Copy. Endd.: The copy of a letter sent unto me by a Frenchman dwelling at Rouen. Fr. Pp. 2.
May 12.52. Challoner to Cecil.
1. There is great fault in the persons about the Prince of Spain when he fell, and also in the negligent cure by his surgeons, who are to blame for beginning to heal the wound, it not having been searched to the bottom, whereupon this dangerous cure; afterwards accompted past cure by all his troop of physicians jarring amongst themselves, which has hindered him the more, so if he escapes this accident, and falling down stairs (having been left twice for dead), it will be by men here accompted a miracle, and imputed to some saint. Here have been solemn processions of all religious orders, with images of our Lady and saints borne about; and amongst the rest an image of our Lady pertaining to a monastery of Black Friars, hereby accounted of great virtues for miracles, which, after the procession done, was left all night for more devotion in the palace chapel. "At Alcala, sheperds and Moors, which heal with oils, with clouts wetted in water, and with charms, have been admitted to the Prince's cure. Relics applicated to his wound, and, lastly, the corpse of a dead friar, now for his miracles accounted a saint, named Fray Diego De Alcala, was brought to the Prince and laid all night in bed by him; which friar that died many years since, as now I hear told, is counted a great miracle."
2. The bearer can declare the manner of the flagellants which went in procession six days since. The worst symptoms have passed away, and the physicians pronounce that there is good hope. Attributes it to the change in the weather since May began. It is so cold that the writer is obliged to lay as many clothes upon his bed as if it was midwinter. It has rained here excessively. The bearer can inform Cecil of the dearth of things here, and of his state.— Madrid, Tuesday, 12 May 1562.
3. P. S.—If he does not have money from home the sooner, it will be a miracle for him to hold out in this dear country. He prays Cecil to take upon him to play the saint for him.
Copy. Endd. by Challoner. Pp. 3.
May 13.53. N. Stopio to Sir John Mason.
Wrote last on the 8th, and now sends the accompanying news. There was a Congregation on the 14th. The Ambassador Lansac has requested a prolongation of the next session. The Marquis of Pescara has returned to Milan, whence he will again go back to Trent. Hopes to hear from Mason.—Venice, 13 May 1562. Signed.
Orig. Hol., with seal. Add.: To Mason in London. Ital Pp. 2.
May 14.54. The Council of the North to the Queen.
Have kept one sitting here for the hearing of causes between her subjects, and have heard many matters. They have also kept a Session of Oyer and Determiner, and gaol delivery, whereat nine persons were attainted for felonies; six of them are executed, two were delivered by their clergy to the Bishop's prison, and one of them having disclosed many other offenders is reprieved. Her subjects in these parts are quiet and obedient.—York, 14 May 1562. Signed: H. Rutland, Thomas Gargrave, William Vavasour, George Brown, Nicolas Fairfax, Christopher Estofte, Francis Frobysher.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
May 14.55. The Earl of Rutland to Cecil.
1. The Council after their sitting here, depart, and "upon Saturday come senight, we all do meet here again for the matter between the Earl of Northumberland and the Lord Grey. And the Monday after will many gentlemen be here at a shooting, appointed between my Lord of Northumberland and me for our dinners two days together; and of either part are twenty-six gentlemen."
2. Asks that this Council may be licensed to stay in these parts at this present, nothing requiring them to attend the Wardens on the north frontiers.—York, 14 May 1562. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. Pp. 2.
May 14.56. The Earl of Rutland to Cecil.
1. Advertises him by Mr. Estofte that this country is quiet; albeit he finds in it such disposition to the contrary, that the terrors of law must be kept continually before their eyes, and examples of sharp correction now and then used amongst them. Has punished the routs and such other great misdemeanors, and is now entering into the execution of certain penal Statutes, of which the bearer can inform him. As some of the Council here doubt whether their commission of Oyer and Determiner is ample enough in that behalf, sends a copy thereof by the bearer, that it may be augmented as Cecil thinks necessary. Begs that he will signify him upon what Statutes he should proceed.
2. Asks him to give credit to the bearer's declaration of the motives which led the writer to act leniently towards Sir Richard Cholmeley, and other Yorkshire gentlemen, when they came before him, and also touching the state of this country.—York, 14 May 1562. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
May 14.57. The King of Navarre to the Queen.
Has received with great pleasure the letter which she sent by Sidney, and thanks her for her good-will towards the King. —Paris, 14 May 1562. Signed: Antoine,—Berzian.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Fr. Broadside.
May 14.58. Challoner to Cecil.
1. Would gladly have sent this packet by the Ordinary of Flanders if he thought the conveyance safe in this King's subject's hands in this time of tumults passing through France, seeing some have been stopped; or that any ordinary courier for Flanders had passed hence since the 19th ult. In the meantime he thought it not meet to let rumours from France or Flanders detain the Queen from hearing of him, he therefore despatched Henry King, the bearer, with this packet. Post horses about the Court being so tired since the Prince's accident, he willed King to ride on hackney "moyles" [mules] to Bayonne, and then to take post, and receive Throckmorton's packet. Has delivered to him in prest twenty-five pounds.
2. The Prince yesterday had a bad fit of ague. The surgeons dislike that the wound is so dry. "Adhuc sub judice lis est," though openly men say he is past danger. Asks for Cecil's monthly letters.—Madrid, 14 May 1562.
Draft, in Challoner's hol. and endd. by him: By H. King. Pp. 4.
May 14.59. Margaret, Countess of Lennox, to Cecil.
Desires some comfort of her husband's liberty, either to be clearly out of the Tower, or at least to have some more liberty within it. Begs the Queen will consider their long time of trouble since Christmas. Cecil has sent her word by Fowler that the Earl stood to the denial of all things laid to his charge.—Shene, 14 May 1562. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
May 16.60. Cuerton to Challoner.
Five days ago he received a fardel of cloth from London for him. Sent him a bill for 300 ducats payable in Madrid. Wishes that Challoner had some of his beer, for it is "nape." —Bilboa, 16 May 1562. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Challoner: Removed, 29 of the same, 1562. Pp. 2.
May 17.61. Sir Henry Percy to Cecil.
1. Received his letter and will readily follow his counsel therein. There is no unkindness between Lord Grey and himself, except that the writer's office of Norham lies commodiously for his Lordship. If the Queen will recompense him for it, he will depart from it. While Grey made this information against the writer he wrote most gently to him, requesting him to go to Berwick to make merry with him.
2. Has thought of Robert Tyndall's remedy, which is to conquer a man's enemy with patience. Thanks for news, also for having in his letters remembered his poor wife; she requests that he will give him thanks for the same, and commendations to his wife, in which he also unites.—Tynemouth Castle, 17 May 1562.
3. His (fn. 12) sister-in-law stands as heretofore, and shall, until Cecil has made a clear refusal, so that it be for the writer's cousin, Cecil's son, but if it be any other, the writer's promise is not to be burdened. Will speak more in her behalf than any woman, the like of her being rarely found. Asks that he may have some watchwords of his meaning, that he may work thereafter, as he [the writer] has written, there being some who travail earnestly for her. "I would be glad to be allied with you; wise men let not matters slip." She is of years ripe. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
May 17.62. The Bishop of Aquila to Cecil.
Hears that one of his master's subjects has been condemned to death by Justice Cattlyn for mortally wounding a man in his own defence, although by the depositions of the surgeons and others the wound was not the cause of death. Begs for a short respite, in order that the circumstances of the case may be gone into again.—Whitsunday. Signed.
Orig., with armorial seal. Lat. Pp. 2.
May 17.63. Thomas Cecil to Sir William Cecil.
His letters have grieved him very much, as he understands by them that he is angry with him, having been informed that he passes all his time in pursuing the vanities of love. Is much vexed that he listens to things which are so greatly to his disadvantage, and often more so than the reality. Cannot excuse himself in every point; but as he is young, so is he subject in a certain degree to the affections which govern youth. Will not trouble him further, lest he should think that he attempts to disguise the matter by using many words. Begs his blessing, and promises in future to show himself obedient.—Paris, 17 May 1562. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Fr. Pp. 2.
May 17.64. Windebank to Cecil.
As Cecil minds that Mr. Thomas should rather continue here than remove homewards or to Flanders, Throckmorton and the writer have concluded that they should remove to the place where they lay last summer, seven leagues out of Paris, called Dammart. They have yet 300 crowns clear, this month being paid. Mr. Thomas's man has been sick these eight days, so that they cannot put him away yet.— Paris, 17 May 1562. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 2.
May 17.65. Draft of the above.
Orig. Hol. P. 1.
May 18.66. Throckmorton to Lord Robert Dudley.
Has received his letters of the 2nd and 8th inst., wherein he makes demonstration of his conceit towards Throckmorton for his doings, past and present. To fall to terms of justification would lead him to speak upon matters he would be loath to touch. Some griefs are better cured without handling. Asks him to value his behaviour according to his doings towards him in time to come, and according to his duty performed to the Queen. Has forborne to send his and the Queen's letters to the Prince of Condé for necessary respects, which the Lord President will declare, whose behaviour in this negociation he much commends. Begs him to forward his cousin Middlemore's suit to be taken into the Queen's service, he being meet to be placed here in charge with Sir T. Smith.—Paris, 18 May 1562.
Draft. Endd. by Throckmorton's son. Pp. 2.
May 18.67. Throckmorton to Cecil.
1. Refers the Queen to the President's report of the negociations, and sends Cecil a note of the occurrences. Outrages are committed daily by the people of both factions. He could wish that these men would drive the Protestants to such case at length, as that M. De Maligny could admit them into the fort of Newhaven, which, if the English had in their hands, he is sure the French would gladly restore Calais to have it again.
2. Has told his fancies to the Lord President (the bearer) in a matter whereof Cecil may consider, and wherein he thinks Mr. Harry Killigrew may be employed. It would not be amiss if Cecil stays until he hears again from him of what the matter in Newhaven doth stand.
3. Concerning the bills of credit for 5,000 crowns (which he has received by Sir Thomas Gresham's order), he has written to Gresham to conclude with the bankers there that the same may be taken. Praises Sidney's sufficiency and ability. Renews his suit for the Queen's acceptation of his cousin, Harry Middlemore, for her service. Desires that he may be placed here under Sir Thomas Smithe.
4. Desires Cecil to show the two books lately set forth to the Queen, whereby she may be informed of the particularities here.—Paris, 18 May 1562. Signed.
Orig., a few portions in cipher, deciphered by Cecil. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
May 18.68. The State of Affairs in France.
"A memorial of the state of this realm, and the occurrences thereof, since our last despatch of 8 May 1562."
Matters tending to the Favour of the Prince.
1. Grenoble in Dauphiné is taken by the Protestants for the Prince of Condé, who have chased from thence M. De Maugeron, who has been Governor there under M. De Guise, since the death of La Mothe Gondrin, and have razed his house. They have also taken Maçon, Chalons, and other towns.
2. M. Durasse (a Gascon gentlemen), Governor to the Prince of Navarre, approaches near Orleans with 4,000 Gascons, well armed, for the Prince. The Baron De Adrets and M. Mombron come from Lyons with fifteen ensigns, to serve the Prince, whose horsemen and footmen increase daily.
3. The King of Navarre's subjects in Bearne, Gascony, and Guienne refuse to pay his revenue, saying they were persuaded by him to profess the religion they now follow, and that they cannot change their conscience so soon as he does; and that they will pay their rents to the Queen of Navarre.
4. M. De Grammont remains by the Prince's order in his country, to impeach the entry of the Spaniards into France, to whom the Viscount Dorte, Captain of Bayonne, is devoted.
5. On the 13th inst. the principal men of Rouen repaired to the Court, and desired the King and Queen Mother, on behalf of the town, not to send the Duke D'Aumale there as the King's Lieutenant, for his coming there would be the destruction of the town; whereupon the Cardinal of Lorraine and the Constable reprehended them very sharply. On the same day, D'Auquerque, esquire to the Prince of Condé, was sent to the King of Navarre from the Prince to desire him not to be abused any longer by the promises of the King of Spain and the Pope for the recompence of Navarre. He assured the King he would try the matter by force, and within twelve days he should have 20,000 footmen and 8,000 horsemen to take his part.
6. On the 14th inst., M. De Malligny (heir to the late Vidame of Chartres) took Havre de Grace, which astonishes the men here, because it stands at the mouth of the Seine. At Caen, Bayeux, and most places in Bas Normandy, the inhabitants have defaced the images in the monasteries and parish churches. Very few places remain in that country at the Papists' devotion. The inhabitants have also arressed the King's revenues coming to Paris, alleging they would keep it for the King's use. M. De Mouvans comes with five ensigns from Provence to serve the Prince. Moulins in Bourbonois is taken for the Prince.
7. The Comte De Rochefocault and M. De Janlis, accompanied with 1,500 horse, are gone to revenge the cruelties done at Angers, and on their way they defeated the bands of MM. De la Trimouille and De Sansac.
8. The Cardinal of Lorraine preached at Notre Dame upon Whit Sunday, both in the forenoon and afternoon, in which he showed his former zeal in the matter of religion.
9. The writers request the Queen to order the suppression of the book which the King of Navarre is aggrieved with, which was lately translated from French into English, and printed in England, called "La Remonstrance a la Royne Mere." This must be so handled that the French Ambas sador may understand it is done for the King of Navarre's satisfaction.
10. On the 18th inst. the Queen Mother sent MM. Le Conte De Villars, De Villeville, Givry, and De Carrouge to Orleans to the Prince from Monceau, to compound these matters. They are chosen, being devout friends to the Duke of Guise, the Constable, and Marshal St. André.
Orig. Pp. 4.
May [18].69. Another copy of the above, with the following additions:
Occurrences and Events to the Disadvantage of the Prince of Condé.
11. Three of the seven papistical cantons in Switzerland have refused to send men to the King's aid; but four, near the mountains, have consented to send 3,000 men.
12. The King has sent M. De Morette to the Duke of Savoy, requesting him to levy horsemen and footmen.
13. M. De Chavigny has entered Angers and taken the castle, where he has hanged four ministers.
14. The King has sent to the Bishop of Rome and the Duke of Ferrara to send forces and money hither.
15. The Prince has forty pieces of artillery mounted, as well for battery as the field.
16. M. De Tavannes has taken and keeps Dijon, which the Protestants have attempted to surprise, but were defeated.
17. The Rhinegrave has commission to send for two regiments of footmen and 1,000 pistoliers.
18. M. De Damville has despatched divers captains to levy light horsemen, of which he is to be General. He is too well affected to the Papists.
Copy. Endd.: Sent 8 May [sic]. Pp. 6.
May 18.70. Abstract of Nos. 68 and 69, with the title "The State of Affairs in France since the 8th until the 18th May."
Endd. Pp. 4.
May 18.71. Latter portion of the above.
Endd. Pp. 2.
May 18.72. Extracts from the above.
P. 1.
May 18.73. Advertisements.
1. The Court of Spain, 26 April 1562. The King has reduced to ten the galleys under the command of Gio. And. Doria, and made other alterations about the command of the eighty galleys now afloat. The levy of infantry continues. Prince Charles has injured his head by a fall, but it is of no consequence. The King has ordered his frontiers to be strengthened, especially in Navarre.
2. Prague, 4 May. A battle is impending between the Emperor's army and that of the Turks. The King of Denmark has offered his daughter to the King of Poland in marriage. Count Pirro D'Arco is dead in Poland.
3. Rome, 16 May. The Pope has gone to Frescato; on his return was celebrated the marriage of the sister of the Boromei with the Count Di Couza. Twelve Cardinals and all the Ambassadors were at the dinner. All the arrangements were most magnificent. Yesterday there was a Congregation, in which was published the Bull of the Reformation of the Penitentiaries, which has gone to the printers. The Secretary Nichetto has come from France, despatched by the Cardinal of Ferrara, and bringing letters to the Pope from the King and the Queen Mother, whom His Holiness intends to assist against the Huguenots, who have taken Lyons. The crews of twenty-six or twenty-eight piratical vessels landed at Pollidoro, where they have done some mischief. The death of Cardinal Tournon (which happened on the 26th ult.) has occasioned much regret to this Court.
4. Savoy, 18 May. Letters from Paris of the 4th inst. say that the Queen Mother, expecting that the armies would come to blows, sent to the Prince of Condé asking for an interview, whence peace is expected.
5. Constantinople, 1 May. The Turk, cruizing in his brigantine, was overtaken by a storm, and escaped with difficulty. He has demanded Bajazet, dead or alive, from the Sofi.
Orig. Endd.: Advertisements. Ital. Pp. 4.
May 19.74. Mundt to Cecil.
1. Since his letter of the 12th inst. news has come that the Emperor will shortly go to Nuremburg, where everything is prepared for his reception; thence it is thought that he will go through the Tyrol to Inspruck in order to be near the Council. The members of the Council have informed the Pope that such is the scarcity and enormous price of necessaries at Trent that they cannot well subsist there. The Pope has asked the Venetians to let him have the town of Vincenza, there to continue the Council; they have replied that such has been the unfruitfulness of late years that they are in want of provisions themselves and therefore cannot give an answer.
2. The Guises are enrolling soldiers in the bishopric of Treves, as the passage from thence to France is short; the Bishop has been earnestly dissuaded from giving them leave to do so by the Elector Palatine and the Landgrave, and it is likely that if he does not desist the Princes will not tolerate it. They hear that the Rhinegrave is going to enlist twenty ensigns of foot under the pretence of guarding the King's person. They do not know the reason of the Prince of Condés delay, as by it they see his adversaries strengthened and a result similar to that of the Protestant war may be feared. This war is undertaken in order to extinguish the Gospel in other regions besides France, and therefore should be opposed by common consent. The Elector Palatine, the Dukes of Wurtemberg and Neuburg, the Landgrave, and Charles Marquis of Baden, will send an embassy into France in the name of the Protestant Princes to allay the dissentions there, and to ask that the same liberty of religion may be allowed as was granted by the edict of January 17th of last year. The Envoys will assemble here by the 8th of June.
3. It is said that more than 1,000 cavalry have been enrolled in Westphalia for the purpose of guarding the King, who will cross the Rhine about Cologne. Unless Condé also levies foreign soldiers, or unless the territories of those who have suffered these levies to be made be invaded, a bad end must be expected for this war. It would be both honourable and advantageous if an open league were made between all the Protestant states for their mutual protection. Though this may seem difficult and expensive yet the mere knowledge of such a league would restrain their adversaries. Has forborne to speak of this before, as he did not think that such an occasion was likely to arise. Such is the confidence and obstinacy of the Bishops that no justice or moderation can be got from them.—Strasburg, 19 May 1562. Signed.
Orig. Hol., with armorial seal. Add. Endd. Lat. Pp. 3.
May 20.75. The Queen Mother to Throckmorton.
Has received his letter, and thanks the Queen for her good offices. If he wishes to send to Orleans the King of Navarre will give him a passport.—Monceau, 20 May 1562. Signed: Caterine,—De L'Aubespine.
Copy. Endd. Fr. Pp. 2.
May 20.76. John Cuerton to Challoner.
1. Has received a letter from Challoner of the arrival of his servants and stuff. Perceives that the letter he [Cureton] gave to Tempest was lost, in which he wrote how he had given to Thomas Shipman for seventy-five ducats, five rials, and to James Coldwell 4,177 rials, and of this received from Challoner eighty crowns 960 rials, and for a bill in Burgos 1,650 rails, so he has given to both of Challoner's servants 5,009 rials, and of this received from him 2,610, so he owes Cuerton 2,399 rials and more; one rial paid for a power to receive the 150 ducats, so Challoner owes him 2,400 rials, which he can send when it pleases him.
2. Chamberlain sent him a copy of his passport to send away two chests he has here of his, and another for a coffer of a gentlewoman's of the Countess De Feria; since he received it there have been no ships for London, so within nine days the time expires, and here the justices after the time will show no virtue for them. He therefore sends them to him so that he may get a new one for Chamberlain's coffers and give the other to the gentlewoman, and return the same with speed, for they expect a ship daily from London. If this ship does not carry them, he cannot tell when they will be sent. Perceives that shortly the King will go to Monson. They say the Queen and Council comes to Valladolid. His wife sends her commendations to him and Cobham. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Endd. and dated by Challoner. Pp. 3.
May 20.77. Challoner to Hugh Tipton.
Wrote lately to Tipton by the ordinary post for Seville and writes again by this bearer, Mr. White. "The disgrace upon the Prince's hurt hath been such as in manner all suits and other business have for the while here been suspended." When the King returns hither he will inform Tipton by his next how he has had in remembrance Frampton's, Castlyn's, and Hickman's matters, with the case of the merchants of Bristol. He will thank Tipton to send him from Seville twenty pounds of pepper, five pounds of "mach," ten pounds of cinnamon, and ten pounds of cloves and put it to his account, and half a barrel of good English butter.—Madrid, 20 May 1562.
Copy. Endd. by Challoner. Pp. 2.
May 20.78. The King of Portugal's Claim to the Guinea Trade.
Five reasons alleged by the Portuguese Ambassador to establish the claims of his master to the exclusive dominion over the trade of Guinea.
1. According to law and reason the finder of a treasure is the true owner of the same. The crown of Portugal has discovered the said countries [of Africa], and established the form and manner of traffic, not without loss of many armies and much expense.
2. The Kings of Portugal have desired chiefly to spread abroad the Word of God, and consequently have instructed their Governors to receive to the obedience of their Crown all such as without constraint would come, without setting upon them any tribute or impost whatsoever, thereby to draw them to the knowledge of God. Those Princes who would not willingly submit or hear the preaching of God's Word in their countries, should be daunted by force of arms, and charged with tribute. This has so well profited, that they have got more lands than with force, and by these means many Princes' lands and seignories in Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia, and India have remained without any tribute, and some others have been made tributaries; while some not only remain without tribute, but have yearly pensions of the King in recompence of services done.
3. As to the manner in which the Crown of Portugal has always enjoyed the actual possession of the said lands, where the rule has been by force of arms, they pay tribute; and where there has been any doubt of the fidelity of the people, or any fear that the Turks, Saracens, and other nations would assail, they have built castles, fortresses, and great towns and cities. Where there has been no necessity for garrisons, or the air so pestilent that it was manifest danger for the lives of men, there has only been a form of traffic established, which has been continued from the beginning (which is no less than sixscore years) without, in all the coast of Ethiopia, any of the Princes once rebelling. The Crown has also done much in spreading the Christian faith, so that there are in Ethiopia and other places holy, Christian people, ordered by Bishops and divided in dioceses.
4. As to the force ordered by the Kings of Portugal for the preservation of their right, (since it was seen that of one hundred persons there escapes not at the end of the year more than about twenty, and those scarce in health,) it was more expedient to send every year an army by sea to protect the traffic, and prevent any ships, either Portuguese or other, from trading without an express licence.
5. For sixscore years the Kings of Portugal have enjoyed peaceably the domain and profit of the said lands publicly, as is shown by their titles, "Lord of Guinea, of the conquest and navigation and traffic of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia, and the Indies."
6. In consideration of which the Ambassador begs that the Queen will forbid her subjects, without "cautele" or exception, from voyaging to the Brazils, Ethiopia, the Indies, or any other country discovered by the Portuguese, as the Kings of France have long ago commanded.
Orig., dated and endd. by Cecil. Fr. Pp. 6.
[May 20.]79. Translation of the above into English. Dated by Cecil: May 22.
Endd. Pp. 8.

Footnotes

1 An interlineation in the draft, subsequently cancelled.
2 Originally in the draft "phrenetic, lunatic," but both are cancelled.
3 This last clause is an addition between the lines.
4 Originally, yesterday morning.
5 This passage as originally written stood thus: "Yesterday in the afternoon he drew towards his end, and so about [blank] of the clock yesternight, 4 May, he departed this life, with great lamentation of the King his father, who, as I credibly understand, both at his dressing cast forth tears abundantly, and now remaineth in deepest heaviness with all his Court and commons."
6 Saturny, originally.
7 Originally written, was.
8 The following passage is then erased: "Now by general speech, and as I understand from places of credit, the Prince of Spain's recovery is holden past care of man's hand."
9 The whole of this paragraph is in the hand of a secretary.
10 Challoner's draft is here resumed.
11 See the note to the Queen's letter to Englefield, May 10, No. 43.
12 The remainder of the letter is in Percy's handwriting.