Elizabeth
December 1563, 1-10

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Institute of Historical Research

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Joseph Stevenson (editor)

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1869

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604-615

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'Elizabeth: December 1563, 1-10', Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 6: 1563 (1869), pp. 604-615. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=72083 Date accessed: 30 September 2014.


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December 1563, 1-10

Dec. 1.1445. Occurrences in France.
1. Nov. 12. The French have put a tribute of a crown upon every "muy" of wine carried into Flanders. All the French ships there, laden with wines, were stayed there three weeks past. King Philip is building two forts near Calais; the French say, upon their ground. About Hainault and Picardy all is full of men of war. The Flemish and Spanish merchants complain of the robberies of the French.
2. Nov. 16. Proclamations in Paris against carrying arms, preaching, and exercise of the new religion.
3. Nov. 18. The Admiral did reverence to the King when he came from Fontainebleau to Paris.
4. Nov. 20. The Admiral came to Paris with 200 horse, the Constable, with him. Condé, Cardinal Châtillon, and D'Andelot came to the Council, where they are occupied with the finances.
5. Nov. 21. Proclamation for all to avoid Paris who had not necessary cause to remain. The gates of the Louvre strictly kept. All the Guises are at Paris, but come not to the Court, save the Cardinal, who has been there twice. No lord is suffered to enter there with more than one page.
6. Nov. 25. The King has three ensigns of French with pistolets about him, and ten more are sent for.
7. Nov. 26. Smith's house visited by a captain of the King's guard, as is every house in Paris, to see who is lodged there. The Admiral sent Smith word, that as yet he dare not come nor send to him. The Pope has cited the Queen of Navarre to appear before him for favouring heretics; she has refused to appear or answer, whereupon he has given away her dominions. He has also excommunicated Cardinal Châtillon and six other bishops of France (viz., Troyes, Aix, Chartres, Montpellier, &c.). It was also said that he minded some such process against the Queen, but as she has as yet put none of his bishops to death he surceased for a time. The Bishop of Valence in the French council answered this, and described the Pope in his colours.
8. Nov. 28. Mme. de Guise, her children, and [the Duke's] mother have signed the bill of accusation against the Admiral, the petition to the same effect having been already signed by the Duke D'Aumale. The King has made an harangue at the Louvre that he would not have either party take arms. Sends it in print. The new bulwarks and the towers of Orleans are being dismantled. The English miners and 400 pioneers are working at it.
9. Nov. 29. The Court is more strictly kept than before. The Spanish Ambassador has delivered threatening letters here for the advantage of the Guises.
10. Nov. 30. The King of Spain has asked the King here whether he would be offended if he [Philip] should invade Navarre, who has answered that he would not take it well. The French prepare for war; they have no great love for Spain.
11. Dec. 1. There is a league motioned at Trent against those of the religion by the Pope, the Emperor, the King of Spain, and some Princes of Italy and Almain; they will meet at Nice next spring.
Orig., with Smith's seal. Endd. by Cecil: From Sir T. Smith. Pp. 6.
Dec. 2.1446. Smith to Cecil.
1. Refers him to the occurrences digested by days as in times past.
2. The French before daylight, and so all day, are now in council, which is no news, for all this year not one of them has been hunting or hawking.
3. Sees they are desirous to hear what the Queen will determine upon this question; and yet thinks that the French will not come to reasonable points till they be forced.
4. Asks him him to send them the commission again and advice in temporizing, if the Queen would not have them give a direct answer—Paris, 2 Dec. 1563. Signed.
Orig., with armorial seal. Add. Endd. Pp. 4.
Dec. 2.1447. Throckmorton to Smith.
Has not heard from him these seven days, and twenty days are now expired since his [Smith's] courier went, and no answer returned.—St. Germain, 2 Dec. 1563.
Copy.
Dec. 2.1448. Throckmorton to Smith.
1. Thanks him for his occurrences, and is glad that matters stand in such terms. He will do well to advertise these matters to the Queen; but he should not despatch his courier for three or four days. He should also advertise how the French Ambassador finds means to make his despatches hither by Flanders; which being laid for, might be either impeached or interrupted. There is great negligence at home; and the French Ambassador enjoys more liberty than they. It is done by merchants, either English or strangers.
2. The King can in nowise abide the Admiral, nor any of his house.—St. Germain, 2 Dec. 1563.
Copy.
Dec. 2.1449. Cuerton to Challoner.
News of peace out of France. The bearer is nephew to the priest who was with Challoner in Cuerton's house, as yet he had not said Mass. He is (for a priest) one of good behaviour. Here he gave one his payment for his uncle's quarrel, no more but broke his head well, who called his uncle "a coverer of Lutherans," so that he goes into Aragon to absent himself for a time. Here is contrary wind, so they cannot hear from England.—Bilboa, 2 Dec. 1563. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. Pp. 3.
Dec. 3.1450. Challoner to Secretary Erasso.
Complains of the treatment, by Don Juan de Cunia, Governor of the Province of Guipuscoa, of two English captains, the details of which will be recounted by Challoner's secretary, the bearer.—Balbastro, 3 Dec.
Corrected draft. Endd. by Challoner. Span. Pp. 2.
Dec. 41451. The Garrison at Berwick.
Notes for the diminution of the charges for the garrison at Berwick, with reference to that formerly at Calais.
Orig., chiefly in Cecil's hol. Endd.: 4 Dec. 1563. Old and new numbers at Berwick. Pp. 5.
[Dec. 4.]1452. Paul von Eitzen to Cecil.
Christopher Stael has informed him that he has shown his Commentary on Genesis to the Queen. Has not been able to thank him before, as he has been for six years absent from his country. Is now minister in the church of Sleswig.— Sleswig, 1563. Sabbato post Andrean. Signed.
Orig. Hol., with seal. Add. Endd. Lat. Pp. 2.
Dec. 5.1453. Paul van Dale to Gresham.
Desires to have a protection for his vessel. Has sustained great damage by the Queen not having made any payment this last fair. The merchants are very discontented.—Antwerp, 5 Dec. 1563. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. Fr. Pp. 2.
Dec. 5.1454. Gurone Bertano [to Cecil].
1. Ventures to offer his suggestions in all humility. The Queen should come to terms with France. A favourable means of doing this occurs by the journey thither of the Cardinal D'Este, who would act for the Queen all the more readily when he knows that the writer acts for her. The Cardinal may be trusted, and is under the influence of the writer.
2. Already mentioned his regret that the Queen did not take a husband, and now repeats his opinion. It is known that she favours Lord Robert, but that his position is against him. This may be obviated by his being made King two or three months before his marriage, and the Pope might send him the Crown, and make his brother a Cardinal. The Scottish policy would thus be frustrated, and the many plans now rife. The Pope's health is not to be counted on.—Rome, 5 Dec. 1563. Signed.
Orig. Ital. Pp. 4.
Dec. 5.1455. List of Cardinals.
List of ten Cardinals, with brief notices of their nationality, family connexions, &c.
Orig. Add. to Cecil, and endd. by him: 5 Dec. 1563, from Rome. Ital. Pp. 2.
Dec. 7.1456. Owen Claydon to the Privy Council.
Sends herewith (in answer to their letters of the 1st inst.) a note of the money he has received towards the payment of the garrison of Berwick for this quarter ending Christmas next. Has not only defrayed all the receipts, but disbursed 158l. 13s. 4d. besides.—Ludgrave's, upon Enfield Chace Side, 7 Dec. 1563. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. Pp. 2.
[Dec. 7.]1457. Garrison of Berwick.
Money paid to Owen Claydon towards the warrant for Berwick, at the Annunciation and Michaelmas, viz., 2,980l.
Endd. Pp. 2.
Dec. 7.1458. Throckmorton to Cecil.
Of the whole of the matter of his imprisonment the bearer, John Barnaby (Lord Robert's servant), can tell him. Doubts not the Queen's good inclination to the peace. For this 100 years this realm has not been in so evil terms as now; and if any show had now occurred with their treaty, the French would have accorded them peace with reasonable conditions, but they have let slip a good opportunity. The causes that these men have to embrace peace, he touched in his former letter. Amongst other things, is grieved that Mr. Wwit [?] (fn. 1) is so unkindly dealt with from thence, who to do service to the Queen has entered in great expenses, and refused honourable and profitable offers.—Castle of St. Germain, 7 Dec. 1563. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 4.
Dec. 71459. Occurrences in France.
1. Peroceli was thrust in the thigh as he was walking in the streets. He that did it thought to have slain him, and was conveyed away by his complices.
2. Thirty companies of horsemen newly erected by the Duke of Guise are now cassed, and the ensigns of footmen brought to a hundred in every ensign.
3. The Cardinal of Lorraine practices to pacify King Philip, and the Queen, to attain that, will abandon the house of Châtillon. If that can be done before the English can conclude a peace, they will find the French stiffer.
Endd. Pp. 2.
Dec. 7.1460. Proclamation against English Merchants.
1. As several merchants and seamen (especially those dwelling in Antwerp) have complained of the exactions in England against foreigners, unless these grievances are remedied they will be constrained to abandon the English trade. Therefore the King makes the following proclamation by the advice of the Duchess of Parma:—
2. Since it has been expressly forbidden to import any wares manufactured beyond the seas into England, such as swords, daggers, &c., under pain of confiscation, which will tend not only to destroy the industry of his subjects, but also cause them to migrate to other countries, the King on his part forbids the importation from England of all woollen manufactures except "cloths" and kerseys, or the exportation of steel, latten, copper, iron, wire, thread, morocco leather, and silk, on pain of confiscation; two-thirds to go to the crown, one-sixth to the informer, and the rest to the officer who makes the seizure.
3. Since it is interdicted in England to use any foreign vessels in the cloth or wool fleets, or in the transport of certain other merchandise; also if any English use foreign ships they are obliged to pay the same duties as if they were foreigners, whereas other foreigners trading with the Low Countries use English ships in order to be less troubled by the officers of custom, so that they come empty to Antwerp and other ports in order to be freighted, to the manifest prejudice of his subjects;—the King therefore will do what his father, the Emperor, did in 1540, in reply to some novelty of Henry VIII. to advance the navigation of England. He forbids all, of whatever nation they may be, to lade any English ships in any port of the Low Countries on pain of confiscation and a fine of 100 caroli.
4. With respect to the other complaints of his subjects, he advises the Queen of England shortly to redress them.— Brussels, 7 Dec. 1563.
Copy. Endd. Fr. Pp. 9.
Dec. 8.1461. Antonio Bruschetto to Cecil.
Cecil's letter of 28th Nov. shows that he had received the letters from Rome sent by the writer, whose son, Sebastiano, and Sor. Gurone will do the Queen good service. Has this day received from them the letters which he now forwards. Once a week, or at latest once a fortnight, he will receive intelligences, which he will transmit to Cecil by Mr. Saris.— Hackney, 8 Dec. 1563. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. Ital. Pp. 2.
Dec. 8.1462. Throckmorton and Smith to the Queen.
1. On the 2nd Smith received hers of the 27th ult., and on the same day demanded an audience, which the Constable promised on the 3rd. They desired to speak first with the Constable, whom they reminded upon what a small point they had last refused to deal for an accord. Throckmorton also rehearsed the manner of his coming over, and asked whether, if Wootton or Mason had been sent over, they would have been so used ? The Constable answered No. The writers remarked that then the French made Sir Nicholas not a prisoner of war but of will.
2. Next day the Constable sent answer in writing that Throckmorton should be set at liberty to negociate, but should promise that he will not quit France without the King's permission, whatever be the result of the negociation. This the writers would not receive as answer, but put their demand in writing and sent it to the Constable, viz., that Throckmorton shall be set at liberty, and Smith will promise in the Queen's name, and Throckmorton in his own, that he will not quit the realm during the progress of the treaty. To which the Constable returned this answer, that Throckmorton should be set at liberty to negociate, with the former conditions.
3. This being in effect like the other, they would not consent thereunto, and devised the following demand, which they sent to the Constable by Somer, viz., that Throckmorton should promise not to quit the realm for three weeks; and if the negociations should last longer, that he would then make further promise to remain until the treaty was concluded. This being read to the Constable, he said it was as they had demanded, but that he would refer it to the King. The Constable (who was all the while in bed with a colic) sent L'Aubespine to report this to the Queen Mother, and within an hour Somer was sent for to receive an absolute answer.
4. Somer found with him the Cardinal of Châtillon, D'Andelot, L'Aubespine, and the Bishop of Limoges. The Constable told Somer this as the King's final resolution: That Throckmorton should be set at liberty for two or three weeks, but should not quit the realm without the King's permission; the Ambassador promising this in the Queen's name, and Throckmorton in his own. Somer said that it was the former answer, and therefore would not be allowed.
5. On the 5th they went to the Louvre, where the King and Queen were sitting in council. Smith repeated his request for Sir Nicholas, who also joined in the same and produced his safe-conduct. The Queen said that all this had been often disputed before. After having talked apart with her council, the Chancellor gave her answer, viz., that Queen Elizabeth had, contrary to her protestation, entered Newhaven, out of which the King was constrained to drive the English, yet they stick upon preambles. Throckmorton came after war was declared without a safe-conduct. Smith and Sir Nicholas both replied, but they concluded that the latter should be taken for a just prisoner. Sir Nicholas said that as they would not accept him to treat of peace, he had no occasion to tarry, and asked the King to give him licence to return home. This astonished them, and the Queen asked Smith to repeat it; but they concluded that Throckmorton should return to St. Germain, unless he would treat upon the conditions offered. Hereupon he withdrew. Smith asked the Queen to send Sir Nicholas away, and that another should come; but this they held an old matter, and they repeated that he was their prisoner. Smith proposed that they should treat in England, to which the Queen would not consent. The Chancellor said, "Let them seek who have most need." Smith said he had now come to the last offer he had to make, and proposed some place in the jurisdiction neither of England nor France. The Queen said that they had already agreed that the place should be Paris. Smith had nothing else to say, and so departed, where Sir Nicholas and Somer were in the Garderobe. Sir Nicholas was carried in a coach at night to St. Germain, and Smith returned with Somer to his lodging in Paris. Smith will now proceed with these men alone, and will keep Somer with him.—Castle of St. Germain, 8 Dec. 1563. Signed.
6. P. S.—This letter has been delayed because Smith had to come hither for Throckmorton's signature.
Orig. Add. Endd. Pp. 16.
Dec. 8.1463. Smith to Cecil.
1. Thanks him for his letters which he received by Somer and Camell. Has the history of Onuphrius and Polidor ready for him, which he will send by Barlow. Has had no time to enquire whether he may have Mr. Haddon's book printed here or no. Had done before what the Queen willed him to do by Camell for the Scottish Queen's servants. Sir Nicholas likes not that he [Smith] should agree to treat alone, upon condition that they might confer together, for that is to accept him to treat as prisoner.—Paris, 8 Dec. 1563. Signed.
2. P.S.—Sends certain books which M. D'Anville sent to him for his declaration of a question of a quarrel betwixt two gentlemen upon "a dementir." They are to distribute to Lord Robert, or to any of their Lordships he shall think meet. Has also sent Lord Robert and the Earl of Bedford to each an epistle written to the Queen Mother. Jaques de Paris told the writer he had sent Cecil one of them. Has also sent the manner of the King affirming his majority, so much as is not in print, taken out of the Registers of Rouen.—Paris, 9 Dec. 1563.
Orig., with armorial seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 3.
Dec. 8.1464. Maurice Rantzow aud Paul Brockrop to the Queen.
Her Council has excused the nonpayment of the money on the appointed day, the 15th Nov., and ask that it might be deferred into January. As they have promised to pay that money to another prince, they beg that she will send it to Antwerp.—Hamburg, 8 Dec. 1563. Signed.
Orig., with seal. Add. Endd. Lat. Pp. 2.
Dec. 8.1465. Hugh Tipton to Challoner.
On the 15th Nov. eight English ships laden with wines, raisons, and almonds, &c., in the port of Gibraltar were ready to depart, when there came in a French ship of 100 tons, well armed and with many men, with all her banners and flags spread. One of the small English ships laid her aboard, and they fought together, so that men were slain on both parts. The other ships (by reason of the much artillery shot off in the castle of Gibraltar,) could not come to help their companion, and so the eight ships went out of the haven and there tarried for a wind, and the Frenchmen remained still in the port. In the meantime came Don Alvaro de Vasan with his galleys from Cadiz to take the English ships, and they obeyed him without resistance; and so he brought them to Cadiz, and put all the masters and part of the mariners into the galleys in chains, and handled them very evil, and put other men on board the ships, and took the English banners and hanged them out at the stern of the galleys, dragging them along in the water, as though they had taken their enemies; and all because they fought with the Frenchmen within the port; and the Frenchmen they did not meddle with. With this there goes a testimonial, taken by the merchants in Gibraltar. Desires him to speak to the King in their behalf; and if he will not put them at liberty, that he will name some Alcade de Corte in Seville who may be judge in this cause.—Seville, 8 Dec. 1563. Signed.
2. P.S.—John Hawkins and Thomas Hampton, of Plymouth, were driven to St. Domingo by force of weather, where they desired licence of the judges of the island to sell certain slaves, to victual themselves and to pay their men, and said they would deposit the rest in the justice's power, and so did deposit 125 slaves, and the rest they sold. They also bought hides to the value of 5,000 or 6,000 ducats, and consigned them to Tipton, and Thomas Hampton came with them, whom they would have taken prisoner but that he went for England. But a man of his remains in prison; and they have caused the goods to be sold and the money put into the King's chest with three locks. The testimonial they brought out of the Indies is very good, for they offended no man. The worst that they can condemn them in is to pay thirty ducats for the licence of every slave. Writes to Master Hawkins, who he thinks is with Challoner, and who will inform him of all largely.
Orig. Hol., with seal. Add.: To Challoner, at Monzon. Endd. by Challoner. Pp. 4.
Dec. 8.1466. Translation of the above into Spanish.
Draft. Pp. 4.
Dec. 8.1467. [Sebastiano Bertano to Cecil.]
The last letter which the writer received was dated Oct. 30, and as he has already written twice since then, his present letter must be short, nor can he write with precision.—Rome, 8 Dec. 1563.
Orig. Endd. De Sebastiano. Ital. Pp. 2.
Dec. 8.1468. [Gurone Bertano to Antonio Bruschetto ?]
The Pope is in better health. The Council will probably end before Christmas. Cardinals to the number of fifteen or twenty will be made.—Rome, 8 Dec. 1563.
Orig. Endd. Ital. Pp. 2.
Dec. 9.1469. Berwick Accounts.
Owen Claydon has received between Michaelmas last and the 6th inst. 3,116l. 18s. 4d. from Mr. Tamworth, receiver of Lincoln, and others, for the provision of the garrison at Berwick; wherewith was defrayed 3,275l. 6s. 8d., leaving 158l. 13s. 4d. due to him.
Endd. Pp. 3.
Dec. 9.1470. [Throckmorton to Cecil.]
1. The Cardinal of Guise, accounting Stuart to be a man of great service and execution, and desiring to have him won to their devotion, has written to the Queen of Scots to persuade him thereunto; and has offered if he will continue here she will procure and assure him to be lieutenant of the one hundred Scottish men at arms, which this King will set up again here, with the wages of 2,500 francs. Of this company Lord John of Coldingham should have been captain, for which purpose he should have come here shortly; but now news is brought of his death, and it is thought that Lord Robert, his brother, shall have the charge. The Queen Mother offered him the leading of a company of arquebusiers, which they mind to have about the King. All this Stuart has refused, only because he is tied in service with the Queen, and he was promised 500 crowns by year, and it was so written unto by Middlemore. Sir Nicholas is sorry that nothing comes to him, for he has nothing here, but lives with the countenance of some good about the Queen Mother, and so continues in favour. He has patience till he may hear out of England.
2. The other man does great service, and all the advertisements which Sir Nicholas has come from him; he marvels that he writes no better things into England. He would fain have him also considered.
Orig. Chiefly in cipher, deciphered. P. 1.
Dec. 9.1471. Somer to Cecil.
1. Wrote to him from Dover of his embarking. Arrived at Calais that day, where are five companies of footmen evilly furnished. The fortification of the citadel goes forward apace. A cross wall is made from the Water Gate to the Bullein Gate; and at each end of the wall is a great bastion, answered by a flank to each other, and a ditch about fifty feet broad. Takes the wall to be about ten or twelve feet thick, and judged about 120 labourers. Their storehouse within the citadel goes forward; he takes it to be 140 feet square. Saw but one small man-of-war in the haven.
2. Throckmorton is sent back to St. Germain. Yet they would fain have somewhat done, for every day since Sunday (the great day of talk), either Mauvissiere or Des Champes comes to Smith, by way of visit, and ever to have Sir Nicholas set at liberty to treat, and yet to promise not to depart without the King's leave, generally without limitation of time. But they return as well satisfied as they come.
3. What he commanded him to declare to Sir Nicholas, he has learned from some of this Council that the French Ambassador, De Foix, advertised the same, and much more, hither; and besides that has so written to L'Aubespine. The Ambassador's secretary has further said to them and the Queen Mother, from his master, that rather than the Queen would either continue this war or begin afresh, she would desire peace upon her knees, and that she wished for peace with water in her eyes. And that this is the cause not only of their refusal for Sir Nicholas to treat at liberty, but also that they will be less treatable in the treaty. The same Secretary said to the writer in a passion, that if the Queen had war one year longer she would sue for peace. This Secretary goes hence this day, and will make his master believe that the King offered Sir Nicholas his liberty, but that they stood upon the niceness of words.
4. At this talk with the King and his Council, not one was present of the house of Châtillon, nor the Constable, who was troubled with the colic, but is well again. The Admiral and M. D'Andelot lodge within the Court. They come to the affairs and council when they are called, as does also the Cardinal of Châtillion. They are narrowly watched, and they receive no letters that are not first seen by the Queen Mother. None of the house of Guise are lodged in the Court, and come very seldom to Court, saving the Cardinal of Guise. There have been hereabouts all this while 1,000 footmen, mostly arquebusiers. The same are now brought to 500, and lie within half a mile of the Louvre, in a village called Chailly. Has talked with Sir Nicholas about Stuart's matter by Cecil's command, and has enclosed his answer.—Paris, 9 Dec. 1563. Signed.
Orig. Portions in cipher, deciphered. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 4.
Dec. 9.1472. Alexander Du Bois to —.
His last letter was on the 3rd. Clough tries to excuse his own negligence by throwing the blame on him. Is certain that he always has his letters within six days. Thirty Spanish galleys were about to enter Marseilles, but when those of the town prepared to resist them they sailed away. The Parisians have begun again some slight disturbances. Stuart is angry because he is not written to. The writer is however content, as letters bring danger. Stuart told him that the King and the Queen Mother go into Lorraine, where will be the Dukes of Ferrara, Savoy and Brunswick; afterwards the Court goes to Lyons, and then to Narbonne, where the King of Spain will be. Afterwards they will all attack the Protestants. The Constable and the Protestants do all they can to hinder this journey.—Paris, 9 Dec. 1563. Signed: A. Sylvano.
Orig., with seal. Portions in cipher deciphered. Add.: A. Mon Maistre. Endd. Fr. Pp. 2.
Dec. 9.1473. Don Luys D'Avila to the Papal Nuncio.
Extract of a letter from Don Luys D'Avila, Commendator of Alcantara, to the Papal Nuncio, announcing the termination of the Council of Trent.—Milan, 9 Dec. 1563.
Copy. In Challoner's hol., and endd. by him. Span. Pp. 2.
Dec. 9.1474. Alfonso Truxillo to Challoner.
Details respecting the payment of the money made over to him by Hugh Tipton.—Madrid, 9 Dec. 1563. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add.: To Challoner, at Balbastro. Span. Pp. 3.
Dec. 10.1475. The Earl of Arran to Randolph.
Captain Forbes, his servant, was in France for his business, and returning home is stayed by the Captain of Norham; he asks that he may be put at liberty.—Hamilton, 10 Dec. 1563 Signed.
Orig. Add. Pp. 2.
Dec. 10.1476. Valentine Browne to the Privy Council.
In answer to their letters of the 1st inst., encloses the charges to next Christmas. As soon as his clerk returns from York and Newcastle with the receipts, he will send a man to declare thereof. Reckons that his receipts will be sufficient to discharge the wages of the garrison and the cost of the works to Michaelmas last. The workmen of Ireland and the south parts were fully paid when discharged, but those who belong to these parts were left unpaid.—Berwick, 10 Dec. 1563. Signed.
Orig., with seal. Add. Endd. Pp. 3.

Footnotes

1 This name expressed in cipher.