Elizabeth
December 1563, 11-20

Sponsor

Institute of Historical Research

Publication

Author

Joseph Stevenson (editor)

Year published

1869

Pages

615-636

Annotate

Comment on this article
Double click anywhere on the text to add an annotation in-line

Citation Show another format:

'Elizabeth: December 1563, 11-20', Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 6: 1563 (1869), pp. 615-636. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=72084 Date accessed: 21 September 2014.


Highlight

(Min 3 characters)

December 1563, 11-20

Dec. 11.1477. Articles of Peace.
1. A. Proposal by the English Envoy. That the conditions in the treaty of Cateau Cambresis should remain in full force.
2. B. Proposal of the French Commissioners. That the conditions of the said treaty should continue in full force, with the exception that Calais should remain in the French King's hands, and that the hostages should be restored.
3. C. Reply of the English Envoy. That by the said treaty the possession of Calais should be given to the Queen, together with 500,000 crowns, in consequence of the French having invaded Scotland.
4. D. Proposal by the French. That peace shall be concluded between the Queen and the French King, the rights of either party being reserved; and that the four French hostages shall be liberated in a fortnight.
Endd. by Cecil: 11 Dec. 1563. Lat. Pp. 3.
Dec. 12.1478. Soldiers at Berwick.
The names of twenty-one captains, thirty-six officers, and ninety-six of the worthiest soldiers, who, with others of all sorts there, number 1,330.
Orig. With a few marginal notes by Cecil, and endd. by him. Pp. 10.
Dec. 12.1479. [Gurone Bertano to Cecil?]
No news, either from France or Spain. The Cardinal of Lorraine will soon return to France, taking with him the settlement of a marriage between the Queen of Scotland and a son of the King of the Romans. The Cardinal of Este will set out in a fortnight; the writer will not fail to do what he can for the interest of the Queen.—Rome, 12 Dec. 1563.
Orig. Endd. Ital. Pp. 3.
Dec. 12.1480. [Sebastiano Bruschetto to Antonio Bruschetto ?].
The fidelity of Gurone [Bertano] may be depended upon. Suggestions in what terms he should be written to. The person referred to has a great affection towards the Queen, the Secretary, the writer, and the person addressed.—Rome, 12 Dec. 1563.
Orig. Endd. Ital. Pp. 2.
Dec. 13.1481. Randolph to Cecil.
The fifth [day?] after his departure from the Court he arrived at Berwick, where he rested one day. Found great lack of the Lord Governor's presence. Besides other occasions the Scotch wardens think themselves dishonoured to meet with any that are inferior to themselves, such also as are too great bearers with offenders. This he writes for the Lord Hume and the Laird of Cessford for the East Marches.
3. At his arrival at Dunbar he heard that Lethington was at Haddington, taking possession of the whole abbacy which the Queen had given him, so that he is now equal with any, and has his whole lands lying in Lothian. He chanced upon him there, and accompanied him the next to Edinburgh. There the Queen kept her bed, being somewhat diseased of overmuch travail she took a night or two before, dancing to celebrate her nativity, which was on Lady Day. But he rather thinks it was a cold she took (as she says herself) being so long that day at divine service.
3. The next day, Saturday, the Earl of Murray was sent for to excuse his attendance, for her medicine had sharply handled her. The Lady of Argyll also was sent after him with like message, and command to bring word how the Queen did. The writer reported in what case he left Queen Elizabeth, and required the Lady of Argyll to present her token. Understood that the jewel was marvellously esteemed, oftentimes looked upon, and many times kissed.
4. On Sunday he dined with the Earl of Murray, and was after sent for to the Queen, whom he found in bed. After divers purposes of the Queen, her court, nobility, and others, he delivered first the best written letter, which after she had read she willed him to read it for the credit his Sovereign had put him in. Delivered her also the second, which she read, and talked with him of her uncles and their goodwill towards his Sovereign. The occasion of that talk was, that the Queen had thanked her for the Cardinal's friendship to Throckmorton. She showed him the ring on her finger. It lacks no praise on her part, but he commended the sender more than the present. Few were there that spoke not their opinions of both. She said that she has two jewels that must die with her, and willingly shall never lie out of her sight, and showed him a ring, which she said was her husband's. Perceiving her not well, he desired that he might no further trouble her. She willed him to return after supper, which he did, and after a few words offered to retire.
5. Finds in the Earl of Murray good liking of the Queen's meaning towards his Sovereign. The Laird of Lethington wishes that the Queen had descended into more particularities, for he says that these general dealings breed ever suspicion of good meaning. For two months the Queen has been divers times in great melancholies. Her grief is marvellous secret. She is not well, and weeps when there is little appearance of occasion.
6. The Council assembles here the 16th inst. The 20th of the next month the Queen will be at Jedburgh to do justice upon the thieves. It is feared that the Earl of Arran will return unto his old madness. Within these five nights he would have slain a poor fellow that attended upon him. He rose out of his bed and took a knife to cut his throat. The Duke will be here within three days. If the Earl Bothwell receive not favour shortly at the Queen's hands, he purposes to be suitor unto the Queen. Knows not for what.—Edinburgh, 13 Dec. 1563. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Pp. 4.
Dec. 13.1482. Valentine Browne to Cecil.
1. Sends a book of the names of such captains, officers, and soldiers here as are worthy of consideration. The ordinary watch, scout, and search consisted of a hundred persons in Lord Grey's time; from the openness of the walls and ramparts the same service would still require eighty.
2. If the number of the garrison should exceed this device, the Queen must give large wages, and be at continual charge for victuals.
3. The service of the horsemen of the town stands in no great effect in this time of peace, but as the Wardenry has no horsemen to attend upon the Warden at the days of March, he thinks they may not be spared.
4. The money which he is about to receive will not extend to the full pay. Minds to distribute prests equally for the help of those who depend thereon, and to reserve 1,500l. or 1,600l., until he understands whether these numbers are to be diminished.—Berwick, 13 Dec. 1563. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 4.
Dec. 13.1483. Challoner to Hugh Tipton.
Has received his letter desiring him to pay to Truxillo what he owes him; will send it to Seville as soon as he can. Asks to be informed of the particulars of the eight English ships restrained at Gibraltar.
Hol. Draft. Endd. Pp. 8.
Dec. 14.1484. Instructions for Gresham and Sir Thomas Cotton. (fn. 1)
1. He shall receive at the Exchequer the sum of [blank] (fn. 2) to be converted into bullion at the Tower of London, which he shall transport to Antwerp.
2. At his coming thither he shall cause it to be coined into such money as shall pay the Queen's debts to Rantzou and Brocketrope. If he can satisfy them with half or three parts of the same, he is to pay the remainder to such importunate creditors as he shall see needful.
3. Of the debts due this month (being about 23,460l.), he is to do his uttermost to content her creditors to prolong the same until the 20th May 1564. He is to make allowance to himself of twenty shillings by the day for his diet from the time of his last account.
4. He shall pay to John Fitzwilliam the various sums of money he has expended in the prosecution of one Brown, who held the office of the receipt of the revenues in Warwick under John Fisher, who was indebted to her for sundry sums of money, and thereupon fled to Antwerp, he taking an acceptance of Fitzwilliam's testifying the same, and to give notice thereof to the auditor in Warwick to enter the same as parcel of Fisher's charge.
Instructions to Sir Thomas Cotton.
5. He shall put himself and the Queen's ships in readiness to conduct Gresham to Antwerp. He shall take up 3,000l. or 4,000l. for satisfying the executors of Lazarus Tucker. He shall give credit to one Lamston, a goldsmith, who has bought divers things for the Queen's use at Antwerp, but it is not to exceed 1,000 marks.
Draft, chiefly in Cecil's hand. Endd. Pp. 4.
[Dec. 14.]1485. Another copy of the above, with some variations and additions, dated Dec. 20. One of a series of transcripts.
Dec. 15.1486. Smith to Throckmorton.
Has moved the Queen that he and Mr. Somer might visit him, for they understood that he was not well at ease, and is now sending Somer into England. The Queen, after advising with her Council, said that they might go. This day they are busy making their long despatch, but to-morrow they hope to visit him, and intend to return here that night.— Paris, 15 Dec. 1563.
Copy.
Dec. 15.1487. Cuerton to Challoner.
1. All the country cry out upon the English men-of-war, for they have done great hurt to Spaniards. Knows that within these three months they have taken, first, a French ship laden with linen cloth, most of the goods Spanish, to the value of 12,000 ducats, which should have come to this town; a French ship of war worth 7,000 ducats, with all Spanish goods; and two French ships which Stuckley took out of a port in Galicia, laden with Spanish goods worth 30,000 ducats. On this coast an English met a Spanish ship and hurt nine of her men. Here in Santander was one Phetipas with two ships of war; there came in a Spaniard laden with iron and rosin, which he took, and with seven or eight of his men went to sea with her and has been no more heard of.
2. Yesterday came other news of a ship of this town of 250 tons, laden with wool for Flanders, which (at Ushant) met five English men-of-war who spoilt her; there went in her two grey friars, one was slain, and two or three other men.
3. Three days past there came a provision from the King to stay all men-of-war coming to this coast, and put them in prison, and to make "provans" in secret of all the hurt that they have received and to send it to the King. If there be not a remedy found, the just will pay for the sinners. Phetipas was set forth by the Lord Deputy of Ireland, he has been an ill man of long time upon the seas. A Spaniard had a letter two days past, which said that there died still in London 2,000 a week. There is great talk how all Christian Kings shall go against England, concluded in the Council.— Bilboa, 15 Dec. 1563. Signed.
Orig., with seal. Add. Endd. by Challoner. Pp. 4.
Dec. 16.1488. Alphonso Truxillo to Challoner.
Details respecting the proceedings of Don Alvaro De Bacan in the dispute between the captains of the English and French ships in the port of Gibraltar.—Madrid, 16 Dec. 1563
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Challoner. Span. Pp. 3.
Dec. 17.1489. The Queen to Smith.
1. Perceives that his travails with the French have taken no more effect than heretofore. She means to change her course he having offered them all she prescribed in her last to obtain a treaty. Indeed she is sorry that he proceeded to open all those degrees at one instant, without more pausing to see what would have come from them; for by that and his former yielding to them (specially by his professing himself devoted to peace as he did), she thinks they are grown to much pride. Therefore her meaning is that he should upon the receipt of these letters break off that communication and desire audience, and say to the King that she perceives by their refusal of her offers to come to a treaty, and by their saying to him that they must seek peace that have need thereof his counsellors imagine otherwise of her intentions herein than they shall find in the end. She has therefore commanded him to forbear troubling the King therein in this on any other sort.
2. He may say also that she conceived such offence of their refusals of all her offers, that she has sent the bearer to inhibit him to go any further with them. And because his knowledge of French does not serve him so well as his Latin she would that he should speak in that tongue.
3. If by his private treaty with them before the coming of her letters he shall find no sure hope of the ratification of the treaty of Cambresis for the matter of Calais, then he shall (without attempting them any further) proceed with the King as above prescribed; using himself in such sort as that they may find a change as well in him as in her for seeking peace at their hands, from what they have hitherto imagined.
4. If by this message he shall find them more reasonable towards accepting Sir Nicholas to treat, or to any of her former offers, yet he shall say thereto that he has now no other commission but to utter this message of her intention to leave off; and yet he may say he will advertise her of their answer to him, and that no cause moved her to leave off but their refusal to accept her offers. She would that he should also say to the Prince of Condé that she has hitherto forborne to demand the money which she lent him and his confederates, but finding him forgetful thereof, she requires him to remember his promises and bonds which she has; and if he will not make payment Smith shall say she means to notify the same to such princes of Christendom as have been privy of his estate and dealings with her.
Draft, corrected by Cecil. Endd. Pp. 8.
Dec. 17.1490. [The Queen to Smith.]
1. After causing hers to be written thus far, the French Ambassador required further answer of her, that he might advertise the King. This Sunday he came to her, using good words to move her to accord to peace. He pressed that he [Smith] might have full authority to proceed not only to treat but to end. She answered that as for his further dealing, seeing she perceived that the King was disposed to satisfy her for the offences she had conceived, and so pressed her to renew the treaty, he [Smith] should again repair to the King, and if he finds reason offered he should accept it, and should end the whole matter.
2. The French Ambassador took her answer in good part, but yet by some byeword pretended great difficulty to have any other accord made than by the reservations, without mentioning anything of the hostages. He also required that few might be privy to the authority she gave him, for he seemed to note that there were some persons very unwilling to have any peace betwixt them; but whom he did not signify.
3. Smith shall prosecute the obtaining of the treaty of Cambresis, and none else, being of less commodity; but if they will not come to that, then to forbear to devise any other, or seem to allow of any other, but leave off and advertise her.
Draft in Cecil's hol. Pp. 2.
Dec. 17.1491. Throckmorton to [Cecil].
Remains in prison, with worse treatment than at any time since his arrest, and yet all the favour that can be devised is shown to the French Ambassador and his nation. Has heard from the French Ambassador that Cecil of all the Council yields to the writer's evil using here, and impugns the equal using of the French Ambassador there. His stolen leisure to say more was cut off by the coming of his guards.—14 Dec. 1563. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Pp. 4.
Dec. 17.1492. Challoner to the Queen.
Commends the bearer to her, a brother of Lord Morley, who returns into his natural country.—Balbastro, 17 Dec. 1563. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. Pp. 3.
Dec. 17.1493. Cuerton to Challoner.
There are so few that go that it is hard to write to him or hear from him. The General Council will be ended by the middle of this month, and there is much talk what will become of England. There is news that English men-of-war have taken, on the coast of Brittany, fifty-two sail of Frenchmen, laden from Bordeaux with wine and other merchandise. —Bilboa, 17 Dec. 1563. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Challoner. Pp. 2.
Dec. 18.1494. Throckmorton to Smith.
About sending on Monday he trusts he will speak with M. L'Aubespine, to whom he should say nothing of his desire to speak with the Admiral.— St. Germain, 18 Dec. 1563.
Copy.
Dec. 18.1495. Smith to Cecil.
Touching the imputation that his success is not so good as the Queen would wish, he has not swerved from his instructions. Throckmorton suspects him, but the letters signed by him will clear the writer of all suspicions conceived by the Queen against him. Somebody has written home more than the truth. Mauvissiere came now with their despatch, to whom he [Cecil] and the Queen should say that Smith wrote well of him. It were not amiss that he should have some present at his departure. If Cecil be determined to deny the hostages, let it be done with gentleness. Has sent by Somer the judgment of Halicarnassus upon Thucydides; Onuphrius and Polydore tarry for Barlow's coming in the carriage.— Paris, 18 Dec. 1563. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. Pp. 4.
Dec. 18.1496. The Queen to the Regent of Flanders.
Justice is administered with as much favour and expedition to the subjects of the King of Spain as to her own, whereof the Regent receives no knowledge. This arises because the King sends no Ambassador in place of the one lately deceased. She therefore has determined that certain of her ministers shall have special commission to hear all complaints of the subjects of the Low Countries for marine causes; and will send one of hers thither to make declaration of all causes whereof complaints have been made since the death of the Ambassador.
Draft in Cecil's hol. Pp. 4.
Dec. 18.1497. Draft of a translation of the above into French.
Endd. Pp. 4.
Dec. 18.1498. The Queen to the Nobility of the Low Countries.
Has received lately many letters from the Regent of the Low Countries, complaining of lack of justice. No notice is taken of her favourable usage of the people of the Low Countries, but sinister reports are made by men that seek their gain by fraud.
Draft in Cecil's hol. Pp. 2.
Dec. 18.1499. Translation of the preceding into French.
Endd. Pp. 2.
Dec. 18.1500. Francis Challoner to Sir Thomas Challoner.
1. Has at last obtained letters for his revocation, which he sends. Besides the 420 reals which Challoner gave Brackenbury he has received here 40l.; wherefore he suspects that he betook to Mr. Secretary's hands all the letters which he brought. He confessed that Mr. Secretary had him in strict examination touching Challoner's conversation there and at home. Touching Farnham he thinks he has done him wrong by willing him to stay here, as he has laid out to the value of 200 marks for treble usance upon his return from Toledo, and if he should not make that voyage he is in danger to lose the principal. Touching the hangings, for the redemption whereof he alleges to have paid 70l., they have not yet returned to his wardrobe. Has learnt that they were brought in a cart, and remained long on a table in the parlour afore Percival's departure; and having caused Percival's wife to be examined thereof, she confesses the same, and that they are presently in her custody. Dares not enter his house to try out the truth by reason of the plague with which she has infected it; but he rather believes that Percival has laid the same to gage, or let them out to hire.
2. His diets were despatched by William Raven through Farnham's order, which if it had not been done so soon no more had been paid to him by reason of the Queen's restraint; for that Sir Richard Sackville swore to him that when he showed to her a note of such sums as had lately been paid out of the exchequer, she (finding his diets therein) stormed wonderfully thereat, and said that he was an evil officer in suffering the payment thereof, for (considering she minded his revocation) 100l. in reward to bear his charges home should have sufficed. As for his rents of Gisburne and Steeple Claydon, they are appointed by Farnham to pay Mrs. Penne and others; for she made suit to have part of Challoner's diets stayed for her debt, and if she be not paid shortly the penalty will be taken and Mr. Ferrars troubled with the bond. What answer was made by Mr. Secretary from the Queen touching the license of beer, Popley can report to him.
3. Perceives by many documents, whereof he has privately told Popley, that Challoner has no cause to make any great account of Mr. Secretary's friendship, for he examined his men strictly of his behaviour there and at home in time past, intercepted some of his letters, and willed the writer flatly to stay of making any other suit for him until he be returned; whereby he smells that he means then, in stopping his mouth for any recompense, to lay misdemeanour to his charge. Yet seeing the most part of those matters tend only to the evil governance of his family, with the choice of unmeet men, he shall need to clear but one for a privy inking given to him by Lord Robert, who is his very friend, but who nevertheless partly conceives unkindness that he has received no answer to his letter.
4. The Queen is entirely given over to love, hunting, hawking, and dancing; consuming day and night with trifles; nothing is treated earnestly; and though all things go wrong they jest, and he who invents most ways of wasting time is regarded as one worthy of honour. (fn. 3)
5. By many intelligences he sees none other but wars must ensue with France ere long. Sundry wise men here marvel how he has got his revocation so soon without substitution, and there are those who think that upon repentance had the same will be countermanded. Therefore he has charged Robert to haste towards him, and wishes him forthwith to take his leave and return, not by the beaten way to Bilboa, but along the coast of Portugal to Cape Finisterre, and thereabouts take shipping to the Head of Kinsale or Cork, and thence come to Dublin; for unless he does this very secretly one of two things will follow, viz., going the nearest way he will be either countermanded or taken prisoner by sea. This way will not only save him money but also will gain him some; for he may send a man afore him to lade a ship with iron for Dublin, where it will be readily and dearly sold, in which ship he may also pass himself.
6. Sir Maurice Denys died at Portsmouth of the plague last summer, and Lord Mountjoy will go to Florida. St. Oswald is mortgaged to Robert Saville for 3,000l. Sir Ambrose Cave has already set such foot in North Mims, that Challoner may have small hope to compass it of young Moore. Concerning Lord Robert Dudley's secret monition afore touched, because the Queen is much incensed against him (especially for the bringing over of Arthur and Percival, which was so foolishly handled), first of all he must put them both away, as neither come over for these two years, so that it may seem that he never sent for them, in the denial whereof he must stand stoutly. If this be not done with speed, never a friend will dare stand by him. He may make Arthur a "cortegiano," and put Percival as a servidore with Sir Richard Shelley. He is a knave not to be kept for divers causes, and namely not to wait in his chamber, for revealing all secret talk and other behaviour of Challoner and his friends. He makes his account, at Challoner's only charge, to be perpetually found with his wife and children, wherefore he should rid his hands of them all now; wherefore the writer determines to rid Challoner's house of her and her children forthwith, principally because (contrary to his warning) she would neither keep them at her own house in Cornhill in this dangerous season, nor restrain them from haunting other houses infected, nor remove them, after one fell sick of the plague; but would retain them there to poison Challoner's house. Secondly, for keeping back many packets sent by Challoner. Thirdly, for laying out his stuff to gage to serve her necessity. Above all he must get rid of Arthur and Percival; for if he retains Arthur it will be a sore hindrance to his preferment in marriage, seeing that two countesses are to be had now, among others worth the having.
7. His tenants of St. Bees are like to pay the arrearages by distresses, which they should have done afore, fining throughout to him at his entry into the fee-farm, whereas now they shall pay somewhat more for the delay; but in the meantime they will howl and yell like devils. The Queen by letters calls hastily for all debts due to her, threatening the exaction of the penalties; for the merchants of Antwerp call for their debt, and will forbear no longer upon any interest. Therefore he would advise him to linger by the way in Ireland that the brunt of this be past, and his Lady Day's rents due. He may do this well, seeing the letter for his revocation imports that he may journey at leisure for his sickness, the copy whereof he got from Mr. Ascham to send with his packet; but when Mr. Secretary knew it he "chode" Mr. Ascham much, and willed him to write another copy to send with the Queen's packet. Their brother John was lately spoiled in Lambey of all that he had that might well be taken away, which chanced about Allhallowtide last, by two French ships of war which came there unawares; wherefore Challoner's presence by the way would much comfort him. Will help him to exchange all his lands northwards for lands in the heart of the county of Devon.—From the Court, 18 Dec. 1563. Signed.
Orig. Hol., with seal. Add. Endd. Pp. 11.
Dec. 18.1501. Sir Richard Shelley to Cecil.
Wrote to him these months past, desiring his favour to the Lord Keeper for the due examining of a lease that one Hatchman most falsely pretends to have of him by word only. Acknowledges his kindness to himself and to his brother, Sir James Shelley, who (if he have luck to his skill and courage) will so employ himself, on the sea especially, that Cecil will have both shown friendship and tendered the Queen's service; for he is more martial and given to the wars than was their brother Edward, who (as Cecil saw) thought himself dishonoured if he were not the first who should venture his person upon the enemy among so many thousand soldiers as were at that terrible battle of Musselborough field. Sir Thomas Challoner has honoured with verses his brother's death, which book he sends to Lady Cecil, whom also he thanks for the preferment of his brother James.— Moncon, 18 Dec. 1563. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. Pp. 3.
Dec. 18.1502. Guido Gianetti to the Queen.
Account of the conclusion of the Council of Trent, the articles last discussed, the movements of the cardinals and the ambassadors, etc.—Venice, 18 Dec. 1563.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. Ital. Pp. 4.
Dec. 18.1503. Guido Gianetti to Cecil.
In his letter in Italian he has mentioned the end of the Council of Trent. It is strange that the Pope did not see that such an ending would be injurious to the See of Rome. They have lost one thing, however, for the future, and that is that when the people urge on their Prince to reform religion, or the Prince the Pope, they used to refer them to the intended council. If the envoys of the Emperor and King Charles were asked if they had obtained those points with which they were charged, they could not answer satisfactorily. Also if it were asked whether this synod has united the Church, it is known what the answer must be.—Venice, 18 Dec. 1563. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Lat. Pp. 2.
Dec 18.1504. Sebastiano Bruschetto to Antonio Bruschetto.
Wrote to him on the 12th, and on the 13th received his of Nov. 13, very acceptable to all of them, his friend especially, as it appears by it that the affair has begun so prosperously. Is sorry to see that his previous letters fared so badly; it was no fault of the writer. Two packets of letters have not been received, dated 28 Sept. and 1 Oct., addressed to the Captain of Antwerp.—Rome, 18 Dec. 1563. Signed.
Orig. Hol., with armorial seal. Add. Endd. Ital. Pp.3.
Dec. 19.1505. Smith to the Queen.
1. Immediately after the return of Throckmorton to prison the writer was visited by MM. De Champ and Mauvissiere, trying to find whether Somer had power to treat or not. The Constable also sent his cousin, M. De Sancy. Answered that he would take what God would send; but said that he would talk with De L'Aubespine, who has most credit with the Queen. It was answered that he durst not do so without her privity; whereupon she said she would talk with him herself alone.
2. On Friday the 5th he came to the Louvre, where he had long talk with her; first about Throckmorton, then about the peace. She said she had always found Smith reasonable, but they look for no good at Throckmorton's hands. He said he would adventure to treat alone. She asked if he had a power, and on his reply that he had, asked to see it. He said he had it not here, and the charge was too great for him to treat alone; but he would declare his fancy to her, to which she consented.
3. He proposed that the treaty of Cambresis should be ratified. "Did he mean," she said, "that they should give up their right to Calais? She dared not speak of it." Smith said that both claimed it, and neither would yield. She wished that either the King or the Duke of Orleans were old enough to match with Elizabeth, and so solve all this trouble. She went into a chamber where Smith and Somer found the Chancellor, the Constable, the Cardinal of Bourbon, the Bishop of Limoges, and Secretary Bourdin, to whom she wished the writer to declare his mind; which when he did, as he had done to the Queen Mother, they said they durst not move it for their lives. The Constable proposed that if they could not speak of a peace they should of a truce, and that they should meet next day at Villeroy's house.
4. On the 11th he and Somer met the Bishop of Limoges and L'Aubespine at Villeroy's house, where they showed each other their commissions. Fault was found on both sides, but were not pressed. They said they would demand of her all the money that this last war had cost them, 800,000 crowns which the Rhinegrave had spent before Newhaven, and 4,000,000 by the King's company, besides infinite other treasure. Smith demanded all the charges she has been at since 1559 by their attempts in Scotland, the delivery of Calais, the arrears of the pensions and debt due to the crown of England. All these demands, however, he said, only occasioned delays, and repeated the motion of the previous day, viz., that the King be set in the estate he was at his coming to the throne. The French answered that they took that treaty to be void, and that Calais was theirs by three acts of the English, viz., by the invasion of Scotland, by taking Newhaven, and by paying 3,000 pistoliers against the King; they therefore demanded Calais and the charges of these three wars. If Smith spoke of Calais they must press him to confess the breach of the treaty. As for the treaty of Edinburgh, it was no treaty, the King would not agree to such dishonourable articles, and therefore it was never confirmed; their Commissioners indeed had signed it, but no treaty was of effect until the Prince had ratified it. Smith said that the act ratified it, for they abstained from the arms and title usurped and withdrew their troops. They said that the Queen bore the arms of France, which he defended as no new thing. The French then said that she had invaded Newhaven. Smith answered that she did it to help the King. They asked why she kept it by force? Smith said because she had no reason of Calais, which, by their attempt in Scotland, was due to her, and she had been willing to refer it to arbitration. They said that no foreign prince should be judge between them; also that she had been the occasion of all these troubles, and of the change of religion in Scotland and France, and that she wrought underhand by practising with the subjects in both. They laid to her charge the departing of the Earl of Arran out of this realm by her solicitation. Smith said that if it were true he would rather glory in it than excuse it. At the request of the subjects she took pity on them and aided them. He had of them for conclusion that the ratification of the treaty of Cambresis was forbidden, and they asked him to proceed without the asking either of it or of Calais. The Bishop of Limoges suggested an article for a general peace, and another to secure everyone's right. Smith said he would consider of it.
5. On Monday, 13th, they again met, and (to prevent mistakes) he presented the article which he sends herewith, noted A. They said they never would agree to it, nor did any Councillor in France dare move it to the King. They then wrote it as at B. Smith then wrote his demands as at C, which they disputing, he wrote as at D, which they said was the sum of their motion, save that there should be a special clause for the hostages to be sent home; whereupon he added as at E. They said the hostages were now gentlemen wrongfully imprisoned, the treaty being so manifestly broken, against which Smith argued at length, and said that this third adjoined reason derogated the second.
6. The Bishop of Limoges then said that the Constable had referred to another way, viz., a truce. Smith repeated his former answer thereto, made at Meulan, and asked into what truce they would enter ? They said they would let him see some next day.
7. On Tuesday they met again. For the hostages they were resolute as before, and he as resolute that he durst not move her herein. He asked for the truces; they said they could show him none, but that the Bishop had made notes of certain truces, and that they had come more to the opinion of its expediency, provided these four gentlemen (they would not call them hostages) were liberated. When Smith said he could not, they referred him to speak with the Queen and Council next day.
8. On Wednesday he declared to the Queen in the Louvre that their stay is only upon the article of the hostages. She said it touched the King's honour to have the gentlemen there, they being no hostages, and asked him to hear the Council. The Constable (who was brought in in a chair, he having the gout,) spoke as the Queen had done, and Smith replied as before. They discussed the question for what they were hostages, for Calais, or for the penalty? Smith asked if they would make war for four gentlemen? The Constable said that they would for the King's honour. He said he had no hope; whereupon they willed him to signify their doings to her.
9. He asked to visit Sir Nicholas; the Queen said she would consult her Council, who sent their licence, and he went on the 17th.
10. In these negociations he always pressed for Throckmorton's liberty, and was answered that when the hostages were dismissed he also should be sent home. They stood in this that whether they had peace or truce they would first have their hostages, and that the English should never have Sir Nicholas unless the hostages were delivered. Asks for further instructions.—Paris, 19 Dec. 1563. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd.: By Mr. Somers. Pp. 23.
Dec. 19.1506. The Duchess of Parma to the Queen.
Reminds her of the remonstrance made last summer by M. D'Assonleville about the ill-treatment of the Spaniards by the English, and of the vexatious imposition of duties on their merchandises. The Lords of the Council having declared that these last were in accordance with the law, the only remedy that the King has is to impose similar duties on English merchandise; and he sends a letter to her announcing his regret at having to do so by Jaques de la Torre, the bearer of this. As to her complaints about the injuries done to her subjects, she has long ago ordered the officers of Antwerp to inquire into them and give satisfaction.—Brussels, 19 Dec. 1563. Signed.
Orig., with seal. Add. Endd. Fr. Broadside.
Dec. 19.1507. The Duchess of Parma to the Queen.
Is sorry that she has to make daily complaints of the depredations committed on the King of Spain's subjects on the coast of England, not only by unknown persons but by her own men-of-war. Amongst others Thomas Cotton, captain of the Admiral's ship, the Phoenix, has taken off Boulogne a vessel of Anthony Derrick, bound from Antwerp to St. Valery, and has sent her to England. The said Cotton and his ship have been arrested at Flushing, where he used most injurious speech against the King. Desires that she will order him to be punished as an example.— Brussels, 19 Dec. 1563. Signed.
Orig., with seal. Add. Endd. Fr. Broadside.
Dec. 19.1508. Challoner to the Queen.
1. Complains that he has no news or instructions from home, and desires some answer to his letters of the 15th and 30th August, and the 7th and 23rd October, and touching the King's offer made to him by the Duke of Alva.
2. She should consider the qualities and inclinations of other princes, and the emulation of the four greatest, on whom depends the "sute" of the rest. The King of Spain has got such a start before his neighbour of France, as for a season he is like to hold it. The two greatest in name and title (but not to be compared in force with the others), are the Emperor and the Roman prelate; each studies to recover what he has lost. Considering the Emperor's felicity by the establishment of his house, with the marriage of so many daughters to princes of high quality, and this great affair of the election of Maximilian to succeed him; the greatest of these four may seek with the King of the Romans for a straight league of amity.
3. The French King (nothing forgetting his grandsire's and father's quarrels) falls also in account what quarrels Maximilian pretends, supposing that if the Emperor were deceased, the son would easily be enticed with the French offers. The King of Spain has no less gone about to divert Maximilian from France, by procuring a marriage for the Prince of Spain to Maximilian's eldest daughter; and under colour of bringing up, to have the two eldest sons of the said King conveyed hither, who are looked for.
4. There are besides, the three marriages proposed by the Cardinal of Lorraine, at his late being at Inspruck, to the Emperor; viz., the King of the Roman's eldest or second daughter with the French King; one of the Emperor's daughters with the Duke of Ferrara (which is already concluded, as also the marriage of another of them with the Prince of Florence); thirdly, the marriage of the Archduke Charles with the Queen of Scots. The Cardinal of Lorraine is not only of much credit in the French Court, but also of such estimation with the Pope that at his last being at Rome, he was not only honoured with a lodging in the Vatican, but also visited by the Pope at the Cardinal's own chamber, a demonstration of such singular favour as has never aforetimes in like sort been used. Wherefore the Trentish Council once ended (which shall break up afore Christmas), if the Cardinal repair to the Emperor for further prosecution of his overtures, it is to be deemed that jointly therewith he will propone some other articles, partly backed with Rome's authority, and partly grounded upon these wars with France; the argument whereof proceeding from a principal enemy cannot tend to any benefit to the Queen's affairs. It is no small thing for the French King that her enemy should match with an Emperor elect, being otherwise so strongly allied; a greater thing it were if this Scottish marriage should move the Emperor directly in favour of the pretences of his son and daughter-in-law to join with the French upon such capitulations as princes often scretly conclude. Suspects the favour shown to the Cardinal at Rome, and the diligence of the Roman See to pretermit no occasions of recovery of the ground they have lost. A pasquil (which he sent to her last summer) touching the Don Luis De Avila's errands to Rome may give some light of what is handled in covert. The greatest of them does not so trust to his own force but that he has an eye to his neighbour's proceedings; esteeming his state the more confirmed the more strings of amity he has combined with others; only the Queen (inferior to none in power, but whose power the best affected would not wish to see adventured against many of them at once,) stands without other buttress, having open war with one of the mightiest, and not far assured of the friendship of the other.
5. Wrote on October 23rd that if the war lasted, the piracies committed by their adventurers on the sea were likely to breed matter of arrest, and further "pyke." Already two adventurers at Bermeo, one of Plymouth at St. Sebastian, and eight at Gibraltar, are detained under arrest by the governor by order from the King, who will not suffer the French vessels to be molested in any of the Spanish streams. Has had hitherto no instructions from the owners interested. Fears that the licentiousness of a few adventurers will be cause that a number of honest merchants shall be undone. Either a peace is to be thought upon with France, or else the King of Spain's amity more certainly to be embraced.
6. The Cortes at Monçon have hitherto proceeded slowly, the King being irked with his living here, where he has been infested with the gout in one of his toes, being the first time that he has felt it. The Cortes are prolonged to January. The King will then take his journey to Barcelona, thence to Valencia, and so back to Castile, either to Madrid or Toledo, where also a lying bruit goes that he intends to be crowned Emperador de las Yndias by virtue of a bull from Rome obtained by Don Luis De Avila, who in company with the Ambassador Vargas is on his way returning. Of the King's repair into Flanders, he has heard mutterings again among the Netherlanders.
7. The Prince of Spain has twice or thrice fallen sick again. Now he is well and rides abroad, but always his sickly constitution and ill diet, feeding so immoderately, will hardly entertain long health. The King himself in such suits as the Prince prefers does not grieve him with denials.
8. From Italy the last letters make mention that the Council of Trent will be finished afore Christmas. Sends herewith an oration which he thinks made the audience to startle, made by the French Ambassador. A few days past there arrived out of France, with a dozen horses, a gentleman, lieutenant to M. D'Anville, Governor of Provence and Languedoc. Some say his errand was but of light moment, others that he came from the Court about Fontainbleau to signify his master's marriage; others say that it was to solicit an interview betwixt this King and the Queen Mother. Of such an interview the letters from Italy have once or twice made mention, adding also the Pope and the Emperor, and naming Villa Franca for the place. There is no Ambassador appointed to succeed the Bishop of Aquila; has heard that it should be Don Juan de Mendoza, a gentleman of the short robe. Begs again for his revocation and that she will relieve his poor case—Balbastro, 10 Dec. 1563.
9. P. S.—Has respited this letter for a day or two. On the 11th there arrived the Bishop of Vintimiglia from the Pope, and another from Rome is despatched to France. Don Luis De Avila will be shortly here. What he wrote about the King's coronation at Toledo is not without grounds.
10. The Duke of Florence was of late in great danger, having forty-six hours rested in great torment of the stone. The widowed Queen of Navarre is repairing towards the French Court, and leads her son with her; does not know whether it be for the marriage with Margaret, the French King's youngest sister. The Pope proposes the creation of new Cardinals, most part Italians, divers ultramontanes, to the number of a dozen or more.
11. These Cortes achieved the King will return with speed to Madrid or Toledo, and thence perchance in August will take his voyage for Flanders, which if he do, and in the meantime there is no "atonement" concluded between her and France, Challoner would like his neighbourhood somewhat further off; for though he himself be a prince of good disposition and soft nature given to tranquillity, yet Challoner likes not the humour of some who may do most with him.
12. Being ready to close this letter, Sir Clement Smyth's son (late Remembrancer of the Exchequer) arrived at Monçon with six horses and alighted at Don Francisco De Castillo's lodging, the principal Alcade, with whom he had acquaintance in England. He has come out of Italy, having passed through Provence and Languedoc. His coming has filled this Court full of speech, scheming diversely his errand. He has been with Gonzalo Perez and others, and intends to speak with the King. He has not yet resorted to Challoner at which he marvels. The Bishop of Vintimiglia's errand is to solicit the meeting above mentioned.
13. The Pope has cited the Queen Dowager of Navarre personally to appear at Rome within six months.
14. The Queen should spare her treasure and forces for the necessary opposite to such attempts as are thought upon by some that are not the most displeased that her powder should be spent upon other enterprises. It is not for nought that the King despatches again Don Francis De Alaba to the French Court, and thence back to the Duke of Savoy. The Cortes here end very shortly. The sons of the King of the Romans are now more coldly spoken of, and not looked for before next spring. Cannot come by any copy of the new pragmaticas established in the late Cortes of Madrid. Understands that they condescended that the juros (a rent staple issuing out of the crown patrimony to private persons for money lent), should be abased from ten to seven in the hundred, wherewith the King shall save 70,000 ducats yearly.
15. The Genoese merchants are shrewdly handled at Seville about the transporting of money out of the realm, eight or ten of the principal are under arrest sent to Madrid; their composition will cost them half a million. For Ambassador to her a Canonico of Toledo, called Don Diego De Guzman, shall be sent. Sends the letters of Gonzalo Perez and Erasso, who also affirm the same. Three weeks past, in conference with some of the Council, he discoursed what manner of person he thought would be most grateful to her. They make this election because they send to a place of contrary religion and he is not so apt to receive any new impression; secondly, his quality of the long robe has been considered, where those of the short robe are commonly unlearned. Purposes at his repair to the King to move him in three special points; one touching the arrest of the ships, another touching this Ambassador elect, when he will enlarge his fantasy of the late Bishop's behaviour, and thirdly, will learn whether Mr. Smyth has spoken with the King, and will inform him of what degree and rank he is. Hopes soon to hear some news of his successor.—Balbastro, 19 Dec. 1563. Signed.
Orig. Draft in Challoner's hol. Endd. Pp. 61.
Dec. 19.1509. Challoner to William Phayre.
Seeing that the King has willed that on Tuesday next he should solicit further for an audience, he has thought meet to be at Monçon, where he desires him to prepare a honest lodging for him on Tuesday night.—Balbastro, 19 Dec. 1563. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Challoner: To Phayre, at Monzon. Pp. 3.
Dec. 19.1510. Challoner to William Phayre.
Desires him to speak to Santoya to have audience with the King to-morrow before his riding forth on hunting.— 19 Dec. 1563. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add.: To Phayre, at Monzon. Endd. by Phayre. Pp. 2.
Dec. 19.1511. William Phayre to Challoner.
Was this morning at the palace, where he saw the King at Mass and at dinner, where was such a wonderful resort of people that he had scant place to sit at his board. Antonio Rete told him that he had a letter from the Duke of Ferrara for Challoner. Yesternight the King was at the Parliament house until one o'clock; that which is resolved is that Valencia is despatched and has concluded. Aragon and Valencia make great haste. Erasso answered him, touching the ships, that the King had sent down a commissioner to take information of the truth whether they are merchants or no, which has not come yet. He told him that the Ambassador would be here within three days. At 12 o'clock he received Challoner's letter, and as soon as he had dined went to the palace and spoke with Santoya almost two hours, and demanded an audience. He brought answer from the King that he departs not at all until the time for his departure for altogether, which will be shortly. If Challoner will send to him upon Tuesday he will appoint a time. Don Francisco De Castilla tells him that he knows no more of Mr. Smith but that he is a gentleman and comes hither to see the King and this Court; upon Tuesday he departs about certain matters in Valencia about which the King sends him.—Monçon, 19 Dec. 1563. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. Pp. 3.
Dec. 20.1512. Valentine Browne to the Privy Council.
Having received 600l. more than he looked for from the receivers of the northern counties, begs that full pay be made to the soldiers and others here, and that his accounts be settled, now three years behind.—Berwick, 20 Dec. 1563. Signed.
Orig., with seal. Add. Endd. Pp. 2.
Dec. 20.1513. Valentine Browne to Cecil.
Randolph, when last here, obtained the Queen's pardon for John Pile, Scotchman, who is imprisoned here and condemned to die for attempts against this town. For many evil turns done to Browne by thefts of his oxen and sheep, and also to divers of this garrison, special travail was taken in his apprehension, and since then their cattle have gone in quiet. Begs, therefore, that her grant be conditional that he make restitution of the goods stolen by him and his accomplices, and agree with those who took him before he be delivered from prison. The Lairds of Blackater and Farniehirste offered the writer 500 marks for his help, which moved Randolph to be suitor for him; the fifth whereof would well encourage those who took him and others here to apply to such services when occasion requires; and the dismissing him without any consideration of them would be utter discouragement to such.— Berwick, 20 Dec. 1563. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. Pp. 2.
Dec. 20.1514. Charges at Berwick.
The wages of 1,450 men at Berwick, amounting to 20,092l. 6s. 2d. for the year ending Christmas 1563.
Orig., with a few notes by Cecil, and endd. by him: 20 Dec. 1563. Pp. 3.
Dec. 20.1515. Throckmorton to Smith.
The bearer has occasion to tarry till Tuesday, by whom he may send him word what qualification Somer has found of their malice. If M. Mauvissiere be as vigilant as he seems, Somer shall oversleep himself by the way.—St. Germain, 20 Dec. 1563.
Copy.
Dec. 20.1516. Smith to Throckmorton.
Yesterday Somer departed; and that night there was some broil at the Court. The Constable has gone to Chantilly; yesterday he was met at St. Denis. Somer has not yet spoken with the Constable. The Court will go to Bois de Vincennes. —Paris, 20 Dec. 1563.
Copy.
Dec. 20.1517. Smith to Cecil.
1. Has spoken with divers printers here of Mr. Haddon's book, who make a difficulty except they have the privilege of the King. If he sends it he will get it printed.—Paris, 20 Dec. 1563. Signed.
2. P.S.—Of last night's turmoil in the Court upon fear by news brought where the Admiral should have supped, the bearer can tell. This gentleman, Mr. Forbes, will by word of mouth more readily show him his case than he can by writing. Prays him to show him favour.—Paris, 20 Dec. 1563.
Orig. Add. Endd.: By Forbus. Pp. 2.
Dec. 20.1518. John Utenhove to Cecil.
1. The Bishop of London told him last week that Cecil had written to say that the Queen was unwilling to undertake so great an annual charge in Friesland, and that she intended to treat for peace with France. Does not think that the burden would be much for so powerful a sovereign, besides which the advantages would be great in having so experienced a leader, and his soldiers always ready for all events.
2. Has deferred giving an answer to the Chancellor, in hope that the Queen may come to a better resolution, and will therefore wait until he hears again from Cecil. If this matter is settled, hopes also that by means of the Count some arrangement may be made to facilitate the trade with Emden. If Cecil thinks that it would be better for him to solicit this matter himself, he will do so. The want of a messenger, on account of the plague, has prevented him from writing sooner. —London, 20 Dec. 1563. Signed: Jo. Utenhovius, Gandavus.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. Lat. Pp. 4.
Dec. 20.1519. Gresham to Cecil.
This morning at ten o'clock Candeler brought him the receipt of the bullion, having rated the fine silver at five shillings and five pence, and the gold at three pounds five shillings the ounce. Will wait upon Cecil to-morrow for his despatch. This day he sends his wife into Norfolk. Has ordered Clough to pay 2,000 crowns to Louson, so he desires warrant for the same.—Oysterlie, 20 Dec. 1563. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. Pp. 2.
[Dec. 20.]1520. Gresham's Account.
The sums received of Mr. Bull, Controller of the Mint, amount to 12,000l., consisting of gold and silver bullion, angels, French crowns, pistoles, and Spanish rials.
P. 1.
Dec. 20.1521. William Phayre to Challoner.
Has prepared a lodging for him and stable for ten horses, a handsome kitchen, three fair pieces without hangings or bedding; all things else shall be in good case. There is great bruit here of peace concluded between England and France. This morning there came a gentleman from the Council of Trent, who brings the conclusions of the said Council, and says certainly that sentence is given against England as schismatical. Has been about his girdle, and they ask five ducats for it.—Monçon, 20 Dec. 1563. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add.: To Challoner, at Balbastro. Endd. Pp. 3.
Dec. 20.1522. John Frampton to Challoner.
Requests his aid for the restoring of his creditors' goods, which were taken from him by the Inquisitors of Seville. A sedola was granted to Chamberlain that all the said goods should be delivered without any suit of law.—Cadiz, 20 Dec. 1563. Signed.
Orig. Hol., with seal. Add. Endd. by Challoner. Pp. 2

Footnotes

1 For another copy see Feb. 22, 1566.
2 In the copy mentioned in the following article this blank is filled up with the sum of 12,000l.
3 This paragraph is in Latin.