Elizabeth
December 1561, 11-20

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Institute of Historical Research

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Joseph Stevenson (editor)

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1866

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435-453

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'Elizabeth: December 1561, 11-20', Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 4: 1561-1562 (1866), pp. 435-453. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=73016 Date accessed: 02 August 2014.


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December 1561, 11-20

Dec. 12.715. Shakerley to Throckmorton.
1. Writes in answer to Throckmorton's inquiries. It is determined that twenty-four bishops and two archbishops shall go from France to the Council of Trent; but for addesso there go but six until the spring. They go very unwillingly. There is news from Rome that the Duke of Florence has sent his eldest son into Spain; whereof it is judged that King Philip being informed of things contrary to the Duke, he now sends his son as pledge, and to assuage the choler of Philip. Others judge that for so much money lent by the Duke to King Philip there is like to be a marriage with the Prince of Florence and some noble woman of Spain, wherein the Pope has much commended the Prince to him. The Prince coming to Rome to kiss the Pope's foot was met at the gate with all the Cardinals, as was his father and mother last year, with great shooting of ordnance at the castle St. Angelo; and the Pope in Consistory publico sat in order, as do all Popes receiving a Prince; and for six days he made his charges in Rome for him and his men, 400 horses and sixty-six mules. After the visiting of the Cardinals he took his way to Civita Vecchia, where were six galleys ready.
2. In Trent there was a tradiment against the cardinal of Trenta, who was in Rome, by certain friends of the Emperor to give Trent into the Emperor's hands, as of old time has been; but the Cardinal came in post and did great justice on his people who were the doers of this, and has broken friendship with the Emperor. Among the Cardinals there is great straitness of lodging, whereupon it comes that the plague is spied in divers places there. The holy churchmen say that it is an augury that God is ill displeased with so late making this Council, that so often has been determined of so holy Popes and great wise clerks; whereunto is answered of the other side, that it is a sign of the just chastisement that has to come on the Romish Church. In Trent there is one who prophesies that this is the last Pope. He is a Franciscan, an Italian born besides Perugia, sixty-two years old; he has left his religion and cast away his weeds, and put on an old covering of hair like a hermit, and cries daily out of the Pope; unto whom is little said, for the Cardinals and others say that he is mad. A bishop's man who lately came from thence says that he has spoken with this friar an hour together, and that he is excellently well learned.
3. "Our" Cardinal has ordered a preacher to preach every day in his chamber, to which none come but those of their own household. There is in Paris a Theatine, Padre Laynes, a Spaniard, who has obtained a church to preach in. Wishes Throckmorton would vouchsafe to hear his wise reasons, who like an old "suffister" cries as fine in images' favour as ever did the Bishop of Winchester.
4. M. Di Fermo, the Pope's Nuncio, yesternight in the Queen's chamber asked Shakerley if the Queen would send to the Council; who answered that he believed that she would do as other Princes did. Two days ago the Spanish Ambassador was long in talk with the King of Navarre, and after came down to "my" Cardinal, and both went up to the Queen, and after half an hour came up the King of Navarre and the Cardinal of Bourbon, tutto rosso et turbato. The Spanish Ambassador was wondrous hot with the Queen, and the same night the Cardinal sent away one in post to the Court of Savoy. Certain friends in Italy write him that secretly in Venice, Florence, and Rome, there is a league made betwixt the Pope, Re Philippo, il Duca di Fiorenza, et li Venitiani. This came from Ferrara, but he does not yet give it much credit, but it is true that at Genoa are landed 5,000 Spaniards, and at Naples 3,000, and in Milan they make men. There is besides Urbino, a worthy gentleman, and wondrous noble in blood, called the Marquis of Massa, who had as wife the Duke of Urbino's sister, who is lately dead; he has 25,000 crowns a year, and is about twentyseven, and has no brethren, and is very handsome and well favoured. This Marquis, if it shall please God and the Queen to give hearing, he will take upon him by help of such as can do it, to make him come into England and live as King, whereof they will soon see children, to save the crown and joy all England. Desires to know whether the King of Sweden's son comes into England this spring. One of these days he will steal to Throckmorton without leave, when he shall instruct him in all he has to do.—St. Germain. Signed.
Orig. Hol., with seal. Add. Endd.: 12 Dec. 1561. Pp. 4.
Dec. 12.716. John Rudyard to Challoner.
Has been at London according to his commands to pay his rents, but has not been able to pay as much as he ordered, because some of his tenants have been backward. Has been unable to sell his rent corn for 10l., and can only get 8l.; therefore he has not sold it. As for the loan of 40l. he will send it when he receives the lease of certain lands which he promised, and which he desires to have at the rent of 10l. Complains that he is unable to keep a horse, and therefore cannot attend to Challoner's business so well as he might. Unless a better provision is made for him he will be obliged to seek service under some other master. Was unable to attend on him before his departure, as he did not get his letter. Has paid Robert Farnam 131l., for which he has his quittance.—London, 12 Dec. 1561. Signed.
Orig. Hol., with seal. Add.: To Challoner, in Spain, and endd. by him. Pp. 3.
Dec. 13.717. Throckmorton to the Queen.
1. On the 11th inst. Sir James Shelley came to him, on his way home from Malta, who desired his letter to the Queen in his favour, which he gave. Throckmorton finds him a good subject; he acknowledges her for his Sovereign. He says he has sent letters to the same effect to him [Throckmorton], but these have not come to hand, else he would have informed her thereof. He does not seem to have wasted time in travel, but has made himself a meet servant to serve her in time of war, as well by sea as land, whereby he is more worthy to be cherished, for she has not a great store of gentlemen greatly affected for the sea. He was at the defeat of Gerbes last year, where he escaped very narrowly.
2. There has lately arisen such jealousy amongst these Princes, (principally for matters of religion, the rendition of the towns in Piedmont to the Duke of Savoy by the French, for the rendition of Navarre, or some recompence for the same, to the King of Navarre by the King of Spain, and for some other particuliarities comprised in the late treaty at Cambresis,) that all of them stand upon their guard, insomuch as the King has sent certain captains and companies to Metz, and more are likely to be sent shortly into Piedmont. M. Dosenze, gentleman of the chamber, is sent into Spain as it were to decipher that Prince's devotion, and M. De Rambouillet, another gentleman of the chamber, is sent into Almain to sound the Princes there, and secretly to solicit the King of Denmark to impeach the King of Sweden's coming to England; for these men do not like the matter, and for better provision against the same they begin to work two manner of practices in Scotland. One is by overtures to the Queen of great assuredness of their amity, and to desire the continuation of the league betwixt France and Scotland, with offer to perform all things comprised in the same, as entertaining of a hundred men of arms of Scotland, reserving to her the nomination of the captain and principal officers, and the continuation of the Scottish guard about this Prince. There is also offered by them to her some overtures (of which he cannot get any knowledge), annexed with a condition that this King may strike a stroke in her marriage.
3. He is sure that all these solicitations of the French tend to alienate the mind of the Queen of Scots from amity with the Queen. If this does not succeed according to their expectation, they have begun a practice and employed their ministers to win to their devotion the Duke of Châtellerault, the Earl of Arran, and all their well-wishers; and are in mind to draw unto them the Earl of Huntly, Lord Hume, and such as depend upon the said Earl, so that they may have a great faction there, and in time to come, the whole realm at their devotion. For this purpose the Duke of Châtellerault shall have his duchy restored to him, with the company of men of arms to his son, and the pensions to be paid again to such of that realm as were withholden. The French seek also to bestow the Earl of Arran in marriage.
4. Lately some ships upon the coast of Normandy, prepared for a merchant's voyage, were stopped, and some of them shall be put in readiness by the spring to make another voyage. The principal charge of which journey is given to John Rybault, sometime pensioner in England.
5. He lately wrote that Captain De la Sale, a good seaman, made offer to become her servant; who has very often of late required to know her resolution therein. He therefore desires to know her pleasure by the next concerning the said Captain.
6. In King Francis' time there was made eighteen Knights of the Order at once, so this King has lately made fifteen, to serve either his turn, or such as have the sway about him. He sends their names here enclosed. It is said before long their number will be augmented. There is some jealousy, seeing so many made at this time, and that M. De Montpesat (being a man of good service) is so long kept from it, whilst De Carres has it, who is the King of Navarre's servant. Some say the cause of Montpesat not having it, is, that he is lieutenant to the Duke of Guise.
7. Understands there is to be order given to hasten the fortification at Calais. The Queen may be advertised how the same proceeds by such of her own coast as haunt thither. The sending of the French clergy to the General Council hangs yet in suspense. The ministers of the reformed churches preach one day, where do assist the Queen of Navarre, the Prince of Condé, the Admiral, and divers other great personages, with a great multitude of the Court. The next day either some Cordelier, Jesuit, Jacobin, Minim, or other of the cloistered sects, preach, where are present the King, the Queen Mother, his brothers and sister, the King of Navarre, the Cardinal of Ferrara, and the other Cardinals, accompanied with such as lean to the See of Rome. The same order is used at Paris. The Protestants can obtain no churches, yet with such toleration as they have they haunt the assemblies daily in great numbers. Lately one of the sects of the Bonshommes (otherwise Minims), a famous preacher, and one that had won some credit with the Papists for his seditious railing, was in the night secretly taken forth of his lodgings and carried to the Court to answer to his calumniations. This is the most favourable act that he has seen done lately in favour of the Protestants and to the terror of the Papists.— Paris, 13 Dec. 1561. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 6.
Dec. 13.718. Throckmorton to the Lords of the Council.
On the 11th inst. the bearer hereof, Sir James Shelley, came to the writer in Paris, being on his way homeward from Malta, and desired him to give letters to their Lordships in his favour, which upon declaration of his allegiance to the Queen he did. The which (his allegiance) he saith he has recognized before by letters to Sir Thomas Chamberlain, and also by letters to him, which never came to his hands. Shelley has by his travels made himself a meet man to serve the Queen, especially in the time of war, as well by sea as land, whereby he is the more to be cherished, for there is no great store of gentlemen greatly affected for sea service, and experienced therewith. He was at the defeat of Gerbes last year, where he escaped very narrowly. He desires their Lordships to be means to the Queen for him.—Paris, 13 Dec. 1561. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
Dec. 13.719. Throckmorton to Cecil.
Letter of recommendation in favour of Sir James Shelley, Knight of the Order of Malta (similar to the preceding). Also desires to know the Queen's resolution concerning the French captain, named De la Sale, whom he mentioned in his former letters.—Paris, 13 Dec. 1561. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
Dec. 14.720. Lord Grey to Cecil.
1. Has received Cecil's letter wherein he writes that such messengers of the Earl of Lennox as he had in charge to apprehend are presently stayed at Northallerton, and that he thinks some fault will be imputed to him for neglecting order to prevent them.
2. Wrote on the 8th how Mr. Randolph advertised him that Barr passed into England by Carlisle, and of Gaston attending at Edinburgh for his despatch; so that it cannot be that both are now at Northallerton. Has been so vigilant and circumspect to the entries of these frontiers that they could not pass unattached. Albeit there is cause how he may be abused in the recourse of strangers, seeing some of his own nation are suffered to convey Scots through his march without licence or knowledge to the Warden, as the Earl of Northumberland caused Lord Kithe to be conveyed. Hears that the same practice is still working. Was resolved of the doubt he had of Forbes by Randolph's letters, at whose motion he is content to licence him to remain in the bishopric, where he can cause him at any time to be attached. Trusts that Cecil will remove his opinion of his negligence, wherewith he charges him. Has received a letter from Randolph enclosing a letter of intelligence from a secret friend, which he sends herewith.—Berwick, 14 Dec. 1561. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
Dec. 14.721. Charges at Berwick.
Expenses incurred for the garrison and works for the three quarters of a year ending at Michaelmas 1561, amounting to 23,172l.; money received and owing to the Queen, 23,639l. 5s. 11d.; to be paid at Christmas, 5,724l.; the above charges are to be met by 7,000l.
Orig. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 5.
Dec. 14.722. Another copy of the above, with notes by Val. Browne and a calculation at the end by Cecil.
Orig. Endd. by Cecil: 26 Dec. Pp. 5.
Dec. 14.723. Debt at Berwick.
The debt ending Michaelmas 1561 amounts to 23,172l., 8nd it is calculated that there has been (or will be) paid by the various receivers and others money to the amount of 23,909l. 11s.; also a calculation how the pay for the Christmas quarter, amounting to 5,724l., will be met.
Orig. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 4.
Dec. 14.724. Shakerley to Throckmorton.
1. The lateness of the writer's letter has been the occasion that fully he has not had the truth of such news as Throckmorton desired; but is this day informed of all, which very few in the Court know. The Pope has written to "our" Cardinal that the Emperor has asked all such honours and degrees as the Emperors of old time have had from Constantine to Frederick Barbarosso, who of his own will foolishly went to Rome with a rope about his neck, and kissing the Pope's foot, left all in his hands to rule. Seeing that the Pope, not only in Carlo Quinto's time, gave fastidio to the house of Austria, but at present makes with the Duke of Florence great friendship, which is not much in grace of King Philip, by the assent of one another the Emperor demands this. For which the Holy Father has called together all the Cardinals being in Rome, and has determined that the Cardinal of Pescara shall go down to Trent, with commission to the other Cardinals there, that they tarry for no man, but conclude the holy precepts of the holy Mother Church according as the most blessed Popes have done tofore; and has written to the Cardinal, Shakerley's master, with all haste to send away not only the Bishops of France, but also those that are in the Court. No stranger can enter Rome without being searched for letters. "Our" Cardinal is in no small travail, who for other things than religion came hither.
2. From the Emperor's Court and other places more near of Germany they have for most certain that the Emperor has demanded 500,000 crowns for his piatto, showing that his living does not extend to keep his hospitality, unto which a great part have granted and the other not; so that the Emperor asks to keep diet, knowing that there he shall please each man's heart, but the Duke of Saxony, the Count Palatine, the Landgrave, and many others will not consent. So that King Philip, understanding the secret working of these Princes with the King of Navarre, to make him King of Dakia (which kingdom pertends to the King of the Romans) and afterwards Emperor, to take clean away from the house of Austria the empire, for the great injury received of Charles V.,—most hotly pricks forth that the Emperor makes this diet in such place as the Princes cannot but choose to come, as Mentz in High Almaine. The Princes understanding this have sent to the King of Navarre their Ambassadors, giving out that they are come for money lent to the late King Henry, but the truth is they are come to offer to the King of Navarre 20,000 men, paid for six months, to aid himself and maintain their religion. It appears by a letter sent to the King of Navarre that the King of Spain knows how the matter goes, who this morning talked with the Queen and the Cardinal two great hours, and showed himself in great travail.
3. In Augsburg is made a sermon of a preacher there who has made such a work with his crying that his confession is shown all about and taken for a god, to the which many have believed and others sought to put him to death, which division goes contrary to the King of Navarre's proceedings. King Philip will give his sister to wife to the Duke of Ferrara, and his brother bastard to take Madame Lucretia, the Duke's sister. The Duke of Florence "is half in rothe " with King Philip, and there is like to fall of his side sword and fire. The other day a holy friar preached in the presence of the Court, but the preaching being without salt, the hearers stood laughing, the King playing with his dog, the Queen often asleep, the Cardinal plucked down his cap, and all the Italians took themselves ill satisfied.
4. Thanks him for his letter. Desires sore to turn home, but if he had any help from the Queen would go into Germany for two or three years, to see and hear the doings there, for any may guess that they will hear of great wars there and in other places. The Cardinal the other night asked him if there was an Ambassador of England here, as he came not to the Court, and said that it was a pity that there was no King in England. He answered that they trusted to have one shortly. The Cardinal said that if the English thought to live well they should take no stranger.— St. Germain, 2 o'clock after midnight. Signed.
Orig. Hol., with seal. Add. Endd.: 14 Dec. 1561. Pp. 4.
Dec. 16.725. Chamberlain to the Queen.
1. Recapitulates information given in his letter of the 15th Nov., and proceeds as follows:—
2. Sends a minute enclosed to the Queen of other occurrences, informing her of the King's late conclusion made with the Pope about building certain galleys, whereof he has made mention in his former letters to her.
3. The King goes about to devise ordinary bands of horsemen and footmen in these parts, to be in readiness according to the order in France. It is thought he will be able to levy 50,000 footmen and a good number of horsemen at a small charge, taking for that purpose but one man of every parish in Spain.
4. Within these six days there arrived here a gentleman of the French King's chamber named M. [De Sancre], who was here about three months past. Cannot learn what he comes to treat upon, but he was solemnly received in the Court; his chief message is concerning Navarre, which the Duke of Vendôme claims. Others say that the governors of the French state send to entreat the King to bear with them for delivering such places as at this time they are bound by the conclusion of the last peace to deliver in Piedmont.
5. The Prince of Spain is well of the quartan. He has received news of the arrival at Bilboa of some of Sir Thomas Challoner's men and stuffs. He hopes Challoner is not far off, though he makes easy journeys, according as the sharp season of the year requires.—Madrid, 15 Dec. 1561. Signed.
Add. Endd. Pp. 5.
Dec. 15.726. Chamberlain to the Lords of the Council.
1. Refers them to his letter sent to the Queen. The King has appointed for his Ambassador for the General Council Count Monte Roye. Certain bishops are gone towards the same long since. The saying is that the French King has done the like. Thanks them for their good remembrance, but as yet his long looked-for successor has not arrived.— Madrid, 15 Dec. 1561. Signed.
2. P.S.—Whilst this bearer's despatch has been somewhat stayed, the French gentleman, M. De Sancre, has returned, but with what answer the writer cannot yet learn. Has received letters from Challoner, who has arrived at the frontiers. The King has retired ten leagues hence for devotion during this high time, and does not return for twelve days. Trusts that Challoner will then have audience, so that by the 20th of next month he may set forward on his journey through France.—Madrid, 22 Dec. 1561. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. Pp. 3.
Dec. 15.727. Chamberlain to Cecil.
1. If all the devices of the Spaniards take effect, they will with time become marvellous strong, both by sea and land, which is a warning to their neighbours to prepare to do the like. They mean to have in all 170 galleys, wherewith thay think to be the strongest in Christendom at sea. By land they talk of ordinary bands of foot and horse to the number of 50,000 at least, which they think they will levy with facility enough, and to drive every point to the maintaining of a man or twain at their own cost continually until the Prince shall have need to use them, and then he to bear the charge. The King has greatly increased his revenues since his last arrival out of Flanders, and has means to make them much greater; so that if the peace continues but a few years more, he shall be of much greater power than any one of the rest of the Christian Princes. He is not yet by his own disposition given to be a stirrer in the world, as his father was at his years; but what he may be brought unto by counsel and by finding himself full furnished is hard to be judged. Does not conjecture otherwise than well of his proceedings towards the Queen, although he makes little account of such leagues as his father made with her.
2. Desires him to haste forward his successor, whose men with some of his stuff have arrived at Bilboa three weeks ago, which makes him muse at his tarrying, which has cost him above 1,000 ducats, through his forbearing to make preparation of divers things which are now risen to excessive price. Beseeches him to help him to get the payment of his diets, otherwise he will be wholly discredited.—Madrid, 15 Dec. 1561. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. Pp. 3.
Dec. 15.728. The Chancellor of the King of Sweden to Cecil. (fn. 1)
Begs that he will obtain the Queen's answer and letters. —15 Dec. 1561. Signed: Nicholas Guldenstiern.
Orig. Hol., with armorial seal. Add. Endd. Lat. Pp. 2.
Dec. 16.729. Shakerley to Throckmorton.
1. Yesternight came a post out of Spain, who tarried not, but delivered his letters to the Queen, and suddenly departed to the Duke of Savoy, and so higher into Italy. There has come to the Court an Englishman, but [and ?] a French captain called Tutti, who says that he is called hither by the King of Navarre, and will shortly have new charge of horsemen, but in what place he cannot tell.
2. The Duke of Alva is looked for at Naples this March with more Spaniards, and to Milan daily go great "prepares" and much treasure out of Spain.
3. The Pope has taken away all pensions and benefices from secular men; "God give him mischief, I lose twentyfive crowns a year if my Cardinal here help me not." The Pope has set a new tax over the Romans, and this Christmas makes twenty Cardinals, and has so well handled the matter that there are at least fifteen who will yield him above 200,000 of church ducats ; so that it is thought that the Pope has some great suspicion in his heart, taught him by his master, the Duke of Florence, who has set such a tax upon the Florentines that all the world cry out upon him. Last week the Ambassador of Spain dined with the Cardinal, and after dinner they reasoned of Charles V., and his great wisdom. The Ambassador said that if he were alive this day there should not be such troubles; to which answered the Cardinal, that also in his lifetime there had been no less, and haply more strife than now is. The Ambassador answered that it might haply come to pass that where fair means cannot, force might do the effect ; and spoke in Spanish, that those who stood by should not so well understand. The same day the Constable, the King of Navarre, the Cardinal, and others of the Council gave order to pay 100,000 crowns to the Spanish King for his wife's dower.
4. Here is new fire, new green wood reeking, new smoke, and much contrary wind blowing against the holy Pope; for in all haste the King of Navarre and his tribe will have another Council, and the Cardinal stamps and takes on like a madman, and goes up and down to the Queen and the Cardinal of Tournon, with such unquietness that all the house marvels at it. To tell the truth, the writer believes him in nothing; for he has so marked the living of priests that he believes whensoever they were sure to have the same livings that they have without being troubled, they care not an the Pope were hanged, with all his indulgences.
5. Yesterday dined with "our Cardinal" the Cardinals Santilane and Tournon, who after dinner made counsel together, so that the Cardinal came not as he was wont to the preaching, whereunto come thick and thin, Frenchmen and others, which makes many doubt of their belief. There is no more singing of matins in the Court, as erst was. The King of Navarre and the Prince of Condé being in great doubt of themselves, departed from the Court five days ago, with all their baggage and train, and are yet in Paris.
6. Ever since the friar that preached in Paris was put in prison, many of Paris asked of the Queen, with offers of 40,000 crowns pledge of his forthcoming, which has given such a blow to the preachers of the other side that there is wonderful change. Remembers when he saw the friar led up to the Queen he followed, and in her presence and that of the King of Navarre and the Cardinal of Santilane, the friar boldly said that his life was at her pleasure, but that he preached the very truth and offered himself to die therein. If any had informed her that he has ill spoken of her or other Princes he desired to be punished; but if he has preached the truth he begged to be allowed to continue to do so. Unto whom the Queen answered that she was much content to hear that his preaching was good, without giving trouble to the people, and bid him go his way and preach, and fear no harm, for it should always please her son and her that the people should be taught as in old time they had been preached unto. The friar had at least following him three score merchants of Paris. The King of Navarre wonderfully changed and drew aside the Cardinal of Santilane, showing to be in great choler; and in the morning after he and his wife and the Prince of Condé and all his went to Paris.
7. Would fain come to Throckmorton, but has been sick; and though the voyage be small the air is cold and the way most fangoso; and besides the Cardinal has given commission to the Master of the Horse to give him no horse, because it has been told him that he will go his way for all. Besides the Cardinal has commanded him to put in order for Christmas their music, so that for five or six days they must study beforehand. As soon as the holidays are done he will ask leave of the Cardinal, but if Throckmorton thinks that he can do service in advising him from time to time, he will tarry here. Begs him to make his excuses to the Earl of Bedford. Wishes some quiet living at home, to the end that he may pour out of his poor head such notable things as he has seen.
8. Sends herewith the matters of which he treats, consisting of the heads of twenty-three chapters treating of the state of Rome, and the Papal Court, and the events that happened in Italy from 1552 to 1562. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd.: 16 Dec. 1561. Pp. 6.
Dec. 18.730. Shakerley to Throckmorton.
1. Two hours after he had sent his lackey the other day, came hither flying a post in such haste that put all the Court in marvel. He brought no other news but that the Duke of Savoy sent to the King, for a new year's gift, a beautiful suit of Milan armour, with a sword, dagger, and target to the Duke of Orleans. The Duchess sent to Madame Margaret certain pretty feminine presents, embroidered with silk, together with letters to the Queen Mother. The day after came another post out of Italy, who brought news that all the soldiers who came to Naples out of Spain are now returned back again, with 5,000 of the best old soldiers of Naples, so that they are in number 15,000, which gives here to judge that the King of Spain will descend down upon the King of Navarre.
2. The Duke of Ferrara, being at his castle called Bellgardia, twelve miles off Ferrara, in the night sleeping in bed was bitten of a scorpion in the head and neck in such sort that for six hours he lay in spasms, but the physicians with oils saved his life. The post also brought news that the Turk arms most hardily, for which the Venetians send out this March their galleys into Candia, Cyprus, and their other places, to the number of sixty. The rest they will keep about the Adriatic, because the end of King Philip's intent is not known, who also puts himself in great order.
3. The Genoese Ambassador is here to despatch himself home, and came only to know the Council's pleasure touching St. Bonifacio in Corsica, where is yet a guard of French; and yesterday was made the Council to give answer. He had also to answer the Council for such goods as the Genoese have taken from two gentlemen, servants here to the King, called Fiesco and Frigalo, of the value of 170,000 crowns.
4. The Duke of Savoy's Ambassador or secretary, M. Forget, came hither long since with letters to the Queen and Council, declaring the time expired to render the towns in Piedmont, and only for this is in the Court daily soliciting. As yet M. Morette is not hither come. He who went with the wines from the Admiral praises wonderfully England and the Earl of Bedford's liberality.
5. Last Thursday the Pope's Nuncio made a great supper, to which were bid the Ambassadors of Spain, Portugal, and Ferrara, to do whom honour the Cardinal sent his musicians, twenty-two in number. The Ambassador of Spain hearing that the writer was an Englishman, most gently talked with him. Marked that after he [the Ambassador] had asked him [the writer] if he knew Throckmorton, and he said no, he spoke more at large than he otherwise would have done, and asked him who were most about the Queen. Shakerley said that he could not tell, for it was ten years since he had been in his country. On the Ambassador asking him if he could return home, he said yes, but that he tarried to learn the French tongue. After supper he called him again, and prayed him that when he came to Poissy he would lodge in his house, with great offers. He desired that when the writer had letters from England he would tell him [the Ambassador] how things went there, and whether the King of Sweden's son should marry the Queen or not; to which he answered that he never had a letter out of England this great while, and that it was not his profession to meddle with Princes' matters, but if he could get knowledge he would tell him. Since then the Ambassador's secretary has divers times prayed him to come a space to Poissy; he will know his meaning. Has had other prickers about him than the Ambassador is, and would think himself but simplewitted if he could not set him on land. The King of Navarre is ill content that things go not as he thought they would.
6. In Germany the Count Palatine, the son to the Landgrave, the Duke of Saxony, with all their devots, "make gente," for the which the Emperor comes down to Jesbroke [Inspruck] with much people at his tail, and it is judged that there will be another civil war. "Our" Cardinal has had a letter from the Pope that soon he will dispatch him as Legate into Spain, but he has no list thereto. There is small joy in the Court, being Christmas, and it is judged likelier to be worse, for every man holds down his head, and the young King is yet not in perfect understanding how things go, so that the poor dames curse and ban all the causes, and many depart, as though the Court went away, which will not be till the King make his entry into Paris. Signer Gabria, the Pope's nephew, stands anchora in Avignon. There is foolish talk in the Court of the Queen and Lord Robert, which for his obedience he will neither write or speak.—St. Germain. Signed.
Orig. Hol., with seal. Add. Endd.: 18 Dec. 1561. Pp. 5.
Dec. 20.731. Throckmorton to the Cardinal of Ferrara.
Returns him the Queen's thanks for a complimentary letter which he sent by M. De Morette, and desires him to give credence to the bearer.
Copy. Endd.: 20 Dec. 1561. Fr. Pp. 2.
Dec. 20.732. Instructions to Mr. Francis Petowe.
"Instructions given by Sir N. Throckmorton to Mr. Francis Petowe, of that he should do and say to the Cardinal of Ferrara, being at St. Germain, 20 Dec. 1561."
1. After having delivered Throckmorton's letter to the Cardinal, he is to tell him that his most gentle letter and courteous message sent to the Queen by M. De Morette, declaring his particular affection in respect of the house of Ferrara towards the Queen and the crown of England, has been most kindly taken; and for correspondence thereof the Queen is ready in all respects (setting his legation from Rome apart) to receive him, both for his own sake and that of his family.
2. Touching his offer to come into England, the Queen would be right well content to see him in her country were it not for his vocation, and the office which he represents from Rome. Nevertheless, if he is disposed to impart further matter than has been declared, she thinks the same best to be done by some particular person sent to Throckmorton, or by his own letter to her; for being moved by many reasonable causes, she means not in the matter of his legation from Rome to have any dealing or intelligence with him any manner of way, either by his own coming or by any messenger sent for that purpose.
Copy. Endd. Pp.2.
Dec. 20.733. The Cardinal of Ferrara to Throckmorton.
Thanks him for his letter, and for the message sent to him, informing him of the Queen's goodwill towards him, with which he is much gratified. Does not think that it will be long before M. Morette's return.—St. Germain-en-Laye, 20 Dec. 1561. Signed: Hipolito, Card. de Ferrara.
Copy. Endd. Fr. Pp. 2.
Dec. 20.734. The Cardinal of Ferrara's Answer to Throckmorton's Message.
1. After Francis Petowe had delivered the letter and spoken according to his instructions, the Cardinal answered, thanking Throckmorton for that favour and him for his pains. He said that he was glad to understand of the Queen's good acceptation of his letter, and that the message was but a remembrance of the affection grafted generally into the whole stock of Ferrara towards the crown of England. Referred to his past life as a testimony of his truth, and especially to Paget, the English Ambassador in France in King Henry the Eighth's time. It is great comfort to him that the Queen has vouchsafed to put him in the number of her dear friends.
2. Touching his repair into England, it was not a thing directly determined, but only a phrase of speech which Morette (to express the abundance of the Cardinal's goodwill) made use of. Cannot tell how at present he has come to France, except that they thought him to have some knowledge thereof. His commission of legation is only into France, and for the matters of England he has no charge given him.
3. The late going thither of Morette made him write to her, and make some overtures to her, not as the Legate of Rome, or the Cardinal of Ferrara, but as Hippolito D'Este, a gentleman of the house of Ferrara, not less servant and heartily affected to the Queen than to his own country of Italy, or the most honoured of his family. He trusted that he should be the beginner of a good matter, which taking place should redound to the great good of the Queen and her state. He meant but to seek her greatness, quietness, and the increase of her authority within her realm, and not its diminishment any way. She is a most worthy and great Princess, puissant not only in respect to the large territory under her, but also for the sincere love and obedience universally shown by her subjects. Some sought only to procure their own advancement, and he would be sorry to see her deceived.
4. In this matter, in which he meant further to move her, he would have especial regard that three things should be duly observed, viz., her state, honour, and conscience, that they should remain; which he prayed Petowe to note diligently and to carry away. Whereunto he answered that he trusted in that clause particularly, as in all the rest he would be able to make a good account to Throckmorton.
5. The Cardinal then said that he was sorry that it was not permitted to him to commune with Throckmorton about this affair, as he knew him to be a man of great wisdom; and here he fell into a discourse of the malice of the times; how for respect of this or that name and title, or for using one or other kind of garment, the society of man was separated. He declared that his nature was not that way inclined, and that howsoever he might find many to differ from him in opinion and points of religion (all which he remitted to the secret working and direction of God), yet, finding in them other parts of honest behaviour, he thought no man's company, being a Christian, to be abhorred or refused, making use of the proverbs, "Habitus non facit monachum," and "Il diavolo non e sempre si brutto come si dessigne."
6. Hereunto Petowe replied, on his own judgment, that he thought the Queen had so ordered the matter upon some great and good respects which the Cardinal's wisdom was better able to consider upon than he was. The Cardinal said that he well allowed all her proceedings herein, and spoke thus much more in regard of other things than that he found fault that he could not have acquaintance with Throckmorton, to whom he desired Petowe to make a faithful report of what had passed between them. After he had received a letter from him to Throckmorton the writer departed.
Orig. [?] Endd. Pp. 4.
Dec. 20.735. Throckmorton to Challoner.
1. Since Challoner's departure from this Court there has chanced nothing worthy of advertisement. Cannot tell what will happen until M. De Sante's return, who will be made a Knight of the Order, if he bring plausible news. There is also gone into Almaine, M. De Rambouillet, a gentleman of the King's chamber, to sound the devotion of the Princes Protestant towards this state. The colonels and captain which were cast off in Almain are restored to their pensions and promised to be entertained again. The King has lately made fifteen new Knights of the Order, whose names he encloses. It is said that they mean to make five more very shortly; so (as one of the ancient Knights said) the collar was a collar "pour toute beste." Thinks that the King of Spain will stomach none so much as the Count Rocandolph, as appears by the speech of his minister here. The martial preparation in Spain is much talked of, and not greatly liked. Although the Protestants in this realm can yet obtain no churches by order, yet do they retain such as they have taken by their own authority; some have taken the halls which were places of merchandise. In sundry parts there have chanced about those matters of religion some trouble in Gascony, Auvergne, Languedoc, and at Amiens, where there have been divers slain on both sides. In this town the number of Protestants greatly multiplies; supposes they are greatly advanced because the Queen of Navarre, the Prince of Condé, and the Admiral, accompanied with great routs of ladies and gentlemen of good appearance, daily assist at the preachings and ceremonies, albeit the same is not yet done in churches, but in the suburbs, in gardens environed with houses. If there be not some order taken in this matter there must be great confusion in the realm. The house of Guise are altogether, well accompanied, in the skirts of Lorraine. The Cardinal of Ferrara cannot yet obtain his faculty in this realm, nor such prerogatives as belong to his legation; of late he has made means to enter into treaty with the Queen about the General Council, and has written very courteously to her; his letters were taken in good part, rather for his own sake and the family he comes of than for the matter. The matter is committed to Throckmorton's charge to answer the Cardinal, and yet he must not speak to him himself. Although the Queen Mother and the King of Navarre bear the face to do all here, yet the Prince of Condé, the Admiral, the Chancellor, and the Secretary De L'Aubespine do all in deed.
2. From England he hears that the King of Sweden is yet looked for; some speak of the spring, and others (who are greedy of his coming) that he is looked for daily. The matter that was so famous is laid in water, and nevertheless the accustomed favour appears in outward show. The garboils in Ireland are in a manner compounded, but not perfected. The King of Denmark (who went about to bridle his neighbours of Hamburg and Lubeck, and to impeach the King of Sweden's coming into England,) is so humbled by the confederate cities that he repents his enterprize. Hears that Sweden is well affected to that Prince, and the rather because the King of Denmark hangs his keys at this King's girdle.
3. All is quiet in England, but he has no great cause either to be quiet or glad, for as to Mr. Dannett he hears nothing of his preparation "to levy his seige," for the matter is as dead as though it had never been spoken of. In Scotland all is quiet; the French seek to re-ally with them. At the despatch hereof the Queen of Scotland sent an Ambassador to this Prince. Challoner would marvel to hear that she will conform to her neighbour's proceedings; says this only as a watchword.
4. Will receive herewith a packet lately sent from Cecil; it has come very slowly and he fears it will be very stale. If he perceives it to have speedy address he may return answer that same way, but if not, by the way of the French Ambassador. Desires him to give his hearty commendations to Mr. Harry Cobham, and to assure him and the "Lady Marquis," his sister, that he trusts to satisfy their expectations before New Year's Day, if there be any truth in the French artizans. Twenty-five religious ladies, "the beautifulest of sixty, ont jette leur frocquez aux orties," (fn. 2) and scaled the high walls of the monastery of St. Magdalen besides Orleans; so much do they abhor the superstitions of the cloister, or rather delight in the company of profane folks. Makes his account that before this letter comes to his hand Chamberlain will be here, therefore he reserves his salutation to him.—Paris, 20 Dec. 1561. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Challoner. Pp. 4.
Dec. 20.736. Richard Percival to Challoner.
Complains that he is left behind unprovided for, contrary to Challoner's promise, notwithstanding his faithful service, and that his good name and fame has been spotted for Challoner's sake. Desires that he may know whether he is to continue his servant, and whether his board wages of 6d. per day will continue to be paid him, together with his wife's half-yearly wage, amounting to 20s., due at Christmas.—London. 20 Dec. 1561. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Challoner. Pp. 3.
Dec. 20.737. Intelligences from Italy.
1. Milan, 18 Dec. 1561. A gentleman of Gio. Andrea Doria has arrived here, who set out on Monday last from Genoa. He reports that a courier had arrived there from Spain on the previous Friday with information that the Duke of Sessa was on his road through France into Italy, and that while in Paris he would have a conference with the King. This courier was drowned on his way from Genoa to Rome, but his letters were saved.
2. Rome, 20 Dec. In the late Consistory the Pope spoke at some length respecting the departure of the bishops to Trent, and of the intended opening of the Council there this Epiphany. The cross was given to Cardinal Emps; certain churches were given away, and a bishop was proposed for Ireland, as also the creation of certain new cardinals. The Pope will despatch Ascanio Della Cornia with 2,000 infantry and 300 cavalry for the guard of the Council. The Bull for the reformation of ecclesiastics and the Conclave advances, and has been subscribed by Cardinal Carpi; the Pope has himself given it to Cardinal Gonzaga, requesting him to pass it to the Cardinal of Mantua.
3. Last Monday, Gasparino Barigello and Venturi Barigello were despatched as prisoners. To-day a Neapolitan was executed who had murdered a priest in a church as he was saying Mass. Things are in a bad state in France, and in Paris Lutheranism is preached openly. Ten Spanish galleys, passing from Palermo to the Goletta, were nearly lost. Dragut has forty vessels. The Prince of Malfi, who was made general for this year, which has nearly expired, passes by land on his way home. The national troops have arrived on the confines of the States of the Church, whence many persons believe that they will pass into Lombardy; but these movements are occasioned simply by a change of the positions of the army. The Pope has had a slight attack of gout, but has recovered, and gives audience to all who apply. Don Francis of Este has gone to visit His Holiness, and will proceed hence to Ferrara, there to keep the festival. In the Consistory of Wednesday the Cardinal of Este was proposed as Bishop of Aix, but it did not pass because . . . .
Orig. (apparently the first half only). Endd.: 1561. Ital. Pp. 2.
Dec. 20.738. Intelligences from Italy.
1. Milan, 7 Dec. 1561. The King of Spain has repaired to the woods of Segovia, where he would stay until "St. Andrews tide;" then he would return and take order for furnishing Navarre with good garrisons. He has ordered a band of horsemen to be in readiness, and has sent forty captains to prest soldiers, expecting the King of Navarre with the aid of the Protestants would attempt the recovery of Navarre, or cause King Philip to give some recompence to him. The thirty mulets, sent by the Queen Mother with presents to the Duchess of Savoy against the time of her delivery, were on their way, and it was thought they had entered Savoy. They still fortify at Treccia, Lecco, and "Piceghettone."
2. Rome, 13 Dec. The Sunday previous to this date, M. Gaspara Brancho (steward of the Pope's household) was committed to prison in the castle. Amongst his goods was found treasure both of money, plate, and jewels, to the value at least of 20,000 crowns. His offices of steward and master of the chamber was given away, one to Julio Catanes, and the other to M. De Fali. On the same night a Spaniard was slain in his house, by two of his servants, both Spaniards.
3. In a late Consistory it was granted that all forfeits of felons' goods throughout the States of the Church should be to the profit of the Camera Apostolica. The whole state is moved by this decree and intend to send Ambassadors to declare the prejudice it will cause, if it goes forward.
4. In the Consistory the reformation of the Church and Council was talked of, wherein no conclusion was taken; the Cardinals not thinking fit to be at the election of the Pope, shut in a castle, nor yet to be driven to bread and water if they could not agree by a certain time, which were two of the points proponed by the Pope. There were others concerning the abating of the Cardinals' pomp, and taking away the use of coaches by them in the streets.
5. Venice, 20th Dec. 1561. The Duke of Ferrara was in danger, being bitten by two scorpions in the neck, therefore Don Francisco D'Este rode from Venice to Ferrara in post. A conspiracy in Placenza for murdering a number of the nobility has been discovered. The Pope has sent to Venice a jubilee for the good success of the Council, and a general procession was appointed on the 21st inst. The secretary of Florence, Pero, has fled from the city, and he has gone to Geneva, or to France. He feared the Inquisition, for since his departure a citation has come from Rome.
6. The Emperor has informed the Legates of the Council that the Archbishop of Prague, the Bishop of QuinqueEcclesiæ, and Nicolo Baroni shall be at Trent by the middle of next month (January). Hereupon the Legates have deferred the opening of the Council until the time appointed by the Emperor, whereof they have advertised him.
Orig. Endd. Pp. 4.

Footnotes

1 Appended is a note in Cecil's writing, apparently a portion of a draft of his intended answer. It states that in order to put an end to this matter the writer requests that he may not be further troubled either by letters or messengers, or in any other mode whatsoever.
2 Jetter le froc aux orties; A monk to abandon his order and profession, and hence, to apostatise.—Cotgrave.