Elizabeth
July 1575, 16-31

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allan James Crosby (editor)

Year published

1880

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91-102

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'Elizabeth: July 1575, 16-31', Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 11: 1575-1577 (1880), pp. 91-102. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=73217 Date accessed: 30 October 2014.


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July 1575, 16-31

July 16.237. The Town of Riga to the Queen of England.
Desire permission for their agent, Israel Janson, to purchase artillery and munitions in England, and to export them thence for their aid against the Muscovites.—Riga, 16 July 1575.
Add. Endd. Ger. Pp. 1½.
July 16.238. Killegrew to Walsingham.
1. Although he is sure he has received the Regent's letters and the Lord Warden's report touching this matter, the Deputy Warden thought good to send Captain Errington to him to understand more fully of his own month than they think he durst write thence since he has been in their hands. Has received his letter of the 12th, and will repair to the Regent after the return of Captain Errington. Looks for answer from the Lords of the Council to the points mentioned in his letter of the 8th inst. Complains of the posts for so small haste. Unless a man paints a gallows and writes many lives upon the packets (which he cannot do) they will use their own discretion.
2. The cattle which the Laird of Cessford, the Warden of the Middle Marches of Scotland, confessed to have in his keeping are delivered and received by the owners again.—Berwick, 16 July 1575. Signed.
Add. Endd. Pp. 1½.
July 17.239. Killegrew to Walsingham.
1. A kinsman of the Regent told him that the Regent had little more to write touching the circumstances of the late accident than he has already written to the Queen and the Lords of the Council, and that the Lord Warden and he did not much differ, saving where the Warden says that he had stayed the party of England at what time Carmichael returned. That is denied by his Grace, and affirmed that after the first ruffle, wherein two of their men, by name Robson and Symonson were slain, and Carmichael himself shot through the breast of his doublet, being unarmed, as they were all for the most part on both sides, saving those who were at deadly feud. The Lord Warden on the contrary says that Mr. Phenik [Fenwick] and Mr. Robert Shaftoe, a man of the Earl of Northumberland's were first slain.
2. The Regent seems willing to agree to some good remedy whereby the like inconvenient may be prevented from henceforth. Whereas the stay of the Warden is a rare example, the Scots allege a Warden of theirs to have been slain by one of the Herons at a like meeting, for which offence he was delivered into Scotland and there remained seven years in prison.
3. Is ready to go forward on receipt of his letters. The Regent would be glad to be rid of the Warden and his company, but that he has "the wolf by the ears."—Berwick, 17 July 1575. Signed.
Add. Endd. Pp. 1⅓.
July 17.240. The Earl of Huntingdon to Walsingham.
Forwards enclosures, as he dares not take upon himself to give direction in any of these matters. Has written to Lord Scrope and to Berwick to persuade that quietness be kept until her Majesty's pleasure be further known. Order has been taken so that the Borders on both sides are as yet in reasonable quiet. Received a letter yesterday from Lord Scrope, in which he wrote that the subjects in those parts were daily more grieved with the occasion of the late accident, for that they hear of the removing and carrying about of the Lord Warden, and also that some were detained prisoners and kept in irons within two miles of England. Asks him to consider how ready the people are on all sides to seek revenge if in time some stay from her Majesty be not commanded. Wishes that the peace may not be broken, but would not have anything omitted fit for her Majesty in honour to do.—York, 17 July 1575. Signed.
Add. Endd. Pp. 1⅓.
July 19.241. The Earl of Huntingdon to Walsingham.
Has received the Queen's letters commanding him to go to the Borders as speedily as he can, and deal with the Regent about the accident happened between Sir John Forster and Carmichael. Thinks himself much bound to her Highness in choosing him to deal in so weighty a cause. Is glad that the Queen is contented to first examine in whom the fault is before by force she seeks revenge. It is more than the Papists, enemies in heart to peace, looked for or well liked. To fall out with the Scots whilst with honour peace might be preserved, all circumstances considered were hardly good policy. Asks that he may be allowed to take with him Sir Thomas Gargrave, Sir Henry Gates, Mr. Ralph Bokeby, and Mr. Robert Bowes, and as occasion may serve to use their advice, and that of Mr. Killegrew.—York, 19 July 1575. Signed.
Add. Endd. Pp. 2.
July 19.242. The Earl of Huntingdon to the Earl of Leicester.
Informs him of his intended repair to the Borders about the accident lately happened between the Warden of the Middle Marches and Carmichael. Desires that the Queen will permit him to take the members of his Council mentioned in his letter of this date to Walsingham.—York, 19 July 1575. Signed.
Add. Endd. Pp. 1½.
July 19.243. Killegrew to Walsingham.
Has receive his three letters and the Queen's, and means to be to-morrow night in Edinburgh. Could not in time stay the Lord Warden from going further into Scotland, as he knew nothing thereof but what he wrote, yet as soon as he could, he forgot not to send to the Regent to that effect. All the gentlemen who were with the Warden be come home since, and he trusts that the Warden and Sir Francis Russell will be sent home upon his coming. Will use all the means he can to persuade the Regent to meet with the Lord President himself. The gentleman porter having been abroad tells him that even now John of the Stone-House and another of his blood have been slain at home by his kinsman. He was the busiest man at this late brabble as he was cause of many another.—Berwick, 19 July. Signed.
Add. Endd. Pp. 2¼.
[July.]244. The Queen to Killegrew.
1. Has received copies of certain demands propounded to him in the Regent's name, and finds by the same that he has so far forgotten himself by such a strange and insolent manner of dealing that she thinks it convenient that he charges him particularly in manner following:—First, that howsoever it fall out touching the parties that hereafter shall be found fault in the disorder lately committed, the detaining of her Warden is a thing that so much wounds her honour that so foul a fact can in no ways by him be excused. If she should prosecute her just revenge he would then learn what it was for one of his base calling to offend one of her quality. He is to declare to him that his excuses rather aggravate and double his fault than tend to qualify the same. Even if Forster being set at liberty had so far forgotten himself as to enter into a particular revenge [she] cannot think that a man of judgment as the Regent should weigh that inconvenience with the offending a Prince of her estate.
2. Secondly, she has thought it not reason that a whole realm should bear the burden and smart of the folly of one man, and is content that the Earl of Huntingdon should repair to the Borders to confer on that matter. Also she reputes it great insolence that the Regent should take upon him to appoint a place of meeting four miles within Scotland. Where he desires to know whether the meeting should be in armour she esteems the question strange, considering that she is not entered into any kind of hostility as yet. Touching the copy of the Earl's commission under the Broad Seal, she means not to use that solemnity in this matter.
3. He is to declare that she can only consent to the Earl's meeting him in person upon the Bound Rood, and if he will not consent that she means not to employ in the said conference persons of greater quality than Sir Thomas Gargrave, who shall receive their commissions from the Earl. Killegrew does not show himself so careful in her service, as he is in duty bound, by sending such dark and slight advertisements, and by receiving such demands at their hands without making any reply.
Copy. Endd. Pp. 3½.
July 20.245. Nicholas Errington to Walsingham.
Being sent of late into Scotland, although Mr. Killegrew did not ride with him to the Regent, yet he gave him in charge to communicate to his Grace that the Queen and her Council would take in evil part the detaining of Sir John Forster with the rest of the gentlemen as prisoners, and specially the carrying of them so far as Dalkeith, and that he marvelled that the frontier men did not presently fall to revenge and spoiling, having lost their dear friends, and being at present altogether without government. The Regent answered that he feared if they had presently been sent home it should have bred further troubles in seeking revenges, considering the great affinity between them and the men slain, and that he thought it best to stay them at his own house until the Queen's pleasure was known. Next day all the gentlemen except Sir John Forster and Sir Francis Russell were sent back. The Regent seems not only to lament the harms done, but also to be very careful to do all good offices to the contentation of her Majesty and the good quietness of both realms.—Berwick, 20 July 1575. Signed.
Add. Endd. Pp. 1½.
July 20.246. William Lewin to Lord Burghley.
Understands that there is an English nobleman at Venice who has a companion who was with Philip Sydney. Thinks that they must be his master and Ralph Hopton, and does not expect that they will remain much longer at Venice.— Strasburg, 20 July. Signed.
Add. Endd. Lat. Pp. 2.
July 20.247. John Sturmius to Lord Burghley.
The Imperial Diet is put off till the end of September. The marriage of the Emperor's son and the daughter of the Elector is considered certain. It is thought that it is dissembled that the influence of the Elector may be more powerful in obtaining those things at the Imperial Diet which the Emperor desires. The Duke of Wurtemberg will marry the daughter of the Marquis of Baden. There is no certain news from Poland. Signed.
Add. Endd.: 20 July 1575, with seal. Lat. P. 1.
July 21.248. William Cornwallis to Lord Burghley.
Being landed at Calais he came on the 21st inst. by waggon to Antwerp, and went to the Commendator and delivered her Majesty's letters and such message as was given him in charge, which he seemed to take very well. Has been earnestly entreated by Mr. Harvey to alter the Queen Majesty's message of present thanks to the Commendator to this, "That she would thank him if it pleased him to show him favour," for he says that he has received great injury, and upon the Queen's letters not altogether discharged, but referred to the lords of this town, and therefore there is no reason to thank him for anything done already. The Commendator says that he knew little of the man or the matter, and would fain seem a stranger to the imprisonment and evil handling of Mr. Harvey.—Antwerp, 21 July 1575. Signed.
Add. Endd., with seal. P. ¾.
July 23.249. Loan to the Prince of Condé.
1. Undertaking by Frederic, Elector Palatine of the Rhine, that the Queen of England's name shall not appear in the transaction, and that the other conditions shall be observed.— 23 July 1575. Lat.
2. Promise by the Prince of Condé, the Count Meru, and the other Huguenot leaders for the repayment of 50,000 crowns of the sun.—23 July 1575.
3. Acknowledgment by the Prince of Condé and the Count Meru of the receipt of 50,000 crowns of the sun.—23 July 1575. Fr.
Endd. Pp. 3.
250. Another copy of the acknowledgment of the Prince of Condé and Count Meru.—Heidelburg, 23 July 1575.
Endd. Fr. P. ½.
[July.]251. Occurrents.
Occurrents of certain news observed in the months of January, February, March, April, May, June, and July 1576, in the form of a journal, by Daniel Rogers, and relating chiefly to the Low Countries.
Endd. Pp. 19.
July 23.252. Loan to the Prince of Condé.
Copy of an authority from the Queen to Mr. Hudson to receive 50,000 crowns due to her by virtue of an obligation dated at Heidelberg 23 July 1575.
Endd. P. 1.
253. Copy of the quittance signed by her Majesty for the receipt of the 50,000 crowns of the Count Palatine.
Endd. Lat. P. ½.
July 23.254. The Obligation and Quittance of the Prince of Condé.
1. Frederic, Elector Palatine, acknowledges to have received from the Queen of England the sum of 50,000 crowns of the sun, each crown being of the value of six English shillings sterling. He undertakes that in the transactions that will arise between him and the Prince of Condé no mention of her name shall be made, but that the Prince and those leagued with him shall be held liable solely to him for repayment, which must be made before the army now levied in Germany for service in France shall depart France. He promises that he will use all his endeavours to obtain repayment, and will hand all that comes into his hands to the Queen or her deputies.—Heidelburg, 23 July 1575. Lat.
2. Henri de Bourbon, Prince of Condé, chief of those of the religion in France, as well as of the Catholics with them associated, and Charles de Montmorency, Seigneur de Meru, lieutenant-general for the government of Paris and the Isle of France, acknowledge to have received from the Elector Palatine 50,000 crowns of the sun in accordance with the conditions of an obligation they have entered into with him. —Heidelburg, 23 July 1575.
Copies. Endd. Fr. Pp. 22/3.
July 23.255. Obligation of the Prince of Condé and the Seigneur de Meru for repayment of 50,000 crowns in accordance with the terms of the first paragraph of the preceding document.— Heidelburg, 23 July 1575.
Endd. Fr. P. 1.
July 24.256. The Earl of Huntingdon to Walsingham.
Forwards a letter which he received yesterday from the Lord Warden, and is right glad that the Regent has sent them all home. Sends him a copy of the Queen's letter, and thinks it very strange that he has not as yet seen it. Though her Majesty's hand be at it, yet before he does anything that shall be a conclusion he would be glad to have some better warrant. Though he now writes thus to him, yet hereof he shall say nothing till he hears more, for he means to ask Mr. Gargrave's opinion. Trusts his packets always come safe to his hands, though he writes nothing but what may with duty and honesty be justified, "yet some fellows that love not our Elizabeth and this state so well as I do wish they did," may prevent him in his good meaning and perhaps give a shrewd blow to a good cause. With this, which it were best to burn, sends him another letter.—York, 24 July 1575. Signed.
Add. Endd. P. 1.
July 25.257. The Earl of Huntingdon to Walsingham.
1. Now that he has received letters from the Lord Warden dated at Berwick the scruple that was in his mind is somewhat satisfied, as if the Regent had not sent him and the rest home he would have required to know further of the Queen's pleasure before he would have met with him or any he would have sent. Trusts he will as well satisfy her Majesty for all things, in honour and every way.—Topcliffe, 25 July. Signed.
2. P.S.—The Borders are scantly so quiet as the Lord Warden writes, for the outlaws and lewd fellows have been something busy.
Add. Endd. P. 1.
July 25.258. Dr. Dale to Lord Burghley.
Dr. Forth, coming over to accompany his mother, desires him to have him in remembrance, and to help him with anything that he shall need.—Paris, 25 July. Signed.
Add., with seal. Endd. P. 1.
July 27.259. Edward Chester to Lord Burghley.
The French King has lately granted to the Prince of Orange freedom of traffic to all the inhabitants of Holland and Zealand; and, further, the liberty of his ports and havens for his navy. He also at the departure of Dr. Junius and M. Revers rewarded them liberally. Dr. Junius has gone into Germany to the Palsgrave, with whom it is secretly spoken that he practises to have the Prince of Orange elected King of the Romans. The Prince of Condé is in good forwardness to march, but the King prepares not to resist, but makes large offers of peace to them of the religion. The Commendator's chief force attends about Maestricht, but 12,000 lie about Oudewater.—Dort, 27 July 1575. Signed.
Add. Endd. P. 1.
July 28.260. The Earl of Huntingdon to Walsingham.
Is sorry to hear that he is not well, but would be more sorry if the Queen should be drawn to incline to open breach with Scotland, for the amity they have with that country is far more fit for England now than it was in many years before. Asks whether it would be good for the Queen and her realm if the young King of Scots should be in the possession of France or any other foreign prince, and if it is not likely that in case of war the Scots will seek to convey him away lest the English should get him, and what a gap that would open for all the Queen of Scots' friends to enter in at. Hears daily so much speech of things to be done for saving the honour of her Majesty and her realm, and sometimes that it can only be done by forceable revenge. "Anathema sit, who will not with heart and hand seek to preserve and maintain the honour of her Majesty and this realm, every way and in every respect;" but that England has many who care not for the honour or surety of their sovereign he fears is most certain, and who out of this accident would make their own profit. His letters and those of Sir Thomas Smith and the Earl of Leicester comfort him well, for by them he sees still a good disposition of her Majesty and her Council first to have the matter examined, that it may be known in whom the fault is, and that trial may be made what satisfaction the Regent will be contented to make. Hopes that this course shall still hold before they enter into hostilities, "maugre" those who be enemies to the safety of the Queen and the good of England.—Newcastle, 28 July 1575. Signed.
Add. Endd. Pp. 12/3.
July 28.261. Droit D'Aubaine.
The King of France desiring to treat favourably with the Queen's subjects, and to gratify Dr. Dale her Ambassador resident in Paris, remits the rights accruing to him by the death of Walter Culpeper an Englishman.—Paris, 28 July 1575. Signed by Henry and by Pinart, Secretary of State and Finances.
Fr. P. ⅓.
262. Copy of the above in English.
Endd. P. ½.
July 30.263. Dr. Dale to Lord Burghley.
About the 16th there were assembled 80 or 100 horse about Estampes; they pretended that a gentleman was apprehended by the Provost Marshal, whereas by law and custom he ought to be tried by the ordinary judges. About the same time there were found 200 or 300 harquebussiers about Compeigne, who would have forced the gates of that town if they had not been spied before they were ready. It is said there was a like attempt at Mezieres, on the frontiers of Germany and at Troyes in Champagne. Bussy d'Amboise attempted the like at Limoges in Limousin, and Poictiers escaped very narrowly from taking. At the same time old Madame de Guise, grandmother to M. de Guise, being at Joinville in Champagne was suddenly put in fear to be surprised, and was constrained to fly to St. Dizier in all haste. They go from house to house in Paris to know every person that is lodged therein. The King has made a prohibition that no men pass out of Paris with any arms besides sword and dagger without special passport under his own hand. The 18th of this present Vomeny, "that playeth so excellently upon the lute," and one Jamyn, a poet, were committed to Bois de Vincennes; this Vomeny was much made of by Monsieur, Monsieur himself bears a good countenance. Two of the deputies have arrived from Rochelle, and the rest will come shortly. Montferrant, that was Governor of Bordeaux, is slain as he assaulted them of the religion being in a castle not far from Bordeaux. The next day after the taking of Montbrun they of the religion in Dauphiny gave an onset upon the King's forces, all of which in that country are broken. There has been some question between one Digueres, brother to De Gas, and one Verqueran, brother-in-law to Montbrun, as to who shall have the chief charge in the place of Montbrun. Danville requires the King to punish the Duke d'Uzes, for that he set afire whole fields of corn in Languedoc as it was ready to be reaped; being driven by the wind the fire spread, so that men were not able to quench it, but lamentably to behold the destruction. It was spoken that La Beausse was found in the ditches of Bois de Vincennes as though he had broken his neck adventuring to escape; the truth is he remains as he did. The Scottish men of the Scottish Queen's faction have made much joy in this Court of late, just upon report that they were in arms in Scotland and the Regent slain, and upon the great fray upon the Borders, as though this were a present occasion to work some great feat towards that country. Fregoso is arrived at Genoa with two French galleys, and received with great triumph, but Don John of Austria is not far off with 40 galleys, and there are 20,000 men in readiness in the state of Milan. Mauvissiere is appointed to set forward from hence within five or six days. Fresh news is come that certain gentlemen of Champagne with help of the peasants of the country have set upon two cornets of reiters of the King and slain a great number of them, and Chaumont in Bassigni was almost taken, neither was this done by any of the religion, but by them that have been ancient servants of the Guises. De Losse, captain of the Scottish Guard, has written that the whole country of Perigord is in arms against the King, that he is fain to keep his house, and must yield if he have not succour. —Paris, 30 July 1575. Signed.
Add., with seal. Endd. Pp. 3.
July 30.264. M. de la Mothe Fenelon to Walsingham.
The pleasures and gaieties through which he is passing, and the magnificent entertainment that the Earl is giving to all the Court should afford relaxation to the most oppressed with work; but he has shown he is one who will not allow anything to interfere with the despatch of business. Thanks him for various favours, and desires him to acknowledge a large packet that he has sent for the Queen of Scots. Has written a severe letter against those of St. Malo; the Governor of St. Malo returns him a remonstrance, which he submits for his consideration and for that of the Council. Assures him that if any difference arise between the two kingdoms it is not wholly the fault of the subjects of France.—London, 30 July 1575. Signed.
Add. with seal. Endd. Fr. P. 1.
[July?]265. Suspicions of Monsieur.
The King being in Council showed a paper, whereon it was contained that his brother made means to withdraw himself, and desired their advice how he might best assure himself of him. The Queen Mother said this was not a matter to be judged by papers, but by good proofs, and if such were found she would be as ready to give her consent to his punishment as any other, his mother as she was; otherwise she thought best to make some good reconciliation, and assure themselves of him by winning his heart. "Well," quoth the King, "it is you, mother, that do hold him up by the chin, and without you he would not be so bold as he is, but I will have my reason of him." If he had not fallen sick men looked that some trouble should have followed upon it.
In Dr. Dale's handwriting. P. 1.
[July?]266. [Dr. Dale] to [Lord Burghley.]
Since the writing of his letter of the 6th the King has had four or five accesses of a fever, some of them 12 hours of length. It is reported his sickness came of grief of mind upon the unquietness of the dissensions and jealousies in Court. Had audience with the Queen Mother, and told her that one Fitz Morris, an Irishman, had been a suitor to her and the King for their favour, who had been a rebel to the Queen for a long time, and the occasion of the disobedience of certain of her subjects. The Queen Mother said that the man had made means to the King for his letters of favour to have pardon of the Queen, a thing usual to all princes in like cases, and the King had written to his Ambassador to move the Queen in his behalf; both other succour or relief he had none. He made her understand the Queen would be much offended if he were aided in this country. Understands Fitz Morris is returned to St. Malo, and minds shortly to pass to Ireland, yet he himself uttered speeches as though he would first to Spain. Captain Landreau, who has committed many great piracies and murders upon the Queen's subjects on land and sea, is suitor at the Court for commissions. Made earnest complaint that he was not stayed, and exhibited a "prinse de corps" awarded against him long agone by the Parliament of Rennes, and a report of certain officers that he kept himself in a strong castle, and was not to be taken by ordinary justice, and therefore requested the King would give order for the apprehension of so notorious an offender. She said he had his despatch and was gone, and that she understood nothing of him but that he had done the King good service against those that succoured Rochelle, and therefore she could do no less but further his suit.
Copy. Pp. 3¼.
July.267. Seizure of Captain Thomas.
Captain Thomas spoke with the King and Queen Mother, who answered that they were in league with the Queen, and had overmuch to do at home at this time to deal in matters of Ireland. The Duke of Guise was ready to further him, and La Roche was at hand to entertain him. He was much examined whether he had brought any letters; he made his errand as though he came from the Earl of Kildare. They seemed to desire as though they of the country should temporise for a season; he said the country would know a resolute answer what to trust unto. After they had felt him as much as they could, they paid his charges in the town, and gave him 20 crowns and his passport under the King's hand. Yet this notwithstanding at the second post he was stayed and brought back and put in Bois de Vincennes, but he had nothing about him of any weight. A day or two after the Queen Mother sent for him [Dale], and said an Irishman had been with them to move for assistance to the rebels in Ireland, and considering the evil offices he did to the Queen, and understanding he had before been a prisoner in Paris, and enlarged at the request of Mr. Secretary Walsingham, she caused him to be stayed of herself without the consent of the King; she said they would always remain an unfeigned friend to the Queen. Said that considering he had the King's passport it stood upon the King in honour to permit him to enjoy it, otherwise how should men assure themselves of his passport in anything. As touching Ireland, said the Queen was reasonably well satisfied with the King, but that La Roche would never cease to do what he could to disquiet that realm, more for credit to himself than service to the King. She said La Roche had others to lean unto that were young men, who might do they knew not what. Knows not what young men she means, but has had advertisement from St. Malo that the steward of Marcartemore [Maccarthymore], one John Machelgot, and one Rodriffum, of the company of Fitz Morris, are appointed to have five ships to land in the country of Marcartemore as merchants, and as well armed as they may, to try to make friends in the country. Now they perceive the Queen has an eye to them they will be better advised before they attempt anything. Finds already the King mislikes the taking of him contrary to his passport. The Queen Mother is afraid the Queen will take her practices with the Irishman in evil part, and therefore she would gloss it as much as she might. She says the passport was not signed with the King's hand, but true it is it was signed "Henry," M. de la Mothe is written to to excuse it.
Pp. 2¼
[July ?]268. John Hamilton.
John Hamilton has declared to him [Dale] that he is ill dealt with at the Scottish Queen's hands, and that he is driven of necessity to make some provision for himself, and therefore minds plainly to give over to deal any more for her and renounce her service and to let all practices which happen to be devised to the prejudice of the Queen, so she will accept him and relieve him. He desires that the Queen will signify whether he shall deal with him further therein, or whether he shall upon passport come to Court to utter his mind to her or her Council. Said he supposed the Queen might be well contented to hearken to him notwithstanding his former doings, and was assured he was able to do good service if he list, but his doubt was, whether the Queen might be persuaded he would unfeignedly do as he spake, or upon a small occasion return to his old faction, wherein he thought it was hard to give her assurance. Demanded where he would pass his time; he said he might return home or remain in this town passing his time with his book. These he uttered with many glorious terms of his former true service to his mistress, and of his sufficiency with a long excuse of this his sudden change. Since the rumours of Scotland, has found him more cold.
Pp. 1¼.
[July ?]269. [Dr. Dale] to [Lord Burghley.]
Egremont Ratcliffe has been with him [Dale] with one Musset, an Englishman of Bruges, who both affirm there was order given to Dr. Wilson in Flanders for Ratcliffe's relief. He stands continually in necessity, and hopes hourly to hear of some comfort. Would be directed what is to be done. He has written to Dr. Wilson a letter full of submission and repentance with great moan of his necessity.
P. ¼.