Elizabeth
September 1576

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allan James Crosby (editor)

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1880

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367-387

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'Elizabeth: September 1576', Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 11: 1575-1577 (1880), pp. 367-387. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=73239 Date accessed: 23 October 2014.


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September 1576

Sept. 1.894. The Sultan of Turkey to the Queen.
Desires her to grant her protection and furtherance to a certain Christian merchant named Gabriel Defreus, who is proceeding to England upon certain business of his Highness. —Constantinople, 1 Sept. 1576.
Copy. Endd.: 1576. Lat. P. 2/3.
Sept. 1.895. Philip II. to the Queen of England.
Announcing the appointment of Don John of Austria to the Government of the Low Countries.—Madrid, 1 Sept. 1576. Signed.
Add. Endd., with seal. Fr. Royal Letter.
Sept. 1.896. M. de Villiers to Walsingham.
According to the Prince of Orange's promise the two merchants have been set at liberty. The eldest is very ill, but he thinks it is more from trouble than anything else.— Middleburg, 1 Sept. 1576. Signed.
2. P.S. (on separate slip of paper).—The agreement will be made between those of Flanders, which places the Prince in great danger, so that her Majesty continuing in appearance [angry] all will go badly.
Add. Endd. Fr. P. ½.
Sept. 4.897. M. de Villiers to Walsingham.
As yet the Prince has not stayed any ships belonging to her Majesty's subjects or given charge to any of his own ships to make war, as the bearer, Mr. Berkley, can inform him more particularly. In the meanwhile he is in great perplexity, seeing his ships are daily taken, though he cannot yet persuade himself that her Majesty intends to enter into war with this country. Though the writer cannot see that he means to use any force, yet, considering the people he governs, he will be overcome at length. Has therefore advised him to send one well qualified over to England, by whose means all hostility may cease, but he answers that he cannot do this unless he be first assured that the Queen would take it in good part. Has not ceased to enter into particular conference with the Prince touching such means as are to be used hereafter, and in the meanwhile waits for the answer of the States in that matter which he proposed to them in the name of the churches, but perceives in the end that all his desire is to be furnished of money. Took occasion to deal with the merchants, especially with Mr. Godard, for the other is very sick, but he thinks it better to agree upon some payment by form of assurance than to break off all the traffic, for that can be no commodity to his Excellency, whereas if the passage be kept open it will be commodious for the Merchant Adventurers, staplers, and himself. Again, take what order men can, merchandise will be transported into the Low Countries and also conveyed from thence by Calais and Rouen, which will cause it to be dearer than if it passed by the Scheldt, and the profit will remain in the traffickers' hands, and no man benefitted but those who are enemies of both parties. Both Mr. Gerard and he think that an accord will be more profitable to England in respect of the carriage of the Spaniards' goods. Recommends that a passport should be given for one to come over from the Prince and States to treat of this matter, and in the meantime that her Majesty should cause a surcease of all acts of hostility. Thirdly, to frame the Merchant Adventurers and Staplers in time to some good composition, such as shall be profitable to England and the Low Countries. Perceives that the Prince is minded to remit the whole to her Majesty's pleasure and the judgment of her Council.—Middleburg, 4 Sept. 1576. Signed.
Add. Endd., with seal. Fr. Pp. 2.
898. Translation of the above.
Endd. Pp. 3¼.
Sept. 4.899. Wars in the Low Countries.
Names of 16 persons put in prison by the States of the Low Countries on the 4th Sept. 1576.
P. ¾.
Sept. 5.900. The Prince of Orange to the Queen.
Declares that all the reports of arrests and illtreatment of her subjects in Holland and Zealand are false, and that the bearer can inform her of the truth. These accounts are spread by those who seek their ruin. They have nothing more at heart than with all submission and obedience to do her very humble service.—Middleburg, 5 Sept. 1576. Signed.
Add. Endd. Fr. P. ½.
Sept. 5.901. The Prince of Orange to the Privy Council of England.
Begs that they will give their favourable attention to that which the bearer has in charge to communicate to them, and assures them of his goodwill and readiness to do them service.—Middleburg, 5 Sept. 1576. Signed.
Add. Endd., with seal. Fr. P. ½.
Sept. 5.902. M. de Villiers to Walsingham.
Treating with the merchants after dinner, it appeared to him that the differences would be settled in this wise, namely, that the Merchant Adventurers should pay half the sum, that is to say 62,500 florins, subtracting the 36,000 already disbursed; within a half year 4,000 to Mr. Morgan, 4,000 to Mr. Pelham, 2,000 to Mr. Bertelai, and to Mr. Haweis 32,000 florins, and the remainder in ready money. The said sum shall be repaid, always subtracting the third of that which shall be agreed on for the assurance of the passages until all is paid. Thinks that the Prince will do everything that can be desired provided he can defend himself from the enemy.—Middleburg, 5 Sept. 1576. Signed.
Endd., with seal. Fr. P. ½.
Sept. 5.903. Mines at Keswick.
Loys Horman and Jehan Henry Lincks complain to the Council that the mines at Keswick cannot be worked on account of the English contributaries not paying their share of the expenses, through which 500 quintals of copper, besides silver and lead, are unavailable.—Augsburg, 5 Sept. 1576. Signed.
Fr. Pp. 3.
Sept. 5.904. Loys Horman and Jehan Lincks to Lord Burghley.
Complain that the partners in England belonging to the company for working the copper mines at Keswick do not contribute their share of the expenses, and desire that he will use his influence to have this remedied.—Augsburg, 5 Sept. 1576. Signed.
Add. Endd. Fr. Pp. 1¼.
Affairs of Flanders.
Sept. 5.905. Pietro Bizarri to
Journey of the Duke of Bavaria into Saxony. Favourable reception of the Vaivode of Transylvania in Poland. Intention of the Emperor to send an Embassy into Muscovy. The Elector of Cologne has returned to his states. The Duke of Montmorency has been at Spa and Aix la Chapelle for the baths. Means to go to the fair at Frankfort about his own business. Duke Casimir has returned to Heidelburg with loss of money and credit. The Elector Palatine has written a letter to the Queen of England in recommendation of his wife's brother Count Adolph, whom he begs he will favour on account of his numerous good qualities.—Cologne, 5 Sept. 1576. Signed.
Endd. Ital. Pp. 5.
Sept. 6.906. 1. Walsingham to M. de Villiers.
Received his letter on the 4th inst., which he has communicated to the Council, whose answer he encloses. Trusts that all matters will be soon appeased and complains of the conduct of the Flushingers, which is a great hindrance to the accord, and causes much bitter feeling [aigreur] amongst her Majesty's subjects. Gives a summary of the Queen's answer to the different points contained in his letter.—Windsor, 6 Sept. 1576.
Rough draft in French.
2. The Queen's answer touching the Prince of Orange's demands.
1. As to the release of such ships as were lately taken, she cannot avoid it (considering that her subjects have been greatly outraged since Sir William Winter's departure by the Flushingers) until she shall understand from the Prince what security he will give that her subjects shall be free from molestation.
2. Restitution shall be made of the four ships stayed in the west.
3. All the mariners and others taken in the said ships, saving 12 of the principal, shall be set at liberty.
4. All the merchant ships pertaining to them of Holland and Zealand shall be also released.
5. Orders shall be given to the Queen's ships to forbear to molest any of the Flushingers for the space of 20 days.
Notes of matters contained in the preceding letter.
3. [Walsingham] to M. de Villiers.
The bad conduct of those of Flushing has greatly hindered their plans and favoured those of the Spanish faction, who continue by these means to anger the Queen more and more. He must therefore travail with the Prince of Orange to stop this, lest the foundation which is well laid should be destroyed before the building is raised. Enjoins him to secrecy.
Draft in French, partly in cipher, with marginal note Min. to M. de Villiers at Windsor.
Pp. 4.
Sept. 6.907. M. de Villiers to Walsingham.
At his arrival at Flushing he found a courier from the States of Brabant to the Prince of Orange, with news that 23 of the counsellors had been made prisoners at Brussels. Yesterday there came a letter from those of Flanders demanding a conference between the States of this country and those of Flanders.—Flushing, 6 Sept. 1576. Signed.
Add. Endd., with seal. Fr. P. ⅓.
Sept. [6.]908. [Walsingham] to M. de St. Aldegonde.
Has received his letters, which have given him great contentment, as also they have done to the Lords of the Council to whom he has shown them. If he continues in the same mind and goodwill all will turn out well. Has written more fully to M. de Villiers.—Copy.
Endd.: Min. to St. Aldegonde. Fr. P. ½.
Sept. 10.909. Dr. Dale to Burghley.
1. Had dealt with the King and Queen Mother touching James Fitzmorris. Had hoped to have brought him somewhat out of credit, that the King would not make any further account of him, but for all the persuasion he could use he is better entertained than a better man or a better cause would require at this time, but so it is, to do a shrewd turn they spare nothing. Is advertised he had 5,000 crowns given him, which, if it be true, is not pour ses beaux yeux as the scantness of money is at this time; true it is, he had a good round piece of money and a horse which he sent for a present to him that paid the money sent him back again. He is returned to St. Malo. Sends the Secretary a copy of the letter of the new King of Poland to the King; it is worth the reading, both for the matter and the good penning of it; men may see thereby what an ornament it is in Court, bene et Latine scribere. If Duke Casimir made his entry into his country in such triumphant manner, as is reported, with his spoils and jewels, and Bellieure before him as hostage, it may be judged how hard it is to bear fortune with modesty. The King and all the Court are much offended at it. Madame Danville is come to the Court. Now the Guises are to depart, M. Vaudemont is come to the Court in their place. The Queen Mother has been going to Monsieur these ten days, but now it is broken off, for neither are very willing. Men speak much of the marriage between the Prince of Condé and the Princess of Navarre. The King of Navarre has sent again for his wife for fashion's sake, but his chief meaning is to be satisfied of his marriage money.—Paris, 10 Sept. 1576. Signed.
Add., with seal. Endd. P. 1¼.
2. P.S.—Understands further of James Fitzmorris that he makes report to the King he can obtain no favour of the Queen, and vaunts that he finds such favour of the King that he is sufficiently provided for.
Slip of paper.
Sept. 11.910. Philip II. to Jeronimo de Rodas.
1. Has received his letters informing him of the mutiny of the Spaniards who have retired to Alost, and of the inconveniences which have ensued thereby, and that the Council of State have proclaimed them rebels, and levied men of war; and further, that he, Vargas, and Julian Romero have been obliged to take refuge in the palace at Brussels. Understands by his letters of 18 and 19 August that the Spaniards have been pacified by his intercession, and that he hoped to do the like with the Walloons. Moreover, letters of change for 200,000 crowns having arrived safely, that ought to satisfy both parties, especially as further provision of money cannot be made till the arrival of Don John. He shall be sent without forces, but with the true means of pacification, Rodas is therefore to do everything, that the fire kindled between the soldiery and the people may be extinguished.
2. From all that he has heard, he considers that that which has already happened proceeds chiefly from the mistrust that exists, and that there is no better remedy than to disband the forces levied by those of the Council, to make the people lay down their arms, and to provide that the soldiery should retire into their garrisons. He therefore commands the Council of State to see this performed, and sends Rodas certain instructions in cipher which he is to keep secret.
3. His will is that all should obey the Council of State as representing his proper person, and that they should use all means to preserve tranquility till the coming of his brother Don John; and he further orders him to inform all colonels and other officers who signed the letter dated 13 August that he relies on their fidelity. Has written to Don Sancho D'Avila recommending him to use caution in event of those of the Low Countries continuing in their evil courses. Has written similar letters to Alexander de Gonzaga and other chief officers, in order that they may understand from Rodas what are his intentions, and so act in accordance with them. Particularly warns him to look well after the safety of the citadels of Antwerp, Ghent, and Valenciennes. As for the Duke of Arschot, M. de Champagny, and others of like temper, he must dissimulate with them, making a virtue of necessity, until the arrival of Don John, who will take such steps as he shall find convenient. There is no reply required to the letter sent 29 July, signed by him, Alexander de Gonzaga, Alonzo de Vargas, but he may tell them and Julian Romero that he is well pleased with the contents, and with the care they have taken in his service, and that his brother, when he arrives, will honour and reward them according to their merits. Is advertised of the persons whom he has pointed out for Bishops of Antwerp and Ghent, and also of the necessity in which the Bishop of Haarlem is at present, who shall be relieved. Has also heard of the pretension which the Bishop of Liege sent to him by the Archdeacon of Brabant, which is reasonable should be satisfied. He is to mention this in the memorial of advertisements which he is to send to Don John, and also the names of the English refugees in the Low Countries, in order that provision may be made for the religious persons serving the Lord with such affection as they do. He has done well by burning the papers in the citadel of Antwerp, as thereby there is no longer need to trouble about them. Gives him permission to quit the Low Countries shortly before the arrival of Don John of Austria. He is to say farewell quietly to the Council, and on no account to wait for the coming of Don John, or even meet him on the road, so that no occasion for sinister suspicions may arise. Would have been glad if he could have met and spoken with his brother, but as this is not well feasible he is to write to him very fully on such matters he thinks ought to be communicated to him, as well about the government of spiritual and temporal affairs as about the revenue and the war. He is to leave this writing in the hands of Don Balthazar Lopez de la Cuenca, to be delivered to the Prince, and he is to send a copy in cipher to the King. Sends him an order for 1,000 crowns for the expenses of his journey.—St. Lorent [Escurial], 11 Sept. 1576.
Copy. Endd.: "The copy of the King of Spain's letter intercepted, which were directed to Rodas, bearing date 11 Sept. 1576." Fr. Pp. 9¼.
911. Extract of that portion of the above letter referring to the Bishops of Antwerp, Ghent, Haarlem, and Liege, and the relief of the English refugees in the Low Countries.
Endd. Span. P. 1.
Sept. 11.912. R. Colshill to Walsingham.
1. Has received his letters of 28 July and 23 August, and by the first perceives that he understands the unwilling ness of this city to grant her Majesty either credit or loan of money, to excuse which action there fails no excuses. Albeit he has received good entertainment, he never found in them will to pleasure her Majesty, although with good terms he pressed them to remember the great benefits and privileges they have long enjoyed by her goodness. Begs that their guilt may be no condemnation to his innocency. It is excused by the absence of such as promised the same at the Diet, and by the want of expedition in England, whereby their money was otherwise determined. Thinks there is no want of money if they had will. Earnestly travailed with them for 100,000 dollars, or less, to serve the Earl of Leicester's turn, but could not have it, and yet the Burgomaster Sowderman delivered as of himself that if they could have their ancient privileges restored they would not only lend 200,000li, but 400,000li. Hears of a further, communication the fruit whereof he dare not warrant anything. Hears of sundry practices here by the ministers of the Kings of Spain and France, and the Pope's nuncio, for that it is said that this money should be used to maintain the Protestants, yet thinks that this service may take good eff[...] elsewhere. Has been at great charges for his living, and sending to different places on her Majesty's service. The Duke of Silesia has offered of himself 400,000 dollars. Intends to repair to Aachen [Aix la Chapelle] where he understands there are great sums of money, but of more interest than their commission is to give. By this bearer he will receive a letter from Count Carlo de [Nevenor], addressed to her Majesty; he seems greatly affected to her; he is very rich, and married a sister of the Prince of Orange, and is a Protestant. He has with him a kinsman called Count Adolph Nevenor, a lusty gallant, married to the old Count's sister, who was Count Horn's wife, who is a very modest and virtuous lady, and well affected to the Queen. This nobleman's sister is married to the Count Palatine, and was wife to Count Brederode. He makes great offers to serve her Majesty with footmen and horsemen at all times, and is very desirous to be her pensioner. He is a Protestant, and brought up in France and desires Walsingham to further his wife's request for her Majesty's picture, for she never goes without her Majesty's counterfeit in her bosom, "and is so ill done as it grieveth me to behold the same, knowing the excellency of her Majesty."
2. By the goodness of her Majesty, and by the Earl of Leicester's letter, his own suit takes good effect; he has already got the Mother's consent, and if he could only get her Majesty's letter in his favour he would have small difficulty in obtaining the daughter. Begs that Dr. Furstemburg may have his pension; he is more worthy of 100li than 100 dollars. Mr. Dymock has come hither out of Sweden, by whom he finds there is a greater sum to be had in the land of Holst than the Queen requires. Dymock has been of great assistance to him in his own cause.— 11 Sept. 1576.
3. Begs that he may have some comfort concerning their letters patent, that howsoever he does, he may have to pay his debts. Signed.
Add. Endd. Pp. 6.
Sept. 12.913. Mr. Colshill to Burghley.
Has received the answer of the Burgomasters to the Queen's letters in writing, which he has caused to be translated into French, and sent to Mr. Walsingham. It is a flat denial to lend their money on credit in whole or part. They plead inability, but the Burgomaster Sowderman told him that if their ancient privileges might be restored to them not 200,000li but 400,000li should be ready to serve her Majesty. Beseeches that the fault may not be laid on the innocents. Finds that there has been great practice to hinder this service by the ministers of the King of Spain, the Pope, and the French King, as they fear that this money is borrowed to assist the Protestants. Has been promised by the Duke of Silesia the 400,000 dollars which were provided for the Duke of Alençon. Is also assured that there will be found in Holstein more than they have commission to receive. Would have repaired thither if he had not received letters from Walsingham to stay for Mr. Castelyn's return. Is heartily sorry that there is more ability and secrecy judged to be in him, or that a merchant is thought fitter to serve here than a gentleman, as they disdain the race and doings of merchants, and call them in derision "pepper-men." Trusts that he will have in consideration as he has had to bear all the charges in her Majesty's service. Means to go to Aachen, where there is store of money by reason of the rich Netherlanders having fled thither. His own cause takes so good and sweet a course that there is more than hope if her Majesty and his good friends fail him not. Though sought by nobles, it is never denied him his repair unto her, when to all others it is denied. Refers him to this gentleman, Mr. Bond, to understand what he has seen, and knows who has been with him all this journey. The stay of their proceedings is that she would be assured of his good behaviour, and that he will be found a good husband for her, and God calling him before her that she may be protected from wrong and enjoy her own. Her mother's consent he has, and he doubt not of hers also, if he may be backed as aforesaid. Desires him to procure the Queen's letters, and send his own in Latin to the maid named Margaret Hilton, and to other people to befriend him. Desires that Dr. Furstemberg's pension of 100 dollars may be confirmed, as he thinks him worthy of one of 100li.—Cologne, 12 Sept. 1576. Signed.
Add. Endd. Pp. 3.
Sept. 16.914. The Elector Palatine to the Queen.
Deferring the payment of the 50,000 crowns borrowed last year to the Spring mart at Frankfort in 1577.—Heidelberg, 16 Sept. 1576. Signed.
Add. Endd. Lat. Pp. 2.
Sept. 15.915. George Gascoigne to Burghley.
1. The troubles and news of Flanders have set all the soldiers of this realm in a triumph. The King had determined a solemn triumph at a marriage made in his Court on Sunday last, and upon these occurrents kept close and was not seen. There remain yet at Chalons, in Champagne, 25 cornets of reiters, which Duke Casimir brought into these parts. The Duke of Montmorency, Monsieur de Sories (the King's minion), and other gentlemen to the number of 500, the bravest soldiers in France well appointed, remain in the lower parts of Germany, notwithstanding that their return from the battle has been long executed. Here pass daily numbers of captains, brave gentlemen, and soldiers, as well French as others, from the King to Monsieur his brother, who is presently at Tours; they spare not to triumph upon this occasion in Flanders, and speak it openly with great words. Assures him that the King and his brother are friends, and that there passes presently from them a messenger, or ambassador, or commissary, towards Germany for levies. Danville's wife has spoken with the King and Queen Mother not without great suspicion. The King has still here about him in readiness 7,000 footmen. Means to become an eye-witness of the stir in Flanders, and from thence he shall shortly hear from him.—Paris, 15 Sept. 1576. Signed.
2. P.S.—Wine must be excessive dear this year, their vineyards are destroyed with frost and hail.
Add., with seal. Endd. Pp. 2.
Sept. 16.916. Memorial for Mr. Foxall.
If the King of Denmark or his counsellors shall enter into any communication in behalf of renewing such ancient leagues as have been with England he shall declare that there is like good disposition in her Majesty to proceed therein. Forasmuch as the greatest difficulty in renewing the said league seems to consist in which prince shall first send or write to the other, this may be got over by both sending commissioners to some convenient place, as Lubeck or Hamburg, by which way the matter can be more effectually dealt with than by writing. He is to inform himself whether the King means only to renew such leagues as have passed heretofore between the two crowns, or whether he means to demand any privileges for his subjects trafficking in England, and if he sees such demands tend to the abatement of her Majesty's customs, or to the prejudice of her subjects, he is to dissuade him from the same.
A note of such indignities as have been offered to her Majesty by the King of Spain and his Ministers.
The misusing of her ambassador consists in searching his coffers; not giving him audience for three weeks after his arrival; not allowing him the exercise of his religion in his own house; forcing his servants to be present at their ceremonies, and making his son and steward assist at a mass with torches in token of being converts; not allowing him to deliver the Queen's letters; and dismissing him without taking leave or receiving any reward of the King.
1. The imprisoning and burning her subjects.
2. Confiscating their goods.
3. Giving pensions and entertainments to her rebels.
4. Not punishing D'Espes, who was discovered to be one of the chief authors of the rebellion in the North.
5. The Duke of Alva's contemptuous dealing towards her Majesty and her subjects at his first coming into the Low Countries.
6. The Commendator's late proud and insolent manner of writing to her Majesty.
Negotiations between England and Denmark.
Matters propounded to the Queen of England, to which an answer was required in the name of the King of Denmark.
Whether the Queen would accept the mediation of the King of Denmark to bring about a reconciliation with Spain. Also that the King's subjects should not be molested in their traffic with Spain, and that the English officers should be forbidden to seize upon vessels in any of the King's ports. Certain matters connected with Iceland fisheries.
In Latin. Incomplete. Endorsed by Burghley, 16 Sept. 1576. Pp. 3¼.
Sept. 16.917. Lord Scrope to Walsingham.
In commendation of Captain William Selby for fully paying and duly answering all such as were his soldiers in Ireland of their pay, and also for their conduct and transportation by water.—Carlisle, 16 Sept. 1576. Signed.
Add. Endd. P. ⅓.
Sept. 16.918. Advertisements from Antwerp.
By the three Estates of Brabant, Artois, and [Herige.]
Considering that in this present dangerous time there is no fitter means or remedy than to keep the unity and concord of these Low Countries established by Charles, the Emperor of famous memory, in 1548.
So it is that the aforesaid Estates desire an assembly of the governors with the deputies of the Estates of all these countries to devise meet means for the welfare of the same, and, that they should not be reprehended of any oversight, they have levied men of war to be employed where by common resolution it shall be thought needful for the maintenance of the holy Catholic Roman religion, the King's service, the defence of their desolate fatherland, and the pacification of the same. Have further required the Estates of other provinces to do the like, and to send their deputies to Brussels to communicate and resolve on these matters. In the meantime they require all captains to maintain order and quietness.— Brussels, 8 Sept. 1576.
Headed: Advertisements from Antwerp, 16 Sept. 1576.
P. 1.
Sept. 16.919. Advertisements from Antwerp.
The Spaniards lie in Duffel and Wallen, being two towns having bridges over the water between Antwerp and Mechlin, the other between Lyre and Mechlin.
They have taken St. Barnard's, an abbey two leagues from Antwerp.
They keep also Lyre [Lierre.]
On Wednesday came to Brussels the Count of Lalain and Count Egmont with the Barons of Beersele and of Gasbeck, with 80 gentlemen and 600 horse, and were met at Brussels with 1,000 shot and 150 horse.
In Burghley's writing.
Endd: Advertisements from Antwerp, 16 Sept. 1576. P. ¼.
Sept. 17.920. Advertisement from Antwerp.
On Sunday afternoon last, Camargo, provost-marshal of the Court and one of the Castellan's chief counsellors, having intelligence that Zeratz, who was the last burgomaster in Brussels, was come to town, and thinking he could give intelligence of all that was passed in Brussels, laid privily for him, and, as soon as he stirred out of his lodging, after a familiar fleering sort saluted him, and when he thought he had him in a sure place openly apprehended him in the King's name, and with all speed led him towards the Castle. The commons having advertised Count Overstein, he sent his guard to stop him, who, not being able to get to the Castle, took his prisoner into a tower on the town wall; but the commons with ladders scaled the place and entered at the top and fetched out the prisoner, slew one of the provost's men, and took Camargo (being shot in the leg) and led him to Count Overstein, who sent him to the castle at night. Afterwards Count Overstein came to the market place and thanked the burgesses, and promised to stand by them, so that no disorder should be suffered in the town. The same night the Spaniards took Willibrock on the river of Bruges, where they have fortified themselves and stop the passage by water. Other places taken by the Spaniards [see Sept. 16]. They keep strong watch in the town, and the Spaniards dare not stir. The Spaniards of Alost and the Dutch of Termonde were proclaimed rebels in Ghent on Wednesday. A captain named Uitenhove with 600 Walloons has gone from Ypres to lie about Termond. Arrival of Counts Lalain and Egmont at Bruges (see Sept. 16). They prepare men in all places, and there will be a great number; the Spaniards still brag it out and do mischief where they can. On Wednesday they made a privy enterprise to Louvain which failed, but the same night issued out of Alost 1,000 shot and 60 horsemen, who went within two miles of Brussels and fetched all the cattle they could get and set certain farms on fire. They are not yet all paid, and will not do but what they think good, having imprisoned the Eletto for that he persuaded them to good rule. The Castellan demanded certain places near the castle, which were refused. The burgesses of Antwerp will watch with the Dutch, and officers are appointed to lead them, but it is not yet agreed when. The Spaniards have forsaken Bommel and Browershaven and lie within a league of this town. The Walloons are still in Zericksee, their colonel in hold, and they spoiling the poor burgesses. The Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese merchants requested licence that they might watch together in some place, which was refused, but if they list they may take their turns with their neighbours. The High Dutch colonels have consulted together and agreed to keep such places as their men are in for the King against all comers until the King's pleasure is known. Certain Albanian light horsemen made an enterprise against Douay, but it is reported that they have been overthrown. Certain of the prisoners apprehended in Brussels are put in a tower called Treurenberg, where none come but they be sharply dealt with and pay with their lives if they have offended. There shall enter the town this day two ensigns of High Dutch for the better safeguard of the place; the captain of the castle, to put the burgesses out of conceit that he pretended any harm to them, said he would have had Spaniards, and was willing to swear that he will suffer no hurt to be done by the Spaniards.—Antwerp, 17 Sept. 1576.
Add.: To the right worshipful Mr. Wm. Davison. Pp. 2⅓.
Sept. 21.921. William Wade to Burghley.
Don John of Austria is secretly gone into Spain with two galleys only, some say for his despatch for the Low Country, and some upon bruit of the death of the Spanish King. Hears that young Lansac took sea at Bordeaux with divers captains and soldiers, and in good order, the last month. He was named one of the chief in the voyage. Strozzi sets forth. The plague is extreme in Venice and Padua, and spreads through all Lombardy. M. de Nevers is returned from Spa, and Marshal of Montmorency looked for. To give him place all the Guises are departed the Court after great feasting. Bellieure is come from Duke Casimir, he mitigates the report of the triumphing of the reiters. The Duke of Arschot his conspiring with those of Brussels is suspected to a further intent to draw the Prince of Orange out of Holland.—Paris, 21 September 1576. Signed.
Add., with seal. Endd. P. 1.
Sept. 22.922. M. de Villiers to Walsingham.
Has lately recovered of an ague which has held him these 15 days. Yesterday there was brought into Flushing one of her Majesty's ships called the Bark of Boulogne, and two merchant ships of Ipswich laden with cloth and salt. So soon as he heard thereof, though he was very sick, he went to the Prince, who promised him that straightway the Bark of Boulogne should be released. Fears that do what they can they will hardly get the two merchant ships out of their hands unless the owners pay well for it, as they always answer as before that they will not suffer any to go into Flanders, and that these ships were going to Nieuport. Is troubled that he cannot speak flatly and in plain terms to them by reason that he must speak according to the estate of his calling which he has professed these many years.— Middleburg, 22 Sept. 1576. Signed.
Add. Endd. Fr. Pp. 2.
923. Translation of the above.
Endd. Pp. 1¼.
Sept. 23.924. Sir John Forster to Walsingham.
Recommends Captain Selby for the good discharge of his soldiers pay in Ireland.—Alnwick, 23 Sept. 1576. Signed.
Add. Endd. P. ¼.
Sept. 28.925. The French King's Answer to the Prince of Condé.
He has seen his instruction to M. Montducage, and makes answer thereto that he has issued the necessary warrants for the 200,000 livres agreed to be paid him, and has called on the Syndic of the clergy to provide the Prince with 120,000 livres; he has willingly accorded him the revenue of Cognac and the town of St. Jean d'Angeli for his residence, and that he could give him the revenue of the latter if the state of his affairs did not forbid it. He has great displeasure that the Edict should be so ill observed, but he will omit nothing to punish offences against it. The people of Metz are allowed exercise of the pretended reformed religion in a manner with which they are content. He will do all he can at all occasions for the Vidame of Chartres. The hindrance of the exercise of religion comes from the long continuance of the troubles in France, and the Catholics are as much hindered as the others. —Paris, 28 Sept. 1576.
Copy. Endd. Fr. Pp. 2½.
Sept. 28.926. Another copy.
Endd. Fr. Pp. 2½.
Sept. 29.927. Jeronimo Rodas to Philip II.
1. Since he last wrote, affairs have gone from bad to worse.
2. Since the States of Flanders have joined them the others have shown themselves so bold as to besiege the citadel of Ghent, which must shortly yield on account of the difficulty of sending succours; first through the mutiny of the Spaniards in Alost, who refuse to leave that town; and secondly, because three companies of Polwiller's Almains in garrison at Termonde have accepted pay from the States, made their colonel prisoner, broken down the bridge, and refused passage to Don Fernando de Toledo and his soldiers. The Prince of Orange has dismissed a part of his people, who have been taken into the service of the States, to whom he has sent a quantity of artillery for the purpose of battering the said citadel.
3. If this place is lost those of this town [Antwerp] will attack the castle, and also the town of Lierre, which are their only places of retreat, as the others are in the hands of the Almains, whom they cannot trust. Colonel Mondragon's men have deserted to the service of the States, who have publicly proclaimed them (the Spaniards) rebels, and further ordered that no one shall obey any commands of Rodas, pretending that he has usurped the government by his private authority. The Council at Brussels daily issue ordinances against them, notwithstanding that they are prisoners and completely under the control of the States, who compel them to do all that they command, and the more so through the Duke of Arschot who has taken oath to the said States to be their leader. The proclamations have not yet been published here, as the governor and magistrates have forbidden it, notwithstanding that the people cry out that it should be done. They have their deputies at Brussels, and though they pretend to be neutral they are just as rebellious as any of the other towns, and though they dissimulate in words thwart them in every way possible. The council of war, having well considered all this, have determined to surprise a village opposite the town, called "the Passage," and to make a fort there by which the town will be kept in more subjection than by the citadel.
4. This will prevent the enemy from coming up the river, who have themselves proposed to occupy the place, and so cut off their victuals and prevent their passage into Flanders. The townspeople say that by the Spaniards taking this place their victuals from Flanders will be cut off, which, however, is not true. Complains of the want of understanding between Count Elfenstein and those of the council of war, and urges the King to write and command him to do his duty. He has of his own authority withdrawn one company from Maestricht, which rather needed reinforcements, whereby Montedoca writes that there is great likelihood of its being lost. Rodas very much misdoubts him. Amongst other things he has allowed the guilds of the town to arm themselves and keep watch and ward with his people at night.
5. M. Champagny agrees to all this, and he and Helfenstein have four or five days ago imprisoned William Cotton and 10 of his companions, under pretence that they daily came to the citadel to Rodas and Avila, wishing to surprise the new town, whence followed a riot among the townspeople, who said that there were Englishmen concealed in order to set the town on fire.
6. The Count begins to see that it is necessary to restrain the people, and has asked for reinforcements, which will arrive to-morrow. He further complains of the distrust in which he is held, and the more so as he is related to the King. Sancho D'Avila, seeing that the enemy had the upper hand all along the river, thought it would be well to equip certain vessels and bring them out of the haven under the protection of the citadel, which the said Count would not permit, saying that the Council of State at Brussels had commanded the contrary. Entreats the King to consider all these matters and use all endeavours to send them succours speedily.— Antwerp, 28 Sept. 1576.
7. Sept. 29, 1576.—Colonel Mondragon arrived here yesterday, who said that it was not possible to succour Ghent; he has received letters from his Walloons, saying that if they did not receive three months' pay they would abandon the islands. The council of war have sent Mondragon back to induce eight ensigns to continue in guard of Zericksee and some others forts by giving them pay for the current month; and that the rest of the soldiers should be withdrawn and joined with sundry forces of the Spaniards for the succour of the castle of Ghent. This cannot be done for 10 or 13 days, but he trusts that they will be able to hold out, as they have not yet commenced the battery, and there are 150 Spanish soldiers within with abundance of provisions, though with little powder. All the foreign merchants are withdrawing from Antwerp on account of the insecurity there, which is the cause why, if his Majesty sends hither letters of change, no one will accept them. In addition to this the Fugger's factor cannot, recover a single real to meet the balance of the 200,000 crowns which he sent last. To-morrow, the month of the aid given to the Almains expires, and if they do not get some money there is like to be great disorder.
8. They have not a single real here, so it is necessary that the King should send letters of change, and they will do all they can to have them met. It will also be well to make further levies of men in Germany for their assistance, for if the castle of Ghent is lost they will come and shut them up in this place and Lierre, which are not particularly well provided, especially with powder. It is also most requisite that his Majesty should send hither some one of rank to deprive the Council of State of the authority with which he invested them, as by their placards they prevent their receiving any assistance and do what they can to withdraw all the towns and provinces from the King's obedience. M. de Hierges does all he can to thwart his Majesty. Among all the States there is not a living soul who gives them any assistance, or even makes the least show of wishing to join them, save Gaspard de Robles, Seigneur de Billy. Encloses a copy of a letter which he sent to the Duke of Arschot, who made an attempt to leave Brussels, but was stopped by the people, who said that as he had begun the dance he must finish it. They are making great provision in Brussels, as they look for certain that peace will be published in three or four days, which causes a great affection of the people towards the Estates, as high and low long to wash their hands in the blood of the Spaniards. The Bishop of Liege has sent his maitre d'hotel, Vander Linden, to treat about the business his Majesty knows of. He says that Maestricht is in no danger, but Montedoca has since sent four letters in one day to say that the place is in great peril of being soon lost, as the townsmen arm themselves and keep watch and ward with the Germans as they do at Antwerp.
Endd.: The copy of two letters of Jeronimo Rodas sent to the King of Spain, bearing date 28 and 29 Sept. 1576. Intercepted. Fr. Pp. 11¾.
Sept. 30.928. Francisco Giraldi to Lord Burghley.
Forwards the substance of the conditions on which the King his master will be contented to establish a perpetual league with the Queen, and prays him to consider the honour which would result to him in bringing about a treaty of concord between two such great Sovereigns.—30 Sept. 1576. Signed.
Add. Endd., with seal. Ital. P. 1.
Sept.929. Towns and Castles between Antwerp and Heidelburg.
"A note of divers towns and castles, with their distance, comparisons of their bigness, and to whom they appertain, lying between Antwerp and Heidelburgh;" also an account of the castle and great tun at Heidelburg.
Endd.: Sept. 1576. Pp. 5¾.
Sept.930. Customs of Berwick.
Notes for an answer to be made to the Customer and Controller's articles in the port of Berwick, to the effect that the burgesses of Berwick are not exempt from the statutes regulating the customs and subsidies to be paid on different merchandise, and also that if the Act of 22 Edward IV., cap. 8, providing that all traffic between England and Scotland should pass through Berwick and Carlisle, shall be newly proclaimed and searchers appointed on the frontiers to see it duly performed, that the inconveniences mentioned in their articles will be reformed.
Endd.: Sept. 1576. Pp. 1¾.
Sept.931. Report by the Customer of Berwick.
Sundry notes of the decay of her Majesty's customs within the port of Berwick, and the members to be certified to Lord Burghley by the customer, controller, and searcher of Berwick. First, that the Scots of mean condition, and chiefly "pedders," convey and carry away by night over the dry marches into Scotland great quantities of wool and fells, leather, and other wares, without paying any customs for the same; and also bring into England in the same way their slight Scottish merchandises, viz., linen, cloth, woollen caps, steel caps, short swords, Scottish daggers, spurs, horse harness, and such other base commodities. They carry these things upon horseback, or by foot packs, until they come within 20 miles of Berwick amongst their supporters, of whom there are a great number in Northumberland, both gentlemen and others, by whose help in a night or two they carry the commodities into Scotland by unusual byeways. Concerning the sea traffic, they use unusual and unlawful creeks between Berwick and Tinmouth, where they land and carry away commodities without paying any customs. They sometimes use Bamburgh, where Sir John Forster claims privilege, and will not suffer the Customers to exercise their office. The like is also used at Morpeth, Alnwick, and most other towns in Northumberland. Their opinion for reforming this abuse is that proclamation should be made of her Highness' pleasure to put in execution the statute of 22 Edward IV., cap. 8. Also that the customers may have powers to appoint deputies and to seize on commodities, and that the wardens shall not give conducts to any merchants except they can show certificates under the seal of the custom house of Berwick. Also that notice should be given to Sir John Forster concerning his taking for his own use such merchandizes as are seized, for not paying customs and subsidies, and also that he has no power to take up merchandize at Bamburgh or elsewhere without paying customs therefor. They also desire to know whether he shall pay imposts for his wines which he takes up there. Also for the appointment of deputies at Blyth, which is now much frequented by the Dutch.
Endd. Pp. 12/3.
Sept.932. News from Cologne.
Movements of the Turkish army under Occialli. The King of Spain's army was prepared to resist the enemy. The galleys of the King of Spain have departed from Genoa with 700,000 crowns and great store of armour. The controversy about the confines of Zara are ended by the Turk restoring to the Venetians much more than they looked for. The con tagious disease in Venice, whereof there died 40,000 persons, begins to diminish. The French King has sent to Rome to obtain the alienation of 200,000 crowns of ecclesiastical promotions for his urgent occasions, and has obtained the grant of 40,000. He has also offered to the Pope the sale of the earldom of Saluces. The King of Spain will prefer to the archbishopric of Toledo one of the sons of the Emperor. The Prince of Stigliano has left the Archbishop of Naples 100,000 crowns of annual rent, disinheriting his son of as much as he might. There died likewise the Marquis of Capaccio, as is thought, of poisoning. The Turks make incursions even to the gates of Vienna, and have burnt many villages. The Emperor at Ratisbon makes great instance for a subsidy against the Turk, and the Protestants demand liberty of religion in all Germany. The Emperor sends an embassy into Muscovy. There is no other Prince in the Imperial Diet save the Elector of Cologne. The Sophy being dead, his eldest son, who has been kept 15 years in prison, is now crowned King. The Muscovite has offered to assist the Archduke Ernest against the Turk. The Emperor is content to suffer the Vaivode to enjoy Poland. The Duke of Saxony, the Marquis of Brandenburg, and other great Princes of Germany have taken in hand with the Vaivode that he shall break the dependance between him and the Turk, and specially not suffer him through Poland to invade Germany or pass to the Baltic, or otherwise they will move sharp war against him. The Vaivode, having married Margaret, the sister of Sigismund, late King of Poland, having above 60 years, has, with consent of the nobility, called the King of Sweden's eldest son into Poland that he may succeed him in that kingdom. The Emperor, demanding at Ratisbon a subsidy for the maintenance of 60,000 men against the Turk, with much ado was granted one for 48,000, with condition that the religion of Augsburg may be free in all Germany. The Imperial Council will finish about Michaelmas. There is a church granted to the Protestants at Metz.
Endd.: Sept. 1576. Notes in Burghley's writing. Pp. 3.
Sept.933. The Queen's Instructions to Sir Amias Paulet.
1. Having determined to license Valentine Dale, Doctor of Civil Law, to repair to her, she has made choice of him to serve in the same place, wherein she trusts her expectation shall be satisfied of his fidelity and diligence, and for his better guiding has thought fit to deliver him the following by way of memorial.
2. After he have been presented by Dale to the French King, the Queen Mother, and others as shall be thought meet, he is to use such speech to the King as it may appear his special charge is to be a minister for the conservation of their good amity and peace, and consequently to preserve concord and intercourse between the subjects of both countries, according to the treaties, and shall require them, if at any time anything to the contrary shall be conceived of him, it may in some wise be declared, as they may understand his answer, wherewith he doubts not but to satisfy them.
3. The first and principal part of his office shall be to continue there as well to execute her commandments, and deliver her letters and messages upon matters occurrent, as to require and receive answers, and to procure good and reasonable resolutions as the natures of the matter shall impart.
4. The second shall be to have continual regard of their doings there, as well private as public, that might be prejudicial to her and her state, and to advertise her diligently and secretly, and to this end he will do well to require of Dale some good information by what means he may attain the intelligence of things needful, and whom he may best use and trust. And if anything shall seem of that importance that it may not abide the time of his advertisement and her answer she leaves it to his discretion to omit no time convenient, but to resort to the King or some other to declare what he understands and mislikes, and in what sort it is hurtful to their amity, and therefore to require reformation or some plain answer meet to be imparted to her. He shall not deal by way of complaint upon any light intelligence, lest thereafter less regard be had to him when he shall have just cause to complain.
5. The third is, to have regard of such suits as her subjects using the trade of merchandise with that realm shall have cause to make upon depredations, arrests, and any such injuries, showing to such of the King's council as have charge thereof that favourable expedition shall provoke her and her ministers to do the like, breed mutual love, and cause the intercourse of merchants to be more frequent. And that he may be the more able to treat upon anything generally touching the amity between them, and more particularly upon the trade and intercourse of merchandise, she has ordered that he have copies of the treaties now in force, by the which he shall be well informed how to deal in all matters that shall come in controversy. Though she thinks it meet that at his first access he forbear to deal in any matter that might not be to the King grateful, yet at some other convenient time she would have him and the Queen his mother plainly to understand that she finds herself greatly touched in honour to have her subjects daily spoiled and outraged by sea as they are, not by pirates, but by such as avow themselves set out by his commission, and yet upon complaint made there is no redress, a thing so repugnant to the amity that unless he take order therein she cannot see how the amity can long continue, for that, for the satisfaction of her subjects, she will be driven to grant them letters of marque, whereof in the end there cannot but follow some such dangerous inconvenience as she would be loth to see. For conclusion in this point, she thinks it convenient he lay before him some complaints that have been recommended to him by Dale, to which no exception can be taken or reason alleged why satisfaction should not be made.
6. Doubts not but that he considers how necessary it is for the quietness of her realm and herself that that party in France which has professed reformation of religion should be continued in that favour which the King by his Edict granted them, and therefore would have him at all times let it appear to the King that she thinks nothing could procure him more assurance of inward quietness than the observation of the Edict. This point he may amplify as he shall see cause from time to time, when he may think his dealing therein may any way further the observation of the Edict, and of this her intention she wills that he give understanding to such of the principals of that party as have an interest therein.
7. Has willed Dale to deliver to him all such her plate as he had delivered to him at his entry into his charge, which he shall receive of him by indenture, not doubting he will have good regard to the safe custody thereof.
Pp. 3½.
934. Draft of the above, with corrections in Walsingham's hand.
Endd. Pp. 7¼.
935. Copy of paras. 2–4 and the first portion of 5 of the above.
Endd. Pp. 3¾.
936. Copy of paras. 1–6 of the above.
Pp. 2.
Sept. ?937. Note in Dale's hand.
Understands for certain that the Ambassador of Spain came in at the back gate of the Louvre upon the 18th, between nine and ten of the clock, and remained with the King until it was almost 12 of the clock, and then was let out again at the back gate. Is advertised there is something intended against Geneva between the Duke of Savoy, Don John of Austria, and the Duke of Nemours to be done in the passage of Don John and his army that way, also that there are certain capitulations concluded between the French King and the King of Spain, both for the passage of Don John with his army and also for those things that are to be performed by Don John either in France or otherwise. Pp. 2.