Elizabeth
February 1577, 1-15

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allan James Crosby (editor)

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1880

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501-518

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'Elizabeth: February 1577, 1-15', Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 11: 1575-1577 (1880), pp. 501-518. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=73251 Date accessed: 20 September 2014.


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February 1577, 1-15

Feb. 1.1225. Advice of the Prince of Orange to the Council of State.
To a similar effect as his instructions to MM. Haultain and Mansarde (see February 7) strongly urging them to insist on the withdrawal of the Spaniards and the fulfilment of other conditions before definitely concluding matters with Don John of Austria, and in the event of Don John refusing to grant their demands the Prince offers to come himself to them and aid them to the best of his power.
Endd.: 1 Feb. 1577. Fr. Pp. 11.
Feb. 1.1226. Dr. Wilson to Lord Burghley.
As he will understand by Mr. Horsey how matters have fallen out between Don John and the States he minds not to make any rehearsal thereof. Mr. Horsey at the delivering of her Majesty's letters to the Council of State having declared to them her earnest desire for quietness and peace if it might be with their safety, and besides that they should be very careful in their proceedings with Don John for advantage taking in their treaties and conferences hereafter; and, thirdly, showed the good opinion that the Queen had of the Prince of Orange, notwithstanding that her merchants had been somewhat injured by those of Flushing. Horsey was earnestly requested to repeat the same to the States General, which he did at length to their great rejoicing. Mr. Horsey can tell him what was done at Marche by Sir Francis Englefield in presenting a roll to Don John of those belike who were Catholics, and the Queen of Scots' friends. Has not yet found out any more matter amongst Cotton's papers, only concerning his service at sea, and the charge that he had then in hand. Don John sent to the States yesterday that the Bishop of Liege and Octavio Gonzaga may come and treat with them for a final and speedy quietness. Desires his recall.—Brussels, 1 Feb. 1577. Signed.
Add. Endd. Pp. 2.
Feb. 1.1227. Dr. Wilson to Walsingham.
Is a humble suitor for his return, which will be much more joyful to him than his coming ever was, for which he will not thank anybody, but if he hastens his return he will thank everybody. The Bishop of Liege is coming hither. The Emperor's ambassadors continue prosecuting the peace, and are to deal with the States. The Prince of Orange's presence is desired of many. It may be Don John will come in person. Desires him to consider that he is not to deal with any of these without commission.—Brussels, 1 Feb. 1577. Signed.
Add. Endd. P. ⅓.
Feb. 1.1228. Advice of the Prince of Orange to the States.
Warns them strongly against coming to any agreement with Don John without previously having procured the withdrawal of the Spaniards and Don John's solemn promise not to recall them without the consent of all the States, and further, the dismantling of the citadels built within the towns. Also that he shall promise strictly to observe all their privileges, and be guided by the counsels of native-born subjects of the Low Countries, and that he will not put garrisons in any towns without their consent, and without which he is not to make any war or perform any important act of government. That the States General of the 17 provinces, or of each in particular, shall be allowed to assemble without hindrance to discuss their affairs. In case the States and Don John cannot come to any accord that then the Prince of Orange shall come and assist them with his advice and counsel, and they shall make due provision for his personal safety. The Prince on his side shall not pretend to any title or honour, nor will he interfere in any way in the matter of religion. The question of aid from France or Germany is to be remitted to the decision of the States, the Prince only advising that whatever is done should be done with diligence. Warns them to be careful as to whom they employ as counsellors, and to whom they entrust the liberties of the country. Recommends them strongly to establish union and good understanding with one another, and between the different classes of the community, and that the different provinces should enter into a solemn confederation to stand by one another. That the discussions in the assemblies of the States General shall be entirely free and unbridled.
Endd. by Burghley, 1 Feb. 1576. Copy. Fr. Pp. 102/3.
Feb. 11229. The King of Navarre to the States at Blois.
Thanks them for sending deputies to him, and assures them that he desires nothing better than the re-establishment of peace in France, and to which he thinks they can contribute by giving good advice to the King. He has spoken with and written at greater length to their deputies, whose report he hopes will be favourably received by them.—Agen, 1 February 1577. Signed.
Copy. Endd. by Burghley. Fr. Pp. 1¼.
Feb. 2.1230. Affairs in France.
Copy of letters sent by the King of France sent to the Governors and Lieutenant-Governors of the provinces, in which after saying that he has agreed to the advice of the Estates at Blois not to suffer more than one religion in France, he goes on to order them to see that those of the new opinion who make submission thereto shall be well and peaceably used under pain of severe punishment, and that those who are now opposed to him shall be used the same if they return to his obedience within a month. Should they not do so they will be considered as his enemies, and their goods will be seized for carrying on war against them.
Endd. Fr. Pp. 4. On foolscap water-marked paper.
Feb. 3.1231. Sir Robert Constable to Walsingham.
Recommends to him the bearer, Captain Wood, who is a suitor to the Council for certain money laid out by him when he was left captain at Home Castle by the Earl of Sussex. Is the more bold for that the Queen herself did no less declare to him of his goodness how ready he was to further the causes of such as be of their profession, and Wood is one of the ancientest captains of this town.—Berwick, 3 February 1576. Signed.
Add. Endd. P. 2/3.
Feb. 4.1232. Jacques Taffin to Mr. Tomson.
The merchants of Ipswich have been with him, and after a long dispute will be content for him to go, provided that he promises to return and leaves his assent in writing to the arrest of the persons and ships of those of Holland and Zealand. Cannot give the promise without advertising his Excellence, in whose service he is, and if he gave his assent to the arrest, he would fall into discredit with the States and be mortally hated by the common people. Begs that Walsingham and he will do what they can to appease the said merchants and assure them that he is trying to find the best way of obtaining payment of their claims and does not want to deceive them.—4 Feb. 1576.
Copy. Endd. Fr. P. 1.
Feb. 4.1233. M. de Villiers to Walsingham.
Their brethren, the ministers of Holland, have sent a messenger to them to communicate certain points which touch the advancement of religion there. Is informed for certain that the States have sent to the Prince of Orange about the conference they had as to establishing the exercise of the religion at Haarlem, and other towns under his rule, and that the Queen had lent them money on condition that they should continue in the obedience of the King and accept what religion it pleased him to order. Hears from France that the King of Navarre having heard of the imprisonment of those of the religion at Bordeaux took 50 or 60 Papist gentlemen prisoners, and wrote to those of Bordeaux that if they injured any of their prisoners he would send them the gentlemen's heads. They have not dared yet to publish the Edict of Revocation.—London, 4 Feb. 1577. Signed.
Add. Endd. Fr. Pp. 1¼.
Feb. 5.1234. Sir John Smith to Burghley.
Refers him to the report of Walsingham as to his negotiations here. Has had special care to make known the Queen's noble nature to all, and the great love and obedience of her subjects, in which he has not detracted any title of honour that he is worthy of, yea, even the Duke of Alva himself gives him the honour to be one of the most sufficient men in Christendom in all politic government.—Madrid, 5 February. Signed.
Add. Endd., with seal. Pp. 1¼.
1235. Smith's Memorial to the King of Spain.
Copy of the enclosure to Walsingham's letter.
Lat. P. 1¼. Enclosure.
Feb. 5.1236. Sir John Smith to Walsingham.
1. Arrived at Alcovendas, one post from Madrid, on 8th January, and wrote to Secretary Sayas signifying his arrival, and that he came in the service of the Queen of England to the King of Spain, and sent a little present to him. Sayas refused his present, but said that he would tell the King of his coming. The next day he told Smith's man that he had given notice to the King of his arrival at Alcovendas, but that he was weary of his journey, and would not give audience so soon, and willed him to tarry at Alcovendas for four or five days; whereof Smith being advertised caused presently a good handsome house to be hired in Madrid, and took the post thither on the 12th January. On his sending to request an audience he was answered that the King would not grant one till the obsequies for the Emperor were over, which would not be for 10 or 12 days, because the King was taken the night before with the gout in his hand and foot, besides a great pain at his stomach. On the 15th Sayas visited him at his lodging and desired to know the causes of his embassy, who was answered that after Smith had audience of the King he would know the causes.
2. Sayas said that he had been advertised out of England, France, and Flanders, that it was for compounding matters between the King and his subjects of the Low Countries; and said further that Don John of Austria had compounded them a good while before, and that the King had written him to send over one M. Gastel to her Majesty to procure good and strait intelligence between them, and that if any of the Spanish soldiers that were to pass out of Flanders should be driven into any of her ports by weather that they might be well used. Sayas also required him to make a memorial of the chief causes of his embassy, which he should deliver two or three days after his audience, as the King had so many matters of importance that he could not well remember the particularities of what passed by speech, and said that Sir Henry Cobham and all other ambassadors used to send a memorial of the chief points of that which they had spoken unto the King. The same day came to visit him also the Signor Albernois, the Duke of Alva's secretary, who used large compliments, and told him the King had commanded he should have one of the best houses in the town, and should have the best horses in his stable. The 24th January had again audience, being brought to the Court and received there in great state. Declared to the King that the Queen did not forget the favour he had showed her in her sister's time, and upon these new troubles in the Low Countries, being desirous to fulfil all amity towards him had sent him to him. Declared as of himself that if his subjects there had not yet compounded with Don John of Austria that there was none in Christendom he might more assuredly trust in all matters that she might bring to good effect. At which he smiled, and answered he did well believe it, and inquired how the Queen did, and of his journey. Then further declared he had other matters that concerned divers wrongs and complaints of the Queen's subjects, to which the King answered he should have divers to confer withal of these matters. This done, was brought back to his lodging. Next day was brought to the Queen's presence, who stood in her chamber of Presence under her cloth of Estate, to whom he delivered his letters, and used certain words of compliment. The 27th Sayas came to him requiring him again in the King's name to make a brief memorial of the chief points he had spoken of. Was told by the Ambassador of Genoa that it was the use of Spain so to do. Remembered that the Lord Treasurer before his coming advised him to deliver nothing in writing otherwise than as a memorial and in the Latin tongue, the common tongue of Christendom, because the ambiguities of Latin were well known to all nations, so sent the enclosed memorial to the secretary. Until this day has had no answer, save that the 1st February Sayas told him that Don John of Austria had the King's order for compounding of matters with the States, and the King would not take the charge out of his hands unless it should fall out otherwise than he hoped, and that there were certain commissioners at the appointment of the Emperor at Namur, to be as mediators. Can learn none of the news of Flanders at any of the ambassadors' hands, though they are very willing to make him privy to any things they know. The 1st of February came an estafette from Don John of Austria, which is one that comes not through with despatches, but receives them at the second, third or fourth hand, and therefore not able to make report of any news from the place where the letters come. He brought other letters for noblemen and gentlemen, which remain in the Council's hands, for they have taken order that no post from the Low Countries, or certain other places, shall alight at any places but at one of the secretaries' houses. Made choice of the Duke of Alva, being best acquainted with him, to confer on the complaints of the Queen's subjects, with whom he has been three times. Alva used such protestations of love and affection to the Queen as he never heard the like proceed out of any man's mouth, lay ing great blame on Gueraw d'Espes, the last ambassador in England, saying if he had not died by the way coming to Spain he would have lost his head. Sent to him a memorial of such as are in prison by the Inquisition, and of their ships and goods, and the outrages used to the English merchants at Antwerp, the spoiling of their pack houses, and of the spoil of certain tapestry provided for Mr. Hatton. Hopes to bring to pass all matters committed to his charge, and that which he does not he that follows him will find very hard. Has received great courtesies of all the ambassadors of princes and states, and of divers Spanish noblemen. If he have no answer within these few days means to require audience again.—Madrid, 5 February 1576. Signed.
3. P.S.—The day before he began to write these letters Sayas came and asked him whether he meant by his memorial that the States should pay all the King's soldiers, to which he answered that they offered to pay the Spaniards. There is a Scotch gentleman at the Court, whose name is Seaton, whose pretence is to get 1,000 crowns at the King's hands, if he can, and so to go to Rome to a brother of his Because the way through Genoa is dangerous has sent another despatch by sea.
Add., with two seals. Endd. Pp. 6.
Feb.1237. Memorial of Smith to the King of Spain.
At the request of the Baron d'Aubigny, sent to her from the Low Countries, the Queen of England asks him to come to terms with his revolted provinces. They demand the liberties they enjoyed in the reign of the late King Charles V., and they offer him a sum of money for the payment of his soldiers.
Endd. Lat. Pp. 1¼. Enclosure.
Feb. 5.1238. Intelligence from Spain.
1. It is certified from Constantinople that the Turk arms 400 galleys with a great sort of Mahones (which are great ships of burden) to send this summer into the Levant seas, but upon what city or whose dominions they will come is not known, but there never was less provision by sea to resist them than at present. The meeting of the King of Portugal with his uncle at the Monastery of Guadelupa proceeded, it is thought from a certain devotion to the place, and also from a desire to see the King of Spain, his uncle procured by some of the wisest of his Council in hopes that he will be dissuaded from the chargeable and dangerous enterprise against Barbary; also that he might procure to have Doña Isabella Clara Eusebia, the Infanta of Spain, as his wife, and lastly, that they should enter into a straight concert to aid one another against the Turk in Barbary.
2. In Genoa was discovered very lately a treason to kill the Duke, and the greatest part of the old nobility. Many of the offenders are put in prison; and likely great stirs to ensue.
3. In Naples there fell out a great controversy between the Viceroy and the nobility for choosing a certain dignitary, and the nobility have sent to the King of Spain to complain.
4. The Duke de Rio Seco, commonly called the Admiral of Castile, is appointed to go to the Emperor to give unto him "el pesame" for the death of his father, and also to procure the emperatrix and her daughter, the young Queen Dowager of France, to come into Spain.
5. The French Ambassador told him that there had been some stir in Guienne, in that the Protestants had taken a town called Bergerac, and that the Admiral, called M. Villars, and the Mayor of Bordeaux, had apprehended to the number of 1,200 or 1,500 Protestants and put them into prison.
6. In Languedoc, M. Danville and many others prepare to take arms, and to combine with the Swiss and bring that province into the form of a canton. In Sicily the plague has been and yet is very great.
7. There is news that the Emperor should match with the Duke of Saxony's daughter, and that the marriage with the Infanta should take no effect.
8. The young Duke of Feria was by the King's command restrained of his liberty and committed to the keeping of certain officers of the Court at a gentleman's house two leagues from Madrid. The cause was that the Duchess his mother had given her consent to his marriage with the Duke de Maqueda's daughter, who is a proper gentlewoman, and will have a great portion to her marriage. This marriage had also the consent of the King. Afterwards the young Duke coming into the company of the Duke of Najara's daughter, who is very fair and virtuous, but besides her own virtues has no other riches, her father being the poorest Duke in Spain, but of nobility most ancient, being the chief of the house of Mendriquez de Lara, fell in such liking of her, that he assured himself unto her, wherewithal the King and his mother came to be offended.
Pp. 2½.
1239. Duplicate copy.
Endd., from Madrid, 5 Feb. 1576. Pp. 12/3.
1240. Another copy.
Pp. 2.
Feb. 5.1241. Dr. Wilson to Walsingham.
Cannot say there is any assured hope of peace until the Spaniards have given over their forts and are marching homewards by land. It is so far unlike that they are going that they fortify at Maestricht by day and night, spoil the towns about Liege, and have taken Eyndhoven, near Bois-le-duc which, they threaten to besiege unless it is yielded to them. They are determined not to go by land, and scant 10,000,000 will satisfy their demands for pay. Don John will not harken to the return of the Count de Buren. Notwithstanding this the Emperor's ambassadors are here to do good offices for peace; the Bishop of Liege and Octavio Gonzaga, both specially sent from Don John hither to deal for quietness, and the common speech is that a peace will be concluded before the week be ended. Would have sent him all things that passed with Don John, but that Mr. Horsey had the same with him. Now he sends such advertisements as he could find generally since the first of the month, together with various other letters and papers.—Brussels, 5 Feb. 1577. Signed.
Add. Endd. P. 1.
Feb. 1.1242. Recapitulation by the Emperor's ambassadors of the articles given at Hoye.
Endd. Fr. Enclosure. Pp. 7½.
Feb. 5.1243. — to the Queen.
Begs that she will add to her glory and fame by extending to the Low Countries that same help which she has given to Scotland and France with such happy results.—Brussels, Nones of Feb. 1577.
Copy. Endd. Lat. Pp. 3.
Feb. 6.1244. William Wade to Burghley.
Thanks him for his good counsel for his behaviour towards God, and in such service as he may do the ambassador. His brother has been less importunate of late to trouble his Lordship, because he understands Mr. Herle has obtained a protection from the Queen, by reason whereof he [Wade] cannot by law bring him to any order, and having that advantage he will not submit to any arbitrament. Prays to be discharged of the bond he was in to him by his Lordship's order, the which he has broken without any respect of him or of his promise. Protests to him he will never deal with him but by course of law. Has familiar acquaintance with Bodinus, his profession is the civil law, though he is constrained to retire himself from the practice for his safety, being of the religion, and therefore his estate is poor, he is accounted very learned. One of the secretaries has imparted to him all such affairs as have passed between France and other countries, and he has addicted himself a long continuance to that study wherein the civil law has not been the least aid he has had. He is one of the deputies of the third Estate. His book is again corrected and augmented, whereof he shall send him of the first at the request of the author. There is of late an order taken in the Court of Parliament of Paris for usurers, which greatly contents the world. It is a chamber of councillors and other citizens of good calling, who hear the complaints of those that are oppressed, and as there is cause moderate or acquit the interest of the debtors, and proceed against the parties so exacting by imprisonment, loss of their goods and lives according to law.—St. Die, 6 February 1576. Signed.
Add., with seal. Endd. by Burghley. Pp. 2⅓.
Feb. 6.1245. The Council of State of Brabant to the States General.
1. Have been with Don John, and endeavoured to obtain his consent to the pacification made with the Prince of Orange and the provinces of Holland and Zealand, in order that after the prompt dismissal of the foreign soldiers they may come to a good accord with his Highness. This assent having been obtained is of very great importance, as is also the departure of the Spaniards by land instead of by sea, and therefore they should not stand out too strongly on the only point in question, namely, that of the payment of the arrears of pay due to the Spaniards, and warn them of the evils that will ensue if the war is renewed on this ground solely. They should not let their judgments be obscured by the wrongs that they have suffered, but rather consider how they may avoid future evils. In estimating the sum to be paid some account should be taken of the plunderings and forced loans exacted by the Spaniards, and in order to ensure their speedy withdrawal their pay should be delivered to them at Genoa, though a sum of 200,000 or 300,000 crowns might be given them on account. As for the Almains, they may be paid partly with merchandise and partly by bills at a long date, deducting what portion they have received of the forced loans, and his Highness shall not acknowledge any agreement made between them and the Spaniards. A sum of ready money should be given to Don John in order that he might himself undertake the payment of the soldiers, and the Duke of Arschot should be appointed to make such arrangements for his Highness' security that he may be induced to come to some place near where the States are, and so avoid delays.
2. As the States have a number of Almains in their service they might offer to take the rest and become responsible for their pay on condition that the Spaniards and other foreign troops are at once sent away, and in order to expedite their departure might offer a prest of 200,000 or 300,000 crowns. It is also reasonable that the Prince of Orange should be included in these arrangements.
3. The States General assembled at Brussels agree by a majority to act on the advice of the Council of State in the matter of the payment of the foreign troops, provided that it does not exceed the sum of 300,000 crowns, and that the Prince of Orange's advice shall be taken before the final resolution of the peace, and that all munitions of war be left behind untouched. Also that the Count de Buren be set at liberty, and that the appointment to governments and offices be referred to the assembly of the States General.—Brussels, 5 Feb. 1577.
4. The States General agree that the Spanish troops shall have 15 days to evacuate the different forts and towns held by them, provided that they deliver up the citadel of Antwerp within 10 days and quit the country within 15 days afterwards.—Brussels, 6 Feb. 1577.
Endd. Fr. Pp. 6½.
1246. Copy of the first part of the above.
Endd. Fr. Pp. 3.
Feb. 7.1247. Instructions for MM. Haultain and Mansarde sent by the Prince of Orange to the States General.
Warns them of the extreme danger of delay in their negotiations with Don John, who may by that be able to seize on some sudden opportunity to do the country mischief. Don John shows an evident partiality for the Spaniards, who have been justly proclaimed rebels and public enemies, and besides has neither will nor authority to conclude those points which are most to be desired, namely, the withdrawal of the Spaniards, the pacification between the different provinces, and the re-establishment of the privileges and liberties of the country. His demand that the Spaniards shall retire by sea, or if they withdraw by land that they shall be paid their arrears, show that he has no wish that they shall go at all. The impossibility of granting his demands shows that he is only mocking them. The expenses of a war would not be more than the sum required to satisfy the Spaniards, who declare that they will not depart till they are paid all that is due to them. With respect to the ratification of the pacification [of Ghent], he plainly shows that he has no will to it, as he has imposed so many conditions, such as the attestation by the bishops and dignitaries of the church, and when that was unexpectedly granted, further requires that of the universities, who are in no wise concerned in the matter, and now requires that the Pope and King of Spain should be contented. He further strikes a blow at the authority of the States by refusing to recognise the Spaniards as being mutineers and rebels, and to treat of the liberation of the Count de Buren, although that is one of the clauses of the pacification. He denies expressly that he has any authority to ratify the said pacification, so that the King of Spain will be able to disavow anything he may do therein. Gives several instances of solemn treaties set aside by dispensation from the Pope. Does not think that the King will keep faith with those whom he evidently considers rebels. Besides Don John has openly said that he considers the said pacification null and void, as having been made after his departure from Spain and the receipt of his commission from the King, so that the States had no power to contract, far less to conclude, any such thing without his seal and consent, and further that the Council of State had only agreed to it from necessity. There is still less hope of getting his consent to the placing of their rights and privileges in their ancient state whilst he pretends to have command of all the forces and to hold all the citadels in his power, and to appoint governors and officers on his own authority. Reminds them also of Don John's proud and cruel disposition. Even supposing he had the greatest will and desire to satisfy them about the Spaniards and in the other matters, and that his disposition was gentle and good natured, it is well for the States to consider that, after what has passed between them, he can never bear any affection to this country, and that he will always be suspicious and distrustful. As, however, he has used menaces to them, and manifestly inclines towards the Spanish party, the Prince begs them to weigh well all these things, and to consider whether the time has not come to free the country of the evils which it has suffered, which have chiefly arisen through the appointment of foreigners to the government. The States therefore should insist on the right of choosing their own governor, and the Prince recommends them to elect the Duke of Arschot in the place of Don John as their Governor-General. They should also appoint certain conditions to be observed by him and other Governors-General in future. By doing this they would be following no new course, and even if they were they are compelled to do so by necessity. Exhorts them to follow the example of their ancestors, and put an end to this tyranny from which they suffer.—Middleburg, 7 Feb. 1577.
Copy. Endd. Fr. Pp. 92/3.
Feb. 7.1248. The Perpetual Edict.
Notes on the proposed treaty between Don John and the States, nineteen in number, relating chiefly to the withdrawal of the Spaniards, the release of prisoners, and repayment of money borrowed by the States.
Endd.: 7 Feb. Fr. P. 1.
1249. Another copy.
Endd. Fr. Pp. 2.
1250. Another copy.
Endd. Fr. Pp. 2¼.
Feb. 7.1251. Sir A. Paulet to Burghley.
Will be glad to know his pleasure if he shall send him copies of such letters as he shall write from time to time to the Queen. Has sent the copies of divers things to Mr. Walsingham. Many devices have been proposed to enrich the King and disburden the people. Commends Mr. Wade.— St. Die, 7 February 1576. Signed.
Add., with seal. Endd. P. ½.
Feb. 7.1252. Paulet to Walsingham.
Sends a copy of his letter to the Queen. Walsingham's instructions were so compendious and pithy, and composed of so many several parts of necessary importance, that he made not so good proof of his memory these many years as at this time. Dares not write to the Queen as he is not credibly advertised, that the Prince of Condé intends to go shortly into Germany accompanied with 500 chosen horsemen. It was said the peace was in great forwardness to be concluded at Hoye, on the Meuse, the 21st January between Don John and the Estates. Could tell him of many notions for many great and honourable marriages, but holds them for fables. Has received answer from the Governor of La Charité, to whom he wrote for one Patrick, whose cloth was taken by them of that place. Pinart told him his letters would be sufficient without the King's, as he had better credit there than the King had. Many commissions are given out for the levying of men.—St. Die, 7 Feb. 1576. Signed.
Add. Endd. P. 1.
Feb. 8.1253. M. Danville to the Deputies of the Estates.
Thanks them for the honour they have done him, thinking it proceeds out of their regard for his house, which has so long produced faithful servants of their Prince and country, and he vows he will never do anything to tarnish the name of Montmorency. He cannot but see the evils that oppress them, and which have, as it were, degraded the grand name of the French, invincible and formidable to all the world, and God, for their sins, has punished them and has permitted the differences of religion. He has seen the measures the wise worldlings have adopted to put an end to these differences, murder, violence, and other acts, the memory of which makes them tremble, and he cannot think it possible for men to put an end to that which God reserves to himself. No one can be more zealous than he is for the preservation and augmentation of the Catholic religion, in which he was brought up, and of which he makes and will make perfect confession during his life. For the Catholic religion, the Constable, his brothers, and his relations have spent their blood. The Protestants have bought exercise of their religion with their blood, and they cannot, therefore, be expected to depart from that which has cost them so dear. That the two religions are incompatible is untrue has been proved during the short peace in Languedoc, where are many of the religion, and he cannot see by what means their liberty can be taken away, if the Edict be broken, for the Estates of Languedoc have, in his presence and in that of M. de Joyeuse, lieutenantgeneral for the King, sworn to observe the Edict, and union makes people strong and invincible. He therefore leaves it to the Estates to imagine how, by doing as they ask, he will help to bring down on the kingdom, and especially on Languedoc, still greater evils than they suffer from already. He cannot give further answer till he have communicated with the Prince of Condé and the King of Navarre and have considered of the motives that have actuated the Estates, and with them he may arrive at some resolution to content the Estates and the kingdom. If it be in the power of the Estates to grant some relief to the kingdom, and they do not do it, they will incur the anger of God and the execrations and maledictions of the people, instead of the benediction they would receive for wise and prudent advice. He prays them well to consider and to give advice to the King in a matter that concerns the well or evil being of the kingdom, and see the impossibility of what they desire, to have but the Catholic religion in France.—Montpellier, 8 Feb. 1577. Signed by Danville and M. le Marechal Marion (sic).
Endd. Copy. Fr. Pp. 4.
Feb. 8.1254. The Perpetual Edict.
1. The points demanded from the States by the Ambassador of England that they should be inserted in the proposed treaty of pacification:—
2. First, an assurance for the repayment of the money advanced to the States by the Queen of England.
3. Secondly, that the English rebels should be banished from the King of Spain's dominions, or delivered over into the Queen's hands.
4. Thirdly, the observance of all former treaties of intercourse and traffic made between the Crown of England and the House of Burgundy.
Endd. Fr. P. ½.
Feb. 9.1255. The States of the Low Countries to the Queen.
Dr. Wilson and M. Swevenghem having desired them that in any accord made with Don John certain articles might be included, they have agreed to insert the first touching the repayment of the loan advanced by the Queen. As to the two others, touching the observance of the ancient treaties made between the Crown of England and the Low Countries, and the expulsion of the English rebels, they consider it superfluous to mention them in this treaty. The fourth point is settled by her ambassador having informed them that the difficulty between the Prince of Orange and her Majesty is at an end. Willingly follow her advice as to making peace, and have made a golden bridge for their enemies to retire.—Brussels, 9 Feb. 1577.
Copy. Add. Endd. Fr. Pp. 1½.
1256. Copy of the above enclosed in Wilson's letter of the 10th inst.
Endd. Fr. Pp. 1½.
Feb. 9.1257. M. St. Aldegonde to —
Thanks him for the good offices which he has done for him with the Queen. Refers him for news to MM. de Favars and Mr. Davison, but sends him a scheme for peace proposed by the Emperor's Ambassadors, to which it appears that the States have given their assent, and forwarded it to the Prince of Orange and Don John.—Middleburg, 9 Feb. 1577. Signed: Philip de Marnix.
Endd. Fr. P. ½.
Feb. 10.1258. Dr. Wilson to Lord Burghley.
The Deputies for the States General being agreed upon 19 articles for a common quietness has sent them to Mr. Secretary Walsingham for her Majesty's Council to peruse. Has done his endeavour with the Council of State for the insertion of the three special articles concerning the Queen's money to be had again; the rebels to be banished, and the intercourse continued without innovation, but the obligation for money is only considered, and the other two points thought impertinent. Has charged M. Swevenghem with his promise made in England for the insertion of all three. If the Prince of Orange likes the articles the peace is concluded, for it is thought that Don John has commandment to agree even for necessity's sake. Sends copy of a discourse made by the Prince on the 2nd inst. Count Mansfeldt the younger wrote a stout letter to the States for his father's enlargement, which also he sends together with the States' answer to him and the French King. By means of these letters the old Earl was straight delivered, as also was Count Barliamont. Has been to them and declared that he had in charge to procure their liberty as far as he could, for which he received great thanks. Desires liberty to return if this peace be concluded.—Brussels, 10 Feb. 1577. Signed.
Add. Endd. Pp. 1¼.
Feb. 10.1259. Dr. Wilson to Walsingham.
Sends by the bearer, Mr. Rogers, such things as have passed here amongst the States General since the going away of Mr. Churchyard, whereby it may appear in what forwardness the peace is now, and upon the assents of Don John and the Prince of Orange, to whom they sent yesterday, the accord is to follow. It may be that Don John will soon yield, who has a farther fetch in his head after the agreement made, but thinks the Prince will deal more plainly, and show the inconveniences of this pretended peace. Paul Buiz has openly protested against these proceedings, and told Wilson plainly that a full intention was by this peace to undo the Prince and overthrow religion. The States with others have agreed upon a plot amongst themselves, and now seek advice of the Prince without his conference had before their agreement, meaning by this mean to lay the blame on him if he do not accord with them. Assurance there is none that Don John will deal uprightly with them; and the Prince will hardly like all the articles till the Spaniards be gone, and all the forts in the power of the States. These notes of what passed on the 7th inst. were hardly to be gotten, for that the officers were sworn not to give out any copies. Understands that mention is only made of the States' obligations to her Majesty and others, and not of her rebels, or for the intercourse to be continued. Hereupon he was grieved and spoke his mind somewhat plainly, notwithstanding their reasons to the contrary. Still thinks that the Prince will never yield to Don John's government nor to the alteration of his professed religion, nor that his son should be stayed in Spain till the Prince agreed to all things here. Is promised to understand his determination with the first. If the Prince be not comprehended in this accord it will not be well with this country, and he fears that England shall feel the smart of it in time. A gentleman passed through this town on the 8th inst. from the King of Navarre to advertise the Prince that his life is in hazard by some Frenchmen about him. Some say that Monsieur has sent the like warning. It is certain that the only life of the Prince is an hindrance to all the designs and purposes of Don John. It is said that Flanders, Friesland, Guelderland, and the County of Utrecht will all take such part as the Prince does. There are reports of some stir again in Naples, and that the Turk makes preparations in Barbary and elsewhere, and, therefore, that the King is desirous that the Spaniards should retire by land if a peace can be had.—Brussels, 10 Feb. 1577. Signed.
Add. Endd. Pp. 2.
Feb. 10.1260. Instructions for M. de Favars sent to the Queen of England from the Prince of Orange.
1. After presenting his humble offer of service, he is to say that the Prince hopes that she has quite forgiven those matters with which she was displeased; and then he shall proceed to inform her of the state of affairs in the Low Countries. If Don John is accepted as governor before the Spaniards are withdrawn they will never leave the country, which on the other hand will be filled with foreign troops, with whom he will make war on his neighbours. It is notorious that Don John has declared his intention of making war "a l'outrance" against Holland and Zealand, and that he has charge from Spain so to do; and further, to exterminate the reformed religion, and to deprive them of their ancient rights and privileges. He will then be able to draw the means from them of supporting a formidable army and supplies of munitions. His reception into the Low Countries will sow discord and mistrust amongst them, so that he will be enabled to overcome them by means of one another, and having subdued those who openly oppose him can proceed to take vengeance on those whom he suspects. When he has disposed of the leaders he will have the rest of the inhabitants entirely at his pleasure and disposal, and will be able to levy such taxes that he will maintain so great a force against Holland and Zealand that in all human probability he must succeed in overthrowing them. If this is accomplished the Queen may easily consider what mischief will happen to the rest of Christendom, and especially to England, considering the great injury that must ensue to trade by the long war. The Spaniards will never forget that the Queen of England has been the principal sustainer of those of the reformed religion, and will make every effort to be revenged on her. Having consideration of this the Prince begs that she will render them assistance in their struggle against the insupportable tyranny of the most insolent nation in the world. As some people have given out that her Majesty would only afford assistance on condition that they should remain in their allegiance with the King, and observe that religion which he should command, an opinion has been formed that she condemns that which they at present hold. The Prince therefore begs that she will declare that this is not her intention, but only that the followers of both religions should live peaceably together. It is to be feared that if the Queen does not show that this mutual toleration is agreeable to her that many of the States of Brabant and other provinces who are not favourable to the reformed religion will be induced to make an accord with Don John, and so give rise to a new war, which would be worse than the last. Begs that she will command her ambassador to hinder in every way that the government shall not be placed in the hands of Don John before the departure of the Spaniards and the confirmation of their ancient rights and privileges, so that Don John or any one else will not be able henceforth to tyrannise and oppress the authority of the States as has been done formerly. Beseeches her assistance in the event of a new war against Holland and Zealand.
2. M. des Querdes has written to the Prince that whilst he was on the road to Mons he met a priest who said he was the chaplain of Don John's mother, and as he pretended to be very desirous of Don John's arrival, and also a great enemy of the States and of those of the religion, the chaplain confided to him that he would soon see a great change, and that matters were being arranged in a very different manner from what the common opinion was. He further told him that they had taken certain measures that there should soon be a rebellion in England against the Queen under colour that the Papists should demand publicly the exercise of their religion, and that there were several great people mixed up in this conspiracy. They had further taken steps to poison the Queen, and the marriage of Don John with the Queen of Scots was already arranged, so that not only would he be at the head of affairs in the Low Countries, but also possess the kingdoms of England and Scotland. He also drew from his bosom a portrait of the Queen of Scots, which he told the Sieur des Querdes that he was charged to carry to Don John. He further said they would scatter about defamatory libels in order to bring the Queen of England into odium with her people. Though the Prince has this information from a person of not particularly good credit, still, considering all things, he thinks it worth while to send it to her.—Middleburg, 10 Feb. 1577.
Endd. Fr. Pp. 7⅓.
Feb. 12.1261. Don John to the States General.
Has signed the proposed draft of the Edict, which he returns to them, and sends Secretary Escovedo to Antwerp to announce to the Spanish soldiers the day appointed for their departure, and is only waiting for the Duke of Arschot in order to set out for Namur and thence to Louvain, there to perform what remains for him to do.—Marche, 12 Feb. 1577.
Copy. Endd. Fr. P. 2/3.
Feb. 13.1262. English Merchants in Antwerp to the Council of Zealand.
1. Complain of the detention of their goods and ship, and of the demand of additional duties in contravention of the Intercourse of 1507, and desire that they may be allowed to pursue their voyage towards England, and that some consideration may be had of the loss which they have sustained. Copy.
2. Note in margin. Order by the Council for them to make a list of their goods and merchandises.—Middleburg, 13 Feb. 1577.
Fr. P. 2/3.
Feb. 14.1263. English Merchants to the Prince of Orange.
Beg that they may be allowed at once to transport their goods brought from Antwerp without paying any further tolls or customs, as they been put to great expenses, being in number more than 50 persons, besides having to satisfy the masters of the vessels for this detention.
2. In margin. The Prince agrees to their departure on giving surety for the payment of the dues for licence and convoy. —Middleburg, Feb. 14, 1577.
Copy. Fr. P. ⅓.
Feb. 15.1264. Antonio Guerras to Don John of Austria.
Letter in Spanish cipher intercepted.—London, 15 Feb. 1577.
Endd. Pp. 1½.
Feb. 15.1265. Dr. Wilson to Walsingham.
A through post came on the 12th inst. to the Bishop of Liege from Don John with letters that he had accorded the peace in all the articles that were sent, saving that he desired to the 30 days after pacification for the Spaniards and other strangers to depart 10 days more of respite, and for the moiety of the 300,000 crowns' pay a shorter day for the latter payment. He comes to Namur on Sundays, and so to Louvain with his ordinary train. Many talk diversely of this accord, and those who are for the Prince of Orange altogether mislike it, suspecting the worst, the rather that there is no assurance of Don John's faithful dealing hereafter. Sends copies of the States' letter to Don John, their instructions to their deputies to the Prince, and their safe conduct for Don John. Thinks it will be difficult to send the Spaniards away actually, and to deliver the fortresses into the States' hands. Told M. Swevenghem, who is a chief worker for this accord, that he that thought Don John would war with England when he had made peace with them, who said that the States would not let him do so if he would.—Brussels, 15 Feb. 1577. Signed.
Add. Endd., seal damaged. P. 1.
Feb. 15.1266. Dr. Wilson to Lord Burghley.
1. Agreement of Don John to the 19 propounded articles. Sends him such lewd and horrible papers as come to his hands, which though they be of an older date, yet their traitorous hearts are fresh and lusty, and most ready to do all mischief when occasion shall be offered. Trusts God will be their sovereign's defence against all devils whatsoever M. Swevenghem told him of some Englishman of value who has ridden to Don John within four posts. Young Powle was with Wilson the 10th inst., by whose speech in secret he understands somewhat, but marvelled that he had neither letter or message, and therefore half suspected him. He is gone upon hope he may do some good. Has given him the best counsel he could, and helped him with a passport.—Brussels, 15 Feb. 1577.
2. P.S.—Prays him to be good to poor Egrement Ratcliffe that he may have pardon to be confined to Ireland, and upon pain of death not to return without license. Can see by Cotton's own report, his deadly enemy, what meeting he and Lord Morley had in Spain.
Add. Endd., with seal. P. 1.
Feb 15.1267. Articles of the Perpetual Edict.
1. Don John having considered that the 15 days mentioned in the 4th article were not sufficient for carrying out the withdrawal of the Spaniards has desired that the time may be extended to 20 days.
2. As for the 300,000 florins which are to be made payable at Genoa within two months according to the 14th article, Don John desires that they may be delivered here, as he does not know whether the Spaniards will go to Genoa.
3. The States are content to admit these alterations, postponing, however, their signature to the accord till the return of their deputies sent to the Prince of Orange.—Brussels, 15 Feb. 1577.
Endd. Fr. Pp. 1¼.
1268. Copy of the above.
Endd. by Burghley. Fr. Pp. 1¼.