March 1578, 26-31


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'Elizabeth: March 1578, 26-31', Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 12: 1577-78 (1901), pp. 569-591. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=73321 Date accessed: 20 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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March 1578, 26-31

March 27.
K. d. L. x. 365.
I have just received the promise of the Estates in writing, as required by my instructions. Two days ago it was made to show the Estates, and was first signed this hour. I have not a little trotted up and down the city to have it made in due form, perceiving by experience that a man must not look for any great expedition here, where things have to be approved by so many. Now I am taking my journey towards Dordrecht by water, as the Prince advised me, for greater safety. The Emperor's ambassador and the Duke of Cleves solicited the Estates again on the 24th to send commissioners to Liége to talk of peace, because the King had lately requested the Duke to employ himself that way. The Estates having heard that at the request of M. de Selles, Don John had made a letter to the Duke of such ' blanks' as he has from the King, have answered that it is superfluous to talk of a new pacification, as they both knew that Don John was not bent to any peace ; and all men might guess what peace they would require by such demands as are specified in the last pacification. For if the pacification of Ghent be thoroughly observed, Don John with the Spaniards retiring and Matthias remaining Governor they have all they demand. It is certain that Don John by this proposal seeks only to make the Estates suspend action till he is ready with his reiters. I must hasten to Duke Casimir and accelerate his descent. Nothing can hinder me but the 20,000l. which are to be paid at the place of muster ; for as they have not yet received the obligations from her Majesty, I doubt if they will be able to have the other 20,000l. ready in time. The Archduke wished me to dine with him to-day, but I excused myself as being ready to depart, whereupon he sent me his letter to Duke Casimir, a copy of which was delivered to me, which I mean to translate and send herewith. Count John of Nassau—whose son I hope may be courteously handled in England, that the Prince may the more confirm his judgement of her Majesty's goodwill—is daily looked for. The Estates of Guelderland desire him for their Governor. In time past the Counts of Nassau were Counts of Guelderland, before it was erected into a duchy. If the war last two years longer, the King will lose Guelderland and other provinces, so are all men alienated from him, and they begin to hate abbots and churchmen because of the 'lease' of the Abbot of St. Ghislain, now Bishop of Arras, who was one of the chief in the Estates. The Abbot of St. 'Va' is a prisoner ; those of St. Marcein and of Bonne Espérance, with a number of others who would have betrayed Douay, Arras, Lille, Mons, &c., are fled, partly to 'Perona,' partly to Don John. The Duke of Aerschot told me to-day when mention was made of Mendoza, that on his return from England three years ago, he showed the presents her Majesty had given him, and mocked her. It grieves me that such a one should receive any courtesy of her Grace. The Marquis told me the same when I met him at Oudenburch. —Antwerp, 27 March 1578. P.S.—If my suit be not ended, I beseech you to add supremum munus ; cum primus fueris, qui bene de me mereri inceperis. I have left the original of the promise with Mr. Davison, as it would have had to be sent back to him. Add. Endd. 2 pp. [Ibid. V. 102.]
Having been sick a long time was the reason I have not oftener written to you ; but having a good opportunity of writing by report of a gentleman of Borgonia, an old acquaintance of mine, who is Commissary-General of the musters and in great credit with the Prince and Estates, and bears a good will to our nation, as our English captains can bear witness, with whom I having much talk and great conversation showed me certain advertisements he had from France, and has daily more and more, promising to advertise you from time to time of all he can learn thence. He has dined once with Mr. Davison, and by my means gave him certain intelligences. Hearing no news from you of these, he has thought it well to write the letter inclosed [Qy. No. 728], so that if you like him you may write back to him. This month, for the service of the Queen and the 'servyable' heart I bear to you, I have thought well to tell you the news there is here. Since Don John has won the town of Nivelles in Brabant, 'Bins in Henowe' and Mabuse have surrendered to him, and the common voice is that he is gone back to besiege Philippeville. He has great succour coming from Italy and looks for more ; and it is thought that when his forces are together he will besiege some of our strong towns. Mons, Arras, and 'Brydgis' were in great danger of being delivered to Don John by treason, but thank God those treasons are 'opened.' There is come to the Court a noble gentleman called the Count of 'Newnart,' who married the Countess of Horn, with whom I fell into acquaintance by Captain Cromwell's means, who told me that he offered to serve the States with 1,000 horse, half lances, half reiters ; but the Prince seeking to prefer his brothers and kinsfolk rather than him, his offer was not accepted. But as he told me further, his house being only three or four days' journey from Antwerp, his horsemen would not be so much 'traveled,' but he would be able to encounter the enemy forthwith, while the Count Palatine or Count of 'Swarsenbourcke' being so far off, it was not possible for them to do service for a month after their coming, 'as also six weeks in coming,' and meanwhile the enemy would do more hurt in the country than we should be able to recover in a long time. I found him very wise, and one who bears a great goodwill to her Majesty. I brought Mr. Daniel Rogers to talk with him ; and so has the ambassador, as no doubt they have advertised you. If her Majesty has occasion to employ him, no doubt he will do very good service. The States to content him have sent him as ambassador to the Emperor. I must further give you notice of Thomas Moffett, who has remained in these countries since I last wrote of him. The captains that are employed here, Mr. Gainsford, Cromwell, and Bishop, think he is not so fit a man to be in these countries, for we all think him to be a spy for Don John ; as also one Captain Mowrehouse. Another very 'disordered' man was here, called Weedon, who thought to have got a charge here ; but being known in these countries both for a condemned man and a coiner of false money, he was ordered away. Captain Gainsford told me he doubted that Thomas Moffett, who is very great with Mr. Morgan, would deceive the good gentleman, as he abused Mr. Chester in Holland. As to the other man, called Captain Morehouse, I was requested to tell you of him by Captain Cromwell, whose soldier he is, that he has at times sent a messenger to Louvain, and tells Captain Cromwell that he does it by consent of the Queen's Council, and that he has divers times received letters from Mr. Secretary Wilson to that effect. Please write to Captain Cromwell, if it be for the Queen's service and by your command, and we will all assist him. On the contrary case, if we may know your pleasure, he and Moffett shall be sent over to you ; for if it were known to the States or the Prince that Morehouse frequented with the enemy, his captain would not be able to answer it. He holds him a prisoner till he hears from you. I have further to request you to write a favourable letter in my behalf to the Prince of Orange, both of my fidelity in the time of the Spaniards' government and of the faithful heart I have always borne to my natural country, as to his Excellency. I trust you do not forget the advertisements and letters I have at divers times written of all the news I could learn of the Spaniards' practices against the Queen ; as also what was practised against his Excellency by one Mr. George Martyn and others, and of a letter that was written by the 'Commandor maior' to the Governor of Flushing and sent by the said George Martyn. I am so bold to crave your friendship that I may obtain of his Excellency charge of 50 light horse, with whom, if I obtain a commission, I doubt not but I shall be able to send you such a prisoner that you will think well of me and not repent of favouring me. I trust to make such spies among those continually in the company of the Earl of Westmoreland, Stuckley, and others, that with the advertisement of my espions I may entrap them or some of them. Thank God, I have recovered my health. But for my sickness, I should have had a charge from the States long ago. This letter was written last Sunday, but before I could get the commissary's letter the post was gone. Since it was written, the news is that Don John was coming to besiege 'Nynehove' ; but the Count of Boussu with the younger Count of Egmont departed from Brussels with 17 'ancients' of foot and 700 horse, and have put into 'Nynehove,' 'Atte,' 'Odenart,' and other frontier towns of Flanders sufficient garrisons ; and whereas it was thought we should have assembled our camp, we are forced for want of horsemen to 'lee' and employ our men in garrisons. Unless we obtain our horsemen shortly, I see that all will not go as well as I could wish. In my last letter I wrote what hope or trust was to be put in our Walloon soldiers. The 'probation' thereof fell shortly after in the detestable overthrow of the camp by Namur. If I thought any aid of our nation were coming over, I would not 'put myself in wages,' but await the coming of the Lord General, to whom I trust I would do good service and show you what is in me.—Antwerp, 27 March 1578. Add. Endd. 5 pp. [Written apparently with the same ink as Jacques Rossel's letter, No. 728.] [Holl. and Fl. V. 103.]
I hope that you have received, by John Christopher Scher [sic ; qy. Freiherr] of Schwartzenberg, the letter that I wrote you, together with the capitulation on my behalf and that of the States. In the present I have to tell you what the Queen of England says. In place of the 6,000 English she is satisfied to succour this country by your means with a strong force of horse and foot. Wherefore we beg that in addition to the 3,000 horse and 3,000 Swiss, for whom you have already had the order, you will levy 2,000 horse and 3,000 foot, and come to this country as soon as possible. You will receive from her Majesty's ambassador money in advance of what you and your men will receive here according to your due. You will then have the obligation and discharge made out on us and the States-General. As we greatly desire your aid and advice in the affairs of the present war, we shall await your coming anxiously from day to day, with full assurance that you will not be slow to aid these unhappy subjects. We therefore beseech you very affectionately, and the Estates very humbly pray you to come in person with the reiters and the infantry as soon as you possibly can.—Antwerp, 27 March 1578. Copy. Fr. 1 p. [For. E.B. Misc. II.]
March 27.
K. d. L. x. 363.
Your advertisements are good and your pains are praiseworthy, and therefore God grant you speedily the reward of your travail. It is strange that the Estates should make peace before they are sure what the issue of it will be. If they accord anything without the confirming of the Perpetual Edict, they utterly undo themselves, and the poor Prince of Orange shall be the first that is like to smart, who hath deserved better of the Low Countries than they all have done. The trial is now who shall win, not how a peace shall be made, and methinks arms and weapons are fitter to be used against the enemy than a treaty of peace when no faith is meant. There is no choice but either victory or death. It were better die once manfully than live always scurvily. Occasion must not be lost and good heed should always be taken to foresee what the adversary doeth, and in what he is found most weak. The answer is not yet given to the Marquis, but within these two days he is to know her Majesty's pleasure, which howsoever it fall out the Estates must not be dismayed, but must take heart. This course I would wish you to take with them, and in any wise dissuade them from all dangerous accords lest they lose more by peace than they have lost hitherto by war. I do not think France fit to join with them, nay, I think France unable, and perhaps unwilling whatsoever French brag or brave offer is made. I marvel Mr. Rogers does not write. You must chide him for his negligence in the public service, although I have reason to thank him for his letter written to me. Wanting leisure to write more and referring you to the bearer, my servant John Watson, I bid you farewell. Thank George Gilpin for his letters of the 23rd, to whom I would write, but I want time. Commend me also to M. Fremynge, of whose faith and honesty I do well assure you.—From the Court at Greenwich this 27 of March 1577 (sic). Add. Endd. : Received the last of March. 1 p. [Holl. and Fl. V. 104.]
March 27.
K. d. L. x. 361.
Understanding by yours of the 23rd the alteration wrought in the hearts of those people by Mr. Rogers' negotiation, I thought it well, in order to stay any dangerous resolution into which, finding themselves, as they interpret it, forsaken by her Majesty, and the expectation on which they built their hope of recovery of their liberty frustrated, they might cast themselves, to acquaint you with what passed here from her Majesty, and was delivered to Bernardino Mendoza after conference between him and my Lords upon his message. You may use it as a matter proceeding from yourself until you hear further, by such resolution as is delivered to the Marquis, what is thought fit to be done for their relief. The sum of it, delivered as I have said, to Mendoza from her Majesty, consists mainly of three heads : First, it was declared to him how she had always laboured to persuade those people not to forsake their natural Prince or diminish their obedience due to him for any cause whatever. Then, how discovering the practices of the French to enter Holland and Zealand to the assistance of the Prince of Orange she persuaded the Prince on the King's behalf that he should not entertain such a practice, and declared most gravely the damage that might ensue ; and this likewise to the Commendador, then Governor. Thirdly, how sisterly she seeks peace wholly for the King ; for she plainly sees that if he continue the war the poor people must be driven to seek some assistance, to which France notably offers itself. And they, fearing the evil result to their cause of French forces, are incessantly calling on her Majesty as their safest refuge. To conclude, because England may neither suffer Spain nor France to tyrannize over those poor people, her Majesty has answered that except the King will make peace she will, rather than France should, give what succour she can, with protestation never to impatronize herself of one town or foot of ground there, but only to restore them to safety as their ancient liberties ; and to this end, either to conclude a full peace with the King or to assist these people, she has promised to send immediately some person of quality to Don John. Thus much was delivered to Mendoza, and you may use it as a lenitive to assuage the sharp humours which seem to cause a distemperature in the minds of them that are so soon cast down with every contrary blast. Considering the niceness of the points the King stands on, as appears by the Baron de Selles' message, it cannot but be dangerous for them to enter upon a sudden treaty or conclusion of peace ; and the advantage of the enemy being so great by this accident it is feared the States would be disjoined from the Prince, as at the beginning the pacification of Ghent would be shaken off and the Prince left open to the power both of the Spaniards and of the States, a matter so carefully practised on the King's part, as that on which depends the whole event of the war, which no doubt is foreseen, that you will do well to be a means to stay it and breed some settledness in them ; bidding them beware lest on this sudden apprehension, which may not turn out as evil as they fear, they resolve upon any counsel which may hereafter hazard their whole success.— Greenwich, 27 March 1578. P.S. [autograph].—Among other arguments to dissuade them from this treaty of peace on a sudden, you may lay before them the misliking her Majesty may conceive of such sudden determination to enter into a treaty without her privity and not knowing what answer the Marquis will bring back. Besides, to seek peace at the enemy's hands cannot but make him stand upon proud and hard terms. The Queen is offended with Mr. Rogers for not sending the States' answer. Add. Endd. 2¾ pp. [Ibid. V. 105.]
741. Draft of above, in writing of L. Tomson. Endd. 2 pp. [Ibid. V. 106.]
742. Copy of above (without P.S.). 2½ pp. [For. E.B. Misc. II.]
March 27. 743. The ESTATES to M. DE SELLES.
In reply to your last letter we beg to remind you of our reasonable representations made to his Majesty and subsequently repeated in our letter to you ; by which it appears that we have never desired aught but to be at peace under his Majesty's obedience if he will be pleased, unformably to our prayers, to withdraw Don John and his forces, and confirm the Archduke Matthias in the government, subject to the fulfilment of our offer in regard to the two points, according to the terms of the pacification of Ghent. Upon which you have written two letters to us, one without date from Hevere in February, the other on the 18th of that month, saying that you have sent into Spain and are awaiting his Majesty's definitive reply, without which you are aware that we can get no further by way of communication. If his Majesty in his reply accepts our offer without further delay, there will be no difficulty in ridding these countries of this dangerous war and preserving them to him and his posterity, without further misery to his poor subjects. We beg that according to your promise we may soon have the answer, and understand once for all his Majesty's intentions. If it conforms to our reasonable offers, we shall, as we have always done, conform to all that is equitable and befitting good subjects. Otherwise, as past experience shows, we fear to be abused. The enemy is still in the country, sacking and fire-raising (branscattant), and ever increasing his forces, bringing in numerous strangers, especially Italians and Spaniards : by which one may see the good intention of Don John and the counsel he gives his Majesty. Again we protest that if any alteration or inconvenience arises from the delay, it should be imputed to him and his adherents, and to the evil counsel they have given to the King.—Antwerp, 27 March 1578. Copy. Endd. by L. Tomson. Fr. 1½ pp. [Holl. and Fl. V. 107.]
March 28.
K. d. L. x. 367.
I have written at large touching my negotiation to the Secretaries, who I trust will communicate it to you ; and I think it now my duty to write to you of the state of the country here, which I found in great perplexity. They understood that the promised forces were not coming from England, and Don John was winning towns daily ; which though not of great importance and only such as he that was master of the field had always at his devotion, yet as they heard of nothing but losses and heard that Don John's forces increased daily, while they were unprovided, they were much dismayed. There were also the practices and intelligences which Don John had in sundry towns, as Douay, Lille, Mons, Arras, Courtray, Ath, St. Omer, and Alost, which 'stood in terms' of surrendering to him ; by which means he stirred divisions among many of the Estates, easy to be made, where perplexity and irresolution was joined with fear, and where fair promises wanted not on his side. He wrote to the States that if they would maintain the Catholic religion and be obedient to their Sovereign, he would preserve all their liberties and privileges ; to others he caused to be said he would do anything for them, so that they sent the Prince of Orange away. M. de Selles wrote to the States-General from Liége that if they would send their commissioners there to deal for peace, the Bishop of Liége, the Duke of Cleves, and many Princes of the Empire would gladly travail therein. All which seemed to be invented to make division and hinder the Prince's designs ; those who did not wish well to him, objecting that it were better to seek peace when offered, than to await such aid as he told them would come from England ; also the States being busy to agree upon the general means for nourishing the war, these occurrences greatly hinder the general resolution that was looked for ; for the Prince finds that taxes on all sorts of merchandize and victuals bring in sums both greater and more secured. Wherefore at my coming the common sort began to despair, because they saw no aid come from England ; while the wiser sort began to doubt of the end of things. But when treasons were in many places detected, and the Prince had provided garrisons to be sent to those towns where Don John was expected, then Don John found himself greatly hindered ; and my message greatly encouraged the Estates, so that the difficulties moved them less. The same day that they gave me their answer, they learnt that the Bishop of Arras, alias Abbot of St. Ghislain, the Abbot of Bonne Espérance, the Abbot of St. Marcein, the Abbot of St. 'Va,' all of the States, and others had concluded to surrender Douay, Arras, Mons, and other towns of the greatest importance to Don John ; so that he would have had all Hainault and Artois, which if he had obtained other provinces would have followed. They had written in the Estates' name to all the towns of Hainault and Artois, that as Don John, who was very strong, promised to maintain their religion and privileges, seeing the Estates had not sufficient force to withstand him ; and because the longer the war lasted, the Prince's authority would increase to the overthrow of the Catholic religion, and that at last they must come to a composition with the King, they advised them to yield their towns to Don John to avoid further inconveniences, in case he should take them by force, which he would do, because the States had not power to help them. These letters were intercepted before they were delivered ; whereupon on the 19th were taken prisoners at Arras, the Abbot of St. Va, who is father [sic] to Vasseur, Don John's secretary, M. Cornelle, one of the council of Artois, and the secretary of the Bishop of Arras. The Bishop himself and others of credit are escaped to Peronne in Picardy. The Abbot of Bonne Espérance is fled to Don John, with other abbots ; for which cause ecclesiastics are more and more suspected. The Prince is presenting an oath to all abbots and ecclesiastics, in order that if they commit anything against it, they may be met by order of justice ; and whereas the abbeys were formerly free from soldiers, they are now compelled to receive them in garrison. In short, for the present the affairs of the Low Countries are in good terms. Don John sent a trumpeter on the 22nd to Havenes [Avesnes] to summon it ; but those of the town took him and hanged him forthwith. Now he has retired to Philippeville with most of his army to besiege it, that he may better resist such forces as are coming for the States ; but it is thought he will lose his time, because Baron Floreine is in the town with 8 ensigns and a cornet of horse, with good provision. The Prince doubts not that in three weeks he will have 5,000 reiters, and 10,000 in two months. If Don John has his reiters by then, the Prince assures himself that he will compel them to retire by famine ; if not, he will constrain Don John to go to towns, which he will besiege, and 'give him the law.' He will not lack provision for his own reiters, having the Rhine free and the sea open. As the country lacks oats, he has sent to Dantzic and to Brittany for 100,000 bushels, by which he reckons that the States will gain as good as 20,000 florins a week. It is calculated that for 10,000 reiters they must have 70,000 'pickotins' or measures of oats per day. The Prince is occupied, acording to your advice, in fortifying towns, providing money, and repairing the camp. Brabant, Flanders, Hainault and Artois are to provide 500,000 florins per month ; while Holland, Zealand, Friesland, and Guelderland, which have greater privileges, and cannot be taxed like the other provinces, will entertain 25 companies of the bands of ordnance. Count John of Nassau, whose eldest son is now in England with the Marquis, is expected daily. He will command 1,200 horse, and on his return will be made Governor of Guelderland. In sum, the longer the war lasts, the more the King will lose. Great Papists, who three months ago were alogether 'addicted' to the King, are now his mortal enemies ; and the Council of State, which mostly consists of Papists, will not have to do with the King directly, but by a third person, and they are hardly to be brought to that. M. de Selles, foreseeing what inconvenience will happen to the King if some talk of peace is not agreed on, is dealing with the Duke of Cleves, to move the Estates to send their commissioners to Liége to treat of peace, who answered that unless the King himself wrote to him, he would not meddle in any such matter. Selles advertised Don John of the Duke's answer, and two days after he sent a gentleman to the Duke with letters to the same effect, made I think of such blanks as he has in store. So on the 24th, the Duke and the Bishop of Liége (who was made a cardinal last month) sent letters to the Estates by M. Buckholbe [Bocholt], bastard to M. de Grevenburche, desiring them to send commissioners to Liége ; the Baron of Winnenberg (who was employed last year by the Emperor to withdraw the Spaniards from the Low Countries) was on the way from the Emperor to make peace. Count Swartzenborche [Schwarzenberg], the Emperor's ambassador here, a dangerous man, urged the same. These proposals engendered new difficulties ; and the States are not fully resolved whether they shall send or not. But as they are persuaded that Don John and not the King wrote to the Duke of Cleves, and as they know he means nothing but war, and causes these things to be moved in order to make divisions, the Prince is trying to prevent any from being sent, and I hear that the States at present intend not to send. The Prince told me yesterday that they wrote on the 25th to the Duke and the Bishop that it was vain to propose a new act of pacification, as they might easily know what they desired by the last peace. If Don John were departed, the pacification of Ghent established, and Matthias authorised as Governor, they had the peace they required. But the nature of this people is covetous, 'and doth hardly contribute,' and the wiser sort see that all hangs upon the Prince. If he miscarry, they foresee nothing but confusion. Wherefore I judge they will meet with such difficulties as will break their constancy in defending themselves, or make them in despair yield themselves to the French King unless aided by some other prince. Wise men therefore think that her Majesty would act politicly in sending her forces hither to their aid. If she does not wish to do so, then, because the war will be dangerous to the King of Spain, if she pleased to send an embassy to Germany, both to the princes and to the Emperor, she would constrain the King the sooner to embrace some reasonable peace. Those who before would not permit her to meddle that way, would now be well contented that she would employ her credit for the pacification of things ; which would be very honourable to her. In Germany all things are done by doctors ; and 'Loodwich Guiardin' and some other Italians who have reminded me of this and know Secretary Wilson, judge he would strike the best stroke for making peace if he were sent into Germany. But the Prince says it is not time to talk of any peace as yet, and that the only way to overthrow the States is to parley for peace now ; for it would suspend their cogitations and retard necessary resolutions. Count Bossu, who among the nobles is the only man after the Prince for feats of war, came lately from Brussels to talk with the Prince about 'redressing' the camp that is to be made near Brussels. Meanwhile Don John has sent 16,000 dollars to Eric Duke of Brunswick to levy 4,000 reiters for him. In this state of things the Prince has caused the Archduke and the Estates to send Count Adolf of Newenar to the Emperor and Electors, for the furtherance of their affairs and hindrance of Don John. [Count Adolf's instructions are given in almost the same words as in Rogers's letter of March 24, No. 732.] When these instructions were read openly to the Estates on the 22nd, some of them advised that a clause should be added to let the Emperor understand that they were minded to send the Archduke back to Vienna, if he would not help them. The Count departed on the 23rd. Don John has sent M. de Robles, alias Billy, a Portugal born, through France to the King. He has also sent 'Maria Carduiny' and the Archdeacon Taxis to the Pope ; two of the three being among his best colonels. There was great talk here that the Pope was minded to send his son, the Castellan of St. Angelo, with 8,000 Italians to Don John ; but the last news says nothing of Italians, but rather of 5,000 Spaniards, to come under one 'Figuerolla.' Count Hannibal de Emps is making two regiments of 'lansknights' in Allmany. It is certain, as Duke Casimir writes to Beutterich on the 14th, that the Archduke Ferdinand is sending 10,000 florins to Don John and that the Emperor is lending him great sums out of the money contributed by the Empire against the Turk. I dealt privately with the Prince, according to your instructions, to make him think well of her Majesty's resolution. He liked the reasons alleged, if they had not lost so much time in waiting for English forces, and thereby given Don John occasion to triumph as he does. Touching English soldiers to be sent over to serve, he says they do not lack footmen, if Casimir comes with 6,000. If Casimir is content to have some English among them, and they would put themselves under his orders, he would like it well. Please let me know therefore if I might not deal with the Duke for 2,000 or 3,000 English soldiers to serve under such captains as shall be thought fit. Dr. Beutterich thinks well of this device. A Diet is appointed at Worms, to begin April 12, as I hear, to talk of a peace which may be made in the Low Countries. The States mind to send Allagonda thither, or some other, who will accompany me to Duke Casimir. To-day I received the Estates' promise in writing, specified in my instructions ; wherefore I am minding to depart hence for Germany about evening, by way of Dordrecht, as the Prince advises.—Antwerp, 28 March 1578. Add. Endd. 8 pp. [Ibid. V. 108.]
March 28. 745. WALSINGHAM to DAVISON.
The bearer of this, Thomas Gled, merchant of Ipswich, has, since the last dealing of the Flushingers upon the seas in making and taking of prizes, been a suitor to the Prince and Estates of Holland and Zealand for recovery of his goods taken by them. He has been well received by his Excellency and has had favour showed him, the said Estates having agreed to pay his debt about the beginning of April next. The man's case is as pitiful as may be, not having wherewith to relieve himself and his family ; besides the decay of his credit, which is like very shortly to break off his trade of occupying. This if it comes to pass must bring him to that low ebb, which all men who know his honesty in conversation and zeal in true godliness would be heartily sorry to see. His case is well known to M. Villiers, who has often showed such friendship as he could in commending him to the Prince. My request is that you would earnestly solicit the Prince for the accomplishment of what was promised him. I am sure M. Villiers will join you herein if you find it needful, and so request him. He must either be relieved now, or utterly cease from prosecuting his suit for ever. His friends have with much ado held him up hitherto, but they cannot stay his creditors any longer. What the sequel may be you can conjecture, and therefore I desire your help with the more instancy. I am persuaded you will do what you can, and the rather at my request ; so I pray you be a means that he may be quickly dispatched, for his ability is nowise able to bear the expense of long waiting.—Greenwich, 28 March 1578. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. V. 109.]
March 28. 746. [DAVISON] to POULET.
It is not long since I sent you news, and though no great alterations have happened here, I will make you aware of all that the meantime has brought forth. Since the winning of Lewe about two leagues from Diest, before which the enemy lay at the time of my last advertisement (the enterprise of Maestricht being abandoned upon the discovery of his intelligence with the Jesuits and friars, who are since expulsed the town), he came down to the siege of Nivelle, which after sustaining two desperate assaults he received to composition, and from thence went to Braine and Bins, both which with other little towns thereabouts yielded unto him ; and now having transported the war in manner whole into Hainault (where he lately practised the surprise of Mons by the means of Villers, a bailiff thereabouts, though the treason being happily discovered the traitors were apprehended and the enemy, God be thanked, prevented), he has divided his force into two camps, the one making towards Philippeville, a little place, but of good strength, upon the frontier of Hainault, wherein the States have eight or nine companies of 'pyetons' and two cornets of horse, the other marching to the hither side of Hainault, making a continuance to besiege Ath, Condé or some other town thereabouts. All that he has hitherto taken are places of no great moment, and such as were devoted to the Prince of Orange, when he came last out of Germany with an army, notwithstanding that the Duke of Alva had his army then in the field. But of importance he neither has, nor as it is thought dares yet attempt any one place, lest, with the stain of his reputation gained in the overthrow of the camp, he risk the ruin of his army ; because there is no town of importance in the country that if provided will not be able to stand half a year's siege, and to take one after another will be endless work. In short the country is naturally so strong, the 'holds' so many and the condition of the people so desperate, that by the grace of God the enemy shall not be able to reduce it to his 'pretended' slavish estate ; and unless he inclines to peace (whereof the Emperor, the Bishop of Liége and others, to put them here to sleep and make them negligent in their provisions, have of late made some overtures), the two points whereon the King hath always 'grounded,' to wit, La deue obeisance a soy mesme, et, la Rel. Cath. Romane, will as far as I see go very near to fall underfoot. It is indubitable that the hope which they had of setting the provinces one against the other, that they might have the more easy market of both, was the chief ground of this course, but that hope having failed them drives them to a more narrow issue than they looked for, and though he has entertained intelligence in a number of towns, they have hitherto yielded him very little or no fruit at all. His chief instruments have been the churchmen, who grow so odious to the people generally, that if the war go forward we expect the like alteration of their state here as happened in Holland. At Arras there was of late apprehended the Abbot of St. Vaast with others for some conspiracy ; the Bishop of that place, who was chief of the faction, being fled to Péronne. And at St. Omer there has been a tumult upon a like suspicion. They of Ghent have in the meantime seized on the town of Courtray, and on the 20th inst. entered the town of Bruges ; and from thence it is thought they will Ypres (sic). Then you see in what combustion the state is here. Mr. Rogers went hence to-day to Duke Casimir, whom the States have resolved to entertain. Her Majesty having promised to disburse 20,000l. that lies at Hamburg or 20,000l. at the place of muster. But we do not look for him till about midsummer, though the others entertained under the Count 'Zwartzenborch,' the Marquis of Havrech, Shenck and other colonels, are expected within a month or five weeks. The Duke of Alençon does not give over his practice with the Prince and States. He did the last week write to the States for a resolute answer, off or on. Having received some satisfaction in their long-trained negotiation with her Majesty, it seems they will deal more openly with him than they have.— Antwerp, 28 March 1577 (sic). P.S.—Being ready to close this letter I received yours of the 11th, and though I was glad to hear from you, I would have wished your letter some better subject than it seems the times afforded. Draft. Endd. 3 pp. [Ibid. V. 110.]
March 29.
K. d. L. x. 378.
Little has happened since my last, the enemy since the capture of Bins seeming uncertain what to attempt. He has divided his forces into two camps, one making as though to besiege Philippeville, a small but strong place on the frontier of Hainault ; the other bending to the hither side of Hainault, with intent it is supposed to besiege 'Engwyen,' 'Aeth,' Condé or some other town thereabouts, in each of which Count Bossu, now general of the field for the States, has put garrisons to keep the enemy occupied on that side, both that the reiters may find less hindrance to their entry on the other side, and to keep him from attacking places of more importance. Don John himself has retired to Namur to keep his Passover there. The tumult at Arras is now appeased, the Abbot of St. Vaste and the others whose names I send herewith, accused of intelligence with the enemy, being apprehended ; but the Bishop, chief of that faction, escaped to Péronne. At St. Omer there has been some 'esmotyon' for the like cause ; but since the coming of the Abbot of Maroilles all is pacified, some of the principal of the town being apprehended. At Bruges everything is quiet since the coming of the Guantoys, with no innovation save the establishing of a council of 18 composed of the most sufficient burghers. Lord Seton, who [was] forced first out of Mechlin, and then out of this town by the people, on account of the credit he had with the Duke of Alva, is now a prisoner at Bruges. He has asked me lately for a passport for one John Nesmith to repair to our Court and solicit her Majesty's safe conduct to pass home through our country ; to help extinguish the fire lately kindled in Scotland, with the adding of matter apt to entertain the combustion, and perhaps to do some good offices by the way. You who know the man and the condition of things in that country, may best tell how to deal with him. Mr. Rogers departed on Friday afternoon ; and if some of the Prince's horsemen had not arrived by chance, he had been taken between this and Oudenbosch by some of the enemy's 'freebutters,' five or six of whom being taken are brought prisoners to this town. The French that served under Count Charles are said to be retired malcontent. On the other hand news has come from divers parts of the frontier that the Duke of Alençon is gathering 6,000 or 7,000 men ; to what end is yet in expectation [draft : though it be vehemently suspected to tend to the offence of these countries.] Carenzon arrived here last Friday with the duplicate of a dispatch sent by one Roger Williams ; who embarking last Tuesday from Gravesend to come 'by long seas,' he thinks has miscarried in the tempest which has continued in a manner ever since,—Antwerp, 29 March 1578. List of names of prisoners at Arras : The Abbot of St. Vaast ; Lieutenant of Arras, Vos ; Maître Jacques de Latre ; Maître Andrien Denis ; the Clerk to the Estates, Maître Jehan Cornel ; M. Mastin ; the bailiff of St. Vaast, Vasseur. [This par. in Fr.] Add. Endd. by Walsingham and (incorrectly) in another hand. 2½ pp. [Ibid. V. 111.]
748. Draft of the above, dated March 28. Endd. 2 pp. [Ibid. V. 111a.]
March 29.
K. d. L. x. 379.
It is five or six weeks since I wrote to you ; and though the condition of things here has improved, I will no longer defer to repair my fault with such advice as the time affords. Since the taking of Lewe, the enemy, abandoning his projected attempt on Maestricht upon the discovery of his intelligence with the friars and Jesuits there, who are now expelled the town, came down to the siege of Nivelle ; which having capitulated after sustaining two desperate assaults, he attempted Bins, Braine, and other little places, which he took without resistance. Now the brunt of the war is transported into Hainault, where he hoped to have surprised Mons, by practice with one Villers, bailiff of Antuyn, a Seignory thereabouts ; who with others had undertaken at a given moment to seize on the gates of the town and let in some of the enemy's horsemen bestowed in ambush not far off ; though, God be thanked, the treason being in time discovered, the traitors were apprehended. He has divided his forces into two parts, one making head towards Philippeville ; the other 'making countenance' to besiege Enghien, Condé, Ath, or some other town in that corner. The places which he has hitherto got, being such as the Duke of Alva, though he had an army in the field, could not prevent the Prince from taking when he last came out of Germany, he has been forced to attempt, as well to save his own reputation as to entertain his army ; but to assault Brussels or any other town of importance, having neglected to do it during the general astonishment of the people and improvision of the States, and giving them time to fortify and provide themselves, is now thought a thing unlikely. In sum, having but two means to effect his purpose, either by treason or by force, and the former being full of danger and uncertainty, it is hoped that the latter shall little avail him, having to take one town after another, a number of which must cost him at least half a year's siege, with an infinite charge, loss of men, and hazard of his fortune and reputations ; because, as men of war are apt to say, one good town, well defended, suffices to ruin a mighty army. But as no certain judgment can be made of these matters, which above all others are subject to uncertain accidents, I leave the experience to the time. Some think that the enemy, seeing his hope of effecting a division between the Prince and Estates, deceive him, and his intelligence in the towns fails him, and desirous of a peace, if he may compass it with the honour of the King, the conservation of the Catholic religion, and his own credit, has suborned the Bishop of Liége and M. de Selles [to entertain (sic) the practice of a peace, by means of the Emperor and the Bishop of Liége, L.] to make some new overtures. Others, acquainted with Spanish subtleties, though they doubt not that Don John has his interest in the motion, take it rather to tend to the rocking of the States asleep to make them more negligent in their provisions, especially in diverting the succour out of Germany, than to a sound disposition towards pacifying their troubles, the continuance of which, according to the judgement of some of good discourse, is like to hinder their Romish religion [to hazard the loss of those two curious jewels, de la Religion Catho. Romaine, L.] and la denc obeissance au Roy. As to the first, it seems that divers of our clergy here take the same course their like did in Holland, and they [the clergy being the chiefest instruments to serve the enemy's turn, L.] become daily so suspect and hateful to the people that if like causes bring forth like effects we cannot but expect a like alteration ; and no means is more apt to put the other in hazard than by continuing this violent course to increase the desperate condition of the subjects and drive him to take some course tending perhaps with the change of religion to the change of master, or at least of their form of government ; a thing which some already divine upon the proceedings of the Gauntoys, who resuming their old nature have seized the town of Courtray, and on the 20th inst. entered Bruges, by intelligence, with 1,000 footmen and 250 lances ; both which places being vehemently doubted, they have now assured. In the latter, having established a council of 18 of the most discreet and honest burghers, they have withdrawn their horse and left their foot. At Arras the Abbot of Vaast and others were apprehended ; and at St. Omer a tumult being raised upon a like occasion and the parties suspected being committed to prison, the people, who have been moved in this way twice or thrice since Christmas, are appeased. We want our reiters here with great devotion, though we look for none of them ; nor for Duke Casimir till about midsummer. Mr. Rogers started yesterday afternoon, and I hear had been taken by the enemy if some of the Prince's horsemen, arriving by chance, had not rescued him and conducted him on his way. Information as in letter to the secretaries, No. 747, with reference to Carenzoni, the French contingent, and Lord Seton.—Antwerp, 29 March 1578. P.S.—List of the persons imprisoned at Arras, as before. Add. Endd. 3 pp. [Ibid. V. 112.]
[Mar. 29.] 750. DAVISON to LEICESTER.
[Almost identical with the last. The principal variations are inserted above in brackets, indicated by L.] Draft. Endd. 3 pp. [Ibid. V. 113.]
March 31.
K. d. L. x. 383.
Mr. Williams, whom [sic] as I wrote yesterday we feared had miscarried with her Majesty's packet, arrived immediately after the departure of the post. By him I received two several boxes sealed with your seal, containing the originals of which Carenzon brought the copies, together with advertisements of the affairs of Scotland. Some time to-day I look to have audience with the Prince and States, to whom I doubt not my news will be agreeable. Meantime, this Dutch post being ready to depart, I would not fail to signify thus much.—Antwerp, the last of March 1578. P.S.—I have just received a letter from you by Watson, Dr. Wilson's man ; which I have not yet perused, and therefore cannot answer. Add. Endd. by L. Tomson. ½ p. [Ibid. V. 114.]
March 31. 752. HODDESDON to BURGHLEY.
In my last of the 20th I sent you such occurrents as I had received. [Summary follows, including 'of Stewkley's shipping from Civita Vecchia.'] Since then there has been throughout these parts taking up of horsemen both for Don John and for the States ; for the former by Duke Eric of Brunswick and Duke Francis of Saxony, and for the States by Duke Casimir and the Duke [sic] of Schwarzburg, who it is said will serve with 8,000 horse. Some princes in these parts dislike those who serve Don John, as the Duke of Mecklenburg and Duke Julius of Brunswick, who have given strict orders throughout their dominions that no subjects of theirs shall serve, under heavy penalties. At Warsaw the States of Poland have been called to parliament. They are much offended by the peace with Dantzic, but the King with his wisdom has pacified the matter. They are much occupied about a peace to be made with the Muscovites. They would also have in Poland three chambers, as in the Empire, and much desire the establishment of the succession. The Tartars have destroyed a great part of Podolia and have carried off captive 8,000 people out of the 'Russe Lember' [Lemberg]. The Turks' corsairs have made divers 'rodes' into Hungary and have carried away many prisoners. The Muscovite has done great damage both in Lettowe and 'Leffelane.' Duke Magnus, brother to the King of Denmark, has fled from him, and is now in Cooveland, out of the Muscovite's power. The commons have elected a new duke in 'Prucia,' because the other has been so long lunatic ; whereof trouble is like to ensue.—Hamburg, the last of March 1578. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Hanse Towns I. 35.]
End of March. 753. ARTICLES proposed to the QUEEN OF ENGLAND by the MARQUIS OF HAVRECH, Ambassador to her Majesty, as well from the ARCHDUKE MATTHIAS, Governor and Captain-General of the Low Countries, as from the ESTATES-GENERAL.
1. That her Majesty will be pleased to ratify the treaty lately made with the said Marquis, and to send the succour of horse and foot in pursuance thereof.
(Her Majesty has already declared her intention in this matter. As regards the succours, for certain considerations already stated, she has been induced to avail herself of another expedient for their assistance, which the Estates have accepted.)
2. To give her own bond and those of the City of London, up to the sum of 100,000l.
(Bond already sent, according to the request of the States.)
3. Since we understand that her Majesty has already sent the bonds, which the States were not aware of, will she let us have duplicates ?
(No need for this, as they have come safely to hand.)
4. As it seems that the negotiation of them will be a long business, money not being so easily obtained as in former times ; and as the aid in men has with the consent of the Estates been converted into a commission to Duke Casimir to raise 2,000 horse and 3,000 Swiss over and above his former commission for 3,000 horse and 3,000 foot, whereby the country will be a good deal burdened ; and as there is reason to fear that, owing to the heavy charges on them the Estates may not be able readily to meet the first payment of the Duke's people, and thereby fail in great measure to obtain their services, whereby her Majesty's kindness will turn to their own hurt ; will she be pleased to furnish another 20,000l. to meet the first payment to their people over and above the 20,000l. already assigned by her in the town of Hamburg ?
(Since the additional forces to be brought by Duke Casimir only amount to 5000 men, the country will suffer no more burden from them than it would have done from 6000 English.)
5. That for the greater security of the Estates they may have the handling of the said money ; or at least that Casimir's receipts for it may be made out to them for all moneys advanced or to be advanced to him.
(Her Majesty will give orders that the Duke shall give his receipts, and shall receive the sum from Hamburg as if from their hands, on condition that the Estates give security to her Majesty's agent for the repayment of the sum.)
6. That on account of the 20,000l. asked for at once, her Majesty will furnish 5,000l. worth of munitions of war, as powder, saltpetre, and cannon-balls.
(She will give orders that that sum be furnished to buy the said munitions.)
7. If her Majesty should not decide to advance the said 20,000l., that it may be her good pleasure to advance them towards the repayment of the 100,000l. which shall be obtained on her bonds for that sum.
(The Queen begs the Marquis to be content with the answer given him in this matter by the Privy Council.)
8. That the Estates and the deputies of the Provinces in union with them may have leave to buy munitions of war, cannon, &c., in the realm, without payment of customs.
(It will be necessary to know the quantities, that the officers of the ports may have orders to let them pass.)
9. That they may have the same permission in regard to victuals, especially oats.
(In the same way it will be necessary to know the quantities, that enquiries may be made as to the part of the realm where they can be provided most conveniently without burdening the country.)
10. Whereas certain merchants of this realm having delivered and sold, at a very high price, certain merchandise to the Estates, have caused certain merchants of the Low Countries, resident in London for some years past, to be arrested for the debt of the Estates, in the sight of all men on the Exchange of London, that her Majesty will be pleased to cancel the said arrests, and order that the said merchants be no further molested for the debts of the Estates, whereby the intercourse between the said realm and the Low Countries will greatly fall off, not without much injury to the poor commons.
(If the names of the said merchants are given, her Majesty will have order given to them to desist, and to others [not] to attempt anything of the kind in future ; provided that the Estates will satisfy the said merchants, deputing some persons to treat with them to that effect.)
11. And that her Majesty will have letters of licence sent to the deputy of the city of Ghent to take out of the realm gunpowder to the sum of 1,500l. sterling, without paying custom or duty.
Endd. : Articles proposés a sa Majesté par Monsr. le Marquis. Replies in the writing of L. Tomson, signed, by him, at the end : Fran. Walsingham. All Fr. 3 pp. [Holl. and Fl. V. 115.]
754. Another copy. 3 pp. [For. E.B. Misc. II.]
[March?] 755. ROLL of the FORCES which the ESTATES of the LOW COUNTRIES have, both horse and foot.
In all 136 ensigns of foot ; besides 25 (exclusive of garrisons in Holland, and 'the Scots who are expected [note in Davison's hand : 'venus']) in addition to the six ensigns which came about December 24 ; 13 ensigns.' Commanders : Bossu, Montigny, Capres, Champagny, la Garde, de Bours, la Marche, Hèze, Bersele, Egmont, la Motte, Count 'Hollach.' 'Though the number of ensigns is large, they are not a great multitude of soldiers, the companies not being full.' Of horse there are 10,300, of whom not more than 1,400 or 1,500 are yet at the camp. List of commanders ends with Count of 'Zwartzemberg' and Casimir. Endd. as above ; apparently by Pierre Fornari. Fr. 1½ pp. [Holl. and Fl. V. 116.]
K. d. L. x. 382.


seeking of help.

advise to send and prepare.

thorough dealing or none at all.

war matters and civil matters different for their handling.

To leave them,

to aid them,

which is better?

To aid them the best advice.

756. An OPINION for the present time whether it be good to send aid or no.
Anything is just that is done by necessity. The Estates are driven now either to take to their defence for the safeguard of their liberties or else to submit to continual servitude. The first is natural, lawful and just, and either they must with hazard of death avoid certain death or else with an unjust peace they must wilfully fall into extreme misery, which is unnatural, unmeet, and a thing altogether injurious to themselves and to their country. They seek help here, and if none comes, they must be forced to give themselves up to others that will be their defence. Or if none come, either they must stand to it of themselves, and so be undone, or else put themselves into their hands, that will make in the end a conquest of them, be it French or Spaniard, to the one for help, to the other for mercy. However the Estates speed amiss, it cannot be for our safety here ; their loss cannot be our gain. And therefore I would wish a nobleman were sent to urge the perpetual edict to Don John, and if that may not at present be agreed unto, then to aid without delay, and in the mean season to have all things here in readiness, as well for the defence of the realm as for aiding our neighbours upon the sudden. And either to deal roundly and thoroughly, or else not to deal at all, for it is not with matters of war as it is with civil causes. Any opportunity lost or error committed in war causes present ruin, whereas many faults may be made in civil government, without overthrow to the State ; and things done amiss in time of peace may soon be remedied, whereas it is not so in matters of war. If to leave the Estates be for our benefit when they are clean subdued, let us take that course ; if aiding of them be for our safety and for the assurance of a perpetual sound peace let us then join with them for our own commodity and welfare. To leave them is our undoing as well as theirs, and therefore it were best to aid them for our own sakes, except we be disposed to perish with them ; which is not credible. Dr. Wilson's handwriting. Endorsed as above. 1 p. Dated 30 Martii, 1577 (sic). [Ibid. V. 117.]
[March ?] 757. Statement of the rates of exchange of certain amounts of bar silver, Philipsthalers, angelots, pistolets, Hamburg and Hungarian ducats, and 'Portingalese,' into Flemish and English values ; the total amounting to 20,000l. Also into Reichsthalers. Endd. Xpofel udeston [Christopher Hoddesdon], 1578. Germ. and Fr. 2 pp. [Ibid. V. 118.]
[March.] 758. The SUBSIDY to DUKE CASIMIR.
(1.) The Queen to Hoddesdon.
Whereas by our letter to you of we desired you to transport to Hamburg the 20,000l. which was delivered to you out of our exchequer for provision to be made in the East Countries of powder and saltpetre ; and also to keep the money till we should appoint to whom and how you should pay it ; we let you 'weese' our will and pleasure as you shall pay it in such kinds, as you transported it to the bringer of these our letters, so that he deliver to you a sufficient acquittance under the hand and seal of Duke Casimir, brother to the Count Palatine. And this letter with the acquittance shall be your sufficient warrant and discharge.
In margin : To Mr. Hoddesdon at Hanboroughe.
(2.) Walsingham to Hoddesdon.
Her Majesty is pleased that the money delivered to you shall be employed by Duke Casimir in Germany, and has given order to that effect by a letter which is to be delivered to him for you, which shall be your sufficient discharge. As in that letter is wanting the name of the other who was directed to you for the transport of the money, because I lacked the copy of the same, I thought well to let you know, so that notwithstanding this and the want of the date of the letter, you might make no stay of delivery to such, as the Duke shall depute to receive the money by virtue of that letter. Also as by directions received from hence you may have employed some part of the money in merchandise, you must find the means to make it up, that when it is demanded none be wanting, whereby the Duke may be disappointed and the service hindered. When you have delivered the money and received a sufficient acquittance, you shall send a copy of it, that order may be taken for putting in bonds for the repayment of the same to her Majesty by those for whose behoof it is employed. Also send a copy of your own letter ; I mean that which this last letter of her Majesty has relation to, for I have no minute. Copy. 2 pp. [For. E.B. Misc. II.]
[March ?] 759. Statement of the total amount of a month's pay and allowances of bandes d'ordonnance, light horse, and reiters ; also infantry regiments, Walloon, Scottish, English, French, Low German, and certain private companies not included in regiments, together with the salaries of commanders and colonels. [List follows of various regiments, &c., with the names of their commanders. Of reiters, 'in black harness,' there are 5,000 under Duke Casimir, having 'for pay in future 32 or 33 livres art. per month, by reason of the rise in money, a florin of Germany being worth 31s. 3d. art.' Three thousand reiters are under the Count of 'Zwartzenborch.' Commanders of foreign regiments are : Scots, Colonel Balfour, and (of Scots newly arrived from Dantzic), Colonel Stuart ; French, M. de la Garde, and the Baron de Hargenlieu ; Germans, Colonel Lazarus Muller, Count Boussu ; English, 'M. Mauris de Margan,' Captains 'Gensfort,' 'Cromvelt,' and 'Bisschop,' Mr. Henry 'Candich' and John Porter.] Fr. 9 pp. [Holl. and Fl. V. 119.]
[March ?] 760. REMARKS as to the present condition and distribution of some of the Forces of the Estates.
Of Montigny's Walloons, three companies have not been disarmed ; two are in garrison at Nivelle, one at Soignies. The rest are being got together again by Commissary Tsarratz. Champagny's regiment is collecting again at Havet ; it was disarmed at Templou. It was returned at between 700 and 800 in Commissary Tserclaes' report. Fiacute;ve companies of Count Egmont's regiment were disarmed at Templou. The lieutenant's company and those of Adrian de Meruse and Jean de Waha returned to Diest, and surrendered to Don John. Those of Guerart d'Ans and M. de Noyelle went to Sichem and were massacred there. Only 150 men out of the five companies returned to Aerschot. M. de Lumay's regiment was broke at the end of January, and afterwards re-embodied under M. de Glimes. Regiment of Scots under Henry Balfour, 15 ensigns. Of these 13 were disbanded, and are being got together at Brussels ; two at Mechlin passed muster on January 17. Two private companies of English passed muster on the February at Lierre, and a third at Cantecroy. Apparently in writing of P. Fornari. Fr. 2¼ pp. [Ibid. V. 120.]
March. 761. List of persons in the suite of the Marquis of Havrech ; Count William of Nassau, the Sieur Yeman, M. de Perck, M. de Ghibersi, M. le Docteur, M. de Liere, M. Butkens, Sieur Vanderstrepen. Endd. : Mart. 1577. ½ p. [Ibid. V. 121.]
End of March [?]. 761. (bis.) M. DE LA MOTTE'S answers to the articles contained in the instructions given by his HIGHNESS to M. DE LA MOULLERIE, one of his gentlemen, and JACQUES MASCART, deputy of the STATES-GENERAL assembled at Antwerp.
1. M. de la Motte is glad that his Highness is satisfied with the order taken in the matter which happened at Gravelines on the 8th inst.
2. His reason for making M. de Vaulx his lieutenant, and his company, leave the town was on account of the lieutenant's swagger (bravesse) toward his (la Motte's) soldiers, going so far as to threaten them with ill-treatment after he was gone. The company, which was only two months in arrears, is ordered to be paid for one ; while the Governor's with arrears and losses is twelve months short.
3. As regards Hennewyn, jurisdiction of Bredenarde, in la Motte's government, and Le Rybus, it will be found that he only put six soldiers in Hennewyn, one afternoon (environ l'apres dîner) and none in Le Rybus ; and withal on account of the alarm caused by hearing of gatherings, and the seizure made of the passages that morning. The changing of the six soldiers placed in Hennewyn was not the cause of disturbance, as has been given out.
4. The lawyers, soldiers, and M. de la Motte himself cannot thank his Highness enough for leaving him in his government ; and they hope by God's grace to do their due and proper service.
5. It has been proposed that the soldiers should renew their oath. The answer is, that it is unnecessary, as they have taken none since that of union, and have given no cause for distrust. They will hold the town and account for it. They thank his Highness for the proposed provision for their payment monthly, and beg that their old dues may be remembered, and that persons may be sent to reckon these up and give them some satisfaction. Further the deputies formerly sent by M. de la Motte have declared that they will take the oath as above subject to proper payment.
6. As for the charge of the artillery during la Motte's absence, he thinks, under correction, as his advice has been asked, that Lieutenant Baccart might be left ; in hopes that it will not be for long, and that he will be able to attend to it when things are settled again.
7. As regards the delegation of his government to M. d'Esquerdes, la Motte could be what he is ordered, and as his Highness's deputies have given him to understand.
8. In the matter of religion, which is the main object, all most humbly beg that such order as is fitting may be taken at the approaching assembly at Dendermonde, and that the poor prisoners, spiritual and temporal alike, may be set free ; and the reform may be made of admitting no suspected persons to the magistrature in place of Catholics, conformably with the pacification of Ghent. (Signed) Valentin de Pardieu.
Copy. Fr. 2¼ pp. [Holl. and Fl. V. 122.]
March [?] 761 (ter). [DAVISON] to LEICESTER.
. . . . Let us compare the peril with the profit, the difficulty with the facility, the travail with the fruit to be "attended" from such an enterprise. If it be said that her Majesty will enter into a war chargeable, dangerous, and important, the continuance and "success" of which may be long doubtful, that she will draw both France and Spain and the friends of both upon her shoulders, to join with a people of whom she can have no great assurance ; that the minds of those with whom she deals are divided ; that [a blank]. It may be answered that the mark and end of war is peace, which her Majesty cannot enough have when the neighbours and allies of whom she is most assured shall be ruined by those who are most determined to shoot at her person and her state ; and she must seek by supporting her friends to "entertain" her own peace and security. As for the charges of the war, she is queen of a wealthy kingdom and a people well-affected and willing to employ the means they have for the welfare of her Majesty, themselves, and the country. For the combination of France and Spain against her, her Majesty can perceive, whether she enter or not into the action, the case is not altered, the French having already assisted him [?] and purposing every day to proceed. How little cause she has to fear them if she will use the means which the time affords. I "report me" to such as understand the state of both countries. For the country and people whom she is to assist, neither the one and other are [sic] of so little account as is esteemed ; the country, by nature one of the strongest in Christendom, has in it a number of strong towns and fortresses, to win which one after another cannot be done without great difficulty, the rather in respect of the desperate condition of the people, who having tasted the tyranny of the Spaniard, and knowing the heavy yoke prepared for them, are resolved rather to run any fortune than to return into so intolerable a condition. Fragment of draft. (Cf. letter of Mar. 8, No. 676.) Endd, ¾ p. [Holl. and Fl. V. 123.]