799. WALSINGHAM to DAVISON.
This gentleman, Mr. Henry Cavendish, being well affected to
the common cause, and having a special devotion towards the
Prince, carries over with him 500 or 600 men to be employed
in the service of the States, not with any desire of gain, being
otherwise 'of good countenance,' but only in respect of the affection
he bears to the cause. Yet since by your good means he shall
speed the better among them, I have thought good to desire you
to recommend him to the Prince, to whom I have already written
in his behalf, and other persons of quality there.—Greenwich,
19th April, 1578.
Add. Endd. ½ p. [Ibid. VI. 20.]
K. d. L. x.
800. Promise of the Marquis of Havrech, within 15 days after
his return to deliver to Mr. Davison the obligation of the States
for the sum of £5,000 received from the Lord Treasurer, for the
purchase of munitions of war ; the said sum to be repaid with
the first money that can be raised on the Queen's obligations for
£100,000 already granted ; the undersigned pledging all his own
goods. London, 19 April 1578. (Signed) Charles Phles de
Croy ; with seal.
Endd. by Burghley : xix April, 1577 [sic], an obligation of
the Marq. d'Havregh ; and in a later hand : by this bond it
appears that the money was borrowed by the King of Spain, the
marquis being his servant. Fr. ½ p. [Ibid. VI. 21.]
801. Copy of the above. Endd. with correct date. [Ibid. VI.
802. Another copy. Endd. [Ibid. VI. 23.]
803. INSTRUCTIONS for PHILIP COUNT OF LALAING, CHARLES
DE GAVERE, BARON OF FRESIN, THIERRY DE LISVELT,
and NICHOLAS DE LELLIS, Pensioner of the city of
Douay, in regard to their negotiations with MM.
DE LA ROCHEPOT, DES PRUNEAUX, and MONDOUCET,
deputies for the DUKE OF ALENCON.
They shall go with all speed to the town of St. Ghislain, there
to meet the said deputies, and shall explain that M. de Fresin
and Baron d'Aubigny, having started to go to the Duke in
France, heard that deputies from him were on the way, and
therefore went no further.
They shall declare that the Estates thank the Duke heartily
for his good will and affection towards them in wishing to get
them out of the difficulties of this war with which Don John
is pursuing them 'à toute outrance' ; and the deputies for their
trouble in taking the journey.
As the Duke desires to know by what means he could most
advantageously succour them, who desire to have a firm alliance
with him, including their allies and associates ;
If he will kindly send his forces into the country of Burgundy
and into Luxemburg, to divert those of Don John and to take
fortresses from him, they hope for good results.
And whereas the Duke, by the gentleman whom he sent and
by the letters he then wrote, pressed for an early and absolute
answer from them, while the term of 3 weeks allowed for this
was very short, the deputies of the States have not been able to
await an answer from all the provinces.
They have, however, decided to resolve among themselves upon
the most suitable means to be agreed on by the provinces, and
to lay them before the Duke, thinking that on all accounts it will
be best first to hear his opinion, before proceeding to lay their
plan before the provinces in general.
Since in the event of his not thinking fit to ratify them it
would be superfluous, not to say mischievous, that they should
be communicated to so many ; while the proposers might incur
On the other hand, if, as they hope, he accepts them, they will
at once be avowed and agreed to by the Estates, a matter for which
they took order before their departure.
The conditions of alliance shall be as follows :—
If the Duke pursues the scheme of marrying the Spanish
Princess, the Estates will employ their best offices to advance
No arrangements shall be made with the King to which the
Duke is not a party ; and the Estates promise to keep him in
peaceable enjoyment of all that he may gain in the country of
Burgundy, in Luxembourg, or in the neighbouring countries,
not being in alliance with them, beyond the Maes ; and if any
proceedings shall be taken against him on the score of the assistance
he gives them, they promise to aid him against all parties ;
and in case he cannot conquer the said county of Burgundy or
the Estates cannot maintain him in the enjoyment of it, they
promise to indemnify him for any expenses incurred by him
in assisting them.
They further promise him an annual gratuity of 250,000 francs,
hoping that by succouring them he will give the provinces a
chance of entering into an alliance more profitable for him.
The deputies will use all their well-known tact and discretion
to make these offers agreeable to the Duke's deputies.—Antwerp,
19 April, 1578. (Signed) J. Houfflin.
COPY of the REPLY of M. D'ALENÇON'S AMBASSADORS (apparently
with remarks by the States).
1. As to leading a force into Burgundy and Luxembourg, there
is no great difficulty about that. Monsieur is, however, a man
of magnanimity and courage ; he would wish to fight for the sake
of honour, and have his forces here, and in all ways to prevent
aid coming to the enemy, without losing men or sending them
where they would be of no use.
2. As to the marriage, it is not yet time for that, and the
Estates by speaking of it would be more likely to put him out
of conceit with it ; yet when the point is gained and they are
freed from the enemy, he is not going to refuse such furtherance,
nor will he marry without their advice.
3. As to conquests the Estates give him only the advantage
of winning what does not belong to them, which he does not
want. If he had wished to apply himself to that kind of thing,
he has had plenty of opportunities, as in Italy, where they have
offered him as many as five towns, viz., three ports, Genoa being
one, and two inland. Nay, Don John makes him fine offers,
towns in Burgundy, too, if he will take his side ; but his nature
abhors tyranny, and desires only to succour the afflicted, as he
has shown in France. At this moment he has left his brother,
solely that he may more freely communicate with the Estates.
His mere shadow constrained Don John to make the first peace
with us, for which he has had no return. But he does not
complain, though he is more than 100,000 crowns out of pocket
thereby ; which he does not want back, nor any others that he
may spend in our service. He is not a mercenary, but a
sovereign prince, who touches the Crown of France with his finger,
and only seeks to make himself greater. If we adapt ourselves
to him, we shall be the first step in his letter, and shall receive
the first fruits, clemency, justice and discipline, as having opened
the road to his other designs, viz., three kingdoms and perhaps
the Empire ; which if the Estates had continued the first treaty
he could not have missed at the death of the last Emperor, several
electors having promised to make him King of the Romans.
4. It remains to be considered that we must do one of three
things, either be reunited to the Spaniards, or have another prince,
or govern ourselves.
As for the Spaniard, his tyranny is such that we have no
taste for any more of him. It is impossible to govern ourselves,
considering the multitude of provinces and towns ; for to change
the government and form a republic while there is fighting going
on would obviously be too dangerous, the time being too short
for the needful communications. To avoid division and total
ruin, therefore, we must have one head, who will maintain our
5. This Monsieur will do ; he will even increase them, his
intention being to restore the provinces to their former splendour.
Search as we may we shall not find another who will help us
as promptly as necessity requires ; and if he is necessary we cannot
refuse the aid of him and his army.
6. It must be considered that we cannot long maintain the
war, and we can only escape from it by victory or by a peace.
Now peace will only come to us under false colours, insincere,
and 'with two tails' ; while even if we win the victory, it will
not secure us from the King of Spain, since, as Don John says,
he has determined rather to stake his crown on it.
7. We must therefore have a chief, and this chief ; but to
make him lord of these countries is not so feasible.
8. It remains then to ask what he wants. He requires the
Estates to give him acceptable conditions ; but he does not propose
them. His ambassadors declare that he will not come either as
a hired prince, nor as governor under the King of Spain like
the Archduke Matthias or others. A name might be given him
suitable to his dignity, as protector or liberator of this country ;
and for the safety of his army, in the event of a division
among the provinces, he would want some towns for security.
Neither now nor at the end of the war would he ask for any
money. His people are all ready for instant employment. To
a request for security for the restoration of the towns it was
answered that that was not needed ; the country must win, or
fail. It it failed the towns would go with the rest ; if it won,
it must choose a new prince, and to choose any but its deliverer
would be too ungrateful.
9. He would then keep them with the rest ; it being understood
that the towns in question would be near France, and he
would put gentlemen into them who would hold them against
Spain and all enemies.
10. To aid us otherwise would be no honour to him, nor any
ground for making himself hostile to the King of Spain, the
Emperor and other princes. So long as he is with us, he does
not care for them,
11. There is none more obvious than himself, who is sprung
from the ancient Kings of France, Dukes of Burgundy, lords
of these countries.
12. If the Estates wish to negotiate further, the ambassadors
will be glad to wait upon them at Brussels ; as to which they
must be informed, or they will retire. If they go, the deputies
must have full powers to treat, or the matter will come to
13. As for a yearly gratuity, the Duke has an income of
1,500,000 livres, and gives his followers as much as the Estates
offer him. He does not fight for money, but for honour ; and
ought to be followed by other emoluments than money, as being
expediency combined with honesty, which could be maintained
if he were content with 'thank you' or 'good morning,' or
a gratuity fit for mercenaries.
14. The whole difficulty is to know if his help is wanted or
not ; what title will be given him if he comes ; and what towns
15. As for the French being ancient enemies, all that is long
forgotten ; and the good effects of help will be as sweet as Spanish
tyranny is hateful.
16. It must be noted that the ambassadors have full powers
to treat with the Estates, the Prince of Orange, Count Lalaing,
and the towns. Some might take their side, and a difference of
opinion would be very inconvenient.
Copy. Endd. by Wilson : In answer to Count Lalaing, Mons.
Fresin. Fr. 5 pp. [Ibid. VI. 24.]
804. Two instruments executed by the Marquis of Havrech ;
the first (April 19) a promise to hand to Mr. Davison, within
a fortnight of his return to the Low Countries, a bond on the
part of the Estates for the repayment, out of the first money
taken up by virtue of her obligations for 100,000l. already granted
to them, of the sum of 5,000l. received by her Majesty's order
from the Lord Treasurer (see No. 801) ; the second (April 20),
an acknowledgement of the receipt on April 16 of 3,000l. from
the Lord Treasurer.—London. (Signed) Charles Philippes de
Copy. Fr. 1½ pp. [For. E.B. Misc. II.]
A note is added : The sum was paid the same day by Richard
Stoneley, one of the tellers of the receipt. A like acquittance
for the sum of 2,000l. remains with Mr. Killigrew, another of the
K. d. L. x.
805. DAVISON to BURGHLEY.
I mentioned in my last such general news as we had of the
'alteration' of Gravelines. We hear since that la Motte, in
spite of the practice of M. de Licques, has not yet admitted any
force, but a few Walloons to supply the place of his lieutenant's
company, which he put out of the town by a stratagem, under
the pretext that they had begun a mutiny for their pay ; though
others think it was because he could not securely execute what
he wanted, or else that he suspected some traffic between his
lieutenant and the States, to whom by his divers excuses when
sent for he had given occasion to fall into a 'jealous conceit'
of him. But whatever the cause was, the demands which he has
since by letter propounded 'bewray an ill pretence' ; because, as
one that would give the law, he would be assured that there may
be no innovation of religion, that the lords, prisoners at Ghent,
may be released, that all Catholics who have been 'put from their
charges' since the last troubles, may be restored, that he may be
permitted to continue in his government, and that he may be
satisfied of such sums as are due for the pay of his garrison. Yet
notwithstanding all this, taken with the former causes of suspicion,
some of those here hope he will continue a good patriot ; but
as suspicion commonly breeds hatred, hatred offence, and offence
revenge, so some think that this settled diffidence between the
States and him will have some unhappy sequel. If he do not
as yet flatly revolt from them, a thing he may perhaps dissemble
for a while to discover himself with greater advantage, at best
they will hold him as an eel by the tail. But to be the better
informed of his intent, they have now sent him the steward of
the Archduke's household with another commissioner to inform
him of the reports about him, to understand the cause of them,
together with his griefs if there be any, and among other compliments
to offer to satisfy the material points of his demands ;
except that they desire patience touching the case of the prisoners.
Meanwhile, to prevent the worst, they have provided for the
fortifying and placing garrison in 'Burburgh,' Dunkirk and other
places of importance thereabouts ; and similarly fearing St. Omer,
where there has been some new agitation, they have sent to M.
de Capres to repair thither with some companies from Arras.
We have not heard that he is there.
It seems that la Motte himself confessed to the Abbot of
Marolles, who was there about the time when the Marquis last
went over, that he had been practised with by divers clergy of
Hainault, Artois, Lille, Douay, and Orchies ; who have several
times sent deputies to him to declare himself against the Prince
for the cause of religion. If his beginning should succeed—
some think he anticipated the time—other places, suborned by
those dangerous ministers would it is thought also declare themselves,
to the great advancement of the enemy's affairs, the
lengthening of the war, and utter dismembering of the country ;
a thing by some wise men thought inevitable, considering the
daily practices of the enemy on one side, and the French on the
MM. de Rochepot and des Pruneaux, commissioners for the
Duke of Alençon, are not yet arrived, though every day expected
at Brussels, which is the place appointed for the communication ;
both for the reason given in my last, and because they hope
that when their enemy sees their traffic with the Duke so near
under his nose he will be sooner brought to reason. Both the
Council and the Estates sent deputies to me yesterday, to let me
know that partly to satisfy the Duke's importunity and prevent
his taking part with the enemy if they should utterly abandon
him, and partly in hope to effect some alteration between the
two Kings, or the Duke and his brother, or at least to make
the King of Spain more jealous and inclined to a reasonable peace,
they had thought it expedient to enter into some communication
with the Duke of Alençon ; but as by their promise to her Majesty
they could not conclude anything in this matter without her
knowledge they thought it convenient to inform me of it, that I
might signify it to her Majesty, without whose knowledge or
advice they would not proceed to any conclusion. Among other
things in replying to them I desired to know the particular
demands of the Duke ; but they answered they were not come
so far, but when the conference was begun, I should from time
to time hear what passed. Meantime I gather that they are
resolved to put certain towns in his hands for security, if, as I am
sure he will, he insists on it ; but what they are I cannot discover.
I pray God the end of this negotiation be better than I look for.
Nothing is yet expected on our procuration, nor so far as I
see is it to be expected. Some time this week, if the States
hold their purpose, Gilpin and Carenzon should be dispatched to
Germany, to see if they can succeed better there. If not, these
men live in hope that her Majesty will supply their necessities
Since abandoning Philippeville the enemy has attempted
Cimay ; which, after presenting of the cannon, though the castle
was strong, surrendered to him, not without suspicion of treachery
among the defenders. He has since made show of attacking
Avesnes, and has gone back to Philippeville. Some think he
means, by placing garrisons in the surrounding towns, not only
to spoil the country and keep them from receiving help, but
to hold them so that they shall not be able to go in or out
without great danger, and so force them to composition ; because
he will hardly without loss take the place otherwise. M. de
Selles is come here this morning from Liége ; this afternoon it
is thought he will have audience.—Antwerp, 20 April, 1578.
Add. Endd. by Burghley. 2 pp. [Ibid. VI. 25.]
806. DAVISON to LEICESTER.
Draft, identical with part of the last. [Ibid. VI. 26.]
807. DAVISON to the SECRETARIES.
Draft, identical with that to Leicester. [Ibid. VI. 27.]
808. Certificate of Duke Casimir that he has received from
the Queen of England by the hand of Daniel Rogers a letter of
exchange on Christopher Hoddesdon, merchant, now resident at
Hamburgh, containing an order to him to deliver to the bearer
of this and of a receipt from us the sum of 20,000l., 'whereof
we have discharged the said Rogers, promising to let the Estates
know when we have received the money, and to give them a
discharge as for money received from them for the maintenance
of the troops we are bringing to their aid ; as witness our hand
and seal.'—Lautern, 20 April 1578.
The original has been received by his Highness and placed
for custody in the hands of Secretary Sille, the 4th day of
Copy. Fr. 2/3 p. [For. E.B. Mise. II.]