July 1579, 16-31


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'Elizabeth: July 1579, 16-31', Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 14: 1579-1580 (1904), pp. 17-29. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=73430 Date accessed: 18 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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July 1579, 16-31

July 17. 14. The MARQUIS of HAVRECH to DAVISON.
You may remember that when you left this town I asked you to see that my obligations for £5,000, which I gave in my own name, were returned to me, and you promised your assistance. Not having received them up to now, I must trouble you again with a request to get it done ; especially since there is no one (nulluy) who can bear better witness than you to the fact of the States' obligations having been sent to England, whereby mine are set free, and ought to be returned to me to be cancelled.—Antwerp, 17 July 1579. (Signed) Charles Phtes de Croy. Add. Fr. 1 p. [Holl. and Fl. XII. 13.]
July 19. 15. FREMYN to DAVISON.
I have been a long time at Brussels, which is the reason why I have not written to you. You know what is the state of things here ; it gets worse every day. Since the taking of Maestricht, which was the 29th, the enemy has undertaken nothing. Some 57 soldiers and two captains have been seen, escaped from Maestricht ; each has been given two months' pay. Some 200 are still prisoners there, waiting for money to pay their ransom. Captain Brusby is a prisoner, with eight English soldiers. Captain Bastien's daughter arrived from Maestricht yesterday. She says that her father is a prisoner and that the Spaniards will not hold him to ransom. Count John has surprised a little town in Gueldres, called Utticum or Uttigham, where one Schenk, who had deserted the States' party, was raiding Gueldres and doing a great deal of pillaging. He is a nobleman of the country and has a strong castle there. In the town above-named he had collected a regiment and two cornets of horse. His Excellency had a letter about it yesterday. Courcebacht behaved bravely in the enterprise. All the reiters that were in Gueldres have been distributed through the towns, also infantry according to the importance of the places, for it is thought that the enemy will prosecute the war in those parts, on account of the facility offered by the water for transporting artillery and provisions. For the towns in this part, the English will be put in garrison at Lierre and Vilvorde, the French at Herentals, Stewart's Scots at Brussels. They are still round this town, not without great complaints of the mischief and pillage done by the soldiers. To-day they should have one month's pay. There has been great discontent on both sides ; yesterday the Scots demanded their dismissal, for they would not be humbugged any longer. M. de la Noue left this town yesterday for Flanders, to appease the French, who were demanding their dismissal, and to reduce the three regiments to 15 ensigns, not more than one regiment, which M. de Mouy will command. There is news that the Malcontents have defeated a company of mounted men from Ghent ; and that the King of Spain has confirmed the treaty which they negotiated with the Prince of Parma ; to which end the States of Artois met on the 12th inst. When it comes to publishing it, Valenciennes and several other towns of Hainault will by no means separate from the generality, although they have had three months to think about it, according to the articles of Artois. Of the peace of Cologne there is little appearance ; save that the Deputies will soon start on their journey hither with nothing done. Then we shall see what steps the States will take to carry out their promise to Monsieur, whose ambassador is still waiting on them. Last Friday the hostages from Mechlin, who were imprisoned because the commissioners sent by the States to Mechlin had been made prisoners though furnished with passports, were released. All are now released on both sides, and the people of Mechlin have promised that in the event of the enemy approaching their town, they will admit any garrison that the States please ; but they do not wish to have the religions vrede in their town. Nor do those of Bois-le-duc, who are mutinous. Any service I can do you here, I shall be happy to do.—Antwerp, 19 July 1579. P.S.—My greeting to M. de Sidene [Sidney]. M. de Bours is very unwell just now at Mechlin, pour avoir trop cour (sic) de postes avec sa nouvelle mariéc. Add. Fr. 1¾ pp. [Holl. and Fl. XII. 14.]
About six weeks ago events showed that those of Antwerp, the garrison of Vilvorde and Willebroek, and the admiral sent to those parts from your Excellency, treated us as sworn foes ; and that all our protestations and assurances to the contrary, to the point of sending hostages from the Corporation of this town (who under far-fetched pretexts have been ill-treated in a way unbefitting their quality) could not remove the impression wrongly conceived of us. We see no means of coming back to the good graces of Antwerp but by flinging ourselves into the abyss of disorder into which they have fallen, or by receiving into our city the wolves who are ready to raven on us. Preferring death to this, and seeing on the other side his Majesty opening to us his arms of clemency and kindness, with the offer of a secure peace, the sole condition being the observance of the Catholic religion and the obedience due to him, two points wherein we were born and to which we lately swore in the Pacification of Ghent, we have this day in a meeting of the Corporation of the town unanimously resolved to embrace his offer, and fall into line with those of Artois, Hainault, Lille, Douay and Orchies. Of this we would not fail to inform you, in order that you may kindly see that our hostages, men and women, are not maltreated when the rumour of it first reaches Antwerp. Those from Antwerp whom we have here will receive reciprocal treatment and shall be returned when ours are returned to us. Copy. Endd. in Italian. Fr. 1½ pp. [Ibid. XII. 15.]
17. Another copy of the same. Fr. 1 p. [Ibid. XII. 15a.]
18. Another copy. Fr. 1 p. [Ibid. XII. 15b.]
July 20. 19. Petition of JOACHIM FAGGOTT to the LORDS OF THE COUNCIL.
Whereas the King of Denmark addressed letters to the Queen for restitution of certain piracy committed in his streams upon certain merchants 'trading his country Island,' by a ship of Mr Henry Sackford, upon which you have not only written to the Judge of the Admiralty, but commanded him to examine the cause so that you might understand the truth of it, and certify you as to his opinion of the law therein for the king's satisfaction ; which cause has been examined and the truth certified by the Judge, and since Mr Sackford's answer, and any reply, sent by the Judge to you ; and forasmuch as I can come by no satisfaction or answer that will certify [qy. satisfy] the king's expectation, all this while hoping for a determination at your hands, which I humbly crave of you, or else that you would be a 'mean' to the Queen to write some manner of answer to the king's letter ; or if this does not please you, then to give me leave to signify the king how far I have proceeded by your directions, and what proof I have found in the cause ; for as I have no commission from him to deal otherwise than by petition, so I should be loth to deal so hardly with Mr Sackford as to endanger him by the law, if I may otherwise come by satisfaction, considering the tediousness of the law, the time now overpast in hope of satisfaction, and his place about her Majesty ; 'who' can no wise be touched or impeached without her consent, which I dare not attempt to procure without the king's commission. Endd. by Wilson, with date. Broadsheet. [Denmark I. 7.]
20. List of those killed (qui sont demourés) before Maestricht up to June 22, not counting those who fell afterwards.
Don Henrico de Mendoza and Don Hernando Mendoza.
Don Francisco d'Avoigna.
Felix, doctor and confessor to the Spaniards.
The lieutenant of Duke Francis of Saxony, buried at Tongres.
M. d'Anselle, M. Willan, M. Cressin, Burgundians.
Captain Dondasco, Captain Don Pedro Guzman.
Captain Gonsalez de Sanagenada, Captain Sorcio.
Captain Amator de la Loncha, Colonel Cretz, Jeronimo de Cordova, Colonel don Hernando del Fio, Signor Fabio Forneza [Farnese], Knight of Malta, cousin to the Prince of Parma ; Count Guido di San Giorgio, Conrad Marquis of Malaspina, a Venetian ; Marquis Antonio Toriselli, engineer ; Liasco Cura and Captain d'Aguilar, a field-engineer ; Dominico de Romano, M. Charles Benchi, translator to his Excellency ; Captain Felice and Captain Ortis, the Count of Barlaymont (Count Hierges), Count Hannibal of 'Haltahemps,' Captain Herman of Balaymont [al. Barnamont] ; M. Voisin, lieutenant to Baron de Chemeraulx, Captain Hodaghez. The Prince of Parma, commander-in-chief, who is said to be certainly dead. Add. to Mr William Davison, Esquire, at his house in Wood Street ; (the writing of both copies is that of one of his late clerks). Fr. 1 p. [Holl. and Fl. XII. 16.]
July 20. 21. Another copy. Endd. : 20 July 1579. The men of name slain before Mastricht. [Ibid. XII. 16a.]
July 23. 22. ROSSEL to WALSINGHAM.
When the ordinary post passed through Bruges, I was gone to Rollet, a village and fort abandoned by the Malcontent Walloons (who are now called Paternosters). Into this place M. de la Noue has thrown eight companies of Scots. The other six will remain at Bruges, where their presence has been very necessary in order to guard it from the enemy's designs and to maintain it against the papistical oppression of the refugee priests who were plotting against their own magistrates, which was followed by exemplary punishment in the case of one citizen, a goldsmith, who was executed on Saturday the 9th. Three others will undergo the same penalty in a few days. Meanwhile to take the order requisite in Flanders, his Excellency will repair to Bruges ; where the four Members will meet to reunite those of Ghent, being divided by factions, and also to renew the magistrature and have in command others than that passionate and ambitious Hembize. He has by his discourtesy driven from the town all strangers, even to M. de la Noue himself, M. d'Argenlieu and other captains of note who have done service both to the public weal and to the city of Ghent ; whereby they are greatly offended. This will at the same time consolidate the Union of Utrecht, for the supply of contributions necessary for the war. Those of Holland, Zealand, and Friesland have already agreed to 200,000 florins a month for their quota. Those of Antwerp will maintain 8,000 foot and 3,000 horse. They have drawn up a statement showing that since war began with Don John they have supplied 1,300,000 florins as their share. If the Ghent people can be put right, those of Bruges will as I perceive take possession of the Liberty, and bring the province which is divided from their town into union with it as in time past. They maintain that they have a lawful occasion to do this since some of the nobility and some of the College of the Liberty are found to be accomplices in the plot. Then they will dispense the money from the assessment more liberally. The people of Bruges have already undertaken by themselves the maintenance of the Scots and French when they have been reduced as is planned. Some French captains have lately come to the Prince, and have offered to bring 15 ensigns, which are all ready. I think this is a levy under colour of M. d'Alençon's coming into this realm. He desires 'our' marriage as much as or I dare say even more than that with the Queen. The fact is that being told that some of those captains are those of Colonel Combel, who was first sent into Hainault by Monsieur, and recognising them as great Papists, I find them suspicious ; for I have had a letter from Antwerp, from a person pretty intimate with M. des Pruneaux, who tells me that he is much vexed to see the resolution for peace so long delayed ; that in the meantime his master is ready, and has forces more than sufficient to drive out the Spanish foe. This last is still about Maestricht where he is holding a muster with subsequent intentions on Zutphen, where it is thought there is misunderstanding. Others opine they will fall upon Brussels, after taking steps to admit their chief, who will it is said be Ottavio Gonzaga. Count Mansfeldt with three regiments of Walloons and Burgundians is said to be coming with Montigny his son-in-law and Egmont. He has already arrived at Mons, where the Spaniards who accompanied him were—a monstrous thing—caressed and welcomed. Anyhow, I have seen an interpreted letter from Lille, written by a gentleman of quality to a friend of his, assuring him that he knew of no safe place to retreat to, seeing that the treaty of peace entered into by those of Artois and Hainault was executed in no point, especially the chief one relating to the withdrawal of the Spaniards. This being perceived by those of Mechlin, who were inclined to accept the treaty, they have changed their mind and admitted a garrison, it is said of La Garde's regiment. I had thought it would be Scots or English, but they will be at Lyre and Breda, Stewart at Brussels, the others at Vilvorde. You will have heard how Marshal Bellegarde, governor in Languedoc has seized the Marquisate of Saluces, where he is backed by the Duke of Savoy. I expect it is a Spanish device to divert the French designs. But you will hear details from your ambassador in France.—Bruges, 23 July 1579. Add. Endd. Fr. 4 pp. [Holl. and Fl. XII. 17.]
July 26. 23. 'Order thought meet to be put in execution for the avoiding of such depredations as be committed by such as go to sea upon pretence to discover new trade or pretence of other adventures.' First, that no man set forth, rig, victual, or make ready for sea any ship or other vessel, other than well-known merchants or masters of ships for trade or fishing, except they shall have and show special warrant and license from her [alt. to his] Majesty or from six of the lords and others of her Privy Council at the least, to pass for service of her [his] Majesty or else for the discovery of some new trade ; which shall be granted only upon good bonds with sureties to be given in the Court of the Admiralty for their and their companies' good behaviour on the voyage both toward her [his] Majesty's subjects and those of all other princes with whom she is in amity, and shall be testified and shown to the officers of the port where the ship is laden. And for the better execution of these premises, that the Vice-Admiral and Commissioners for matters of piracy in every county shall call before them the principal officers of every town corporate where any principal haven or port is, and take bond of them yearly at the feast of St. Michael in the sum of £500 at least, on condition that they shall not permit any ship to be rigged or victualled, or pass to sea out of that port except it be set forth by well-known merchants, or by special warrant, as above. And in the mean time until the said bonds are taken, it is thought meet that you notwithstanding cause the said officers to come before you, and charge them in her Majesty's name as they will answer it at their peril, to have no less regard to the due observation of the premises than if the bonds were taken of them. And lest any vessel pass out of any creeks or other places where there are no officers incorporated, the Vice-Admiral and Commissioners shall charge the officers in the said creeks, and appoint such and so many honest, discreet, and trusty persons dwelling in or near the creeks or places not corporate as they shall think necessary, to have care and charge both to stay the rigging and passage of such vessels, and from time to time to certify the Vice-Admiral and Commissioners where any vessel is rigging or preparing to pass any way thence. For better performing whereof the lord or lords of the soil where any such creeks are, being resident in the county shall enter into bond to her [his] Majesty's use for the observation of the order above-mentioned. And in case they shall reside out of the county, then their constable, bailiff, or rent-gatherer shall enter into the bond. And the officers of her [his] Majesty's customs-houses in the said ports shall be bound to see due execution of the orders, not only in the ports, but also in such creeks as are members of the ports. And because it has been certified that in some maritime counties of this realm there have been erected in divers creeks brew-houses, slaughter-houses, and store-houses to no other end but to maintain traffic with pirates, whereby they have been greatly relieved, the Commissioners should have an especial care to see that no such houses be abused as heretofore, but rather utterly demolished, unless they can be converted to some more lawful use. For the performance of which it will be expedient that the owners shall be bound to their well-using. And in order that such as go forth to trade shall not be 'impeached,' or taken as adventurers and so be stayed in ports or other places within or without the realm, every such ship shall have letters testimonial under the Great Seal of the Court of Admiralty or of the Vice-admiral of the port and the officers of the custom-houses in the place whence it shall pass ; or in ports exempted from the jurisdiction of the Admiralty, under the seal of the Mayor or head officer and the officers of the custom-house, testifying to what country and to what purpose it has been 'set forth,' as has been accustomed of old time. And if any officers shall testify for any other than known merchants, they to be subject for the same punishment as is before limited for others in like case. [Marginal note in later hand : qre what punishment.] And that these orders may be duly executed, the Commissioners shall repair to some one, two or three convenient meeting-places within the said counties and take account of their deputies of every such haven, creek, or landing-place, how they have performed the charge committed to them, at least once in every two months ; and there occasion shall be offered, and in such order and sort as by the Commission is appointed, to cause 'quests' to be impanelled for the examining of such things as shall be incident for that time, and for all other things done by them in execution of the Commission and for the redress of piracies, before the end of the said two months. And that their service may be the better performed, such like allowance shall be made to the Commissioners out of the fines levied on offenders, as the justices of the peace are allowed by statute at the time of the assemblies at the Quarter Sessions. Draft, with corrections in Walsingham's hand. Endd. : Means devised for the avoiding of piracies, 26 July 1579 ; and below : Entered in French in the beginning of the book delivered to Sir H Cobham in his going into France, fol. 26. 6 pp. [France III. 30.]
July 26. 24. H. B. to DAVISON.
Even if I wished to write you all the occurrences and alterations which every day brings forth, I could not do so, for since the taking of Maestricht the whole country is in commotion, and the foolish people are daily betaking themselves to division and discord, so that we are giving the enemy, who is quite sharp enough of himself without our giving him an opening, every opportunity to make himself master of one and the other part. The town of Mechlin, following the fortunes of the winner, five days ago declared itself on the enemy's side, saying that it was reconciled to the king ; and has thereupon written to his Excellency and the States, reproaching them with the excesses of their Government, with a shameful roll of ten thousand insults. By an express messenger sent yesterday to his Excellency from Brussels we hear that the whole place is in arms, and that most of the citizens are ranged against Col. 'Temple' and his regiment, to make them leave the town. If they succeed that town also will no doubt make terms with the enemy. All these troubles are coming on us from a despair of help when need shall require, with this fine example (miroir) of Maestricht before people's eyes. A report is current here, without however any certain author, that Bois-le-duc has admitted a garrison from the States of Holland, but I cannot believe it without confirmation. The alleged reconciliation of Artois and Hainault, though quite confirmed, has not yet been published. The States of Holland and Zealand have raised a new regiment of infantry, owing to some suspicion that the war will come their way again. Three days ago some 12 or 13 ensigns from Ghent got a good beating from the Malcontents near Nynhoven. It is said that Guelders and Friesland have certainly sent their deputies to Cologne with protestatiońs of their wish to adhere to the pacification of Ghent without modification. The Duke of Terranova with the king's other commissioners at Cologne have somewhat softened their articles, so that there is at this moment better hope of peace than ever before. It it does not take effect, there seems great likelihood that the States will consign the country into the hands of the Duke of Alençon accepting him as their lord and absolute prince. M. Blyleven told a friend of mine lately, in the way of familiar conversation, that he was finely afraid we should all become French ; and I can assure you that if ever there was likelihood of it, or a time fitted to it, it is now, when an incredible fear and utter despair has seized men's hearts, not only among the commons but among those who by their example and assured countenance ought to give courage to others and seek every means of repairing matters. This they fail to do, as though they were thunderstruck and had lost their wits, and knew not what to resolve. To say nothing of a Christian prince, I believe that the Turk would be welcome here if he would secure them against the enemy and his satellites, that they should not fall again into the hands of the insolent Spaniard. For his warlike preparations in Portugal the king has raised six regiments of Germans under the command of the Count of Lodron. They have passed muster in Piedmont, whence they have passed into Italy to be transported to Spain.—Antwerp, 26 July 1579. P.S.—The reason I have not written by the two last posts was was that I was in Holland about Mr Carriel's business. I hope you will not be offended ; it shall be my last offence. The cause was that I might better maintain myself here. If I have neglected to write, I will with greater diligence 'restore the same.' Mr Gilpin 'hath him commended' to you, and wished me to write that he would gladly have answered your man's letter by this post, but his affairs of the company offer him no time at present. By the next, he will see it answered. Add. The writer (apparently a Fleming) wrote Davison's drafts of April 1 and 13, Nos. 638 and 658 in the last Calendar. Fr. P.S. in English. 2½ pp. [Holl. and Fl. XII. 18.]
July 26. 25. VILLIERS to DAVISON.
I am sending several letters which I have received for you. Others I have sent already ; I do not know if you received them, or whether you are at Court or in the country. You have heard of the taking of Maestricht. The soldiers are returning thence day by day ; there are quite 200 of them in this town. Octavio Gonzaga has written to his Excellency about an exchange, for we have many prisoners also. This has been granted in the case of private soldiers ; for captains, individual cases are considered. It is likely that they will not leave the Meuse, and so will go to Venlo. As regards the peace, the other side have in their last articles offered the Religion in Holland and Zealand and not elsewhere, and in pursuance of the Pacification of Ghent ; on condition that papacy be restored there and that the placards be suspended till a meeting of the Estates has been held in a free place and their modification discussed. For the rest all fortresses are to be replaced in the king's hands. This town and Brussels have joined the union ; Ypres and Bruges will soon do the like. But the ordinary difficulty, of the sinews of war, remains. The Gantois go on. They made a levy of peasants, who were straightway defeated. The Prince sent them orders by M. de la Noue, to leave off ; Embize turned him out, having armed the people in the middle of the night, they knowing nothing of the farce. My wife and I and Marie commend ourselves to you and your wife.—Antwerp, 26 July 1579. Add. Fr. 1 p. [Holl. and Fl. XII. 19.]
July 28. 26. ROSSEL to WALSINGHAM.
My long stay in Flanders is the reason why my correspondence has been interrupted and that I cannot tell you what is going on so easily as in Antwerp. In my last, of the 22nd, I thanked you for so kindly keeping her Majesty in mind of me, as was shown in the contents of your letter of the 4th ; and also told you of what had befallen at Bruges, and other details. The State is always being troubled by the divisions that daily supervene. The town of Mechlin has separated from the generality, having accepted the same terms as Artois and Hainault. I hear that Bois-le-duc will do the same. Every effort is being made to bring the towns into the union of Utrecht. Bruges accepted it last Friday. Those of Ghent, foreseeing that their affairs will turn out badly, have sent deputies to Bruges to take counsel with the members in regard to a head and commander, being minded to nominate and accept the Prince. But seeing that he cannot desert Brabant, they are anxious to make the nomination if only that they may have a lieutenant for the war. I understand they are afraid to receive M. de la Noue owing to the distrust they have of the French. On Friday the malcontent Walloons after taking the castle of Moqueron resolved to relieve M. d'Egmont's castle of Sottenghien. This having been besieged by the Gantois, battered with four guns, was taken and burnt by them the same day at 4 P.M., but was quickly avenged by the Walloons ; who having marched in all haste with 24 ensigns of foot and 600 horse, so furiously charged the Gantois, numbering about 14 ensigns and 300 horse, that they were routed in a moment, without even time to take their arms. There were left dead 400 or 500, and all the baggage seized, with 200 wagons. This is what usually happens to people who want to manage their affairs without counsel or advice. Hembise is said to be so perplexed by this incident, owing to the murmurs of the people, that he is fallen sick to death. The Prince is very angry with him both on his own account and for the affront put on M. de la Noue and his followers, who were put out of the town without a hearing to give the reason of their coming. The cause was an intercepted letter of one Arengier, secretary to M. d'Alençon, who wrote to M. de la Noue that he need but seize Ghent to facilitate M. d'Alençon's reception in those parts, and that they were sure of the other towns. This will cause much jealousy and apprehension to many others, whatever all the leaders of the faction may contrive ; and I am sure that even if he is received by the States, the people will not agree, were it only that the people were satisfied with the marriage with her Majesty, which even the French say is broken off, owing to his desire to assist this country, in favour of which, and with a view to coming, he is raising men in great number. The people here perceiving the schemes of the French are tired of serving and desire to be discharged. Nevertheless out of complaisance to M. de la Noue they have agreed to let him keep 6 ensigns ; for which purpose and to discharge them and pay them off, I am starting to-morrow for Loo, a little town in the district of Furnes, where they are. If I knew that her Majesty would like his reception supported, I think I could further it as no other could in Flanders and Brabant. Hitherto I have opposed it in her service and that of the country, and will do so till I have better instructions. Du Plessis, la Noue, and the reverend Mr Villiers are being declaimed against at Ghent and elsewhere. Most of the French captains and soldiers of the Religion impute to them their bad treatment ; either good or harm will come to individuals, if they are cashiered, which seems to me necessary both to stop the designs of one party and to benefit others. M. d'Argenlieu has taken sides with the Gantois and opposes the reception of M. d'Alençon, backed by others of my acquaintance. Thereby the Prince is offended, as also M. de la Noue. Here are combinations and factions so strange that it is hard to relate them. I told you in my last how Marshal Bellegarde had seized the Marquisate of Saluces. He has paid all his men in double pistoles after the fashion of M. de la Motte ; which makes the king [i.e. of France] think they are Spanish money, and discontents him so that he seems to have a resentment against Spain, both on this ground and for the bad treatment at the Spanish Court of a gentleman sent by him to Portugal, who was forced to return by sea.— Bruges, 28 July 1579. P.S.—Kindly let me have an answer on the subject I have mentioned. Add. Endd. Fr. 3 pp. [Holl. and Fl. XII. 20.]
July 31. 27. POULET to the QUEEN.
Having access to the king on the 28th inst. I told him I was very sorry to have so just cause to complain of his ministers and thought that he would take no great pleasure to be advertised thereof. If the wrong touched myself only, I could bear it with patience ; but I said it reached to your Majesty, and perhaps he himself had his part in it. I told him that following his command I had delivered his letters patent to the Presidents of the Exchequer ; and as he had told me in my last audience that he would make them know he was their king and would be obeyed, I firmly believed they would not fail to proceed to the verification of his letters. Bailly, the President, to whom the king had signified his pleasure, had done his duty, and prayed the other judges again and again to obey the king's command. In my opinion they had already done more than enough, having rejected his letters patent five sundry times. Notwithstanding, they had now refused them the sixth time. This money was long since promised to your Majesty by la Mothe-Fènelon, and since by la Mauvissière, and now lastly granted in full Council and confirmed by his Majesty. There could be no question now of the equity of the demand, and this long delay was nothing but denial of justice. His Majesty was reputed to make great account of his word and promise, even in matters concerning his enemies, and I should be very sorry that your Highness should be the first to have cause to complain of his breach of promise. The consequence of this matter was great, though in itself it seemed to be of small importance, and therefore I besought him to consider of it in equity and reason. The king answered that the fault was not his, and prayed me so to think of it, affirming that if I had sent to him at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, where he then was, he would have taken order herein to my satisfaction, concluding that he would send for the President of the Exchequer and his Procureur-général to be with him next morning, and would inform them of his mind so plainly that I should have no cause to return to him again on this matter, and immediately commanded M. Gondi to appoint them to appear before him at the time mentioned. This has been done, though not so soon as was appointed ; and as I am informed by M. Gondi, besides the express command of the king given by his own mouth to all the principal ministers of his Exchequer to verify his next letters patent without delay, his Majesty sent them to Monsieur that he also might recommend the cause to them ; which was most likely done to bind Mr Warcop to be beholden to Monsieur herein. Having ended my audience, I did not think it convenient to leave Monsieur unsaluted, especially having just cause to thank him for a late favour used towards me. Passing through the streets in my coach, I met with Monsieur in his 'caroche,' and was saluted by M. Chanvallon, who most likely informed Monsieur that I was passing. Monsieur forthwith sent one of his gentlemen who followed him on horseback, after me, to pray me to think no discourtesy in him that he had not stayed his coach to salute me, which he would have done if he had been sooner informed of me. This extraordinary favour deserved all the thanks that I could give him ; and therefore resorting to him I told him that as often as I had audience of the king, I would be bold to present myself to him. If he thought me presumptuous, I begged him to impute the fault to my desire of giving him to know how much I thought myself indebted for the great favour he had in divers ways been pleased to use towards me ; concluding that my repair to him at that time was only to thank him for the same, and by the same occasion to be the better informed of his good health, the news of which I knew would be acceptable to your Majesty. I received from him great ordinary compliments of his singular affection towards you, and of his readiness to do any pleasure that he might to any of your ministers, commending him heartily to you. It is advertised from Turin by letters of the 20th inst., that Bellegarde arrived there on the 19th with 300 horse, and that he himself with 20 gentlemen of his train are defrayed by the Duke of Savoy ; the inhabitants of the town having erected a new ward in the market-place for the better safeguard of the person of the said Bellegarde. The Duke of Mayne and his wife were also at Turin. It has been affirmed here that the Duke of Savoy and his son will meet Queen Mother at Grenoble, where she has now arrived, and some say that there is treaty of marriage between the Prince of Piedmont and the younger Princess of Lorraine ; and that Saluces may be restored to the Duke of Savoy, because the French have no means to recover it. But this matter of marriage and its sequel is rather guessed than certainly known, and now it grows doubtful whether the Duke of Savoy is coming forward or not. Messengers pass daily between the king and Queen Mother, and for the last three or four days Villequier has been expected to be dispatched thither. As he is one of the most 'confident' and best beloved, it is thought that the king does not go to Lyons ; yet the bruit of his going is common in the Court, though there is no reason to believe it. It is also given out that Monsieur goes in post towards his mother ; but I rather think that his mother will come here to him very shortly, and I am not alone of this opinion. It was reported from Lyons that the King of Portugal was dead ; but the ambassador affirms that he is assured by letters of the 10th ult. that he is in as good health as his old age will permit. It is advertised by letters from Rome of the 16th ult. that the Spanish army in Italy has as yet touched no money, which moves some doubt what may become of the voyage. But the better opinion is that the preparations are for Portugal, and I perceive that the Ambassador fears it greatly. It is affirmed for certain that the truce is not concluded between the King of Spain and the Turk. The King of Spain cares less for it because the Turk is 'overlayed' by the Sophy, and therefore no fear of his attempts against Christendom. It is said that the King of Spain has received 200,000 crowns of the Duke of Florence, 100,000 of which are already on the way towards the Low Countries, and the rest will follow shortly. The Ambassador of Portugal tells me that he has lately written to your Majesty in favour of some of his countrymen, touching a ship which they allege to have been spoiled by an English gentleman, and would not be satisfied unless I promised to recommend the cause in my next letter. Bellegarde gives fair words, but does not spare to fortify his towns and to provide all things necessary for his defence. This accident of Saluces so quietly swallowed is said to have bred great discredit to the French king in other countries. But it is certain that the French subjects omit no kind of slanderous speech against the king and his young counsellors, who have the burden of the faults of this time. Thus I have been tedious to your Majesty, and will conclude with my humble thanks for your gracious letter of the 15th inst. I also thank you for having my revocation in remembrance ; wherein I submit myself wholly to your pleasure, although my weak body has great need of the good air of my native country and of some better exercise than is to be had in this prison of Paris.—Paris, the last of July, 1579. Add. Endd. by L. Tomson. 4¼ pp. [France III. 31.]