366. WALSINGHAM to COBHAM.
Since making up my packet, I have received the enclosed scroll
from the Borders, whereby it appears that the Lord of Arbroth seeks
to made his peace in Scotland without her Majesty's privity ; which
in my opinion you will do well to charge him with as of yourself,
upon some knowledge that you may say is come to you of the
matter, letting him understand that as by taking that course he
will greatly wound his own reputation with the blame of ingratitude
towards her Majesty, to whom he and his brother are so much
bound, so she will be discouraged from hereafter embracing the
protection of any of that nation in their extremity, when she sees
that they seek only to make their profit of her favour, and in the
end requite it with unthankful dealing. But if any such offer be
made to him, you do not doubt but that she will very well like him
to accept it [if] he do it [by he]r advice [and] privity ; in hope
that being restored to his country and called to a place wherein he
may do good, he will by calling to mind how much he is bound to
her, prove a good instrument to nourish and maintain the mutual
amity between the two Crowns, especially wherein he shall see the
same to be 'behovefull' for the King and his realm.
I have great cause to credit this advertisement, for one Gawen
Hamilton, who is a great man with Lord Claude, came here two or
three days since under colour of seeking relief at her Majesty's
hands, which in the end proved to be to have a passport to go
over into France to the Lord of Arbroth. He is this day to take
his journey, which I verily judge to be about this matter. Wherefore
you will do well to deal earnestly with the said lord either by
speech or letter ; letting him understand that he will greatly forget
himself to betray a princess in this sort who has dealt so graciously
with him and his house ; the supporting of whom is the chief
matter whereon they in Scotland ground their quarrel against her,
and would so much the more aggravate his unthankfulness in case
he deal so ill with her as to make his peace without her consent,
especially as it is not likely she will be a hinderer but rather a
furtherer of his good and preferment.—11 July 158 .
Draft in hand of L. Tomson and endd. by him. 1¼ pp. [France
367. ADVICES from MADRID.
Don Antonio against the will of the nobility is by the people
proclaimed king in Lisbon, where the plague is great ; whereupon
the king's camp departed from 'Badeioys' and entered Portugal
the 27th of June, towards Lisbon, to visit the new king, whose reign
is not likely to last long ; for besides the division among themselves
they have no forces, arms, money, captains, nor practised soldiers.
These towns (with the 'contents of households' subscribed) have
already yielded : Campo Mayor (1,000), 'Yelves' (6,000), Olivença
(3,000), Ebora and University (16,000), 'Porta Alegro' (1,000),
Yborla (1,000), Estremos (2,000), Villa Viciosa, the Duke of Braganza's
chief house, town and castle, 'Morte More' [qu. Tomar],
the strongest hold of Portugal, Braga (12,000), with many others
of less importance.
The king's army :—Italians, 4,500 ; Almaynes, 3,500 ; horsemen,
2,500 ; footmen, 22,000 ; 'venturers' (well-furnished), 22,000 ;
pioneers, 26,000 ; artillery, 50 pieces ; carts, 24,000.
Cardinal Riario is come as legate, and is now at Alcalà on his way
to the king.
One Clerke and 100 Englishmen, with a ship of his own, after
two months' stay without 'entertainment,' is at last received.
Don Antonio sent a gentleman to the Duke of Alva, who refused
to speak with him, but sent him to the king.
Endd. by Burghley's secretary (date in his own hand) : The
Spanish Army. From Mr Parry. 1¾ pp. [Ibid. I. 53.]
368. COBHAM to the QUEEN.
Having been informed that the Bishop of Ross had lately caused
to be printed in Latin at Rheims his book of the Succession and
Title of the Crown of England and Scotland, with a Genealogy, I
sought means to 'recover' some of them, that they might come to
your sight, being a matter something touching your estate, as it
seems to me. I send one of the books herewith that you may let
me know your further commands concerning them. The Bishop
lately sent some to the Pope, to the Duke of Florence and to
Cardinal Granvelle. It may be also that sundry of your subjects
will convey some of the books to their friends, not knowing your
pleasure to the contrary.—Vanves besides Paris, 12 July 1580.
Endd. by L. Tomson. ¾ p. [France IV. 116.]
369. COBHAM to the QUEEN.
I have been informed of Paulo Innocentio, born at Montalto nella
Marea, and banished his country for murdering certain gentlemen
in the Piazza at Rome, by whom their Majesties have been practised
with to favour a conspiracy which certain noblemen and others,
banished from Naples and the States of Rome, 'pretend.' But as
there is in Paris one of your well-qualified subjects, Mr Bodleigh,
who has had conference with him, and is well-informed of his proceedings,
I have desired him to set down in writing his offers and
the purposes of his accomplices and confederates ; which I have sent
herewith to Mr Secretary Walsingham inclosing a copy of what
Paulo Innocentio 'treated' with their Majesties in this Court.
Thanking the Almighty power for His divine grace in giving late
recovery to your health 'whose sickness is a death to yours.'—
Vanves, 12 July 1580.
½ p. [Ibid. IV. 117.]
370. COBHAM to [? BURGHLEY].
Although, my Lord, Monsieur has been hitherto by message an
earnest solicitor for the surcease of arms, the king has not
hearkened so thoroughly thereto that he can be 'framed' to condescend
without marvellous hard conditions to the disadvantage of
the King of Navarre and his accomplices. Therefore unless some
unlooked-for assistance arises by some other means, or some shew
of further friends, there will be small hope of pacification.
Marshals Montmorency and Biron, with their associates in
Languedoc, intend to resist the forces of the King of Navarre and
The Duke of Maine addresses himself towards Lyons to encounter
the Protestants and Malcontents of Dauphiné and Provence.
In this sort they are 'drawn and travailed,' but now there appears
no 'doubt' of reiters.
The King 'shows to be' marvellously pleased with her Majesty's
handling and entertainment of the prince, and very glad of his
short abode. God be his guide.
We hear from Spain that the king has entered Portugal, having
taken certain towns.
The Duke of Florence 'pretends' to go next month with his wife
to Venice, and Cardinal de Medicis comes from Rome to govern in
It is judged in Italy that the amity which the King of Spain
has made with the King of Sweden is to great purpose for those seas.
I enclose a letter from Milan, from Captain Augustino Susarini ;
desiring to understand your pleasure before answering.—Vanves,
12 July 1580.
Endd. by L. Tomson. 1 p. [Ibid. IV. 118.]
371. COBHAM to [WALSINGHAM].
I have been for some months past informed of an Italian who had
offered a practice to their Majesties here, and was very well
hearkened to ; but now that I hear they have by his overture
acquainted themselves with some sure and great personages that are
parties, it seems that he is 'licensed' and shifted hence. Whereon
in conference with Mr Bodley I entered into some speech, knowing
his good acquaintance with Italians ; so that the said Italian, Paulo
Innocentio, and he have had such conference together as you may
perceive by the inclosed, with the circumstances of which I have
written a few words to her Majesty. I think you may persuade Mr
Bodleigh to negotiate with that party or do her Majesty any further
service herein.—Vanves, 12 July 1580.
P.S.—Please consider the inclosed, directed to me 'by the name
of' Thomas Taylor, and your opinion [sic] of the party who has
subscribed thereto ; and if it be for her Majesty's service, let me
know whether I shall continue the trade with him. Also cause the
inclosed to be sealed and sent, if you think good.
(In another hand.) I have just received a packet from Mr
Stafford which I was requested to have conveyed to you, and now
1 p. [Ibid IV. 119.]
372. COBHAM to [WALSINGHAM].
I enclose Julio Bussino's [cipher ; ? Busini] letter, in which it may
easily be seen on what occasion Best's evil mischance proceeded ;
so that by this relation, as otherwise, I find that his assailants were
some of those who are appointed daily and nightly to watch and
look to that part of the Tournelles. The like is used at a little
tower there by the water side, being a place suspected for the ease
of going into or out of the city, and passing away without going
through a gate. The party who discharged one of the pistols at
Best is perfectly described, especially the young person who gave
him his death, I mean, with a canvas doublet much worn, as is
clearly specified in the enclosed. Howbeit, the Grand Prevost and
the Prevost Mareschal will not 'understand thereof' but disguise
it ; and would have the deed to have been committed by Italians in
revenge for Xanto Pisano who was slain in England—much contrary
to the truth as I suppose by the circumstances. They have made
certain examinations, but the clear way would be for them to cause
those who watched at the corner of Montpensier's house to be
I send herewith a book to Mr Secretary Wilson, another to my
lord Treasurer, and a third to my lord of Leicester, in Latin, newly
set forth by the Bishop of Ross ; which I have willed this gentleman
to 'betake' into your hands to be delivered as shall be thought
good. I have directed one to her Majesty as you may see by my
letter to her, supposing that the book will come into your hands.
The said bishop delivered me the articles of the confederates which
I sent you in my last, and 'would seem with oaths to me' that he
purposes to do her Majesty service, so as to be relieved. Thereon
he has with his hand given me his faith, whether falsely or truly
will appear by trial, as her Majesty may command. I hear he is
not plentifully dealt with. He assured me that neither the Earl of
Westmorland nor Dakars are parties or privy to the conspiracies
and setting up of that person in England which the Pope and
King Philip are minded to compass ; but that Morton, Goldwell
and others, who are sent from Rome, are made instruments hereof.
This may be published and 'informed me,' in opinion to save the
Scottish Queen harmless. For the present he is gone to Rouen to
stay, but I suppose upon occasion he might be brought to Paris. I
have promised him this shall be kept secret ; whether it be worth
or no, God knows. I have not, nor purpose to enter further until
I may receive her Majesty's commands ; and beg that she may be
made privy to all these particulars.
I find by private letters from my friends that her Majesty has
been sick, but amended. God continue her in health, aut perimus
omnes, and I must be the first, and in the worst place. Nevertheless
in the mean time I have many crosses. God give me
sufficient patience, and you comfort, to countervail the sorrow for
the loss of your daughter.—Vanves, 12 July 1580.
Endd. by L. Tomson. 1½ p. [Ibid. IV. 120.]
373. COBHAM to the SECRETARIES.
It seems that though Monsieur's mediation might be thought a
sufficient means to make the king agree to a surcease of arms, to
which his Highness by his agent, M. Marchaumont, has hitherto
urged him, as also with daily messages he ceases not to intreat him,
the preparations for war proceed so forwardly, that unless these
last motions, which have been within these three days moved by his
Highness and propounded by la Rocque from the King of
Navarre, 'take place' in the king's mind, there will remain no
likelihood of pacification until there fall out so many murders and
evil events as will weary both parties. On the 9th they skirmished
at la Fère, where three were slain on both sides ; and the king's
forces have approached the fauxbourgs, whereon they have conceived
in the Court a hope of the speedy taking of the town, if
there do not grow some action elsewhere to cause the withdrawal of
the siege. La Fère will hardly withstand an assault, considering
how little artillery they have in the town.
It is advertised here that 200 Scots and some other small companies
are marching from the Low Countries, with mind to put
themselves into la Fère ; but it is thought they will be too late.
The king proposes to move towards Chantilly or 'Gallyon,'
because the plague increases in Paris and thereabout.
Marshals Montmorency and Biron, with the Seneschal of Rouergue,
are trying to join their forces to defeat the King of Navarre in
Languedoc. Turenne is marching to join his troops with the King
of Navarre's, which are yet feeble. The Duke of Maine is to go
I enclose a letter from a gentlemen, advertising of certain great
numbers of 'biefs' slain and 'powdered' at Rouen ; which must
serve for some enterprise more than ordinary.
The Bishop of Ross repaired yesterday to Rouen, to be suffragan
there for the Cardinal of Bourbon.
There are sundry Englishmen who have heretofore been in
Flanders, now lately retired to the seashore, 'drawing toward the
air of England.'
The Earl of Westmorland having been the last week at Rheims
has returned to Paris, and with him Mr Dakers. Mr Copley is
yet in town. They were at the burial of Vargas, the Spanish agent,
who died last week.
The Bishop of Ross has now published his book of the succession
of England and Scotland. I send one to her Majesty. He has sent
copies to the Pope, to the Duke of Florence by means of Diacetto,
and to Cardinal Granvelle through Vargas's secretary. Paquier,
M. Mauvissière's secretary, was dispatched with some the other day.
They certify from Spain by letters of June 26 that the King has
entered Portugal, having taken Yelves, Villa Viciosa, and Ronces ;
but the Portugal ambassador does not believe it. He has 'made
great means' to send much armour and weapons, which was granted
by the king, but the king has changed his mind upon new occasions,
so that the ambassador sues and resorts often to Court, to
procure that some new munitions might be transported hence ;
howbeit he is but deafly heard. He expects daily the return of
Barretto from Rome. Don Antonio increases much in the people's
favour. They write further that the Spanish King has about
25,000 fighting men in his camp, with the Spaniards expected from
Italy, who served in the Low Countries.
The 'Mores' of Andalusia had conspired to take the town of
Seville, but the enterprise being discovered the king caused them to
be spoiled and put to the sword, saving a few who are imprisoned.
They certify from Italy that the Turk has so earnestly sought
peace with the Sophy that he has obtained his purpose. They
think he has been persuaded to do this by some Christian princes.
The 23 galleys which last came brought from Spain the Cardinal
'Sesse,' a new ambassador for Rome, and the Duke Eric of Brunswick,
by whom it is thought more Almaynes will be levied. The
King of Spain has given him during his wife's life the estate which
his mother-in-law had at Tortona in the Duchy of Milan, worth
15,000 crowns a year.
With those galleys returned sundry ships laden with biscuit and
other munitions with 6,000 corselets and as many Milan harquebuses,
to arm the besonyos of Spain. As yet no viceroy has been
appointed, though the Duke of Terranova remains there. It is 'discovered'
continually in Italy that these Spanish preparations are
addressed against his Majesty's territories upon the first occasion
Mr George Farmer is imprisoned in Bologna by the Inquisition
taken instead of another who was waited for.
It is written from Germany that the book called Corpus doctrinœ
has been printed at 'Lipsia,' but not permitted to be sold, because
the Elector Palatine has revoked his signature to the approval of it ;
whereon Dr Jacobus Andreæ was gone to Heidelberg to persuade
him not to withdraw it.
Lately after Casimir had been at the 'baynes' of Purckfeldt [qy.
Birkenfeld] he conferred with his colonels and rittmeisters at
Frankenthal ; but it is not known what will be done further.
The Duke of Tuscany goes next month to Venice, and Cardinal
de Medicis comes to govern in his absence.—Vanves, 12 July 1580.
Add. Endd. 2¼ pp. [Ibid. IV. 121.]
374. COBHAM to WADE.
It seems by your letter that you desire to return hither, but your
causes are such as do not suffer your paces to be directed this way ;
else your tarrying seems too long to me.
The chief causes which pass through men's mouths and ears are
the siege-preparations for la Fère, and Monsieur's dealing for the
appeasing of these troubles ; but with what mind God knows, to
whom belongs the knowledge of the secrets of princes' hearts.
Howbeit hitherto it seems to all appearance that he deals in favour
of the King of Navarre, so that the best is construed of his meaning.
Since Mr Stafford's coming, they have conceived in this Court
a further hope of the alliance. I trust at your coming I shall hear
something of the disposition that way in those parts.
Vargas the Spanish agent is dead and the plague increases, so
that for the present I find 'Vambe' is my safest refuge, because
they die of the infection about my house in Paris, wherefore I again
seek all means to dislodge myself.
Please bring or send me half-a-dozen of Francisco 'Puchi's'
book published and printed in England, intituled Informatione della
religione christiana fondata su la divina e humana ragione, etc.
Commend me to Mr Hopton and yourself.—Vanves, 13 July 1580.
P.S. (Autograph.)—I have received yours of the 2nd, by which
I perceive my hap will not be to enjoy you. I shall be content if
it be for your advancement. Let me hear further. You write
nothing of what I spoke to you concerning the 'night' that is in
these parts, or the Secretary's opinion of the strangeness between
us. Your letter shall be delivered to Pizzovyn.
Add. : Mr William Waade at Mr Pope's house in Water Lane at
London. Endd. by L. Tomson. 1 p. [France IV. 122.]
375. ROGER BODENHAM to WILSON.
Days [sic] ago I wrote you, 'which I hope be come' to your
hands. These few lines are only to advertise you that this country
will be in great necessity this year, of wheat and barley and of all
kind of 'wittaylis,' because the wheat has failed, and [sic] the great
provision which is and continually will be made for the king's
army. I have also written to Mr Controller of the same. If you
please to send hither to me two or three ships laden with wheat or
barley, there will be great gains in it. This is a time to gain a
great piece of money ; wherefore according to my duty and good
will to serve your honours, being in these parts, I have thought
good to advertise you hereof. The value of it, whatever it come to,
shall be sent you in the same ship in the best commodities that
this country yields. I can save it from the king's 'takers' here ;
which the merchants cannot do, as is well known.
The news now here is that the Duke of Alva has entered
Portugal, and by this is near Setubal, which is within 5 or 6
leagues of 'Lixborne.' Yesterday night the fleet departed to meet
him there ; it is a port town. Divers towns have already
surrendered to the king. The Duke of Medina Sidonia is at
Ayamonte, keeping all that coast ; and although Don Antonio be
proclaimed King of Portugal in 'Lishebor' by a few of the worse
sort of people, he cannot 'let' the king to go through with his
purpose out of hand. It will be the greatest conquest that ever
Spain made since the conquest of the Indias. This is without
comparison for Spain.
A matter has happened here of late—it began at Seville, but it
is now come to the mountains of Rondar. The Moriscos have
risen again and have done great harm in all the fields near those hills
and all the towns near them. 'Sheris' [Xeres] is in some doubt
of them because they are many. It will trouble Spain more than
Portugal can do. It is begun, but God knows how it will end,
because they are desperately minded.—San Lucar, 12 July 1580.
Add. Endd. by Wilson. 1 p. [Spain I. 54.]